[USC02] 22 USC 2181: Policy
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22 USC 2181: Policy Text contains those laws in effect on September 17, 2021

§2181. Policy

The Congress recognizes that shelter, including essential urban development services, is among the most fundamental of human needs. Shelter for most people in the developing countries consists largely of domestic materials assembled by local labor. While recognizing that most financing for such shelter must come from domestic resources, the Congress finds that carefully designed programs involving United States capital and expertise can increase the availability of domestic financing for improved shelter and related services for low-income people by demonstrating to local entrepreneurs and institutions that providing low-cost shelter can be financially viable. The Congress reaffirms, therefore, that the United States should continue to assist developing countries in marshalling resources for low-cost shelter. Particular attention should be given to programs which will support pilot projects for low-cost shelter or which will have a maximum demonstration impact on local institutions and national policy. The Congress declares that the long run goal of all such programs should be to develop domestic construction capabilities and to stimulate local credit institutions to make available domestic capital and other management and technological resources required for effective low-cost shelter programs and policies.

(Pub. L. 87–195, pt. I, §221, as added Pub. L. 91–175, pt. I, §105, Dec. 30, 1969, 83 Stat. 807 ; amended Pub. L. 92–226, pt. I, §103(a), Feb. 7, 1972, 86 Stat. 22 ; Pub. L. 93–189, §5(1), Dec. 17, 1973, 87 Stat. 717 ; Pub. L. 93–559, §7(1), Dec. 30, 1974, 88 Stat. 1796 ; Pub. L. 94–161, title III, §311(3), Dec. 20, 1975, 89 Stat. 861 ; Pub. L. 95–88, title I, §117(a)(1), Aug. 3, 1977, 91 Stat. 540 ; Pub. L. 95–424, title I, §115(a), Oct. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 950 ; Pub. L. 98–473, title I, §101(1) [title V, §541(a)], Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 1884 , 1903.)

Editorial Notes


Amendment by Pub. L. 98–473 is based on section 311(a) of H.R. 5119, Ninety-eighth Congress, as passed by the House of Representatives May 10, 1984, which was enacted into permanent law by Pub. L. 98–473.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 221 of Pub. L. 87–195, pt. I, Sept. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 429 , as amended by Pub. L. 87–565, pt. I, §104(a), Aug. 1, 1962, 76 Stat. 256 ; Pub. L. 88–205, pt. I, §104(a), Dec. 16, 1963, 77 Stat. 381 ; Pub. L. 88–633, pt. I, §103(a), Oct. 7, 1964, 78 Stat. 1009 ; Pub. L. 89–171, pt. I, §104(a), (b), Sept. 6, 1965, 79 Stat. 654 ; Pub. L. 89–583, pt. I, §104(a), Sept. 19, 1966, 80 Stat. 798 ; Pub. L. 90–137, pt. I, §104(a), Nov. 14, 1967, 81 Stat. 450 ; Pub. L. 90–554, pt. I, §103, Oct. 8, 1968, 82 Stat. 960 , related to general authority for foreign investment guaranties by the President, prior to the general reorganization of this subpart by Pub. L. 91–175, pt. I, §105, Dec. 30, 1969, 83 Stat. 807 .


1984-Pub. L. 98–473 substituted ", including essential urban development services, is" for "requirements are" after "The Congress recognizes that shelter" and, in the remainder of the section substituted "shelter" for "housing" wherever appearing.

1978-Pub. L. 95–424 generally revised the statement of policy to clarify that in developing countries, financing, materials and labor for most housing must be obtained from local sources, while United States capital and technical expertise can increase the availability of housing and related services for low-income people by demonstrating financial viability of credit systems for low-cost housing.

1977-Pub. L. 95–88 struck out provisions that the total face amount of guaranties issued under this section outstanding at any one time not exceed $430,000,000 and added section 2182(c) of this title to the enumeration of sections setting out the conditions under which guaranties shall be issued.

1975-Pub. L. 94–161 substituted "$430,000,000" for "$355,000,000".

1974-Pub. L. 93–559 substituted "$355,000,000" for "$305,000,000".

1973-Pub. L. 93–189 substituted "$305,000,000" for "$205,000,000".

1972-Pub. L. 92–226 substituted "$205,000,000" for "$130,000,000".

Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Effective Date of 1978 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–424 effective Oct. 1, 1978, see section 605 of Pub. L. 95–424, set out as a note under section 2151 of this title.

Use of Funds From Sale of Notes for Discharge of Liabilities Under Guaranties; Transfer of Funds and Cancellation of Notes and Interest

Pub. L. 90–249, title I, §120, Jan. 2, 1968, 81 Stat. 941 , provided that: "Hereafter, none of the funds obtained or authorized to be obtained from the sale of notes under authority of paragraph 111(c)(2) of the Economic Cooperation Act of 1948 [section 1509(c)(2) of this title] or paragraph 413(b)(4)(F) of the Mutual Security Act of 1954 [section 1933(b)(4)(F) of this title] may be used for the purposes of discharging liabilities under any guaranties (exclusive of informational media guaranties) issued under sections 221(b) and 224 of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 [subsec. (b) of this section and section 2184 of this title], sections 202(b) and 413(b)(4) of the Mutual Security Act of 1954 [sections 1872(b) and 1933(b)(4) of this title] and section 111(b)(3) of the Economic Cooperation Act of 1948 [section 1509(b)(3) of this title]. Any portion of the funds in the reserve established pursuant to section 222(e) of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 [section 2182(e) of this title] which are attributable to the funds realized from the sale of notes specified in the preceding sentence shall be transferred to the general fund of the Treasury. The Secretary of the Treasury shall cancel all such notes and sums owing and unpaid thereon, including interest to date of cancellation."