[USC05] 28 USC PART IV: JURISDICTION AND VENUE
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TEXT OF PART V OF SUBTITLE A (3001 ET SEQ.), EFFECTIVE JANUARY 1, 2022, CURRENTLY SET OUT AS A PREVIEW

28 USC PART IV: JURISDICTION AND VENUE
From Title 28—JUDICIARY AND JUDICIAL PROCEDURE

PART IV—JURISDICTION AND VENUE

Chap.
Sec.
81.
Supreme Court
1251
83.
Courts of Appeals
1291
85.
District Courts; Jurisdiction
1331 1

        

87.
District Courts; Venue
1391
89.
District Courts; Removal of Cases from State Courts
1441
91.
United States Court of Federal Claims
1491
[93.
Repealed.]
95.
Court of International Trade
1581
97.
Jurisdictional Immunities of Foreign States
1602
99.
General Provisions
1631

        

Editorial Notes

Amendments

1992Pub. L. 102–572, title IX, §902(b)(1), Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4516, substituted "United States Court of Federal Claims" for "United States Claims Court" as item for chapter 91.

1982Pub. L. 97–164, title I, §§133(j)(1), 134, title III, §301(b), Apr. 2, 1982, 96 Stat. 41, 55, substituted "United States Claims Court" for "Court of Claims" in item for chapter 91, struck out item for chapter 93 "Court of Customs and Patent Appeals", and added item for chapter 99.

1980Pub. L. 96–417, title V, §501(20), Oct. 10, 1980, 94 Stat. 1742, substituted "Court of International Trade" for "Customs Court" in item for chapter 95.

1978Pub. L. 95–598, title II, §241(b), Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2671, directed the addition of item for chapter 90, "District Courts and Bankruptcy Courts", which amendment did not become effective pursuant to section 402(b) of Pub. L. 95–598, as amended, set out as an Effective Date note preceding section 101 of Title 11, Bankruptcy.

1976Pub. L. 94–583, §4(b), Oct. 21, 1976, 90 Stat. 2897, added item for chapter 97.

1 So in original. Probably should be "1330".

CHAPTER 81—SUPREME COURT

Sec.
1251.
Original jurisdiction.
[1252.
Repealed.]
1253.
Direct appeals from decisions of three-judge courts.
1254.
Courts of appeals; certiorari; certified questions.
[1255, 1256. Repealed.]
1257.
State courts; certiorari.
1258.
Supreme Court of Puerto Rico; certiorari.
1259.
Court of Appeals for the Armed Forces; certiorari.
1260.
Supreme Court of the Virgin Islands; certiorari.

        

Editorial Notes

Amendments

2012Pub. L. 112–226, §2(b), Dec. 28, 2012, 126 Stat. 1606, added item 1260.

1994Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title IX, §924(d)(2)(B), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2832, substituted "Court of Appeals for the Armed Forces" for "Court of Military Appeals" in item 1259.

1988Pub. L. 100–352, §§1, 2(c), 5(a), June 27, 1988, 102 Stat. 662, 663, struck out item 1252 "Direct appeals from decisions invalidating Acts of Congress", struck out "appeal;" after "certiorari;" in item 1254, and struck out "appeal;" after "State courts;" in item 1257 and after "of Puerto Rico;" in item 1258.

1983Pub. L. 98–209, §10(a)(2), Dec. 6, 1983, 97 Stat. 1406, added item 1259.

1982Pub. L. 97–164, title I, §123, Apr. 2, 1982, 96 Stat. 36, struck out item 1255 "Court of Claims; certiorari; certified questions" and item 1256 "Court of Customs and Patent Appeals; certiorari".

1961Pub. L. 87–189, §2, Aug. 30, 1961, 75 Stat. 417, added item 1258.


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Definitions of Courts and Judges

Act June 25, 1948, ch. 646, §32, 62 Stat. 991, as amended by act May 24, 1949, ch. 139, §127, 63 Stat. 107, provided:

"(a) All laws of the United States in force on September 1, 1948, in which reference is made to a 'circuit court of appeals'; 'senior circuit judge'; 'senior district judge'; 'presiding judge'; 'chief justice', except when reference to the Chief Justice of the United States is intended; or 'justice', except when used with respect to a justice of the Supreme Court of the United States in his capacity as such or as a circuit justice, are hereby amended by substituting 'court of appeals' for 'circuit court of appeals'; 'chief judge of the circuit' for 'senior circuit judge'; 'chief judge of the district court' for 'senior district judge'; 'chief judge' for 'presiding judge'; 'chief judge' for 'chief justice', except when reference to the Chief Justice of the United States is intended; and 'judge' for 'justice', except when the latter term is used with respect to a justice of the Supreme Court of the United States in his capacity as such or as a circuit justice.

"(b) All laws of the United States in force on September 1, 1948, in which reference is made to the Supreme Court of the District of Columbia or to the District Court of the United States for the District of Columbia are amended by substituting 'United States District Court for the District of Columbia' for such designations.

"(c) All laws of the United States in force on September 1, 1948, in which reference is made to the 'Conference of Senior Circuit Judges', or to the 'Judicial Conference of Senior Circuit Judges' are amended by substituting 'Judicial Conference of the United States' for such designations.

"(d) This section shall not be construed to amend historical references to courts or judicial offices which have no present or future application to such courts or offices."

§1251. Original jurisdiction

(a) The Supreme Court shall have original and exclusive jurisdiction of all controversies between two or more States.

(b) The Supreme Court shall have original but not exclusive jurisdiction of:

(1) All actions or proceedings to which ambassadors, other public ministers, consuls, or vice consuls of foreign states are parties;

(2) All controversies between the United States and a State;

(3) All actions or proceedings by a State against the citizens of another State or against aliens.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 646, 62 Stat. 927; Pub. L. 95–393, §8(b), Sept. 30, 1978, 92 Stat. 810.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., §§341, 371(7), (8) (Mar. 3, 1911, ch. 231, §§233, 256, 36 Stat. 1156, 1160; Oct. 6, 1917, ch. 97, §2, 40 Stat. 395; June 10, 1922, ch. 216, §2, 42 Stat. 635).

This section reconciles provisions of sections 341 and 371(7), (8) of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., with Article 3, section 2 and Amendment 11 of the Constitution.

Sections 341 and 371 of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., were not wholly consistent with such constitutional provisions. Said section 341 provided that the Supreme Court should have original jurisdiction of controversies between a State and citizens of other States or aliens, whereas the 11th Amendment prohibits an action in any Federal Court against a State by citizens of another State or aliens.

The original jurisdiction conferred on the Supreme Court by Article 3, section 2, of the Constitution is not exclusive by virtue of that provision alone. Congress may provide for or deny exclusiveness. Ames v. Kansas, 1884, 4 S.Ct. 437, 111 U.S. 449, 28 L.Ed. 442; U.S. v. 4,450.72 Acres of Land, Clearwater County, State of Minnesota, D.C. Minn., 1939, 27 F.Supp. 167, affirmed 125 F.2d 636.

Sections 341 and 371 of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., did not confer expressly exclusive jurisdiction on the Supreme Court in civil cases between States, Louisiana v. Texas, 1899, 20 S.Ct. 251, 176 U.S. 1, 44 L.Ed. 347, as has been provided in subsection (a)(1) of the revised section. The language at the beginning of said section 341, for which said subsection has been substituted, was ambiguous and made it appear that an action by a State against the United States would be within the exclusive jurisdiction of the Supreme Court. However, in U.S. v. Louisiana, 1887, 8 S.Ct. 17, 123 U.S. 32, 31 L.Ed. 69, the Supreme Court, in a case appealed from the Court of Claims, held to the contrary.

So, also, in actions by the United States to condemn lands of a State or to enforce penalties for violation of a Federal statute against a State-owned utility, the United States district courts have jurisdiction. See United States v. State of Utah, 1931, 51 S.Ct. 438, 283 U.S. 64, 75 L.Ed. 844; United States v. 4,450.72 Acres of Land, Clearwater County, State of Minnesota, D.C.Minn. 1939, 27 F.Supp. 167, affirmed 125 F.2d 636; United States v. State of California, 1936, 56 S.Ct. 421, 297 U.S. 175, 80 L.Ed. 567.

The intent of section 371(7), (8) of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., that the jurisdiction of the courts of the United States should be exclusive of the courts of the States in controversies to which a State is a party, and suits against ambassadors, public ministers, consuls and vice consuls, is preserved and clarified by this section and section 1351 of this title.

The revised section preserves existing law with reference to foreign ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls. Under subsection (a)(2) the Supreme Court has exclusive jurisdiction of actions or proceedings against the ambassadors or public ministers of other nations.

Under subsection (b)(1) the Supreme Court has original but not exclusive jurisdiction of actions or proceedings brought by such ambassadors or other public ministers or to which consuls or vice consuls of other nations are parties.

Section 1351 of this title gives to United States district courts, exclusive of the courts of the States, jurisdiction of civil actions against such consuls and vice consuls.

This section and said section 1351 of this title have no application to ambassadors, public ministers, consuls or vice consuls representing the United States. See Milward v. McSaul, D.C.S.D.N.Y. 1846, 17 Fed.Cas.No. 9,623 and State of Ohio ex rel. Popovici v. Alger, 1930, 50 S.Ct. 154, 280 U.S. 379, 74 L.Ed. 489.

Changes were made in phraseology.


Editorial Notes

Amendments

1978—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 95–393, §8(b)(1), designated introductory provision of subsec. (a) and (a)(1) as (a), and struck out "(2) All actions or proceedings against ambassadors or other public ministers of foreign states or their domestics or domestic servants, not inconsistent with the law of nations".

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 95–393, §8(b)(2), substituted "to which ambassadors, other public ministers, consuls, or" for "brought by ambassadors or other public ministers of foreign states or to which consuls or".


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Effective Date of 1978 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–393 effective at the end of the ninety-day period beginning on Sept. 30, 1978, see section 9 of Pub. L. 95–393, set out as an Effective Date note under section 254a of Title 22, Foreign Relations and Intercourse.

Statutes Governing Writs of Error To Apply to Appeals

Act Jan. 31, 1928, ch. 14, §2, 45 Stat. 54, amended Apr. 26, 1928, ch. 440, 45 Stat. 466; June 25, 1948, ch. 646, §23, 62 Stat. 990, provided that "All Acts of Congress referring to writs of error shall be construed as amended to the extent necessary to substitute appeal for writ of error." See also, notes preceding section 1 of this title.

[§1252. Repealed. Pub. L. 100–352, §1, June 27, 1988, 102 Stat. 662]

Section, acts June 25, 1948, ch. 646, 62 Stat. 928; Oct. 31, 1951, ch. 655, §47, 65 Stat. 726; July 7, 1958, Pub. L. 85–508, §12(e), (f), 72 Stat. 348; Mar. 18, 1959, Pub. L. 86–3, §14(a), 73 Stat. 10, provided for direct appeals to Supreme Court from decisions invalidating Acts of Congress.


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Effective Date of Repeal

Repeal effective ninety days after June 27, 1988, except that such repeal not to apply to cases pending in Supreme Court on such effective date or affect right to review or manner of reviewing judgment or decree of court which was entered into before such effective date, see section 7 of Pub. L. 100–352, set out as a note under section 1254 of this title.

§1253. Direct appeals from decisions of three-judge courts

Except as otherwise provided by law, any party may appeal to the Supreme Court from an order granting or denying, after notice and hearing, an interlocutory or permanent injunction in any civil action, suit or proceeding required by any Act of Congress to be heard and determined by a district court of three judges.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 646, 62 Stat. 928.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., §§47, 47a, 380 and 380a (Mar. 3, 1911, ch. 231, §§210, 266, 36 Stat. 1150, 1162; Mar. 4, 1913, ch. 160, 37 Stat. 1013; Oct. 22, 1913, ch. 32, 38, Stat. 220; Feb. 13, 1925, ch. 229, §1, 43 Stat. 938; Aug. 24, 1937, ch. 754, §3, 50 Stat. 752).

This section consolidates the provisions of sections 47, 47a, 380, and 380a of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., relating to direct appeals from decisions of three-judge courts involving orders of the Interstate Commerce Commission or holding State or Federal laws repugnant to the Constitution of the United States.

For distribution of other provisions of the sections on which this revised section is based, see Distribution Table.

The language in section 380 of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., referring to restraining the enforcement or execution of an order made by an administrative board or a State officer was omitted as covered by this revised section and section 2281 of this title.

Words in section 380a of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., "This section shall not be construed to be in derogation of any right of direct appeal to the Supreme Court of the United States under existing provisions of law," were omitted as unnecessary.

Section 217 of title 7, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Agriculture, provides for a three-judge court in proceedings to suspend or restrain the enforcement of orders of the Secretary of Agriculture under the Packers and Stockyards Act of 1921.

The final proviso of section 502 of title 33, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Navigation and Navigable Waters, for direct appeal in certain criminal cases for failure to alter bridges obstructing navigation, is recommended for express repeal in view of its implied repeal by section 345 of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed. (See U.S. v. Belt, 1943, 63 S.Ct. 1278, 319 U.S. 521, 87 L.Ed. 1559. See reviser's note under section 1252 of this title.)

Section 28 of title 15, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Commerce and Trade, and section 44 of title 49, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Transportation, are identical and provide for convening of a three-judge court to hear and determine civil cases arising under the Sherman anti-trust law and the Interstate Commerce Act, respectively, wherein the United States is plaintiff and when the Attorney General deems such cases of general public importance.

Section 401(d) of title 47, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Telegraphs, Telephones, and Radiotelegraphs, made the provisions of sections 28 and 29 of title 15, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Commerce and Trade, sections 44 and 45 of title 49, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Transportation, and section 345(1) of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., relating to three-judge courts and direct appeals, applicable to orders of the Federal Communications Commission enforcing the Communications Act of 1934.

§1254. Courts of appeals; certiorari; certified questions

Cases in the courts of appeals may be reviewed by the Supreme Court by the following methods:

(1) By writ of certiorari granted upon the petition of any party to any civil or criminal case, before or after rendition of judgment or decree;

(2) By certification at any time by a court of appeals of any question of law in any civil or criminal case as to which instructions are desired, and upon such certification the Supreme Court may give binding instructions or require the entire record to be sent up for decision of the entire matter in controversy.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 646, 62 Stat. 928; Pub. L. 100–352, §2(a), (b), June 27, 1988, 102 Stat. 662.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., §§346 and 347 (Mar. 3, 1911, ch. 231, §§239, 240, 36 Stat. 1157; Feb. 13, 1925, ch. 229, §1, 43 Stat. 938; Jan. 31, 1928, ch. 14, §1, 45 Stat. 54; June 7, 1934, ch. 426, 48 Stat. 926).

Section consolidates sections 346 and 347 of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed.

Words "or in the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia" and "or of the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia" in sections 346 and 347 of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., were omitted. (See section 41 of this title.)

The prefatory words of this section preceding paragraph (1) were substituted for subsection (c) of said section 347.

The revised section omits the words of section 347 of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., "and with like effect as if the case had been brought there with unrestricted appeal", and the words of section 346 of such title "in the same manner as if it had been brought there by appeal". The effect of subsections (1) and (3) of the revised section is to preserve existing law and retain the power of unrestricted review of cases certified or brought up on certiorari. Only in subsection (2) is review restricted.

Changes were made in phraseology and arrangement.


Editorial Notes

Amendments

1988Pub. L. 100–352, §2(b), struck out "appeal;" after "certiorari;" in section catchline.

Pars. (2), (3). Pub. L. 100–352, §2(a), redesignated par. (3) as (2) and struck out former par. (2) which read as follows: "By appeal by a party relying on a State statute held by a court of appeals to be invalid as repugnant to the Constitution, treaties or laws of the United States, but such appeal shall preclude review by writ of certiorari at the instance of such appellant, and the review on appeal shall be restricted to the Federal questions presented;".


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Pub. L. 100–352, §7, June 27, 1988, 102 Stat. 664, provided that: "The amendments made by this Act [amending sections 1254, 1257, 1258, 2101, 2104, and 2350 of this title, section 136w of Title 7, Agriculture, section 1631e of Title 22, Foreign Relations and Intercourse, section 652 of Title 25, Indians, section 988 of Title 33, Navigation and Navigable Waters, section 1652 of Title 43, Public Lands, sections 719, 743, and 1105 of Title 45, Railroads, and section 30110 of Title 52, Voting and Elections, and repealing sections 1252 and 2103 of this title] shall take effect ninety days after the date of the enactment of this Act [June 27, 1988], except that such amendments shall not apply to cases pending in the Supreme Court on the effective date of such amendments or affect the right to review or the manner of reviewing the judgment or decree of a court which was entered before such effective date."

[§§1255, 1256. Repealed. Pub. L. 97–164, title I, §123, Apr. 2, 1982, 96 Stat. 36]

Section 1255, act June 25, 1948, ch. 646, 62 Stat. 928, authorized Supreme Court to review cases in Court of Claims by writ of certiorari and by certification of questions of law.

Section 1256, act June 25, 1948, ch. 646, 62 Stat. 928, authorized Supreme Court to review cases in Court of Customs and Patent Appeals by writ of certiorari.


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Effective Date of Repeal

Repeal effective Oct. 1, 1982, see section 402 of Pub. L. 97–164, set out as an Effective Date of 1982 Amendment note under section 171 of this title.

§1257. State courts; certiorari

(a) Final judgments or decrees rendered by the highest court of a State in which a decision could be had, may be reviewed by the Supreme Court by writ of certiorari where the validity of a treaty or statute of the United States is drawn in question or where the validity of a statute of any State is drawn in question on the ground of its being repugnant to the Constitution, treaties, or laws of the United States, or where any title, right, privilege, or immunity is specially set up or claimed under the Constitution or the treaties or statutes of, or any commission held or authority exercised under, the United States.

(b) For the purposes of this section, the term "highest court of a State" includes the District of Columbia Court of Appeals.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 646, 62 Stat. 929; Pub. L. 91–358, title I, §172(a)(1), July 29, 1970, 84 Stat. 590; Pub. L. 100–352, §3, June 27, 1988, 102 Stat. 662.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., §344 (Mar. 3, 1911, ch. 231, §§236, 237, 36 Stat. 1156; Dec. 23, 1914, ch. 2, 38 Stat. 790; Sept. 6, 1916, ch. 448, §2, 39 Stat. 726; Feb. 17, 1922, ch. 54, 42 Stat. 366; Feb. 13, 1925, ch. 229, §1, 43 Stat. 937; Jan. 31, 1928, ch. 14, §1, 45 Stat. 54).

Provisions of section 344 of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., relating to procedure for review of decisions of State courts are incorporated in section 2103 of this title. Other provisions of such section 344 of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., are incorporated in section 2106 of this title.

The revised section applies in both civil and criminal cases. In Twitchell v. Philadelphia, 1868, 7 Wall. 321, 19 L.Ed. 223, it was expressly held that the provisions of section 25 of the Judiciary Act of 1789, 1 Stat. 85, on which title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., §344, is based, applied to criminal cases, and many other Supreme Court decisions impliedly involve the same holding inasmuch as the Court has taken jurisdiction of criminal cases on appeal from State courts. See, for example, Herndon v. Georgia, 1935, 55 S.Ct. 794, 295 U.S. 441, 79 L.Ed. 1530 and Ashcraft v. Tennessee, 1944, 64 S.Ct. 921, 322 U.S. 143, 88 L.Ed. 1192.

Provision, in section 344(b) of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., for review and determination on certiorari "with the same power and authority and with like effect as if brought up by appeal" was omitted as unnecessary. The scope of review under this section is unrestricted.

Words "and the power to review under this paragraph may be exercised as well where the Federal claim is sustained as where it is denied," in said section 344(b), were omitted as surplusage.

The last sentence in said section 344(b) relating to the right to relief under both subsections of said section 344, was omitted as unnecessary.

Changes were made in phraseology.


Editorial Notes

Amendments

1988Pub. L. 100–352 struck out "appeal;" before "certiorari" in section catchline and amended text generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "Final judgments or decrees rendered by the highest court of a State in which a decision could be had, may be reviewed by the Supreme Court as follows:

"(1) By appeal, where is drawn in question the validity of a treaty or statute of the United States and the decision is against its validity.

"(2) By appeal, where is drawn in question the validity of a statute of any state on the ground of its being repugnant to the Constitution, treaties or laws of the United States, and the decision is in favor of its validity.

"(3) By writ of certiorari, where the validity of a treaty or statute of the United States is drawn in question or where the validity of a State statute is drawn in question on the ground of its being repugnant to the Constitution, treaties or laws of the United States, or where any title, right, privilege or immunity is specially set up or claimed under the Constitution, treaties or statutes of, or commission held or authority exercised under, the United States.

"For the purposes of this section, the term 'highest court of a State' includes the District of Columbia Court of Appeals."

1970Pub. L. 91–358 provided that for the purposes of this section, the term "highest court of a State" includes the District of Columbia Court of Appeals.


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 100–352 effective ninety days after June 27, 1988, except that such amendment not to apply to cases pending in Supreme Court on such effective date or affect right to review or manner of reviewing judgment or decree of court which was entered before such effective date, see section 7 of Pub. L. 100–352, set out as a note under section 1254 of this title.

Effective Date of 1970 Amendment

Pub. L. 91–358, title I, §199(a), July 29, 1970, 84 Stat. 597, provided that: "The effective date of this title (and the amendments made by this title) [enacting sections 1363, 1451, and 2113 of this title and amending this section, sections 292 and 1869 of this title, section 5102 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees, and section 260a of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare] shall be the first day of the seventh calendar month which begins after the date of the enactment of this Act [July 29, 1970]."

§1258. Supreme Court of Puerto Rico; certiorari

Final judgments or decrees rendered by the Supreme Court of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico may be reviewed by the Supreme Court by writ of certiorari where the validity of a treaty or statute of the United States is drawn in question or where the validity of a statute of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico is drawn in question on the ground of its being repugnant to the Constitution, treaties, or laws of the United States, or where any title, right, privilege, or immunity is specially set up or claimed under the Constitution or the treaties or statutes of, or any commission held or authority exercised under, the United States.

(Added Pub. L. 87–189, §1, Aug. 30, 1961, 75 Stat. 417; amended Pub. L. 100–352, §4, June 27, 1988, 102 Stat. 662.)


Editorial Notes

Amendments

1988Pub. L. 100–352 struck out "appeal;" before "certiorari" in section catchline and amended text generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "Final judgments or decrees rendered by the Supreme Court of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico may be reviewed by the Supreme Court as follows:

"(1) By appeal, where is drawn in question the validity of a treaty or statute of the United States and the decision is against its validity.

"(2) By appeal, where is drawn in question the validity of a statute of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico on the ground of its being repugnant to the Constitution, treaties, or laws of the United States, and the decision is in favor of its validity.

"(3) By writ of certiorari, where the validity of a treaty or statute of the United States is drawn in question or where the validity of a statute of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico is drawn in question on the ground of its being repugnant to the Constitution, treaties, or laws of the United States, or where any title, right, privilege, or immunity is specially set up or claimed under the Constitution, treaties, or statutes of, or commission held or authority exercised under, the United States."


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 100–352 effective ninety days after June 27, 1988, except that such amendment not to apply to cases pending in Supreme Court on such effective date or affect right to review or manner of reviewing judgment or decree of court which was entered before such effective date, see section 7 of Pub. L. 100–352, set out as a note under section 1254 of this title.

§1259. Court of Appeals for the Armed Forces; certiorari

Decisions of the United States Court of Appeals for the Armed Forces may be reviewed by the Supreme Court by writ of certiorari in the following cases:

(1) Cases reviewed by the Court of Appeals for the Armed Forces under section 867(a)(1) of title 10.

(2) Cases certified to the Court of Appeals for the Armed Forces by the Judge Advocate General under section 867(a)(2) of title 10.

(3) Cases in which the Court of Appeals for the Armed Forces granted a petition for review under section 867(a)(3) of title 10.

(4) Cases, other than those described in paragraphs (1), (2), and (3) of this subsection, in which the Court of Appeals for the Armed Forces granted relief.

(Added Pub. L. 98–209, §10(a)(1), Dec. 6, 1983, 97 Stat. 1405; amended Pub. L. 101–189, div. A, title XIII, §1304(b)(3), Nov. 29, 1989, 103 Stat. 1577; Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title IX, §924(d)(1)(C), (2)(A), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2832.)


Editorial Notes

Amendments

1994Pub. L. 103–337 substituted "Court of Appeals for the Armed Forces" for "Court of Military Appeals" in section catchline and wherever appearing in text.

1989Pub. L. 101–189 substituted "section 867(a)(1)" for "section 867(b)(1)" in par. (1), "section 867(a)(2)" for "section 867(b)(2)" in par. (2), and "section 867(a)(3)" for "section 867(b)(3)" in par. (3).


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Effective Date

Section effective on the first day of the eighth calendar month beginning after Dec. 6, 1983, see section 12(a)(1) of Pub. L. 98–209, set out as an Effective Date of 1983 Amendment note under section 801 of Title 10, Armed Forces.

§1260. Supreme Court of the Virgin Islands; certiorari

Final judgments or decrees rendered by the Supreme Court of the Virgin Islands may be reviewed by the Supreme Court by writ of certiorari where the validity of a treaty or statute of the United States is drawn in question or where the validity of a statute of the Virgin Islands is drawn in question on the ground of its being repugnant to the Constitution, treaties, or laws of the United States, or where any title, right, privilege, or immunity is specially set up or claimed under the Constitution or the treaties or statutes of, or any commission held or authority exercised under, the United States.

(Added Pub. L. 112–226, §2(a), Dec. 28, 2012, 126 Stat. 1606.)


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Effective Date

Pub. L. 112–226, §3, Dec. 28, 2012, 126 Stat. 1607, provided that: "The amendments made by this Act [enacting this section and amending section 1613 of Title 48, Territories and Insular Possessions] apply to cases commenced on or after the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 28, 2012]."

CHAPTER 83—COURTS OF APPEALS

Sec.
1291.
Final decisions of district courts.
1292.
Interlocutory decisions.
[1293.
Repealed.]
1294.
Circuits in which decisions reviewable.
1295.
Jurisdiction of the United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit.
1296.
Review of certain agency actions.

        

Editorial Notes

Amendments

1996Pub. L. 104–331, §3(a)(2), Oct. 26, 1996, 110 Stat. 4069, added item 1296.

1984Pub. L. 98–620, title IV, §402(29)(C), Nov. 8, 1984, 98 Stat. 3359, struck out item 1296 "Precedence of cases in the United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit".

1982Pub. L. 97–164, title I, §127(b), Apr. 2, 1982, 96 Stat. 39, added items 1295 and 1296.

1978Pub. L. 95–598, title II, §236(b), Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2667, directed the addition of item 1293, "Bankruptcy appeals", which amendment did not become effective pursuant to section 402(b) of Pub. L. 95–598, as amended, set out as an Effective Date note preceding section 101 of Title 11, Bankruptcy.

1961Pub. L. 87–189, §4, Aug. 30, 1961, 75 Stat. 417, struck out item 1293 "Final decisions of Puerto Rico and Hawaii Supreme Courts".

§1291. Final decisions of district courts

The courts of appeals (other than the United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit) shall have jurisdiction of appeals from all final decisions of the district courts of the United States, the United States District Court for the District of the Canal Zone, the District Court of Guam, and the District Court of the Virgin Islands, except where a direct review may be had in the Supreme Court. The jurisdiction of the United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit shall be limited to the jurisdiction described in sections 1292(c) and (d) and 1295 of this title.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 646, 62 Stat. 929; Oct. 31, 1951, ch. 655, §48, 65 Stat. 726; Pub. L. 85–508, §12(e), July 7, 1958, 72 Stat. 348; Pub. L. 97–164, title I, §124, Apr. 2, 1982, 96 Stat. 36.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., §§225(a), 933(a)(1), and section 1356 of title 48, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Territories and Insular Possessions, and sections 61 and 62 of title 7 of the Canal Zone Code (Mar. 3, 1911, ch. 231, §128, 36 Stat. 1133; Aug. 24, 1912, ch. 390, §9, 37 Stat. 566; Jan. 28, 1915, ch. 22, §2, 38 Stat. 804; Feb. 7, 1925, ch. 150, 43 Stat. 813; Sept. 21, 1922, ch. 370, §3, 42 Stat. 1006; Feb. 13, 1925, ch. 229, §1, 43 Stat. 936; Jan. 31, 1928, ch. 14, §1, 45 Stat. 54; May 17, 1932, ch. 190, 47 Stat. 158; Feb. 16, 1933, ch. 91, §3, 47 Stat. 817; May 31, 1935, ch. 160, 49 Stat. 313; June 20, 1938, ch. 526, 52 Stat. 779; Aug. 2, 1946, ch. 753, §412(a)(1), 60 Stat. 844).

This section rephrases and simplifies paragraphs "First", "Second", and "Third" of section 225(a) of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., which referred to each Territory and Possession separately, and to sections 61 and 62 of the Canal Zone Code, section 933(a)(1) of said title relating to jurisdiction of appeals in tort claims cases, and the provisions of section 1356 of title 48, U.S.C., 1940 ed., relating to jurisdiction of appeals from final judgments of the district court for the Canal Zone.

The district courts for the districts of Hawaii and Puerto Rico are embraced in the term "district courts of the United States." (See definitive section 451 of this title.)

Paragraph "Fourth" of section 225(a) of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., is incorporated in section 1293 of this title.

Words "Fifth. In the United States Court for China, in all cases" in said section 225(a) were omitted. (See reviser's note under section 411 of this title.)

Venue provisions of section 1356 of title 48, U.S.C., 1940 ed., are incorporated in section 1295 of this title.

Section 61 of title 7 of the Canal Zone Code is also incorporated in sections 1291 and 1295 of this title.

In addition to the jurisdiction conferred by this chapter, the courts of appeals also have appellate jurisdiction in proceedings under Title 11, Bankruptcy, and jurisdiction to review:

(1) Orders of the Secretary of the Treasury denying an application for, suspending, revoking, or annulling a basic permit under chapter 8 of title 27;

(2) Orders of the Interstate Commerce Commission, the Federal Communications Commission, the Civil Aeronautics Board, the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System and the Federal Trade Commission, based on violations of the antitrust laws or unfair or deceptive acts, methods, or practices in commerce;

(3) Orders of the Secretary of the Army under sections 504, 505 and 516 of title 33, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Navigation and Navigable Waters;

(4) Orders of the Civil Aeronautics Board under chapter 9 of title 49, except orders as to foreign air carriers which are subject to the President's approval;

(5) Orders under chapter 1 of title 7, refusing to designate boards of trade as contract markets or suspending or revoking such designations, or excluding persons from trading in contract markets;

(6) Orders of the Federal Power Commission under chapter 12 of title 16;

(7) Orders of the Federal Security Administrator under section 371(e) of title 21, in a case of actual controversy as to the validity of any such order, by any person adversely affected thereby;

(8) Orders of the Federal Power Commission under chapter 15B of title 15;

(9) Final orders of the National Labor Relations Board;

(10) Cease and desist orders under section 193 of title 7;

(11) Orders of the Securities and Exchange Commission;

(12) Orders to cease and desist from violating section 1599 of title 7;

(13) Wage orders of the Administrator of the Wage and Hour Division of the Department of Labor under section 208 of title 29;

(14) Orders under sections 81r and 1641 of title 19, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Customs Duties.

The courts of appeals also have jurisdiction to enforce:

(1) Orders of the Interstate Commerce Commission, the Federal Communications Commission, the Civil Aeronautics Board, the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, and the Federal Trade Commission, based on violations of the antitrust laws or unfair or deceptive acts, methods, or practices in commerce;

(2) Final orders of the National Labor Relations Board;

(3) Orders to cease and desist from violating section 1599 of title 7.

The Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia also has jurisdiction to review orders of the Post Office Department under section 576 of title 39 relating to discriminations in sending second-class publications by freight; Maritime Commission orders denying transfer to foreign registry of vessels under subsidy contract; sugar allotment orders; decisions of the Federal Communications Commission granting or refusing applications for construction permits for radio stations, or for radio station licenses, or for renewal or modification of radio station licenses, or suspending any radio operator's license.

Changes were made in phraseology.


Editorial Notes

Amendments

1982Pub. L. 97–164, §124, inserted "(other than the United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit)" after "The court of appeals" and inserted provision that the jurisdiction of the United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit shall be limited to the jurisdiction described in sections 1292(c) and (d) and 1295 of this title.

1958Pub. L. 85–508 struck out provisions which gave courts of appeals jurisdiction of appeals from District Court for Territory of Alaska. See section 81A of this title which establishes a United States District Court for the State of Alaska.

1951—Act Oct. 31, 1951, inserted reference to District Court of Guam.


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Effective Date of 1982 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 97–164 effective Oct. 1, 1982, see section 402 of Pub. L. 97–164, set out as a note under section 171 of this title.

Effective Date of 1958 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 85–508 effective Jan. 3, 1959, on admission of Alaska into the Union pursuant to Proc. No. 3269, Jan. 3, 1959, 24 F.R. 81, 73 Stat. c.16 as required by sections 1 and 8(c) of Pub. L. 85–508, see notes set out under section 81A of this title and preceding section 21 of Title 48, Territories and Insular Possessions.

Termination of United States District Court for the District of the Canal Zone

For termination of the United States District Court for the District of the Canal Zone at end of the "transition period", being the 30-month period beginning Oct. 1, 1979, and ending midnight Mar. 31, 1982, see Paragraph 5 of Article XI of the Panama Canal Treaty of 1977 and sections 2101 and 2201 to 2203 of Pub. L. 96–70, title II, Sept. 27, 1979, 93 Stat. 493, formerly classified to sections 3831 and 3841 to 3843, respectively, of Title 22, Foreign Relations and Intercourse.

§1292. Interlocutory decisions

(a) Except as provided in subsections (c) and (d) of this section, the courts of appeals shall have jurisdiction of appeals from:

(1) Interlocutory orders of the district courts of the United States, the United States District Court for the District of the Canal Zone, the District Court of Guam, and the District Court of the Virgin Islands, or of the judges thereof, granting, continuing, modifying, refusing or dissolving injunctions, or refusing to dissolve or modify injunctions, except where a direct review may be had in the Supreme Court;

(2) Interlocutory orders appointing receivers, or refusing orders to wind up receiverships or to take steps to accomplish the purposes thereof, such as directing sales or other disposals of property;

(3) Interlocutory decrees of such district courts or the judges thereof determining the rights and liabilities of the parties to admiralty cases in which appeals from final decrees are allowed.


(b) When a district judge, in making in a civil action an order not otherwise appealable under this section, shall be of the opinion that such order involves a controlling question of law as to which there is substantial ground for difference of opinion and that an immediate appeal from the order may materially advance the ultimate termination of the litigation, he shall so state in writing in such order. The Court of Appeals which would have jurisdiction of an appeal of such action may thereupon, in its discretion, permit an appeal to be taken from such order, if application is made to it within ten days after the entry of the order: Provided, however, That application for an appeal hereunder shall not stay proceedings in the district court unless the district judge or the Court of Appeals or a judge thereof shall so order.

(c) The United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit shall have exclusive jurisdiction—

(1) of an appeal from an interlocutory order or decree described in subsection (a) or (b) of this section in any case over which the court would have jurisdiction of an appeal under section 1295 of this title; and

(2) of an appeal from a judgment in a civil action for patent infringement which would otherwise be appealable to the United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit and is final except for an accounting.


(d)(1) When the chief judge of the Court of International Trade issues an order under the provisions of section 256(b) of this title, or when any judge of the Court of International Trade, in issuing any other interlocutory order, includes in the order a statement that a controlling question of law is involved with respect to which there is a substantial ground for difference of opinion and that an immediate appeal from that order may materially advance the ultimate termination of the litigation, the United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit may, in its discretion, permit an appeal to be taken from such order, if application is made to that Court within ten days after the entry of such order.

(2) When the chief judge of the United States Court of Federal Claims issues an order under section 798(b) of this title, or when any judge of the United States Court of Federal Claims, in issuing an interlocutory order, includes in the order a statement that a controlling question of law is involved with respect to which there is a substantial ground for difference of opinion and that an immediate appeal from that order may materially advance the ultimate termination of the litigation, the United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit may, in its discretion, permit an appeal to be taken from such order, if application is made to that Court within ten days after the entry of such order.

(3) Neither the application for nor the granting of an appeal under this subsection shall stay proceedings in the Court of International Trade or in the Court of Federal Claims, as the case may be, unless a stay is ordered by a judge of the Court of International Trade or of the Court of Federal Claims or by the United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit or a judge of that court.

(4)(A) The United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit shall have exclusive jurisdiction of an appeal from an interlocutory order of a district court of the United States, the District Court of Guam, the District Court of the Virgin Islands, or the District Court for the Northern Mariana Islands, granting or denying, in whole or in part, a motion to transfer an action to the United States Court of Federal Claims under section 1631 of this title.

(B) When a motion to transfer an action to the Court of Federal Claims is filed in a district court, no further proceedings shall be taken in the district court until 60 days after the court has ruled upon the motion. If an appeal is taken from the district court's grant or denial of the motion, proceedings shall be further stayed until the appeal has been decided by the Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit. The stay of proceedings in the district court shall not bar the granting of preliminary or injunctive relief, where appropriate and where expedition is reasonably necessary. However, during the period in which proceedings are stayed as provided in this subparagraph, no transfer to the Court of Federal Claims pursuant to the motion shall be carried out.

(e) The Supreme Court may prescribe rules, in accordance with section 2072 of this title, to provide for an appeal of an interlocutory decision to the courts of appeals that is not otherwise provided for under subsection (a), (b), (c), or (d).

(June 25, 1948, ch. 646, 62 Stat. 929; Oct. 31, 1951, ch. 655, §49, 65 Stat. 726; Pub. L. 85–508, §12(e), July 7, 1958, 72 Stat. 348; Pub. L. 85–919, Sept. 2, 1958, 72 Stat. 1770; Pub. L. 97–164, §125, Apr. 2, 1982, 96 Stat. 36; Pub. L. 98–620, title IV, §412, Nov. 8, 1984, 98 Stat. 3362; Pub. L. 100–702, title V, §501, Nov. 19, 1988, 102 Stat. 4652; Pub. L. 102–572, title I, §101, title IX, §§902(b), 906(c), Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4506, 4516, 4518.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., §§225(b), 227, 227a, and section 61 of title 7 of the Canal Zone Code (Mar. 3, 1911, ch. 231, §§128, 129, 36 Stat. 1133, 1134; Feb. 13, 1925, ch. 229, §1, 43 Stat. 937; Feb. 28, 1927, ch. 228, 44 Stat. 1261; Apr. 3, 1926, ch. 102, 44 Stat. 233; May 20, 1926, ch. 347, §13(a), 44 Stat. 587; Apr. 11, 1928, ch. 354, §1, 45 Stat. 422; May 17, 1932, ch. 190, 47 Stat. 158).

Section consolidates sections 225(b), 227 and part of 227a of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., with necessary changes in phraseology to effect the consolidation.

The second paragraph of section 225(b) of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., relating to review of decisions of the district courts, under section 9 of the Railway Labor Act (section 159 of title 45), was omitted as covered by section 1291 of this title.

Words in section 227 of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., "or decree," after "interlocutory order," were deleted, in view of Rule 65 of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure, using only the word "order."

Provisions of sections 227 and 227a of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., relating to stay of proceedings pending appeal were omitted as superseded by Federal Rules of Civil Procedure, Rule 73.

Provisions of section 227 of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., requiring an additional bond by the district court as a condition of appeal were omitted in view of Federal Rules of Civil Procedure, Rule 73.

Words in section 227 of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., "and sections 346 and 347 of this title shall apply to such cases in the circuit courts of appeals as to other cases therein," at the end of the first sentence of section 227 of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., were deleted as fully covered by section 1254 of this title, applicable to any case in a court of appeals. Other procedural provisions of said section 227 were omitted as covered by section 2101 et seq. of this title.

In subsection (4), which is based on section 227a of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., words "civil actions" were substituted for "suits in equity" and word "judgments" was substituted for "decree," in view of Rules 2 and 54 of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure.

The provision of sections 227 and 227a of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., that appeal must be taken within thirty days after entry of order, decree or judgment is incorporated in section 2107 of this title.

The provisions of section 227a of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., relating to stay of proceedings pending appeal, were omitted as superseded by Rule 73 of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure.

The district courts for the districts of Hawaii and Puerto Rico are embraced in the term "district courts of the United States." (See definitive section 451 of this title.) Consequently the specific reference in section 225 of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., to "the United States district courts for Hawaii" was omitted.

The District Court for the District of Puerto Rico is not enumerated in section 225(b) of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., nevertheless subsection (2) of the revised section does not except such court. Thus in conformity with the last sentence of section 864, title 48, U.S.C., 1940 ed. For distribution of said section 864, see Distribution Table.

Section 61 of title 7 of the Canal Zone Code is also incorporated in sections 1291 and 1294 of this title.


Editorial Notes

Amendments

1992—Subsec. (d)(2). Pub. L. 102–572, §§902(b)(1), 906(c), substituted "When the chief judge of the United States Court of Federal Claims issues an order under section 798(b) of this title, or when any judge of the United States Court of Federal Claims" for "When any judge of the United States Claims Court".

Subsec. (d)(3). Pub. L. 102–572, §902(b)(2), substituted "Court of Federal Claims" for "Claims Court" in two places.

Subsec. (d)(4). Pub. L. 102–572, §902(b), substituted "United States Court of Federal Claims" for "United States Claims Court" in subpar. (A) and "Court of Federal Claims" for "Claims Court" in two places in subpar. (B).

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 102–572, §101, added subsec. (e).

1988—Subsec. (d)(4). Pub. L. 100–702 added par. (4).

1984—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 98–620, §412(a), inserted "which would have jurisdiction of an appeal of such action" after "The Court of Appeals".

Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 98–620, §412(b), inserted "or (b)" after "(a)".

1982—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 97–164, §125(a)(1), substituted "Except as provided in subsections (c) and (d) of this section, the courts" for "The courts" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (a)(4). Pub. L. 97–164, §125(a)(2), (3), struck out par. (4) which related to judgments in civil actions for patent infringement which were final except for accounting.

Subsecs. (c), (d). Pub. L. 97–164, §125(b), added subsecs. (c) and (d).

1958Pub. L. 85–919 designated existing provisions as subsec. (a) and added subsec. (b).

Par. (1). Pub. L. 85–508 struck out reference to District Court for Territory of Alaska. See section 81A of this title which established a United States District Court for the State of Alaska.

1951—Par. (1). Act Oct. 31, 1951, inserted reference to District Court of Guam.


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Effective Date of 1992 Amendment

Amendment by section 101 of Pub. L. 102–572 effective Jan. 1, 1993, see section 1101(a) of Pub. L. 102–572, set out as a note under section 905 of Title 2, The Congress.

Amendment by sections 902(b) and 906(c) of Pub. L. 102–572 effective Oct. 29, 1992, see section 911 of Pub. L. 102–572, set out as a note under section 171 of this title.

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Pub. L. 100–702, title V, §502, Nov. 19, 1988, 102 Stat. 4652, provided that: "The amendment made by section 501 [amending this section] shall apply to any action commenced in the district court on or after the date of enactment of this title [Nov. 19, 1988]."

Effective Date of 1982 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 97–164 effective Oct. 1, 1982, see section 402 of Pub. L. 97–164, set out as a note under section 171 of this title.

Effective Date of 1958 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 85–508 effective Jan. 3, 1959, on admission of Alaska into the Union pursuant to Proc. No. 3269, Jan. 3, 1959, 24 F.R. 81, 73 Stat. c16, as required by sections 1 and 8(c) of Pub. L. 85–508, see notes set out under section 81A of this title and preceding section 21 of Title 48, Territories and Insular Possessions.

Termination of United States District Court for the District of the Canal Zone

For termination of the United States District Court for the District of the Canal Zone at end of the "transition period", being the 30-month period beginning Oct. 1, 1979, and ending midnight Mar. 31, 1982, see Paragraph 5 of Article XI of the Panama Canal Treaty of 1977 and sections 3831 and 3841 to 3843 of Title 22, Foreign Relations and Intercourse.

[§1293. Repealed. Pub. L. 87–189, §3, Aug. 30, 1961, 75 Stat. 417]

Section, acts June 25, 1948, ch. 646, 62 Stat. 929; Mar. 18, 1959, Pub. L. 86–3, §14(b), 73 Stat. 10, provided for appeal from supreme court of Puerto Rico to court of appeals for first circuit. See section 1258 of this title.

A subsequent section 1293, added Pub. L. 95–598, title II, §236(a), Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2667, which related to bankruptcy appeals, did not become effective pursuant to section 402(b) of Pub. L. 95–598, as amended, set out as an Effective Date note preceding section 101 of Title 11, Bankruptcy.

§1294. Circuits in which decisions reviewable

Except as provided in sections 1292(c), 1292(d), and 1295 of this title, appeals from reviewable decisions of the district and territorial courts shall be taken to the courts of appeals as follows:

(1) From a district court of the United States to the court of appeals for the circuit embracing the district;

(2) From the United States District Court for the District of the Canal Zone, to the Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit;

(3) From the District Court of the Virgin Islands, to the Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit;

(4) From the District Court of Guam, to the Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 646, 62 Stat. 930; Oct. 31, 1951, ch. 655, §50(a), 65 Stat. 727; Pub. L. 85–508, §12(g), July 7, 1958, 72 Stat. 348; Pub. L. 86–3, §14(c), Mar. 18, 1959, 73 Stat. 10; Pub. L. 87–189, §5, Aug. 30, 1961, 75 Stat. 417; Pub. L. 95–598, title II, §237, Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2667; Pub. L. 97–164, title I, §126, Apr. 2, 1982, 96 Stat. 37.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on section 1141(b)(1)(2)(3) of title 26, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Internal Revenue Code, title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., §225(d) and sections 645, 864, 865, 1356, and 1392 of title 48, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Territories and Insular Possessions, and section 61 of title 7 of the Canal Zone Code (Apr. 12, 1900, ch. 191, §35, 31 Stat. 85; Mar. 3, 1911, ch. 231, §128, 36 Stat. 1133; Aug. 24, 1912, ch. 390, §9, 37 Stat. 566; Mar. 2, 1917, ch. 145, §§42, 43, 39 Stat. 966; Mar. 3, 1917, ch. 171, §2, 39 Stat. 1132; Sept. 21, 1922, ch. 370, §3, 42 Stat. 1006; Feb. 13, 1925, ch. 229, §§1, 13, 43 Stat. 936, 942; Feb. 26, 1926, ch. 27, §1002, 44 Stat. 110; Jan. 31, 1928, ch. 14, §1, 45 Stat. 54; May 17, 1932, ch. 190, 47 Stat. 158; Feb. 16, 1933, ch. 91, §3, 47 Stat. 817; May 10, 1934, ch. 277, §519, 48 Stat. 760; Feb. 10, 1939, ch. 2, §1141(b)(1)(2)(3), 53 Stat. 164).

Section consolidates the venue provisions of sections 645, 864, 1356, and 1392 of title 48, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Territories and Insular Possessions with sections 1141(b)(1)(2)(3) to title 26, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Internal Revenue and sections 225(d) and 865 of said title 48. Other provisions of said section 864, not incorporated in this section and sections 41 and 119 of this title, were retained in title 48. Other provisions of said section 1356 are incorporated in section 1291 of this title. Other provisions of said section 1392 were also retained in title 48.

Paragraph (3) of section 1141(b) of title 26, U.S.C., 1940 ed., was omitted as executed. It made such subsection applicable to all decisions of the Board of Tax Appeals (Tax Court) rendered on and after May 10, 1934.

Provisions of section 225(d) of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., for review of the decisions of the United States Court for China were omitted. (See reviser's note under section 411 of this title.)

Subsection (b) rephrases and rearranges the relevant provisions of section 1141(b)(1)(2)(3) of title 26, U.S.C., 1940 ed.

Specific reference to the United States district courts for the districts of Hawaii, Puerto Rico and District of Columbia was omitted as unnecessary, these courts being embraced in the definition of "a district court of the United States" contained in section 451 of this title.

Administrative orders, referred to in reviser's note under section 1291 of this title, are reviewable and enforceable in the following circuits:

Orders Reviewable

(1) Alcoholic permit orders—in the District of Columbia or in the circuit where the applicant or permittee resides or has his principal place of business;

(2) Antitrust and unfair trade orders—in the circuit where unlawful act occurred or petitioner resides or carries on business;

(3) Bridge alteration; cost orders—in the circuit where bridge is wholly or partly located;

(4) Civil aeronautics orders—in the District of Columbia or circuit where petitioner resides or has his principal place of business;

(5) Commodity exchange orders—in the circuit where board of trade has its principal place of business or in circuit where petitioner for review of exclusion order carries on business;

(6) Electric and water power orders—in the District of Columbia or circuit where licensee or public utility to which order relates is located or has its principal place of business;

(7) Food, drug and cosmetic orders—in the circuit where person adversely affected resides or has his principal place of business;

(8) Gas orders—in the District of Columbia or circuit where company to which order relates is located or has its principal place of business;

(9) National Labor Relations Board's final orders—in the District of Columbia or circuit where unfair labor practice occurred or violator resides or transacts business;

(10) Packers cease and desist orders—in the circuit where packer has his principal place of business;

(11) Radio license decisions—in the District of Columbia;

(12) Securities and Exchange Commission orders—in the District of Columbia or circuit where petitioner resides or has his principal place of business;

(13) Seed orders—in the circuit where violator resides or has his principal place of business;

(14) Wage orders—in the District of Columbia or circuit where petitioner resides or has his principal place of business;

(15) Foreign Trade Zones Board orders—in the circuit where the Zone is located;

(16) Customhouse broker licenses—in circuit where applicant or licensee resides or has his principal place of business.

Orders Enforceable

(1) Antitrust and unfair trade orders—in the circuit where unlawful act occurred or person allegedly committing unlawful act resides or carries on business;

(2) National Labor Relations Board's final orders—in the circuit where unfair labor practice occurred or violator resides or transacts business;

(3) Seed orders—in the circuit where violator resides or has his principal place of business.

Section 61 of title 7 of the Canal Zone Code is also incorporated in sections 1291 and 1292 of this title.

Changes were made in phraseology.

By Senate amendment, this section was renumbered "1294", and subsec. (b), which related to the Tax Court, was eliminated. Therefore, as finally enacted, section 1141(b)(1)(2)(3) of Title 26, U.S.C., Internal Revenue Code 1939, was not one of the sources of this section. The Senate amendments also eliminated section 1141 of the Internal Revenue Code 1939 from the schedule of repeals. See Senate Report No. 1559.


Editorial Notes

Amendments

1982Pub. L. 97–164 substituted "Except as provided in sections 1292(c), 1292(d), and 1295 of this title, appeals from reviewable decisions" for "Appeals from reviewable decisions" in introductory provisions.

1978Pub. L. 95–598 directed the amendment of section by substituting "district, bankruptcy, and territorial" for "district and territorial" and by adding pars. (5) and (6) relating to panels designated under section 160(a) of this title and bankruptcy courts, respectively, which amendment did not become effective pursuant to section 402(b) of Pub. L. 95–598, as amended, set out as an Effective Date note preceding section 101 of Title 11, Bankruptcy.

1961—Pars. (4), (5). Pub. L. 87–189 redesignated par. (5) as (4) and repealed former par. (4) which provided that appeals from the Supreme Court of Puerto Rico should be taken to the Court of Appeals for the First Circuit. See section 1258 of this title.

1959—Pars. (4) to (6). Pub. L. 86–3 redesignated pars. (5) and (6) as (4) and (5), respectively, and repealed former par. (4) which provided that appeals from the Supreme Court of Hawaii should be taken to the Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit. See section 91 of this title and notes thereunder.

1958—Par. (2). Pub. L. 85–508 redesignated par. (3) as (2) and repealed former par. (2) which provided that appeals from the District Court for the Territory of Alaska or any division thereof should be taken to the Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit. See section 81A of this title which establishes a United States District Court for the State of Alaska.

Pars. (3) to (7). Pub. L. 85–508 redesignated pars. (4) to (7) as (3) to (6), respectively.

1951—Par. (7). Act Oct. 31, 1951, added par. (7).


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Effective Date of 1982 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 97–164 effective Oct. 1, 1982, see section 402 of Pub. L. 97–164, set out as a note under section 171 of this title.

Effective Date of 1959 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 86–3 effective on admission of State of Hawaii into the Union, see note set out under section 91 of this title. Admission of Hawaii into the Union was accomplished Aug. 25, 1959, on issuance of Proc. No. 3309, Aug. 21, 1959, 25 F.R. 6868, 73 Stat. c74, as required by sections 1 and 7(c) of Pub. L. 86–3, Mar. 18, 1959, 73 Stat. 4, set out as notes preceding section 491 of Title 48, Territories and Insular Possessions.

Effective Date of 1958 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 85–508 effective Jan. 3, 1959, on admission of Alaska into the Union pursuant to Proc. No. 3269, Jan. 3, 1959, 24 F.R. 81, 73 Stat. c16, as required by sections 1 and 8(c) of Pub. L. 85–508, see notes set out under section 81A of this title and preceding section 21 of Title 48, Territories and Insular Possessions.

Termination of United States District Court for the District of the Canal Zone

For termination of the United States District Court for the District of the Canal Zone at end of the "transition period", being the 30-month period beginning Oct. 1, 1979, and ending midnight Mar. 31, 1982, see Paragraph 5 of Article XI of the Panama Canal Treaty of 1977 and sections 2101 and 2201 to 2203 of Pub. L. 96–70, title II, Sept. 27, 1979, 93 Stat. 493, formerly classified to sections 3831 and 3841 to 3843, respectively, of Title 22, Foreign Relations and Intercourse.

§1295. Jurisdiction of the United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit

(a) The United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit shall have exclusive jurisdiction—

(1) of an appeal from a final decision of a district court of the United States, the District Court of Guam, the District Court of the Virgin Islands, or the District Court of the Northern Mariana Islands, in any civil action arising under, or in any civil action in which a party has asserted a compulsory counterclaim arising under, any Act of Congress relating to patents or plant variety protection;

(2) of an appeal from a final decision of a district court of the United States, the United States District Court for the District of the Canal Zone, the District Court of Guam, the District Court of the Virgin Islands, or the District Court for the Northern Mariana Islands, if the jurisdiction of that court was based, in whole or in part, on section 1346 of this title, except that jurisdiction of an appeal in a case brought in a district court under section 1346(a)(1), 1346(b), 1346(e), or 1346(f) of this title or under section 1346(a)(2) when the claim is founded upon an Act of Congress or a regulation of an executive department providing for internal revenue shall be governed by sections 1291, 1292, and 1294 of this title;

(3) of an appeal from a final decision of the United States Court of Federal Claims;

(4) of an appeal from a decision of—

(A) the Patent Trial and Appeal Board of the United States Patent and Trademark Office with respect to a patent application, derivation proceeding, reexamination, post-grant review, or inter partes review under title 35, at the instance of a party who exercised that party's right to participate in the applicable proceeding before or appeal to the Board, except that an applicant or a party to a derivation proceeding may also have remedy by civil action pursuant to section 145 or 146 of title 35; an appeal under this subparagraph of a decision of the Board with respect to an application or derivation proceeding shall waive the right of such applicant or party to proceed under section 145 or 146 of title 35;

(B) the Under Secretary of Commerce for Intellectual Property and Director of the United States Patent and Trademark Office or the Trademark Trial and Appeal Board with respect to applications for registration of marks and other proceedings as provided in section 21 of the Trademark Act of 1946 (15 U.S.C. 1071); or

(C) a district court to which a case was directed pursuant to section 145, 146, or 154(b) of title 35;


(5) of an appeal from a final decision of the United States Court of International Trade;

(6) to review the final determinations of the United States International Trade Commission relating to unfair practices in import trade, made under section 337 of the Tariff Act of 1930 (19 U.S.C. 1337);

(7) to review, by appeal on questions of law only, findings of the Secretary of Commerce under U.S. note 6 to subchapter X of chapter 98 of the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States (relating to importation of instruments or apparatus);

(8) of an appeal under section 71 of the Plant Variety Protection Act (7 U.S.C. 2461);

(9) of an appeal from a final order or final decision of the Merit Systems Protection Board, pursuant to sections 7703(b)(1) and 7703(d) of title 5;

(10) of an appeal from a final decision of an agency board of contract appeals pursuant to section 7107(a)(1) of title 41;

(11) of an appeal under section 211 of the Economic Stabilization Act of 1970;

(12) of an appeal under section 5 of the Emergency Petroleum Allocation Act of 1973;

(13) of an appeal under section 506(c) of the Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978; and

(14) of an appeal under section 523 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act.


(b) The head of any executive department or agency may, with the approval of the Attorney General, refer to the Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit for judicial review any final decision rendered by a board of contract appeals pursuant to the terms of any contract with the United States awarded by that department or agency which the head of such department or agency has concluded is not entitled to finality pursuant to the review standards specified in section 7107(b) of title 41. The head of each executive department or agency shall make any referral under this section within one hundred and twenty days after the receipt of a copy of the final appeal decision.

(c) The Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit shall review the matter referred in accordance with the standards specified in section 7107(b) of title 41. The court shall proceed with judicial review on the administrative record made before the board of contract appeals on matters so referred as in other cases pending in such court, shall determine the issue of finality of the appeal decision, and shall, if appropriate, render judgment thereon, or remand the matter to any administrative or executive body or official with such direction as it may deem proper and just.

(Added Pub. L. 97–164, title I, §127(a), Apr. 2, 1982, 96 Stat. 37; amended Pub. L. 98–622, title II, §205(a), Nov. 8, 1984, 98 Stat. 3388; Pub. L. 100–418, title I, §1214(a)(3), Aug. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 1156; Pub. L. 100–702, title X, §1020(a)(3), Nov. 19, 1988, 102 Stat. 4671; Pub. L. 102–572, title I, §102(c), title IX, §902(b)(1), Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4507, 4516; Pub. L. 106–113, div. B, §1000(a)(9) [title IV, §§4402(b)(2), 4732(b)(14)], Nov. 29, 1999, 113 Stat. 1536, 1501A-560, 1501A-584; Pub. L. 111–350, §5(g)(5), Jan. 4, 2011, 124 Stat. 3848; Pub. L. 112–29, §§7(c)(2), 19(b), Sept. 16, 2011, 125 Stat. 314, 331.)


Editorial Notes

References in Text

The Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States, referred to in subsec. (a)(7), is not set out in the Code. See Publication of Harmonized Tariff Schedule note set out under section 1202 of Title 19, Customs Duties.

Section 211 of the Economic Stabilization Act of 1970, referred to in subsec. (a)(11), is section 211 of Pub. L. 91–379, title II, formerly set out as an Economic Stabilization Program note under section 1904 of Title 12, Banks and Banking.

Section 5 of the Emergency Petroleum Allocation Act of 1973, referred to in subsec. (a)(12), is section 5 of Pub. L. 93–159, which was classified to section 754 of Title 15, Commerce and Trade, and was omitted from the Code.

Section 506(c) of the Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978, referred to in subsec. (a)(13), is classified to section 3416(c) of Title 15.

Section 523 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act, referred to in subsec. (a)(14), is classified to section 6393 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare.

Amendments

2011—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 112–29, §19(b), amended par. (1) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (1) read as follows: "of an appeal from a final decision of a district court of the United States, the United States District Court for the District of the Canal Zone, the District Court of Guam, the District Court of the Virgin Islands, or the District Court for the Northern Mariana Islands, if the jurisdiction of that court was based, in whole or in part, on section 1338 of this title, except that a case involving a claim arising under any Act of Congress relating to copyrights, exclusive rights in mask works, or trademarks and no other claims under section 1338(a) shall be governed by sections 1291, 1292, and 1294 of this title;".

Subsec. (a)(4)(A). Pub. L. 112–29, §7(c)(2), amended subpar. (A) generally. Prior to amendment, subpar. (A) read as follows: "the Board of Patent Appeals and Interferences of the United States Patent and Trademark Office with respect to patent applications and interferences, at the instance of an applicant for a patent or any party to a patent interference, and any such appeal shall waive the right of such applicant or party to proceed under section 145 or 146 of title 35;".

Subsec. (a)(10). Pub. L. 111–350, §5(g)(5)(A), substituted "section 7107(a)(1) of title 41" for "section 8(g)(1) of the Contract Disputes Act of 1978 (41 U.S.C. 607(g)(1))".

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 111–350, §5(g)(5)(B), substituted "section 7107(b) of title 41" for "section 10(b) of the Contract Disputes Act of 1978 (41 U.S.C. 609(b))".

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 111–350, §5(g)(5)(C), substituted "section 7107(b) of title 41" for "section 10(b) of the Contract Disputes Act of 1978".

1999—Subsec. (a)(4)(A). Pub. L. 106–113, §1000(a)(9) [title IV, §4732(b)(14)(A)], inserted "United States" before "Patent and Trademark".

Subsec. (a)(4)(B). Pub. L. 106–113, §1000(a)(9) [title IV, §4732(b)(14)(B)], substituted "Under Secretary of Commerce for Intellectual Property and Director of the United States Patent and Trademark Office" for "Commissioner of Patents and Trademarks".

Subsec. (a)(4)(C). Pub. L. 106–113, §1000(a)(9) [title IV, §4402(b)(2)], substituted "145, 146, or 154(b)" for "145 or 146".

1992—Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 102–572, §902(b)(1), substituted "United States Court of Federal Claims" for "United States Claims Court".

Subsec. (a)(11) to (14). Pub. L. 102–572, §102(c), added pars. (11) to (14).

1988—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 100–702 inserted ", exclusive rights in mask works," after "copyrights".

Subsec. (a)(7). Pub. L. 100–418 substituted "U.S. note 6 to subchapter X of chapter 98 of the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States" for "headnote 6 to schedule 8, part 4, of the Tariff Schedules of the United States".

1984—Subsec. (a)(4)(A). Pub. L. 98–622 substituted "Patent Appeals and" for "Appeals or the Board of Patent".


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Effective Date of 2011 Amendment

Amendment by section 7(c)(2) of Pub. L. 112–29 effective upon the expiration of the 1-year period beginning on Sept. 16, 2011, and applicable to proceedings commenced on or after that effective date, with certain exceptions, see section 7(e) of Pub. L. 112–29, set out as a note under section 6 of Title 35, Patents.

Pub. L. 112–29, §19(e), Sept. 16, 2011, 125 Stat. 333, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [enacting section 1454 of this title and section 299 of Title 35, Patents, and amending this section and section 1338 of this title] shall apply to any civil action commenced on or after the date of the enactment of this Act [Sept. 16, 2011]."

Effective Date of 1999 Amendment

Amendment by section 1000(a)(9) [title IV, §4402(b)(2)] of Pub. L. 106–113 effective on date that is 6 months after Nov. 29, 1999, and, except for design patent application filed under chapter 16 of Title 35, applicable to any application filed on or after such date, see section 1000(a)(9) [title IV, §4405(a)] of Pub. L. 106–113, set out as a note under section 154 of Title 35, Patents.

Amendment by section 1000(a)(9) [title IV, §4732(b)(14)] of Pub. L. 106–113 effective 4 months after Nov. 29, 1999, see section 1000(a)(9) [title IV, §4731] of Pub. L. 106–113, set out as a note under section 1 of Title 35, Patents.

Effective Date of 1992 Amendment

Amendment by section 102(c) of Pub. L. 102–572 effective Jan. 1, 1993, see section 1101(a) of Pub. L. 102–572, set out as a note under section 905 of Title 2, The Congress.

Amendment by section 902(b)(1) of Pub. L. 102–572 effective Oct. 29, 1992, see section 911 of Pub. L. 102–572, set out as a note under section 171 of this title.

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 100–418 effective Jan. 1, 1989, and applicable with respect to articles entered on or after such date, see section 1217(b)(1) of Pub. L. 100–418, set out as an Effective Date note under section 3001 of Title 19, Customs Duties.

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 98–622 applicable to all United States patents granted before, on, or after Nov. 8, 1984, and to all applications for United States patents pending on or filed after that date, except as otherwise provided, see section 106 of Pub. L. 98–622, set out as a note under section 103 of Title 35, Patents.

Amendment by Pub. L. 98–622 effective three months after Nov. 8, 1984, see section 207 of Pub. L. 98–622, set out as a note under section 41 of Title 35.

Effective Date

Section effective Oct. 1, 1982, see section 402 of Pub. L. 97–164, set out as an Effective Date of 1982 Amendment note under section 171 of this title.

Abolition of Temporary Emergency Court of Appeals

Pub. L. 102–572, title I, §102(d), (e), Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4507, provided that:

"(d) Abolition of Court.—The Temporary Emergency Court of Appeals created by section 211(b) of the Economic Stabilization Act of 1970 [Pub. L. 91–379, formerly set out as a note under section 1904 of Title 12, Banks and Banking] is abolished, effective 6 months after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 29, 1992].

"(e) Pending Cases.—(1) Any appeal which, before the effective date of abolition described in subsection (d), is pending in the Temporary Emergency Court of Appeals but has not been submitted to a panel of such court as of that date shall be assigned to the United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit as though the appeal had originally been filed in that court.

"(2) Any case which, before the effective date of abolition described in subsection (d), has been submitted to a panel of the Temporary Emergency Court of Appeals and as to which the mandate has not been issued as of that date shall remain with that panel for all purposes and, notwithstanding the provisions of sections 291 and 292 of title 28, United States Code, that panel shall be assigned to the United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit for the purpose of deciding such case."

Termination of United States District Court for the District of the Canal Zone

For termination of the United States District Court for the District of the Canal Zone at end of the "transition period", being the 30-month period beginning Oct. 1, 1979, and ending midnight Mar. 31, 1982, see Paragraph 5 of Article XI of the Panama Canal Treaty of 1977 and sections 2101 and 2201 to 2203 of Pub. L. 96–70, title II, Sept. 27, 1979, 93 Stat. 493, formerly classified to sections 3831 and 3841 to 3843, respectively, of Title 22, Foreign Relations and Intercourse.

§1296. Review of certain agency actions

(a) Jurisdiction.—Subject to the provisions of chapter 179, the United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit shall have jurisdiction over a petition for review of a final decision under chapter 5 of title 3 of—

(1) an appropriate agency (as determined under section 454 of title 3);

(2) the Federal Labor Relations Authority made under part D of subchapter II of chapter 5 of title 3, notwithstanding section 7123 of title 5; or

(3) the Secretary of Labor or the Occupational Safety and Health Review Commission, made under part C of subchapter II of chapter 5 of title 3.


(b) Filing of Petition.—Any petition for review under this section must be filed within 30 days after the date the petitioner receives notice of the final decision.

(Added Pub. L. 104–331, §3(a)(1), Oct. 26, 1996, 110 Stat. 4068.)


Editorial Notes

Prior Provisions

A prior section 1296, added Pub. L. 97–164, title I, §127(a), Apr. 2, 1982, 96 Stat. 39, related to precedence of cases in United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 98–620, title IV, §402(29)(C), Nov. 8, 1984, 98 Stat. 3359.

Effective Date

Pub. L. 104–331, §3(d), Oct. 26, 1996, 110 Stat. 4071, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [enacting this section and sections 1413 and 3901 to 3908 of this title and amending sections 1346 and 2402 of this title] shall take effect on October 1, 1997."

CHAPTER 85—DISTRICT COURTS; JURISDICTION

Sec.
1330.
Actions against foreign states.
1331.
Federal question.
1332.
Diversity of citizenship; amount in controversy; costs.
1333.
Admiralty, maritime and prize cases.
1334.
Bankruptcy cases and proceedings.
1335.
Interpleader.
1336.
Surface Transportation Board's orders.
1337.
Commerce and antitrust regulations; amount in controversy, costs.
1338.
Patents, plant variety protection, copyrights, mask works, designs, trademarks, and unfair competition.
1339.
Postal matters.
1340.
Internal revenue; customs duties.
1341.
Taxes by States.
1342.
Rate orders of State agencies.
1343.
Civil rights and elective franchise.
1344.
Election disputes.
1345.
United States as plaintiff.
1346.
United States as defendant.
1347.
Partition action where United States is joint tenant.
1348.
Banking association as party.
1349.
Corporation organized under federal law as party.
1350.
Alien's action for tort.
1351.
Consuls, vice consuls, and members of a diplomatic mission as defendant.
1352.
Bonds executed under federal law.
1353.
Indian allotments.
1354.
Land grants from different states.
1355.
Fine, penalty or forfeiture.
1356.
Seizures not within admiralty and maritime jurisdiction.
1357.
Injuries under Federal laws.
1358.
Eminent domain.
1359.
Parties collusively joined or made.
1360.
State civil jurisdiction in actions to which Indians are parties.
1361.
Action to compel an officer of the United States to perform his duty.
1362.
Indian tribes.
1363.
Jurors' employment rights.
1364.
Direct actions against insurers of members of diplomatic missions and their families.
1365.
Senate actions.
1366.
Construction of references to laws of the United States or Acts of Congress.
1367.
Supplemental jurisdiction.
1368.
Counterclaims in unfair practices in international trade.
1369.
Multiparty, multiforum jurisdiction.

        

Editorial Notes

Amendments

2002Pub. L. 107–273, div. C, title I, §11020(b)(1)(B), Nov. 2, 2002, 116 Stat. 1827, added item 1369.

1999Pub. L. 106–113, div. B, §1000(a)(9) [title III, §3009(2)], Nov. 29, 1999, 113 Stat. 1536, 1501A-552, substituted "trademarks" for "trade-marks" in item 1338.

1998Pub. L. 105–304, title V, §503(b)(2)(B), Oct. 28, 1998, 112 Stat. 2917, inserted "designs," after "mask works," in item 1338.

1995Pub. L. 104–88, title III, §305(a)(4), Dec. 29, 1995, 109 Stat. 944, substituted "Surface Transportation Board's" for "Interstate Commerce Commission's" in item 1336.

1994Pub. L. 103–465, title III, §321(b)(3)(B), Dec. 8, 1994, 108 Stat. 4947, added item 1368.

1990Pub. L. 101–650, title III, §310(b), Dec. 1, 1990, 104 Stat. 5114, added item 1367.

1988Pub. L. 100–702, title X, §1020(a)(7), Nov. 19, 1988, 102 Stat. 4672, substituted "Actions" for "Action" in item 1330, inserted a period after "question" in item 1331, substituted "plant variety protection, copyrights, mask works, trade-marks," for "copyrights, and trade-marks" in item 1338, and inserted "and elective franchise" in item 1343.

1986Pub. L. 99–336, §6(a)(1)(A), June 19, 1986, 100 Stat. 638, renumbered item 1364 "Senate actions" and item 1364 "Construction of references to laws of the United States or Acts of Congress" as items 1365 and 1366, respectively.

1984Pub. L. 98–353, title I, §101(b), July 10, 1984, 98 Stat. 333, substituted "cases" for "matters" in item 1334.

1980Pub. L. 96–486, §2(b), Dec. 1, 1980, 94 Stat. 2369, struck out "; amount in controversy; costs." after "question" in item 1331.

1978Pub. L. 95–598, title II, §238(b), Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2668, directed the substitution of "Bankruptcy appeals" for "Bankruptcy matters and proceedings" in item 1334, which amendment did not become effective pursuant to section 402(b) of Pub. L. 95–598, as amended, set out as an Effective Date note preceding section 101 of Title 11, Bankruptcy.

Pub. L. 95–572, §6(b)(2), Nov. 2, 1978, 92 Stat. 2457, added item 1363 and redesignated former item 1363 "Construction of references to laws of the United States or Acts of Congress", as 1364.

Pub. L. 95–521, title VII, §705(f)(2), Oct. 26, 1978, 92 Stat. 1880, added item 1364 "Senate actions".

Pub. L. 95–486, §9(c), Oct. 20, 1978, 92 Stat. 1634, substituted "Commerce and antitrust regulations; amount in controversy, costs" for "Commerce and antitrust regulations" in item 1337.

Pub. L. 95–393, §§7(b), 8(a)(2), Sept. 30, 1978, 92 Stat. 810, substituted "Consuls, vice consuls, and members of a diplomatic mission as defendant" for "Consuls and vice consuls as defendants" in item 1351 and added item 1364 "Direct actions against insurers of members of diplomatic missions and their families".

1976Pub. L. 94–583, §2(b), Oct. 21, 1976, 90 Stat. 2891, added item 1330.

1970Pub. L. 91–358, title I, §172(c)(2), July 29, 1970, 84 Stat. 591, added item 1363.

1966Pub. L. 89–635, §2, Oct. 10, 1966, 80 Stat. 880, added item 1362.

1962Pub. L. 87–748, §1(b), Oct. 5, 1962, 76 Stat. 744, added item 1361.

1958Pub. L. 85–554, §4, July 25, 1958, 72 Stat. 415, inserted "costs" in items 1331 and 1332.

1953—Act Aug. 15, 1953, ch. 505, §3, 67 Stat. 589, added item 1360.

§1330. Actions against foreign states

(a) The district courts shall have original jurisdiction without regard to amount in controversy of any nonjury civil action against a foreign state as defined in section 1603(a) of this title as to any claim for relief in personam with respect to which the foreign state is not entitled to immunity either under sections 1605–1607 of this title or under any applicable international agreement.

(b) Personal jurisdiction over a foreign state shall exist as to every claim for relief over which the district courts have jurisdiction under subsection (a) where service has been made under section 1608 of this title.

(c) For purposes of subsection (b), an appearance by a foreign state does not confer personal jurisdiction with respect to any claim for relief not arising out of any transaction or occurrence enumerated in sections 1605–1607 of this title.

(Added Pub. L. 94–583, §2(a), Oct. 21, 1976, 90 Stat. 2891.)


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Effective Date

Section effective 90 days after Oct. 21, 1976, see section 8 of Pub. L. 94–583, set out as a note under section 1602 of this title.

§1331. Federal question

The district courts shall have original jurisdiction of all civil actions arising under the Constitution, laws, or treaties of the United States.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 646, 62 Stat. 930; Pub. L. 85–554, §1, July 25, 1958, 72 Stat. 415; Pub. L. 94–574, §2, Oct. 21, 1976, 90 Stat. 2721; Pub. L. 96–486, §2(a), Dec. 1, 1980, 94 Stat. 2369.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., §41(1) (Mar. 3, 1911, ch. 231, §24, par. 1, 36 Stat. 1091; May 14, 1934, ch. 283, §1, 48 Stat. 775; Aug. 21, 1937, ch. 726, §1, 50 Stat. 738; Apr. 20, 1940, ch. 117, 54 Stat. 143).

Jurisdiction of federal questions arising under other sections of this chapter is not dependent upon the amount in controversy. (See annotations under former section 41 of title 28, U.S.C.A., and 35 C.J.S., p. 833 et seq., §§30–43. See, also, reviser's note under section 1332 of this title.)

Words "wherein the matter in controversy exceeds the sum or value of $3,000, exclusive of interest and costs," were added to conform to rulings of the Supreme Court. See construction of provision relating to jurisdictional amount requirement in cases involving a Federal question in United States v. Sayward, 16 S.Ct. 371, 160 U.S. 493, 40 L.Ed. 508; Fishback v. Western Union Tel. Co., 16 S.Ct. 506, 161 U.S. 96, 40 L.Ed. 630; and Halt v. Indiana Manufacturing Co., 1900, 20 S.Ct. 272, 176 U.S. 68, 44 L.Ed. 374.

Words "all civil actions" were substituted for "all suits of a civil nature, at common law or in equity" to conform with Rule 2 of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure.

Words "or treaties" were substituted for "or treaties made, or which shall be made under their authority," for purposes of brevity.

The remaining provisions of section 41(1) of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., are incorporated in sections 1332, 1341, 1342, 1345, 1354, and 1359 of this title.

Changes were made in arrangement and phraseology.


Editorial Notes

Amendments

1980Pub. L. 96–486 struck out "; amount in controversy; costs" in section catchline, struck out minimum amount in controversy requirement of $10,000 for original jurisdiction in federal question cases which necessitated striking the exception to such required minimum amount that authorized original jurisdiction in actions brought against the United States, any agency thereof, or any officer or employee thereof in an official capacity, struck out provision authorizing the district court except where express provision therefore was made in a federal statute to deny costs to a plaintiff and in fact impose such costs upon such plaintiff where plaintiff was adjudged to be entitled to recover less than the required amount in controversy, computed without regard to set-off or counterclaim and exclusive of interests and costs, and struck out existing subsection designations.

1976—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 94–574 struck out $10,000 jurisdictional amount where action is brought against the United States, any agency thereof, or any officer or employee thereof in his official capacity.

1958Pub. L. 85–554 included costs in section catchline, designated existing provisions as subsec. (a), substituted "$10,000" for "$3,000", and added subsec. (b).


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Effective Date of 1980 Amendment; Applicability

Pub. L. 96–486, §4, Dec. 1, 1980, 94 Stat. 2370, provided: "This Act [amending this section and section 2072 of Title 15, Commerce and Trade, and enacting provisions set out as a note under section 1 of this title] shall apply to any civil action pending on the date of enactment of this Act [Dec. 1, 1980]."

Effective Date of 1958 Amendment

Pub. L. 85–554, §3, July 25, 1958, 72 Stat. 415, provided that: "This Act [amending this section and sections 1332 and 1345 of this title] shall apply only in the case of actions commenced after the date of the enactment of this Act [July 25, 1958]."

§1332. Diversity of citizenship; amount in controversy; costs

(a) The district courts shall have original jurisdiction of all civil actions where the matter in controversy exceeds the sum or value of $75,000, exclusive of interest and costs, and is between—

(1) citizens of different States;

(2) citizens of a State and citizens or subjects of a foreign state, except that the district courts shall not have original jurisdiction under this subsection of an action between citizens of a State and citizens or subjects of a foreign state who are lawfully admitted for permanent residence in the United States and are domiciled in the same State;

(3) citizens of different States and in which citizens or subjects of a foreign state are additional parties; and

(4) a foreign state, defined in section 1603(a) of this title, as plaintiff and citizens of a State or of different States.


(b) Except when express provision therefor is otherwise made in a statute of the United States, where the plaintiff who files the case originally in the Federal courts is finally adjudged to be entitled to recover less than the sum or value of $75,000, computed without regard to any setoff or counterclaim to which the defendant may be adjudged to be entitled, and exclusive of interest and costs, the district court may deny costs to the plaintiff and, in addition, may impose costs on the plaintiff.

(c) For the purposes of this section and section 1441 of this title

(1) a corporation shall be deemed to be a citizen of every State and foreign state by which it has been incorporated and of the State or foreign state where it has its principal place of business, except that in any direct action against the insurer of a policy or contract of liability insurance, whether incorporated or unincorporated, to which action the insured is not joined as a party-defendant, such insurer shall be deemed a citizen of—

(A) every State and foreign state of which the insured is a citizen;

(B) every State and foreign state by which the insurer has been incorporated; and

(C) the State or foreign state where the insurer has its principal place of business; and


(2) the legal representative of the estate of a decedent shall be deemed to be a citizen only of the same State as the decedent, and the legal representative of an infant or incompetent shall be deemed to be a citizen only of the same State as the infant or incompetent.


(d)(1) In this subsection—

(A) the term "class" means all of the class members in a class action;

(B) the term "class action" means any civil action filed under rule 23 of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure or similar State statute or rule of judicial procedure authorizing an action to be brought by 1 or more representative persons as a class action;

(C) the term "class certification order" means an order issued by a court approving the treatment of some or all aspects of a civil action as a class action; and

(D) the term "class members" means the persons (named or unnamed) who fall within the definition of the proposed or certified class in a class action.


(2) The district courts shall have original jurisdiction of any civil action in which the matter in controversy exceeds the sum or value of $5,000,000, exclusive of interest and costs, and is a class action in which—

(A) any member of a class of plaintiffs is a citizen of a State different from any defendant;

(B) any member of a class of plaintiffs is a foreign state or a citizen or subject of a foreign state and any defendant is a citizen of a State; or

(C) any member of a class of plaintiffs is a citizen of a State and any defendant is a foreign state or a citizen or subject of a foreign state.


(3) A district court may, in the interests of justice and looking at the totality of the circumstances, decline to exercise jurisdiction under paragraph (2) over a class action in which greater than one-third but less than two-thirds of the members of all proposed plaintiff classes in the aggregate and the primary defendants are citizens of the State in which the action was originally filed based on consideration of—

(A) whether the claims asserted involve matters of national or interstate interest;

(B) whether the claims asserted will be governed by laws of the State in which the action was originally filed or by the laws of other States;

(C) whether the class action has been pleaded in a manner that seeks to avoid Federal jurisdiction;

(D) whether the action was brought in a forum with a distinct nexus with the class members, the alleged harm, or the defendants;

(E) whether the number of citizens of the State in which the action was originally filed in all proposed plaintiff classes in the aggregate is substantially larger than the number of citizens from any other State, and the citizenship of the other members of the proposed class is dispersed among a substantial number of States; and

(F) whether, during the 3-year period preceding the filing of that class action, 1 or more other class actions asserting the same or similar claims on behalf of the same or other persons have been filed.


(4) A district court shall decline to exercise jurisdiction under paragraph (2)—

(A)(i) over a class action in which—

(I) greater than two-thirds of the members of all proposed plaintiff classes in the aggregate are citizens of the State in which the action was originally filed;

(II) at least 1 defendant is a defendant—

(aa) from whom significant relief is sought by members of the plaintiff class;

(bb) whose alleged conduct forms a significant basis for the claims asserted by the proposed plaintiff class; and

(cc) who is a citizen of the State in which the action was originally filed; and


(III) principal injuries resulting from the alleged conduct or any related conduct of each defendant were incurred in the State in which the action was originally filed; and


(ii) during the 3-year period preceding the filing of that class action, no other class action has been filed asserting the same or similar factual allegations against any of the defendants on behalf of the same or other persons; or

(B) two-thirds or more of the members of all proposed plaintiff classes in the aggregate, and the primary defendants, are citizens of the State in which the action was originally filed.


(5) Paragraphs (2) through (4) shall not apply to any class action in which—

(A) the primary defendants are States, State officials, or other governmental entities against whom the district court may be foreclosed from ordering relief; or

(B) the number of members of all proposed plaintiff classes in the aggregate is less than 100.


(6) In any class action, the claims of the individual class members shall be aggregated to determine whether the matter in controversy exceeds the sum or value of $5,000,000, exclusive of interest and costs.

(7) Citizenship of the members of the proposed plaintiff classes shall be determined for purposes of paragraphs (2) through (6) as of the date of filing of the complaint or amended complaint, or, if the case stated by the initial pleading is not subject to Federal jurisdiction, as of the date of service by plaintiffs of an amended pleading, motion, or other paper, indicating the existence of Federal jurisdiction.

(8) This subsection shall apply to any class action before or after the entry of a class certification order by the court with respect to that action.

(9) Paragraph (2) shall not apply to any class action that solely involves a claim—

(A) concerning a covered security as defined under 16(f)(3) 1 of the Securities Act of 1933 (15 U.S.C. 78p(f)(3) 2) and section 28(f)(5)(E) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (15 U.S.C. 78bb(f)(5)(E));

(B) that relates to the internal affairs or governance of a corporation or other form of business enterprise and that arises under or by virtue of the laws of the State in which such corporation or business enterprise is incorporated or organized; or

(C) that relates to the rights, duties (including fiduciary duties), and obligations relating to or created by or pursuant to any security (as defined under section 2(a)(1) of the Securities Act of 1933 (15 U.S.C. 77b(a)(1)) and the regulations issued thereunder).


(10) For purposes of this subsection and section 1453, an unincorporated association shall be deemed to be a citizen of the State where it has its principal place of business and the State under whose laws it is organized.

(11)(A) For purposes of this subsection and section 1453, a mass action shall be deemed to be a class action removable under paragraphs (2) through (10) if it otherwise meets the provisions of those paragraphs.

(B)(i) As used in subparagraph (A), the term "mass action" means any civil action (except a civil action within the scope of section 1711(2)) in which monetary relief claims of 100 or more persons are proposed to be tried jointly on the ground that the plaintiffs' claims involve common questions of law or fact, except that jurisdiction shall exist only over those plaintiffs whose claims in a mass action satisfy the jurisdictional amount requirements under subsection (a).

(ii) As used in subparagraph (A), the term "mass action" shall not include any civil action in which—

(I) all of the claims in the action arise from an event or occurrence in the State in which the action was filed, and that allegedly resulted in injuries in that State or in States contiguous to that State;

(II) the claims are joined upon motion of a defendant;

(III) all of the claims in the action are asserted on behalf of the general public (and not on behalf of individual claimants or members of a purported class) pursuant to a State statute specifically authorizing such action; or

(IV) the claims have been consolidated or coordinated solely for pretrial proceedings.


(C)(i) Any action(s) removed to Federal court pursuant to this subsection shall not thereafter be transferred to any other court pursuant to section 1407, or the rules promulgated thereunder, unless a majority of the plaintiffs in the action request transfer pursuant to section 1407.

(ii) This subparagraph will not apply—

(I) to cases certified pursuant to rule 23 of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure; or

(II) if plaintiffs propose that the action proceed as a class action pursuant to rule 23 of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure.


(D) The limitations periods on any claims asserted in a mass action that is removed to Federal court pursuant to this subsection shall be deemed tolled during the period that the action is pending in Federal court.

(e) The word "States", as used in this section, includes the Territories, the District of Columbia, and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 646, 62 Stat. 930; July 26, 1956, ch. 740, 70 Stat. 658; Pub. L. 85–554, §2, July 25, 1958, 72 Stat. 415; Pub. L. 88–439, §1, Aug. 14, 1964, 78 Stat. 445; Pub. L. 94–583, §3, Oct. 21, 1976, 90 Stat. 2891; Pub. L. 100–702, title II, §§201(a), 202(a), 203(a), Nov. 19, 1988, 102 Stat. 4646; Pub. L. 104–317, title II, §205(a), Oct. 19, 1996, 110 Stat. 3850; Pub. L. 109–2, §4(a), Feb. 18, 2005, 119 Stat. 9; Pub. L. 112–63, title I, §§101, 102, Dec. 7, 2011, 125 Stat. 758.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., §41(1) (Mar. 3, 1911, ch. 231, §24, par. 1, 36 Stat. 1091; May 14, 1934, ch. 283, §1, 48 Stat. 775; Aug. 21, 1937, ch. 726, §1, 50 Stat. 738; Apr. 20, 1940, ch. 117, 54 Stat. 143).

Other provisions of section 41(1) of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., are incorporated in sections 1331, 1341, 1342, 1345, 1354, and 1359 of this title. (See reviser's notes under said sections.)

Jurisdiction conferred by other sections of this chapter, except section 1335, is not dependent upon diversity of citizenship. (See annotations under former section 41 of title 28, U.S.C.A., and 35 C.J.S., p. 833 et seq. §§30–43. See, also, reviser's note under section 1331 of this title.) As to citizenship of bank where jurisdiction depends upon diversity of citizenship, see section 1348 of this title.

Words "all civil actions" were substituted for "all suits of a civil nature, at common law or in equity" in order to conform to Rule 2 of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure.

Words "or citizens of the District of Columbia, Territory of Hawaii, or Alaska, and any State or Territory" which were inserted by the amendatory act April 20, 1940, are omitted. The word "States" is defined in this section and enumeration of the references is unnecessary.

The revised section conforms with the views of Philip F. Herrick, United States Attorney, Puerto Rico, who observed that the act of April 20, 1940, permitted action between a citizen of Hawaii and of Puerto Rico, but not between a citizen of New York and Puerto Rico, in the district court.

This changes the law to insure uniformity. The 1940 amendment applied only to the provision as to controversies between "citizens of different States." The new definition in subsection (b) extends the 1940 amendment to apply to controversies between citizens of the Territories or the District of Columbia, and foreign states or citizens or subjects thereof.

The diversity of citizenship language of section 41(1) of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., as amended in 1940, was described as ambiguous in McGarry v. City of Bethlehem, 45 F.Supp. 385, 386. In that case the 1940 amendment was held unconstitutional insofar as it affected the District of Columbia. However, two other district courts upheld the amendment. Winkler v. Daniels, D.C.Va. 1942, 43 F.Supp. 265; Glaeser v. Acacia Mutual Life Ass'n., D.C.Cal. 1944, 55 F.Supp. 925.

This section is intended to cover all diversity of citizenship instances in civil actions in accordance with the judicial construction of the language in the original section 41(1) of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed. Therefore, the revised language covers civil actions between—

Citizens of a State, and citizens of other States and foreign states or citizens or subjects thereof;

Citizens of a Territory or the District of Columbia, and foreign states or citizens or subjects thereof;

Citizens of different States;

Citizens of different Territories;

Citizens of a State, and citizens of Territories;

Citizens of a State or Territory, and citizens of the District of Columbia;

Citizens of a State, and foreign states or citizens or subjects thereof.

The revised section removes an uncertainty referred to in the McGarry case, supra, as to whether Congress intended to permit citizens of the Territories or the District of Columbia to sue a State or Territory itself rather than the citizens thereof. The court observed that "Congress could hardly have had such intention."

The sentence "The foregoing provisions as to the sum or value of the matter in controversy shall not be construed to apply to any of the cases mentioned in the succeeding paragraphs of this section" was omitted as unnecessary. Those paragraphs are (2)–(28) of said section 41 of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., which are revised and incorporated in this chapter and, except for those relating to actions against the United States and interpleader, contains no provision as to a sum or value necessary to confer jurisdiction. Consequently the omitted sentence is covered by excluding such requirement.

Section 41(1) of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., as originally enacted, purported to include all jurisdictional provisions relating to the district courts. Subsequently, many special jurisdictional provisions were enacted and incorporated in other titles of the U.S.C., 1940 ed., as follows:

 
TitleSection
7 209
7 210
7 216
7 292
7 499g
7 608a(6)
7 608c(15)(B)
7 610(b)(2)
7 648
7 1175
7 1365—1367
7 1376
7 1508(c)
8 164
8 701
8 903
9 4
9 8
9 9
11 11(a)
11 46
11 205(a), (l)
11 401
11 511
11 512
11 514—516
11 711
11 712
11 811
11 812
11 1011
11 1012
11 1013
11 1200
12 93
12 195
12 632
15 4
15 9
15 15
15 25
15 26
15 31
15 53
15 68e
15 77t
15 77v
15 77vvv
15 78u(e)
15 78u(f)
15 78aa
15 79k(d), (e)
15 79r(f), (g)
15 80a–25
15 80a–34
15 80a–35
15 80a–41(c), (e)
15 80a–43
15 80b–14
15 97
15 99
15 433
15 715d(c)
15 715i
15 717s
15 717u
16 10
16 583e
16 820
16 825m
16 825n
16 825p
17 26
17 34
21 193
21 332
21 355
25 314
25 345
26 3633
26 3800
27 207
29 101
29 103—109
29 160(e)
29 216
29 217
30 188
31 232
33 495
33 918
33 921
35 63
35 66
35 67
35 72a
35 90
38 445
40 257
40 270b
40 361
41 113(b)(2)
42 405(c)(5), (g)
43 546
43 1062
45 56
45 88
45 89
45 153(p)
45 159
45 185
45 228j(b)4
45 228k
45 268
45 355(f)
46 597
46 688
46 711
46 741 et seq.
46 781 et seq.
46 941(c)
46 951
46 954
46 1114(c)
46 1128d
47 11
47 13
47 33
47 36
47 207
47 401
47 406
47 407
48 242
48 245
49 5(8)
49 9
49 16(2)
49 16(9)
49 16(12)
49 17(9)
49 19a(l)
49 20(9)
49 23
49 26(h)
49 41(1), (3)
49 43
49 181(b), (c)
49 305(g)
49 322(b)
49 647
49 916
49 1017
49 1021
50 23
D.C. Code 11–305—11–307
D.C. Code 11–309
D.C. Code 11–324

Editorial Notes

References in Text

Rule 23 of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure, referred to in subsec. (d)(1)(B), (11)(C)(ii), is set out in the Appendix to this title.

Amendments

2011—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 112–63, §101(1), struck out concluding provisions which read as follows: "For the purposes of this section, section 1335, and section 1441, an alien admitted to the United States for permanent residence shall be deemed a citizen of the State in which such alien is domiciled."

Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 112–63, §101(2), inserted before semicolon at end ", except that the district courts shall not have original jurisdiction under this subsection of an action between citizens of a State and citizens or subjects of a foreign state who are lawfully admitted for permanent residence in the United States and are domiciled in the same State".

Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 112–63, §102, substituted "every State and foreign state" for "any State", "it has been incorporated and of the State or foreign state" for "it has been incorporated and of the State", and "such insurer shall be deemed a citizen of—" for "such insurer shall be deemed a citizen of the State of which the insured is a citizen, as well as of any State by which the insurer has been incorporated and of the State where it has its principal place of business; and" and added subpars. (A) to (C).

2005—Subsecs. (d), (e). Pub. L. 109–2 added subsec. (d) and redesignated former subsec. (d) as (e).

1996—Subsecs. (a), (b). Pub. L. 104–317 substituted "$75,000" for "$50,000".

1988—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 100–702, §201(a), substituted "$50,000" for "$10,000" in introductory text.

Pub. L. 100–702, §203(a), inserted at end "For the purposes of this section, section 1335, and section 1441, an alien admitted to the United States for permanent residence shall be deemed a citizen of the State in which such alien is domiciled."

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 100–702, §201(a), substituted "$50,000" for "$10,000".

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 100–702, §202(a), amended subsec. (c) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (c) read as follows: "For the purposes of this section and section 1441 of this title, a corporation shall be deemed a citizen of any State by which it has been incorporated and of the State where it has its principal place of business: Provided further, That in any direct action against the insurer of a policy or contract of liability insurance, whether incorporated or unincorporated, to which action the insured is not joined as a party-defendant, such insurer shall be deemed a citizen of the State of which the insured is a citizen, as well as of any State by which the insurer has been incorporated and of the State where it has its principal place of business."

1976—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 94–583 substituted "and citizens or subjects of a foreign state;" for ", and foreign states or citizens or subjects thereof; and".

Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 94–583 substituted "citizens or subjects of a foreign state are additional parties; and" for "foreign states or citizens or subjects thereof are additional parties".

Subsec. (a)(4). Pub. L. 94–583 added par. (4).

1964—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 88–439 inserted proviso deeming an insurer of liability insurance, in an action to which the insurer is not joined as a party-defendant, a citizen, of the State of which the insured is a citizen, as well as the State the insurer has been incorporated by and the State where it has its principal place of business.

1958Pub. L. 85–554 included costs in section catchline.

Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 85–554 substituted "$10,000" for "$3,000".

Subsecs. (b) to (d). Pub. L. 85–554 added subsecs. (b) and (c) and redesignated former subsec. (b) as (d).

1956—Subsec. (b). Act July 26, 1956, included the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico.


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Effective Date of 2011 Amendment

Pub. L. 112–63, title I, §105, Dec. 7, 2011, 125 Stat. 762, provided that:

"(a) In General.—Subject to subsection (b), the amendments made by this title [enacting section 1455 of this title and amending this section and sections 1441, 1446, and 1453 of this title] shall take effect upon the expiration of the 30-day period beginning on the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 7, 2011], and shall apply to any action or prosecution commenced on or after such effective date.

"(b) Treatment of Cases Removed to Federal Court.—For purposes of subsection (a), an action or prosecution commenced in State court and removed to Federal court shall be deemed to commence on the date the action or prosecution was commenced, within the meaning of State law, in State court."

Effective Date of 2005 Amendment

Pub. L. 109–2, §9, Feb. 18, 2005, 119 Stat. 14, provided that: "The amendments made by this Act [enacting chapter 114 and section 1453 of this title and amending this section and sections 1335 and 1603 of this title] shall apply to any civil action commenced on or after the date of enactment of this Act [Feb. 18, 2005]."

Effective Date of 1996 Amendment

Pub. L. 104–317, title II, §205(b), Oct. 19, 1996, 110 Stat. 3850, provided that: "The amendment made by this section [amending this section] shall take effect 90 days after the date of enactment of this Act [Oct. 19, 1996]."

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Pub. L. 100–702, title II, §201(b), Nov. 19, 1988, 102 Stat. 4646, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to any civil action commenced on or after the 180th day after the date of enactment of this title [Nov. 19, 1988]."

Pub. L. 100–702, title II, §202(b), Nov. 19, 1988, 102 Stat. 4646, provided that: "The amendment made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to any civil action commenced in or removed to a United States district court on or after the 180th day after the date of enactment of this title [Nov. 19, 1988]."

Pub. L. 100–702, title II, §203(b), Nov. 19, 1988, 102 Stat. 4646, provided that: "The amendment made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to claims in civil actions commenced in or removed to the United States district courts on or after the 180th day after the date of enactment of this title [Nov. 19, 1988]."

Effective Date of 1976 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 94–583 effective 90 days after Oct. 21, 1976, see section 8 of Pub. L. 94–583, set out as an Effective Date note under section 1602 of this title.

Effective Date of 1964 Amendment

Pub. L. 88–439, §2, Aug. 14, 1964, 78 Stat. 445, provided that: "The amendment made by this Act to section 1332(c), title 28, United States Code, applies only to causes of action arising after the date of enactment of this Act [Aug. 14, 1964]."

Effective Date of 1958 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 85–554 applicable only in the case of actions commenced after July 25, 1958, see section 3 of Pub. L. 85–554, set out as a note under section 1331 of this title.

1 So in original. Probably should be preceded by "section".

2 So in original. Probably should be "77p(f)(3)".

§1333. Admiralty, maritime and prize cases

The district courts shall have original jurisdiction, exclusive of the courts of the States, of:

(1) Any civil case of admiralty or maritime jurisdiction, saving to suitors in all cases all other remedies to which they are otherwise entitled.

(2) Any prize brought into the United States and all proceedings for the condemnation of property taken as prize.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 646, 62 Stat. 931; May 24, 1949, ch. 139, §79, 63 Stat. 101.)

Historical and Revision Notes

1948 Act

Based on title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., §§41(3) and 371 (3), (4) (Mar. 3, 1911, ch. 231, §§24, par. 3, 256, pars. 3, 4, 36 Stat. 1091, 1160; Oct. 6, 1917, ch. 97, §§1, 2, 40 Stat. 395; June 10, 1922, ch. 216, §§1, 2, 42 Stat. 634).

Section consolidates certain provisions of sections 41(3), 371(3) and 371(4) of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed. Other provisions of sections 41(3) and 371(4), relating to seizures, are incorporated in section 1356 of this title. (See reviser's note thereunder.)

The "saving to suitors" clause in sections 41(3) and 371(3) of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., was changed by substituting the words "any other remedy to which he is otherwise entitled" for the words "the right of a common law remedy where the common law is competent to give it." The substituted language is simpler and more expressive of the original intent of Congress and is in conformity with Rule 2 of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure abolishing the distinction between law and equity.

Provisions of section 41(3) of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., based on the 1917 and 1922 amendments, relating to remedies under State workmen's compensation laws, were deleted. Such amendments were held unconstitutional by the Supreme Court. (See Knickerbocker Ice Co. v. Stewart, 1920, 40 S.Ct. 438, 253 U.S. 149, 64 L.Ed. 834, and State of Washington v. W. C. Dawson & Co., 1924, 44 S.Ct. 302, 264 U.S. 219, 68 L.Ed. 646.)

Words "libellant or petitioner" were substituted for "suitors" to describe moving party in admiralty cases.

Changes were made in phraseology.

1949 Act

This section amends section 1333(a)(1) of title 28, U.S.C., by substituting "suitors" for "libellant or petitioner" to conform to the language of the law in existence at the time of the enactment of the revision of title 28.


Editorial Notes

Amendments

1949—Subd. (1). Act May 24, 1949, substituted "suitors" for "libellant or petitioner".

§1334. Bankruptcy cases and proceedings

(a) Except as provided in subsection (b) of this section, the district courts shall have original and exclusive jurisdiction of all cases under title 11.

(b) Except as provided in subsection (e)(2), and notwithstanding any Act of Congress that confers exclusive jurisdiction on a court or courts other than the district courts, the district courts shall have original but not exclusive jurisdiction of all civil proceedings arising under title 11, or arising in or related to cases under title 11.

(c)(1) Except with respect to a case under chapter 15 of title 11, nothing in this section prevents a district court in the interest of justice, or in the interest of comity with State courts or respect for State law, from abstaining from hearing a particular proceeding arising under title 11 or arising in or related to a case under title 11.

(2) Upon timely motion of a party in a proceeding based upon a State law claim or State law cause of action, related to a case under title 11 but not arising under title 11 or arising in a case under title 11, with respect to which an action could not have been commenced in a court of the United States absent jurisdiction under this section, the district court shall abstain from hearing such proceeding if an action is commenced, and can be timely adjudicated, in a State forum of appropriate jurisdiction.

(d) Any decision to abstain or not to abstain made under subsection (c) (other than a decision not to abstain in a proceeding described in subsection (c)(2)) is not reviewable by appeal or otherwise by the court of appeals under section 158(d), 1291, or 1292 of this title or by the Supreme Court of the United States under section 1254 of this title. Subsection (c) and this subsection shall not be construed to limit the applicability of the stay provided for by section 362 of title 11, United States Code, as such section applies to an action affecting the property of the estate in bankruptcy.

(e) The district court in which a case under title 11 is commenced or is pending shall have exclusive jurisdiction—

(1) of all the property, wherever located, of the debtor as of the commencement of such case, and of property of the estate; and

(2) over all claims or causes of action that involve construction of section 327 of title 11, United States Code, or rules relating to disclosure requirements under section 327.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 646, 62 Stat. 931; Pub. L. 95–598, title II, §238(a), Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2667; Pub. L. 98–353, title I, §101(a), July 10, 1984, 98 Stat. 333; Pub. L. 99–554, title I, §144(e), Oct. 27, 1986, 100 Stat. 3096; Pub. L. 101–650, title III, §309(b), Dec. 1, 1990, 104 Stat. 5113; Pub. L. 103–394, title I, §104(b), Oct. 22, 1994, 108 Stat. 4109; Pub. L. 109–8, title III, §324(a), title VIII, §802(c)(2), title XII, §1219, Apr. 20, 2005, 119 Stat. 98, 145, 195.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., §§41(19) and 371(6) (Mar. 3, 1911, ch. 231, §§24, par. 19, 256, par. 6, 36 Stat. 1093, 1160).

Changes in phraseology were made.


Editorial Notes

Amendments

2005—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 109–8, §324(a)(1), substituted "Except as provided in subsection (e)(2), and notwithstanding" for "Notwithstanding".

Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 109–8, §802(c)(2), substituted "Except with respect to a case under chapter 15 of title 11, nothing in" for "Nothing in".

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 109–8, §1219, substituted "made under subsection (c)" for "made under this subsection" and "Subsection (c) and this subsection" for "This subsection".

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 109–8, §324(a)(2), added subsec. (e) and struck out former subsec. (e) which read as follows: "The district court in which a case under title 11 is commenced or is pending shall have exclusive jurisdiction of all of the property, wherever located, of the debtor as of the commencement of such case, and of property of the estate."

1994—Subsecs. (c)(2), (d). Pub. L. 103–394, §104(b)(2), inserted "(other than a decision not to abstain in a proceeding described in subsection (c)(2))" after "subsection" in second sentence of subsec. (c)(2) and designated that sentence and third sentence of subsec. (c)(2) as subsec. (d). Former subsec. (d) redesignated (e).

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 103–394, §104(b)(1), redesignated subsec. (d) as (e).

1990—Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 101–650 inserted in second sentence "or not to abstain" after "to abstain" and "by the court of appeals under section 158(d), 1291, or 1292 of this title or by the Supreme Court of the United States under section 1254 of this title" before period at end.

1986—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 99–554 substituted "and of property of the estate" for "and of the estate".

1984Pub. L. 98–353 in amending section generally, substituted "cases" for "matters" in section catchline, designated existing provision as subsec. (a), and in subsec. (a) as so designated, substituted "Except as provided in subsection (b) of this section, the district" for "The district" and "original and exclusive jurisdiction of all cases under title 11" for "original jurisdiction, exclusive of the courts of the States, of all matters and proceedings in bankruptcy", and added subsecs. (b) to (d).

1978Pub. L. 95–598 directed the general amendment of section to relate to bankruptcy appeals, which amendment did not become effective pursuant to section 402(b) of Pub. L. 95–598, as amended, set out as an Effective Date note preceding section 101 of Title 11, Bankruptcy.


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Effective Date of 2005 Amendment

Pub. L. 109–8, title III, §324(b), Apr. 20, 2005, 119 Stat. 98, provided that: "This section [amending this section] shall only apply to cases filed after the date of enactment of this Act [Apr. 20, 2005]."

Amendment by sections 802(c)(2) and 1219 of Pub. L. 109–8 effective 180 days after Apr. 20, 2005, and not applicable with respect to cases commenced under Title 11, Bankruptcy, before such effective date, except as otherwise provided, see section 1501 of Pub. L. 109–8, set out as a note under section 101 of Title 11.

Effective Date of 1994 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 103–394 effective Oct. 22, 1994, and not applicable with respect to cases commenced under Title 11, Bankruptcy, before Oct. 22, 1994, see section 702 of Pub. L. 103–394, set out as a note under section 101 of Title 11.

Effective Date of 1986 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 99–554 effective 30 days after Oct. 27, 1986, see section 302(a) of Pub. L. 99–554, set out as a note under section 581 of this title.

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 98–353 effective July 10, 1984, except that subsec. (c)(2) not applicable with respect to cases under Title 11, Bankruptcy, that are pending on July 10, 1984, or to proceedings arising in or related to such cases, see section 122(a), (b) of Pub. L. 98–353, set out as an Effective Date note under section 151 of this title.

Jurisdiction Over and Transfer of Bankruptcy Cases and Proceedings

Pub. L. 98–353, title I, §115, July 10, 1984, 98 Stat. 343, provided that:

"(a) On the date of the enactment of this Act [July 10, 1984] the appropriate district court of the United States shall have jurisdiction of—

"(1) cases, and matters and proceedings in cases, under the Bankruptcy Act [former Title 11, Bankruptcy] that are pending immediately before such date in the bankruptcy courts continued by section 404(a) of the Act of November 6, 1978 (Public Law 95–598; 92 Stat. 2687) [formerly set out as a note preceding section 151 of this title], and

"(2) cases under title 11 of the United States Code, and proceedings arising under title 11 of the United States Code or arising in or related to cases under title 11 of the United States Code, that are pending immediately before such date in the bankruptcy courts continued by section 404(a) of the Act of November 6, 1978 (Public Law 95–598; 92 Stat. 2687).

"(b) On the date of the enactment of this Act [July 10, 1984], there shall be transferred to the appropriate district court of the United States appeals from final judgments, orders, and decrees of the bankruptcy courts pending immediately before such date in the bankruptcy appellate panels appointed under section 405(c) of the Act of November 6, 1978 (Public Law 95–598; 92 Stat. 2685) [formerly set out as a note preceding section 1471 of this title]."

§1335. Interpleader

(a) The district courts shall have original jurisdiction of any civil action of interpleader or in the nature of interpleader filed by any person, firm, or corporation, association, or society having in his or its custody or possession money or property of the value of $500 or more, or having issued a note, bond, certificate, policy of insurance, or other instrument of value or amount of $500 or more, or providing for the delivery or payment or the loan of money or property of such amount or value, or being under any obligation written or unwritten to the amount of $500 or more, if

(1) Two or more adverse claimants, of diverse citizenship as defined in subsection (a) or (d) of section 1332 of this title, are claiming or may claim to be entitled to such money or property, or to any one or more of the benefits arising by virtue of any note, bond, certificate, policy or other instrument, or arising by virtue of any such obligation; and if (2) the plaintiff has deposited such money or property or has paid the amount of or the loan or other value of such instrument or the amount due under such obligation into the registry of the court, there to abide the judgment of the court, or has given bond payable to the clerk of the court in such amount and with such surety as the court or judge may deem proper, conditioned upon the compliance by the plaintiff with the future order or judgment of the court with respect to the subject matter of the controversy.

(b) Such an action may be entertained although the titles or claims of the conflicting claimants do not have a common origin, or are not identical, but are adverse to and independent of one another.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 646, 62 Stat. 931; Pub. L. 109–2, §4(b)(1), Feb. 18, 2005, 119 Stat. 12.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., §41(26) (Mar. 3, 1911, ch. 231, §24, par. 26, as added Jan. 20, 1936, ch. 13, §1, 49 Stat. 1096).

Words "civil action" were substituted for "suits in equity"; word "plaintiff" was substituted for "complainant"; and word "judgment" was substituted for "decree," in order to make the language of this section conform with the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure.

The words "duly verified" following "in the nature of interpleader," near the beginning of the section, were omitted. Under Rule 11 of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure pleadings are no longer required to be verified or accompanied by affidavit unless specially required by statute. Although verification was specially required by section 41(26) of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., the need therefor is not apparent.

Provisions of section 41(26)(b) of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., relating to venue are the basis of section 1397 of this title. (See, also, reviser's note under said section.)

Subsections (c) and (d) of said section 41(26) relating to issuance of injunctions constitute section 2361 of this title. (See reviser's note under said section.)

Subsection (e) of such section 41(26), relating to defense in nature of interpleader and joinder of additional parties, was omitted as unnecessary, such matters being governed by the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure.

Changes were made in phraseology.


Editorial Notes

Amendments

2005—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 109–2 inserted "subsection (a) or (d) of" before "section 1332".


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Effective Date of 2005 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 109–2 applicable to any civil action commenced on or after Feb. 18, 2005, see section 9 of Pub. L. 109–2, set out as a note under section 1332 of this title.

§1336. Surface Transportation Board's orders

(a) Except as otherwise provided by Act of Congress, the district courts shall have jurisdiction of any civil action to enforce, in whole or in part, any order of the Surface Transportation Board, and to enjoin or suspend, in whole or in part, any order of the Surface Transportation Board for the payment of money or the collection of fines, penalties, and forfeitures.

(b) When a district court or the United States Court of Federal Claims refers a question or issue to the Surface Transportation Board for determination, the court which referred the question or issue shall have exclusive jurisdiction of a civil action to enforce, enjoin, set aside, annul, or suspend, in whole or in part, any order of the Surface Transportation Board arising out of such referral.

(c) Any action brought under subsection (b) of this section shall be filed within 90 days from the date that the order of the Surface Transportation Board becomes final.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 646, 62 Stat. 931; Pub. L. 88–513, §1, Aug. 30, 1964, 78 Stat. 695; Pub. L. 93–584, §1, Jan. 2, 1975, 88 Stat. 1917; Pub. L. 97–164, title I, §128, Apr. 2, 1982, 96 Stat. 39; Pub. L. 102–572, title IX, §902(b)(1), Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4516; Pub. L. 104–88, title III, §305(a)(1), (2), Dec. 29, 1995, 109 Stat. 944.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., §41(27), (28) (Mar. 3, 1911, ch. 231, §§24(27), (28), 207, 36 Stat. 1091, 1148; Oct. 22, 1913, ch. 32, 38 Stat. 219).

Words "Except as otherwise provided by enactment of Congress" were inserted because of certain similar cases of which the courts of appeals are given jurisdiction. (See, for example, section 21 of title 15, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Commerce and Trade.)

Words "any civil action" were substituted for "all cases" and "cases" in view of Rule 2 of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure.

Changes were made in phraseology.


Editorial Notes

Amendments

1995Pub. L. 104–88 substituted "Surface Transportation Board's" for "Interstate Commerce Commission's" in section catchline and "Surface Transportation Board" for "Interstate Commerce Commission" wherever appearing in text.

1992—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 102–572 substituted "United States Court of Federal Claims" for "United States Claims Court".

1982—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 97–164 substituted "United States Claims Court" for "Court of Claims".

1975—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 93–584 substituted provisions that the district courts shall have jurisdiction of civil actions to enforce, in whole or in part, orders of the Interstate Commerce Commission, and to enjoin or suspend, in whole or in part, any order of the Interstate Commerce Commission for the payment of money or the collection of fines, penalties, and forfeitures, for provisions that the district courts shall have jurisdiction of civil actions to enforce, enjoin, set aside, annul or suspend, in whole or in part, any order of the Interstate Commerce Commission.

1964Pub. L. 88–513 designated existing provisions as subsec. (a) and added subsecs. (b) and (c).


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Effective Date of 1995 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 104–88 effective Jan. 1, 1996, see section 2 of Pub. L. 104–88, set out as an Effective Date note under section 1301 of Title 49, Transportation.

Effective Date of 1992 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 102–572 effective Oct. 29, 1992, see section 911 of Pub. L. 102–572, set out as a note under section 171 of this title.

Effective Date of 1982 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 97–164 effective Oct. 1, 1982, see section 402 of Pub. L. 97–164, set out as a note under section 171 of this title.

Effective Date of 1975 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 93–584 not applicable to actions commenced on or before last day of first month beginning after Jan. 2, 1975, and actions to enjoin or suspend orders of Interstate Commerce Commission which are pending when this amendment becomes effective shall not be affected thereby, but shall proceed to final disposition under the law existing on the date they were commenced, see section 10 of Pub. L. 93–584, set out as a note under section 2321 of this title.

§1337. Commerce and antitrust regulations; amount in controversy, costs

(a) The district courts shall have original jurisdiction of any civil action or proceeding arising under any Act of Congress regulating commerce or protecting trade and commerce against restraints and monopolies: Provided, however, That the district courts shall have original jurisdiction of an action brought under section 11706 or 14706 of title 49, only if the matter in controversy for each receipt or bill of lading exceeds $10,000, exclusive of interest and costs.

(b) Except when express provision therefor is otherwise made in a statute of the United States, where a plaintiff who files the case under section 11706 or 14706 of title 49, originally in the Federal courts is finally adjudged to be entitled to recover less than the sum or value of $10,000, computed without regard to any setoff or counterclaim to which the defendant may be adjudged to be entitled, and exclusive of any interest and costs, the district court may deny costs to the plaintiff and, in addition, may impose costs on the plaintiff.

(c) The district courts shall not have jurisdiction under this section of any matter within the exclusive jurisdiction of the Court of International Trade under chapter 95 of this title.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 646, 62 Stat. 931; Pub. L. 95–486, §9(a), Oct. 20, 1978, 92 Stat. 1633; Pub. L. 96–417, title V, §505, Oct. 10, 1980, 94 Stat. 1743; Pub. L. 97–449, §5(f), Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2442; Pub. L. 104–88, title III, §305(a)(3), Dec. 29, 1995, 109 Stat. 944.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., §41(8), (23) (Mar. 3, 1911, ch. 231, §24, pars. 8, 23, 36 Stat. 1092, 1093; Oct. 22, 1913, ch. 32, 38 Stat. 219).

Words "civil action" were substituted for "suits", in view of Rule 2 of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure.

Changes were made in phraseology.


Editorial Notes

Amendments

1995—Subsecs. (a), (b). Pub. L. 104–88 substituted "11706 or 14706" for "11707".

1983Pub. L. 97–449 substituted "section 11707 of title 49" for "section 20(11) of part I of the Interstate Commerce Act (49 U.S.C. 20(11)) or section 219 of part II of such Act (49 U.S.C. 319)" wherever appearing.

1980—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 96–417 added subsec. (c).

1978Pub. L. 95–486 designated existing provisions as subsec. (a), inserted proviso giving the district courts original jurisdiction of actions brought under sections 20(11) and 219 of the Interstate Commerce Act when the amounts in controversy for each receipt exceed $10,000, exclusive of interests and costs, and added subsec. (b).


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Effective Date of 1995 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 104–88 effective Jan. 1, 1996, see section 2 of Pub. L. 104–88, set out as an Effective Date note under section 1301 of Title 49, Transportation.

Effective Date of 1980 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 96–417 effective Nov. 1, 1980, and applicable with respect to civil actions pending on or commenced on or after such date, see section 701(a) of Pub. L. 96–417, set out as a note under section 251 of this title.

§1338. Patents, plant variety protection, copyrights, mask works, designs, trademarks, and unfair competition

(a) The district courts shall have original jurisdiction of any civil action arising under any Act of Congress relating to patents, plant variety protection, copyrights and trademarks. No State court shall have jurisdiction over any claim for relief arising under any Act of Congress relating to patents, plant variety protection, or copyrights. For purposes of this subsection, the term "State" includes any State of the United States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the United States Virgin Islands, American Samoa, Guam, and the Northern Mariana Islands.

(b) The district courts shall have original jurisdiction of any civil action asserting a claim of unfair competition when joined with a substantial and related claim under the copyright, patent, plant variety protection or trademark laws.

(c) Subsections (a) and (b) apply to exclusive rights in mask works under chapter 9 of title 17, and to exclusive rights in designs under chapter 13 of title 17, to the same extent as such subsections apply to copyrights.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 646, 62 Stat. 931; Pub. L. 91–577, title III, §143(b), Dec. 24, 1970, 84 Stat. 1559; Pub. L. 100–702, title X, §1020(a)(4), Nov. 19, 1988, 102 Stat. 4671; Pub. L. 105–304, title V, §503(b)(1), (2)(A), Oct. 28, 1998, 112 Stat. 2917; Pub. L. 106–113, div. B, §1000(a)(9) [title III, §3009(1)], Nov. 29, 1999, 113 Stat. 1536, 1501A-551; Pub. L. 112–29, §19(a), Sept. 16, 2011, 125 Stat. 331.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., §§41(7) and 371(5) (Mar. 3, 1911, ch. 231, §§24, par. 7, 256, par. 5, 36 Stat. 1092, 1160).

Section consolidates section 41(7) with section 371 (5) of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., with necessary changes in phraseology.

Words "of any civil action" were substituted for "all suits at law or in equity" and "cases" to conform section to Rule 2 of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure.

Word "patents" was substituted for "patent-right" in said section 371 (Fifth) of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed.

Similar provisions respecting suits cognizable in district courts, including those of territories and possessions. (See section 34 of title 17, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Copyrights.)

Subsection (b) is added and is intended to avoid "piecemeal" litigation to enforce common-law and statutory copyright, patent, and trade-mark rights by specifically permitting such enforcement in a single civil action in the district court. While this is the rule under Federal decisions, this section would enact it as statutory authority. The problem is discussed at length in Hurn v. Oursler (1933, 53 S.Ct. 586, 289 U.S. 238, 77 L.Ed. 1148) and in Musher Foundation v. Alba Trading Co. (C.C.A. 1942, 127 F.2d 9) (majority and dissenting opinions).


Editorial Notes

Amendments

2011—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 112–29 substituted "No State court shall have jurisdiction over any claim for relief arising under any Act of Congress relating to patents, plant variety protection, or copyrights. For purposes of this subsection, the term 'State' includes any State of the United States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the United States Virgin Islands, American Samoa, Guam, and the Northern Mariana Islands." for "Such jurisdiction shall be exclusive of the courts of the states in patent, plant variety protection and copyright cases."

1999Pub. L. 106–113 substituted "trademarks" for "trade-marks" in section catchline and subsec. (a) and substituted "trademark" for "trade-mark" in subsec. (b).

1998Pub. L. 105–304, §503(b)(2)(A), inserted "designs," after "mask works," in section catchline.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 105–304, §503(b)(1), inserted ", and to exclusive rights in designs under chapter 13 of title 17," after "title 17".

1988Pub. L. 100–702, §1020(a)(4)(B), amended section catchline generally, inserting "mask works," after "copyrights,".

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 100–702, §1020(a)(4)(A), added subsec. (c).

1970Pub. L. 91–577 inserted references to "plant variety protection" in section catchline and in subsecs. (a) and (b).


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Effective Date of 2011 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 112–29 applicable to any civil action commenced on or after Sept. 16, 2011, see section 19(e) of Pub. L. 112–29, set out as a note under section 1295 of this title.

Effective Date of 1970 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 91–577 effective Dec. 24, 1970, see section 141 of Pub. L. 91–577, set out as an Effective Date note under section 2321 of Title 7, Agriculture.

§1339. Postal matters

The district courts shall have original jurisdiction of any civil action arising under any Act of Congress relating to the postal service.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 646, 62 Stat. 932.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., §41(6) (Mar. 3, 1911, ch. 231, §24, par. 6, 36 Stat. 1092).

Changes were made in phraseology.

§1340. Internal revenue; customs duties

The district courts shall have original jurisdiction of any civil action arising under any Act of Congress providing for internal revenue, or revenue from imports or tonnage except matters within the jurisdiction of the Court of International Trade.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 646, 62 Stat. 932; Pub. L. 96–417, title V, §501(21), Oct. 10, 1980, 94 Stat. 1742.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., §41(5) (Mar. 3, 1911, ch. 231, §24, par. 5, 36 Stat. 1092; Mar. 2, 1929, ch. 488, §1, 45 Stat. 1475).

Words "Customs Court" were substituted for "Court of Customs and Patent Appeals." Section 41(5) of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., is based on the Judicial Code of 1911. At that time the only court, other than the district courts, having jurisdiction of customs cases, was the Court of Customs Appeals which became the Court of Customs and Patent Appeals in 1929. The Customs Court was created in 1926 as a court of original jurisdiction over customs cases. (See reviser's note preceding section 251 of this title.)

Words "any civil action" were substituted for "all cases" in view of Rule 2 of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure.

Changes were made in phraseology.


Editorial Notes

Amendments

1980Pub. L. 96–417 redesignated the Customs Court as the Court of International Trade.


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Effective Date of 1980 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 96–417 effective Nov. 1, 1980, and applicable with respect to civil actions pending on or commenced on or after such date, see section 701(a) of Pub. L. 96–417, set out as a note under section 251 of this title.

§1341. Taxes by States

The district courts shall not enjoin, suspend or restrain the assessment, levy or collection of any tax under State law where a plain, speedy and efficient remedy may be had in the courts of such State.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 646, 62 Stat. 932.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., §41(1) (Mar. 3, 1911, ch. 231, §24, par. 1, 36 Stat. 1091; May 14, 1934, ch. 283, §1, 48 Stat. 775; Aug. 21, 1937, ch. 726, §1, 50 Stat. 738; Apr. 20, 1940, ch. 117, 54 Stat. 143).

This section restates the last sentence of section 41(1) of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed.

Other provisions of section 41(1) of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., are incorporated in sections 1331, 1332, 1342, 1345, 1354, and 1359 of this title.

Words "at law or in equity" before "in the courts of such State" were omitted as unnecessary.

Words "civil action" were substituted for "suit" in view of Rule 2 of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure.

Words "under State law" were substituted for "imposed by or pursuant to the laws of any State" for the same reason.

§1342. Rate orders of State agencies

The district courts shall not enjoin, suspend or restrain the operation of, or compliance with, any order affecting rates chargeable by a public utility and made by a State administrative agency or a rate-making body of a State political subdivision, where:

(1) Jurisdiction is based solely on diversity of citizenship or repugnance of the order to the Federal Constitution; and,

(2) The order does not interfere with interstate commerce; and,

(3) The order has been made after reasonable notice and hearing; and,

(4) A plain, speedy and efficient remedy may be had in the courts of such State.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 646, 62 Stat. 932.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., §41(1) (Mar. 3, 1911, ch. 231, §24, par. 1, 36 Stat. 1091; May 14, 1934, ch. 283, §1, 48 Stat. 775; Aug. 21, 1937, ch. 726, §1, 50 Stat. 738; Apr. 20, 1940, ch. 117, 54 Stat. 143).

This section rearranges and restates the fourth sentence of section 41(1) of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed.

Other provisions of section 41(1) of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., are incorporated in sections 1331, 1332, 1341, 1345, 1354, and 1359 of this title.

Words "at law or in equity" before "in the courts of such State" were omitted as unnecessary.

Words "civil action" were substituted for "suit," in view of Rule 2 of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure.

Word "operation" was substituted for "enforcement, operation or execution" for the same reason.

§1343. Civil rights and elective franchise

(a) The district courts shall have original jurisdiction of any civil action authorized by law to be commenced by any person:

(1) To recover damages for injury to his person or property, or because of the deprivation of any right or privilege of a citizen of the United States, by any act done in furtherance of any conspiracy mentioned in section 1985 of Title 42;

(2) To recover damages from any person who fails to prevent or to aid in preventing any wrongs mentioned in section 1985 of Title 42 which he had knowledge were about to occur and power to prevent;

(3) To redress the deprivation, under color of any State law, statute, ordinance, regulation, custom or usage, of any right, privilege or immunity secured by the Constitution of the United States or by any Act of Congress providing for equal rights of citizens or of all persons within the jurisdiction of the United States;

(4) To recover damages or to secure equitable or other relief under any Act of Congress providing for the protection of civil rights, including the right to vote.


(b) For purposes of this section—

(1) the District of Columbia shall be considered to be a State; and

(2) any Act of Congress applicable exclusively to the District of Columbia shall be considered to be a statute of the District of Columbia.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 646, 62 Stat. 932; Sept. 3, 1954, ch. 1263, §42, 68 Stat. 1241; Pub. L. 85–315, part III, §121, Sept. 9, 1957, 71 Stat. 637; Pub. L. 96–170, §2, Dec. 29, 1979, 93 Stat. 1284.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., §41(12), (13), and (14) (Mar. 3, 1911, ch. 231, §24, pars. 12, 13, 14, 36 Stat. 1092).

Words "civil action" were substituted for "suits," "suits at law or in equity" in view of Rule 2 of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure.

Numerous changes were made in arrangement and phraseology.


Editorial Notes

Amendments

1979Pub. L. 96–170 designated existing provisions as subsec. (a) and added subsec. (b).

1957Pub. L. 85–315 inserted "and elective franchise" in section catchline and added par. (4).

1954—Act Sept. 3, 1954, substituted "section 1985 of Title 42" for "section 47 of Title 8" wherever appearing.


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Effective Date of 1979 Amendment

Pub. L. 96–170, §3, Dec. 29, 1979, 93 Stat. 1284, provided that: "The amendments made by this Act [amending this section and section 1983 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare] shall apply with respect to any deprivation of rights, privileges, or immunities secured by the Constitution and laws occurring after the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 29, 1979]."

§1344. Election disputes

The district courts shall have original jurisdiction of any civil action to recover possession of any office, except that of elector of President or Vice President, United States Senator, Representative in or delegate to Congress, or member of a state legislature, authorized by law to be commenced, where in it appears that the sole question touching the title to office arises out of denial of the right to vote, to any citizen offering to vote, on account of race, color or previous condition of servitude.

The jurisdiction under this section shall extend only so far as to determine the rights of the parties to office by reason of the denial of the right, guaranteed by the Constitution of the United States and secured by any law, to enforce the right of citizens of the United States to vote in all the States.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 646, 62 Stat. 932.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., §41(15) (Mar. 3, 1911, ch. 231, §24, par. 15, 36 Stat. 1092).

Words "civil action" were substituted for "suits," in view of Rule 2 of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure.

Words "United States Senator" were added, as no reason appears for including Representatives and excluding Senators. Moreover, the Seventeenth amendment, providing for the popular election of Senators, was adopted after the passage of the 1911 law on which this section is based.

Changes were made in phraseology.

§1345. United States as plaintiff

Except as otherwise provided by Act of Congress, the district courts shall have original jurisdiction of all civil actions, suits or proceedings commenced by the United States, or by any agency or officer thereof expressly authorized to sue by Act of Congress.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 646, 62 Stat. 933.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., §41(1) (Mar. 3, 1911, ch. 231, §24, par. 1, 36 Stat. 1091; May 14, 1934, ch. 283, §1, 48 Stat. 775; Aug. 21, 1937, ch. 726, §1, 50 Stat. 738; Apr. 20, 1940, ch. 117, 54 Stat. 143).

Other provisions of section 41(1) of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., are incorporated in sections 1331, 1332, 1341, 1342, 1354, and 1359 of this title.

Words "civil actions, suits or proceedings" were substituted for "suits of a civil nature, at common law or in equity" in view of Rules 2 and 81(a)(7) of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure.

Word "agency" was inserted in order that this section shall apply to actions by agencies of the Government and to conform with special acts authorizing such actions. (See definitive section 451 of this title.)

The phrase "Except as otherwise provided by Act of Congress," at the beginning of the section was inserted to make clear that jurisdiction exists generally in district courts in the absence of special provisions conferring it elsewhere.

Changes were made in phraseology.

§1346. United States as defendant

(a) The district courts shall have original jurisdiction, concurrent with the United States Court of Federal Claims, of:

(1) Any civil action against the United States for the recovery of any internal-revenue tax alleged to have been erroneously or illegally assessed or collected, or any penalty claimed to have been collected without authority or any sum alleged to have been excessive or in any manner wrongfully collected under the internal-revenue laws;

(2) Any other civil action or claim against the United States, not exceeding $10,000 in amount, founded either upon the Constitution, or any Act of Congress, or any regulation of an executive department, or upon any express or implied contract with the United States, or for liquidated or unliquidated damages in cases not sounding in tort, except that the district courts shall not have jurisdiction of any civil action or claim against the United States founded upon any express or implied contract with the United States or for liquidated or unliquidated damages in cases not sounding in tort which are subject to sections 7104(b)(1) and 7107(a)(1) of title 41. For the purpose of this paragraph, an express or implied contract with the Army and Air Force Exchange Service, Navy Exchanges, Marine Corps Exchanges, Coast Guard Exchanges, or Exchange Councils of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration shall be considered an express or implied contract with the United States.


(b)(1) Subject to the provisions of chapter 171 of this title, the district courts, together with the United States District Court for the District of the Canal Zone and the District Court of the Virgin Islands, shall have exclusive jurisdiction of civil actions on claims against the United States, for money damages, accruing on and after January 1, 1945, for injury or loss of property, or personal injury or death caused by the negligent or wrongful act or omission of any employee of the Government while acting within the scope of his office or employment, under circumstances where the United States, if a private person, would be liable to the claimant in accordance with the law of the place where the act or omission occurred.

(2) No person convicted of a felony who is incarcerated while awaiting sentencing or while serving a sentence may bring a civil action against the United States or an agency, officer, or employee of the Government, for mental or emotional injury suffered while in custody without a prior showing of physical injury or the commission of a sexual act (as defined in section 2246 of title 18).

(c) The jurisdiction conferred by this section includes jurisdiction of any set-off, counterclaim, or other claim or demand whatever on the part of the United States against any plaintiff commencing an action under this section.

(d) The district courts shall not have jurisdiction under this section of any civil action or claim for a pension.

(e) The district courts shall have original jurisdiction of any civil action against the United States provided in section 6226, 6228(a), 7426, or 7428 (in the case of the United States district court for the District of Columbia) or section 7429 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986.

(f) The district courts shall have exclusive original jurisdiction of civil actions under section 2409a to quiet title to an estate or interest in real property in which an interest is claimed by the United States.

(g) Subject to the provisions of chapter 179, the district courts of the United States shall have exclusive jurisdiction over any civil action commenced under section 453(2) of title 3, by a covered employee under chapter 5 of such title.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 646, 62 Stat. 933; Apr. 25, 1949, ch. 92, §2(a), 63 Stat. 62; May 24, 1949, ch. 139, §80(a), (b), 63 Stat. 101; Oct. 31, 1951, ch. 655, §50(b), 65 Stat. 727; July 30, 1954, ch. 648, §1, 68 Stat. 589; Pub. L. 85–508, §12(e), July 7, 1958, 72 Stat. 348; Pub. L. 88–519, Aug. 30, 1964, 78 Stat. 699; Pub. L. 89–719, title II, §202(a), Nov. 2, 1966, 80 Stat. 1148; Pub. L. 91–350, §1(a), July 23, 1970, 84 Stat. 449; Pub. L. 92–562, §1, Oct. 25, 1972, 86 Stat. 1176; Pub. L. 94–455, title XII, §1204(c)(1), title XIII, §1306(b)(7), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1697, 1719; Pub. L. 95–563, §14(a), Nov. 1, 1978, 92 Stat. 2389; Pub. L. 97–164, title I, §129, Apr. 2, 1982, 96 Stat. 39; Pub. L. 97–248, title IV, §402(c)(17), Sept. 3, 1982, 96 Stat. 669; Pub. L. 99–514, §2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095; Pub. L. 102–572, title IX, §902(b)(1), Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4516; Pub. L. 104–134, title I, §101[(a)] [title VIII, §806], Apr. 26, 1996, 110 Stat. 1321, 1321-75; renumbered title I, Pub. L. 104–140, §1(a), May 2, 1996, 110 Stat. 1327; Pub. L. 104–331, §3(b)(1), Oct. 26, 1996, 110 Stat. 4069; Pub. L. 111–350, §5(g)(6), Jan. 4, 2011, 124 Stat. 3848; Pub. L. 113–4, title XI, §1101(b), Mar. 7, 2013, 127 Stat. 134.)

Historical and Revision Notes

1948 Act

Based on title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., §§41(20), 931(a), 932 (Mar. 3, 1911, ch. 231, §24, par. 20, 36 Stat. 1093; Nov. 23, 1921, ch. 136, §1310(c), 42 Stat. 311; June 2, 1924, ch. 234, §1025(c), 43 Stat. 348; Feb. 24, 1925, ch. 309, 43 Stat. 972; Feb. 26, 1926, ch. 27, §§1122(c), 1200, 44 Stat. 121, 125; Aug. 2, 1946, ch. 753, §§410(a), 411, 60 Stat. 843).

Section consolidates provisions of section 41(20) conferring jurisdiction upon the district court, in civil actions against the United States, with the first sentence of section 931(a) relating to jurisdiction of the district courts in tort claims cases, and those provisions of section 932 making the provisions of said section 41(20), relating to counterclaim and set-off, applicable to tort claims cases, all of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed.

Provision in section 931(a) of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., for trials without a jury, is incorporated in section 2402 of this revised title. For other provisions thereof, see Distribution Table.

Words "commencing an action under this section" in subsec. (c) of this revised section cover the provision in section 932 of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., requiring that the same provisions "for counterclaim and set-off" shall apply to tort claims cases brought in the district courts.

The phrase in section 931(a) of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., "accruing on and after January 1, 1945" was omitted because executed as of the date of the enactment of this revised title.

Provisions in section 41(20) of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., relating to time for commencing action against United States and jury trial constitute sections 2401 and 2402 of this title. (See reviser's notes under said sections.)

Words in section 41(20) of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., "commenced after passage of the Revenue Act of 1921" were not included in revised subsection (a)(1) because obsolete and superfluous. Actions under this section involving erroneous or illegal assessments by the collector of taxes would be barred unless filed within the 5-year limitation period of section 1113(a) of the Revenue Act of 1926, 44 Stat. 9, 116. (See United States v. A. S. Kreider Co., 1941, 61 S.Ct. 1007, 313 U.S. 443, 85 L.Ed. 1447.)

Words in section 41(20) of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., "if the collector of internal revenue is dead or is not in office at the time such action or proceeding is commenced" were omitted.

The revised section retains the language of section 41(20) of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., with respect to actions against the United States if the collector is dead or not in office when action is commenced, and consequently maintains the long existing distinctions in practice between actions against the United States and actions against the collector who made the assessment or collection. In the latter class of actions either party may demand a jury trial while jury trial is denied in actions against the United States. See section 2402 of this title. In reality all such actions are against the United States and not against local collectors. (See Lowe v. United States, 1938, 58 S.Ct. 896, 304 U.S. 302, 82 L.Ed. 1362; Manseau v. United States, D.C.Mich. 1943, 52 F.Supp. 395, and Combined Metals Reduction Co. v. United States, D.C.Utah 1943, 53 F.Supp. 739.)

The revised subsection (c)(1) omitted clause: "but no suit pending on the 27th day of June 1898 shall abate or be affected by this provision," contained in section 41(20) of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., as obsolete and superfluous. The words contained in section 41(20) of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., "claims growing out of the Civil War, and commonly known as 'war-claims,' or to hear and determine other claims which had been reported adversely prior to the 3d day of March 1887 by any court, department, or commission authorized to have and determine the same," were omitted for the same reason.

The words "in a civil action or in admiralty," in subsection (a)(2), were substituted for "either in a court of law, equity, or admiralty" to conform to Rule 2 of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure.

Words in section 41(20) "in respect to which claims the party would be entitled to redress against the United States, either in a court of law, equity, or admiralty, if the United States were suable" were omitted from subsection (a)(2) of this revised section as unnecessary. See reviser's note under section 1491 of this title.

For jurisdiction of The Tax Court to review claims for refunds of processing taxes collected under the unconstitutional Agriculture Adjustment Act, see sections 644–659 of title 7, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Agriculture, and the 1942 Revenue Act, Act Oct. 21, 1942, ch. 610, title V, §510(a), (c), (d), 56 Stat. 667. (See, also, Lamborn v. United States, C.C.P.A. 1939, 104 F.2d 75, certiorari denied 60 S.Ct. 115, 308 U.S. 589, 84 L.Ed. 493.)

See, also, reviser's note under section 1491 of this title as to jurisdiction of the Court of Claims in suits against the United States generally. For venue of actions under this section, see section 1402 of this title and reviser's note thereunder.

Minor changes were made in phraseology.

Senate Revision Amendment

The provision of title 28, U.S.C., §932, which related to application of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure, were originally set out in section 2676 of this revised title, but such section 2676 was eliminated by Senate amendment. See 80th Congress Senate Report No. 1559, amendment No. 61.

1949 Act

This section corrects typographical errors in section 1346(a)(1) of title 28, U.S.C., and in section 1346(b) of such title.


Editorial Notes

References in Text

Sections 6226, 6228(a), 7426, 7428, and 7429 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, referred to in subsec. (e), are classified to sections 6226, 6228(a), 7426, 7428, and 7429, respectively, of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code. Section 6226 of Title 26 was repealed and reenacted by Pub. L. 114–74, title XI, §1101(a), (c)(1), Nov. 2, 2015, 129 Stat. 625, 630, and as so reenacted no longer relates to judicial review, see section 6234 of Title 26. Section 6228 of Title 26 was repealed by Pub. L. 114–74, title XI, §1101(a), Nov. 2, 2015, 129 Stat. 625.

Amendments

2013—Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 113–4 inserted "or the commission of a sexual act (as defined in section 2246 of title 18)" before period at end.

2011—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 111–350 substituted "sections 7104(b)(1) and 7107(a)(1) of title 41" for "sections 8(g)(1) and 10(a)(1) of the Contract Disputes Act of 1978".

1996—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 104–134 designated existing provisions as par. (1) and added par. (2).

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 104–331 added subsec. (g).

1992—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 102–572 substituted "United States Court of Federal Claims" for "United States Claims Court".

1986—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 99–514 substituted "Internal Revenue Code of 1986" for "Internal Revenue Code of 1954".

1982—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 97–164 substituted "United States Claims Court" for "Court of Claims".

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 97–248 substituted "section 6226, 6228(a), 7426, or" for "section 7426 or section".

1978—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 95–563 excluded from the jurisdiction of district courts civil actions or claims against the United States founded upon any express or implied contract with the United States or for damages in cases not sounding in tort subject to sections 8(g)(1) and 10(a)(1) of the Contract Disputes Act of 1978.

1976—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 94–455 inserted "or section 7429" and "or section 7428 (in the case of the United States district court for the District of Columbia)", after "section 7426".

1972—Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 92–562 added subsec. (f).

1970—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 91–350 specified that the term "express or implied contracts with the United States" includes express or implied contracts with the Army and Air Force Exchange Service, Navy Exchanges, Marine Corps Exchanges, Coast Guard Exchanges, or Exchange Councils of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

1966—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 89–719 added subsec. (e).

1964—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 88–519 struck out provisions which prohibited district courts from exercising jurisdiction of civil actions or claims to recover fees, salary, or compensation for official services of officers or employees of the United States.

1958—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 85–508 struck out reference to District Court for Territory of Alaska. See section 81A of this title which establishes a United States District Court for the State of Alaska.

1954—Subsec. (a)(1). Act July 30, 1954, struck out language imposing jurisdictional limitation of $10,000 on suits to recover taxes.

1951—Subsec. (d). Act Oct. 31, 1951, inserted references to "claim" and "employees".

1949—Subsec. (a)(1). Act May 24, 1949, §80(a), inserted ", (i) if the claim does not exceed $10,000 or (ii)".

Subsec. (b). Acts Apr. 25, 1949, and May 24, 1949, §80(b), made a technical change to correct "chapter 173" to read "chapter 171", and inserted "on and after January 1, 1945" after "for money damages".


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Effective Date of 1996 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 104–331 effective Oct. 1, 1997, see section 3(d) of Pub. L. 104–331, set out as an Effective Date note under section 1296 of this title.

Effective Date of 1992 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 102–572 effective Oct. 29, 1992, see section 911 of Pub. L. 102–572, set out as a note under section 171 of this title.

Effective Date of 1982 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 97–248 applicable to partnership taxable years beginning after Sept. 3, 1982, with provision for the applicability of the amendment to any partnership taxable year ending after Sept. 3, 1982, if the partnership, each partner, and each indirect partner requests such application and the Secretary of the Treasury or his delegate consents to such application, see section 407(a)(1), (3) of Pub. L. 97–248, set out as a note under section 702 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

Amendment by Pub. L. 97–164 effective Oct. 1, 1982, see section 402 of Pub. L. 97–164, set out as a note under section 171 of this title.

Effective Date of 1978 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–563 effective with respect to contracts entered into 120 days after Nov. 1, 1978 and, at the election of the contractor, with respect to any claim pending at such time before the contracting officer or initiated thereafter, see section 16 of Pub. L. 95–563, Nov. 1, 1978, 92 Stat. 2391, formerly set out as an Effective Date note under section 601 of former Title 41, Public Contracts.

Effective Date of 1970 Amendment

Pub. L. 91–350, §2, July 23, 1970, 84 Stat. 449, provided that:

"(a) In addition to granting jurisdiction over suits brought after the date of enactment of this Act [July 23, 1970], the provisions of this Act [amending this section and section 1491 of this title and section 724a of former Title 31, Money and Finance] shall also apply to claims and civil actions dismissed before or pending on the date of enactment of this Act if the claim or civil action is based upon a transaction, omission, or breach that occurred not more than six years prior to the date of enactment of this Act [July 23, 1970].

"(b) The provisions of subsection (a) of this section shall apply notwithstanding a determination or judgment made prior to the date of enactment of this Act that the United States district courts or the United States Court of Claims did not have jurisdiction to entertain a suit on an express or implied contract with a nonappropriated fund instrumentality of the United States described in section 1 of this Act."

Effective Date of 1966 Amendment

Pub. L. 89–719, title II, §203, Nov. 2, 1966, 80 Stat. 1149, provided that: "The amendments made by this title [amending this section and sections 1402 and 2410 of this title] shall apply after the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 2, 1966]."

Effective Date of 1958 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 85–508 effective Jan. 3, 1959, on admission of Alaska into the Union pursuant to Proc. No. 3269, Jan. 3, 1959, 24 F.R. 81, 73 Stat. c16, as required by sections 1 and 8(c) of Pub. L. 85–508, see notes set out under section 81A of this title and preceding section 21 of Title 48, Territories and Insular Possessions.

Transfer of Functions

For transfer of authorities, functions, personnel, and assets of the Coast Guard, including the authorities and functions of the Secretary of Transportation relating thereto, to the Department of Homeland Security, and for treatment of related references, see sections 468(b), 551(d), 552(d), and 557 of Title 6, Domestic Security, and the Department of Homeland Security Reorganization Plan of November 25, 2002, set out as a note under section 542 of Title 6.

Termination of United States District Court for the District of the Canal Zone

For termination of the United States District Court for the District of the Canal Zone at end of the "transition period", being the 30-month period beginning Oct. 1, 1979, and ending midnight Mar. 31, 1982, see Paragraph 5 of Article XI of the Panama Canal Treaty of 1977 and sections 2101 and 2201 to 2203 of Pub. L. 96–70, title II, Sept. 27, 1979, 93 Stat. 493, formerly classified to sections 3831 and 3841 to 3843, respectively, of Title 22, Foreign Relations and Intercourse.

§1347. Partition action where United States is joint tenant

The district courts shall have original jurisdiction of any civil action commenced by any tenant in common or joint tenant for the partition of lands where the United States is one of the tenants in common or joint tenants.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 646, 62 Stat. 933.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., §41(25) (Mar. 3, 1911, ch. 231, §24, par. 25, 36 Stat. 1094).

The venue provision in section 41(25) of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., is incorporated in section 1399 of this title.

Words "civil action" were substituted for "suits in equity," in view of Rule 2 of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure.

A change was made in phraseology.

§1348. Banking association as party

The district courts shall have original jurisdiction of any civil action commenced by the United States, or by direction of any officer thereof, against any national banking association, any civil action to wind up the affairs of any such association, and any action by a banking association established in the district for which the court is held, under chapter 2 of Title 12, to enjoin the Comptroller of the Currency, or any receiver acting under his direction, as provided by such chapter.

All national banking associations shall, for the purposes of all other actions by or against them, be deemed citizens of the States in which they are respectively located.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 646, 62 Stat. 933.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., §41(16) (Mar. 3, 1911, ch. 231, §24, par. 16, 36 Stat. 1092).

Words "any civil action" were substituted for "all cases," in view of Rule 2 of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure.

Words "real, personal, or mixed, and all suits in equity," after "all other actions by or against them," were omitted as superfluous.


Executive Documents

Exception as to Transfer of Functions

Functions vested by any provision of law in the Comptroller of the Currency, referred to in this section, were not included in the transfer of functions of officers, agencies and employees of the Department of the Treasury to the Secretary of the Treasury, made by Reorg. Plan No. 26 of 1950, §1, eff. July 31, 1950, 15 F.R. 4935, 64 Stat. 1280. See section 321(c)(2) of Title 31, Money and Finance.

§1349. Corporation organized under federal law as party

The district courts shall not have jurisdiction of any civil action by or against any corporation upon the ground that it was incorporated by or under an Act of Congress, unless the United States is the owner of more than one-half of its capital stock.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 646, 62 Stat. 934.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., §42 (Feb. 13, 1925, ch. 229, §12, 43 Stat. 941).

Words "civil action" were substituted for "action or suit," in view of Rule 2 of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure.

Minor changes were made in phraseology.

§1350. Alien's action for tort

The district courts shall have original jurisdiction of any civil action by an alien for a tort only, committed in violation of the law of nations or a treaty of the United States.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 646, 62 Stat. 934.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., §41(17) (Mar. 3, 1911, ch. 231, §24, par. 17, 36 Stat. 1093).

Words "civil action" were substituted for "suits," in view of Rule 2 of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure.

Changes in phraseology were made.


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Torture Victim Protection

Pub. L. 102–256, Mar. 12, 1992, 106 Stat. 73, provided that:

"SECTION 1. SHORT TITLE.

"This Act may be cited as the 'Torture Victim Protection Act of 1991'.

"SEC. 2. ESTABLISHMENT OF CIVIL ACTION.

"(a) Liability.—An individual who, under actual or apparent authority, or color of law, of any foreign nation—

"(1) subjects an individual to torture shall, in a civil action, be liable for damages to that individual; or

"(2) subjects an individual to extrajudicial killing shall, in a civil action, be liable for damages to the individual's legal representative, or to any person who may be a claimant in an action for wrongful death.

"(b) Exhaustion of Remedies.—A court shall decline to hear a claim under this section if the claimant has not exhausted adequate and available remedies in the place in which the conduct giving rise to the claim occurred.

"(c) Statute of Limitations.—No action shall be maintained under this section unless it is commenced within 10 years after the cause of action arose.

"SEC. 3. DEFINITIONS.

"(a) Extrajudicial Killing.—For the purposes of this Act, the term 'extrajudicial killing' means a deliberated killing not authorized by a previous judgment pronounced by a regularly constituted court affording all the judicial guarantees which are recognized as indispensable by civilized peoples. Such term, however, does not include any such killing that, under international law, is lawfully carried out under the authority of a foreign nation.

"(b) Torture.—For the purposes of this Act—

"(1) the term 'torture' means any act, directed against an individual in the offender's custody or physical control, by which severe pain or suffering (other than pain or suffering arising only from or inherent in, or incidental to, lawful sanctions), whether physical or mental, is intentionally inflicted on that individual for such purposes as obtaining from that individual or a third person information or a confession, punishing that individual for an act that individual or a third person has committed or is suspected of having committed, intimidating or coercing that individual or a third person, or for any reason based on discrimination of any kind; and

"(2) mental pain or suffering refers to prolonged mental harm caused by or resulting from—

"(A) the intentional infliction or threatened infliction of severe physical pain or suffering;

"(B) the administration or application, or threatened administration or application, of mind altering substances or other procedures calculated to disrupt profoundly the senses or the personality;

"(C) the threat of imminent death; or

"(D) the threat that another individual will imminently be subjected to death, severe physical pain or suffering, or the administration or application of mind altering substances or other procedures calculated to disrupt profoundly the senses or personality."

§1351. Consuls, vice consuls, and members of a diplomatic mission as defendant

The district courts shall have original jurisdiction, exclusive of the courts of the States, of all civil actions and proceedings against—

(1) consuls or vice consuls of foreign states; or

(2) members of a mission or members of their families (as such terms are defined in section 2 of the Diplomatic Relations Act).

(June 25, 1948, ch. 646, 62 Stat. 934; May 24, 1949, ch. 139, §80(c), 63 Stat. 101; Pub. L. 95–393, §8(a)(1), Sept. 30, 1978, 92 Stat. 810.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., §§41(18), 371(8) (Mar. 3, 1911, ch. 231, §§24, par. 18, 256, par. 8, 36 Stat. 1093, 1160).

Words "civil action" were substituted for "suits," and "all suits and proceedings" in view of Rule 2 of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure.

Changes were made in phraseology.


Editorial Notes

References in Text

Section 2 of the Diplomatic Relations Act, referred to in par. (2), is classified to section 254a of Title 22, Foreign Relations and Intercourse.

Amendments

1978Pub. L. 95–393 substituted "Consuls, vice consuls, and members of a diplomatic mission as defendant" for "Consuls and vice consuls as defendants" in section catchline, designated existing provisions as introductory provision preceding par. (1), and in such introductory provision as so designated, substituted "civil actions and proceedings against—" for "actions and proceedings against consuls or vice consuls of foreign states", and added pars. (1) and (2).

1949—Act May 24, 1949, substituted "of all actions and proceedings" for "of any civil action".


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Effective Date of 1978 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–393 effective at end of ninety-day period beginning on Sept. 30, 1978, see section 9 of Pub. L. 95–393, set out as an Effective Date note under section 254a of Title 22, Foreign Relations and Intercourse.

§1352. Bonds executed under federal law

The district courts shall have original jurisdiction, concurrent with State courts, of any action on a bond executed under any law of the United States, except matters within the jurisdiction of the Court of International Trade under section 1582 of this title.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 646, 62 Stat. 934; Pub. L. 96–417, title V, §506, Oct. 10, 1980, 94 Stat. 1743.)

Historical and Revision Notes

This section is necessary to permit actions in the district courts upon any bond authorized by a law of the United States. In the absence of this new provision, such actions could not be maintained except by the United States, where the amount and other jurisdictional requisites did not exist. The new section also makes clear that it does not affect the right to prosecute such actions in State courts.


Editorial Notes

Amendments

1980Pub. L. 96–417 inserted exception for matters within the jurisdiction of the Court of International Trade under section 1582 of this title.


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Effective Date of 1980 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 96–417 applicable with respect to civil actions commenced on or after the 90th day after Nov. 1, 1980, see section 701(c)(1)(B) of Pub. L. 96–417, set out as a note under section 251 of this title.

§1353. Indian allotments

The district courts shall have original jurisdiction of any civil action involving the right of any person, in whole or in part of Indian blood or descent, to any allotment of land under any Act of Congress or treaty.

The judgment in favor of any claimant to an allotment of land shall have the same effect, when properly certified to the Secretary of the Interior, as if such allotment had been allowed and approved by him; but this provision shall not apply to any lands held on or before December 21, 1911, by either of the Five Civilized Tribes, the Osage Nation of Indians, nor to any of the lands within the Quapaw Indian Agency.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 646, 62 Stat. 934.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., §41(24) (Mar. 3, 1911, ch. 231, §24, par. 24, 36 Stat. 1094; Dec. 21, 1911, ch. 5, 37 Stat. 46).

Words "any civil action" were substituted for "all actions, suits, or proceedings," in view of Rule 2 of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure.

The sentence "The right of appeal shall be allowed to either party as in other cases" was omitted as covered by section 1291 of this title, relating to appeals to the court of appeals.

Changes in phraseology were made.

§1354. Land grants from different states

The district courts shall have original jurisdiction of actions between citizens of the same state claiming lands under grants from different states.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 646, 62 Stat. 934.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., §41(1) (Mar. 3, 1911, ch. 231, §24, par. 1, 36 Stat. 1091; May 14, 1934, ch. 283, §1, 48 Stat. 775; Aug. 21, 1937, ch. 726, §1, 50 Stat. 738; Apr. 20, 1940, ch. 117, 54 Stat. 143).

Other provisions of section 41(1) of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., are incorporated in sections 1331, 1332, 1341, 1342, 1345, and 1359 of this title.

Changes were made in phraseology.

§1355. Fine, penalty or forfeiture

(a) The district courts shall have original jurisdiction, exclusive of the courts of the States, of any action or proceeding for the recovery or enforcement of any fine, penalty, or forfeiture, pecuniary or otherwise, incurred under any Act of Congress, except matters within the jurisdiction of the Court of International Trade under section 1582 of this title.

(b)(1) A forfeiture action or proceeding may be brought in—

(A) the district court for the district in which any of the acts or omissions giving rise to the forfeiture occurred, or

(B) any other district where venue for the forfeiture action or proceeding is specifically provided for in section 1395 of this title or any other statute.


(2) Whenever property subject to forfeiture under the laws of the United States is located in a foreign country, or has been detained or seized pursuant to legal process or competent authority of a foreign government, an action or proceeding for forfeiture may be brought as provided in paragraph (1), or in the United States District court 1 for the District of Columbia.

(c) In any case in which a final order disposing of property in a civil forfeiture action or proceeding is appealed, removal of the property by the prevailing party shall not deprive the court of jurisdiction. Upon motion of the appealing party, the district court or the court of appeals shall issue any order necessary to preserve the right of the appealing party to the full value of the property at issue, including a stay of the judgment of the district court pending appeal or requiring the prevailing party to post an appeal bond.

(d) Any court with jurisdiction over a forfeiture action pursuant to subsection (b) may issue and cause to be served in any other district such process as may be required to bring before the court the property that is the subject of the forfeiture action.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 646, 62 Stat. 934; Pub. L. 96–417, title V, §507, Oct. 10, 1980, 94 Stat. 1743; Pub. L. 102–550, title XV, §1521, Oct. 28, 1992, 106 Stat. 4062.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., §§41(9) and 371(2) (Mar. 3, 1911, ch. 231, §§24, par. 9, 256, par. 2, 36 Stat. 1092, 1160).

Word "fine" was inserted so that this section will apply to the many provisions in the United States Code for fines which are essentially civil. (See, also, section 2461 of this title and reviser's note thereunder.)

Words "pecuniary or otherwise" were added to make this section expressly applicable to both pecuniary and property forfeitures. The original section was so construed in Miller v. United States, 1870, 11 Wall. 268, 20 L.Ed. 135; Tyler v. Defrees, 1870, 11 Wall. 331, and The Rosemary, C.C.A. 1928, 26 F.2d 354, certiorari denied 49 S.Ct. 23, 278 U.S. 619, 73 L.Ed. 542.

Changes were made in phraseology.


Editorial Notes

Amendments

1992Pub. L. 102–550 designated existing provisions as subsec. (a) and added subsecs. (b) to (d).

1980Pub. L. 96–417 inserted exception for matters within the jurisdiction of the Court of International Trade under section 1582 of this title.


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Effective Date of 1980 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 96–417 applicable with respect to civil actions commenced on or after the 90th day after Nov. 1, 1980, see section 701(c)(1)(B) of Pub. L. 96–417, set out as a note under section 251 of this title.

1 So in original. Probably should be capitalized.

§1356. Seizures not within admiralty and maritime jurisdiction

The district courts shall have original jurisdiction, exclusive of the courts of the States, of any seizure under any law of the United States on land or upon waters not within admiralty and maritime jurisdiction, except matters within the jurisdiction of the Court of International Trade under section 1582 of this title.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 646, 62 Stat. 934; Pub. L. 96–417, title V, §508, Oct. 10, 1980, 94 Stat. 1743.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., §§41(3) and 371(4) (Mar. 3, 1911, ch. 231, §§24, par. 3, 256, par. 4, 36 Stat. 1091, 1160; Oct. 6, 1917, ch. 97, §1, 40 Stat. 395; June 10, 1922, ch. 216, §1, 42 Stat. 634).

Section consolidates certain provisions of sections 41(3) and 371(4) of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed. Other provisions of such sections are incorporated in section 1333 of this title.

Changes were made in arrangement and phraseology.


Editorial Notes

Amendments

1980Pub. L. 96–417 inserted exception for matters within the jurisdiction of the Court of International Trade under section 1582 of this title.


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Effective Date of 1980 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 96–417 applicable with respect to civil actions commenced on or after the 90th day after Nov. 1, 1980, see section 701(c)(1)(B) of Pub. L. 96–417, set out as a note under section 251 of this title.

§1357. Injuries under Federal laws

The district courts shall have original jurisdiction of any civil action commenced by any person to recover damages for any injury to his person or property on account of any act done by him, under any Act of Congress, for the protection or collection of any of the revenues, or to enforce the right of citizens of the United States to vote in any State.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 646, 62 Stat. 934.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., §41(11) (Mar. 3, 1911, ch. 231, §24, par. 11, 36 Stat. 1092.)

Words "any civil action" were substituted for "all suits," in view of Rule 2 of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure.

Minor changes were made in phraseology.

§1358. Eminent domain

The district courts shall have original jurisdiction of all proceedings to condemn real estate for the use of the United States or its departments or agencies.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 646, 62 Stat. 935.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on section 257 of title 40, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Public Buildings, Property, and Works (Aug. 1, 1888, ch. 728, §1, 25 Stat. 357; Mar. 3, 1911, ch. 231, §291, 36 Stat. 1167).

The venue provisions of section 257 of title 40, U.S.C., 1940 ed., are incorporated in section 1403 of this title.

Other provisions of section 257 of title 40, U.S.C., 1940 ed., are retained in said title 40.

Changes were made in phraseology.

§1359. Parties collusively joined or made

A district court shall not have jurisdiction of a civil action in which any party, by assignment or otherwise, has been improperly or collusively made or joined to invoke the jurisdiction of such court.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 646, 62 Stat. 935.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed. §§41(1) and 80 (Mar. 3, 1911, ch. 231, §§24(1), 37, 36 Stat. 1091, 1098; May 14, 1934, ch. 283, §1, 48 Stat. 775; Aug. 21, 1937, ch. 726, §1, 50 Stat. 738; Apr. 20, 1940, ch. 117, 54 Stat. 143).

Other provisions of section 41(1) of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., are incorporated in sections 1331, 1332, 1341, 1342, 1345, and 1354 of this title.

Provisions of section 80 of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., for payment of costs upon dismissal of an action for lack of jurisdiction are incorporated in section 1919 of this title. Other provisions of said section 80 appear in section 1447 of this title.

Provisions of section 80 of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., for dismissal of an action not really and substantially involving a dispute or controversy within the jurisdiction of a district court, were omitted as unnecessary. Any court will dismiss a case not within its jurisdiction when its attention is drawn to the fact, or even on its own motion.

The assignee clause in section 41(1) of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., "is a jumble of legislative jargon." (For further references to the consequences of "its obscure phraseology," see, 35 Ill. Law Rev., January 1941, pp. 569–571.)

The revised section changes this clause by confining its application to cases wherein the assignment is improperly or collusively made to invoke jurisdiction. Furthermore, the difficulty of applying the original clause is overcome and the original purpose of such clause is better served by substantially following section 80 of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed.

The assignee clause was incorporated in the original Judiciary Act of 1789. Such section 80 was enacted in 1875. The history of the assignee clause "shows clearly that its purpose and effect, at the time of its enactment were to prevent the conferring of jurisdiction on the Federal courts, on grounds of diversity of citizenship, by assignment, in cases where it would not otherwise exist." (Sowell v. Federal Reserve Bank, 1925, 45 S.Ct. 528, 529, 268 U.S. 449, 453, 69 L.Ed. 1041, 1048.) Thus the purpose of the assignee clause was to prevent the manufacture of Federal jurisdiction by the device of assignment. It achieves this purpose only partially. For example, the assignee clause excepts two types of choses in action from its coverage: (1) Foreign bill of exchange; and (2) corporate bearer paper. But this does not prevent the use of assignment of these choses in action to create the necessary diversity or alienage for jurisdictional purposes. Such section 80 does, however, prevent that. (See Bullard v. City of Cisco, 1933, 54 S.Ct. 177, 290 U.S. 179, 78 L.Ed. 254, 93 A.L.R. 141.) Its coverage against collusive jurisdiction is unlimited, and its approach is direct. The assignee clause, on the other hand, prevents the bona fide assignee of a chose in action within its terms from resorting to the Federal courts unless there is jurisdiction to support the assignee-plaintiff's case and a showing that there would have been jurisdiction if the assignor had brought the action in lieu of the assignee-plaintiff. Since the assignee clause deals with the bona fide assignee, there has been much litigation to determine the assignments which should or should not be within the purview of the clause. Thus the courts have thought it advisable to limit the term "chose in action" and exclude from its scope (1) an implied in law duty or promise, and (2) a transfer of a property interest; and to exclude an assignment by operation of law from the coverage of the clause. Intermediate assignments and reassignment also give difficulty.

§1360. State civil jurisdiction in actions to which Indians are parties

(a) Each of the States listed in the following table shall have jurisdiction over civil causes of action between Indians or to which Indians are parties which arise in the areas of Indian country listed opposite the name of the State to the same extent that such State has jurisdiction over other civil causes of action, and those civil laws of such State that are of general application to private persons or private property shall have the same force and effect within such Indian country as they have elsewhere within the State:

 
State ofIndian country affected
Alaska All Indian country within the State.
California All Indian country within the State.
Minnesota All Indian country within the State, except the Red Lake Reservation.
Nebraska All Indian country within the State.
Oregon All Indian country within the State, except the Warm Springs Reservation.
Wisconsin All Indian country within the State.

(b) Nothing in this section shall authorize the alienation, encumbrance, or taxation of any real or personal property, including water rights, belonging to any Indian or any Indian tribe, band, or community that is held in trust by the United States or is subject to a restriction against alienation imposed by the United States; or shall authorize regulation of the use of such property in a manner inconsistent with any Federal treaty, agreement, or statute or with any regulation made pursuant thereto; or shall confer jurisdiction upon the State to adjudicate, in probate proceedings or otherwise, the ownership or right to possession of such property or any interest therein.

(c) Any tribal ordinance or custom heretofore or hereafter adopted by an Indian tribe, band, or community in the exercise of any authority which it may possess shall, if not inconsistent with any applicable civil law of the State, be given full force and effect in the determination of civil causes of action pursuant to this section.

(Added Aug. 15, 1953, ch. 505, §4, 67 Stat. 589; amended Aug. 24, 1954, ch. 910, §2, 68 Stat. 795; Pub. L. 85–615, §2, Aug. 8, 1958, 72 Stat. 545; Pub. L. 95–598, title II, §239, Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2668; Pub. L. 98–353, title I, §110, July 10, 1984, 98 Stat. 342.)


Editorial Notes

Amendments

1984—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 98–353 struck out "or Territories" after "Each of the States", struck out "or Territory" after "State" in 5 places, and substituted "within the State" for "within the Territory" in item relating to Alaska.

1978—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 95–598 directed the amendment of subsec. (a) by substituting in the item relating to Alaska "within the State" for "within the Territory", which amendment did not become effective pursuant to section 402(b) of Pub. L. 95–598, as amended, set out as an Effective Date note preceding section 101 of Title 11, Bankruptcy.

1958—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 85–615 gave Alaska jurisdiction over civil causes of action between Indians or to which Indians are parties which arise in all Indian country within the Territory of Alaska.

1954—Subsec. (a). Act Aug. 24, 1954, brought the Menominee Tribe within the provisions of this section.


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 98–353 effective July 10, 1984, see section 122(a) of Pub. L. 98–353, set out as an Effective Date note under section 151 of this title.

Amendment of State Constitutions To Remove Legal Impediment; Effective Date

Act Aug. 15, 1953, ch. 505, §6, 67 Stat. 590, provided that: "Notwithstanding the provisions of any Enabling Act for the admission of a State, the consent of the United States is hereby given to the people of any State to amend, where necessary, their State constitution or existing statutes, as the case may be, to remove any legal impediment to the assumption of civil and criminal jurisdiction in accordance with the provisions of this Act [adding this section and section 1162 of Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure]: Provided, That the provisions of this Act shall not become effective with respect to such assumption of jurisdiction by any such State until the people thereof have appropriately amended their State constitution or statutes as the case may be."

Consent of United States to Other States To Assume Jurisdiction

Act Aug. 15, 1953, ch. 505, §7, 67 Stat. 590, which gave consent of the United States to any other State not having jurisdiction with respect to criminal offenses or civil causes of action, or with respect to both, as provided for in this section and section 1162 of Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure, to assume jurisdiction at such time and in such manner as the people of the State shall, by legislative action, obligate and bind the State to assumption thereof, was repealed by section 403(b) of Pub. L. 90–284, title IV, Apr. 11, 1968, 82 Stat. 79, such repeal not to affect any cession of jurisdiction made pursuant to such section prior to its repeal.

Retrocession of jurisdiction by State acquired by State pursuant to section 7 of Act Aug. 15, 1953, prior to its repeal, see section 1323 of Title 25, Indians.


Executive Documents

Admission of Alaska as State

Admission of Alaska into the Union was accomplished Jan. 3, 1959, on issuance of Proc. No. 3269, Jan. 3, 1959, 24 F.R. 81, 73 Stat. c16, as required by sections 1 and 8(c) of Pub. L. 85–508, July 7, 1958, 72 Stat. 339, set out as notes preceding section 21 of Title 48, Territories and Insular Possessions.

§1361. Action to compel an officer of the United States to perform his duty

The district courts shall have original jurisdiction of any action in the nature of mandamus to compel an officer or employee of the United States or any agency thereof to perform a duty owed to the plaintiff.

(Added Pub. L. 87–748, §1(a), Oct. 5, 1962, 76 Stat. 744.)

§1362. Indian tribes

The district courts shall have original jurisdiction of all civil actions, brought by any Indian tribe or band with a governing body duly recognized by the Secretary of the Interior, wherein the matter in controversy arises under the Constitution, laws, or treaties of the United States.

(Added Pub. L. 89–635, §1, Oct. 10, 1966, 80 Stat. 880.)

§1363. Jurors' employment rights

The district courts shall have original jurisdiction of any civil action brought for the protection of jurors' employment under section 1875 of this title.

(Added Pub. L. 95–572, §6(b)(1), Nov. 2, 1978, 92 Stat. 2457.)


Editorial Notes

Prior Provisions

A prior section 1363 was renumbered section 1366 of this title.


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Effective Date

Pub. L. 95–572, §7, Nov. 2, 1978, 92 Stat. 2457, provided that:

"(a) Except as provided in subsection (b) of this section, the amendments made by this Act [enacting this section and section 1875, renumbering section 1363, relating to construction of references to laws of the United States or Acts of Congress, as section 1364, and amending sections 1863, 1865, 1866, 1869, and 1871 of this title] shall apply with respect to any grand or petit juror summoned for service or actually serving on or after the date of enactment of this Act [Nov. 2, 1978].

"(b) The amendment made by section 5 of this Act [amending section 1871 of this title] shall apply with respect to any grand or petit juror serving on or after the sixtieth day following the date of enactment of this Act [Nov. 2, 1978]."

§1364. Direct actions against insurers of members of diplomatic missions and their families

(a) The district courts shall have original and exclusive jurisdiction, without regard to the amount in controversy, of any civil action commenced by any person against an insurer who by contract has insured an individual, who is, or was at the time of the tortious act or omission, a member of a mission (within the meaning of section 2(3) of the Diplomatic Relations Act (22 U.S.C. 254a(3))) or a member of the family of such a member of a mission, or an individual described in section 19 of the Convention on Privileges and Immunities of the United Nations of February 13, 1946, against liability for personal injury, death, or damage to property.

(b) Any direct action brought against an insurer under subsection (a) shall be tried without a jury, but shall not be subject to the defense that the insured is immune from suit, that the insured is an indispensable party, or in the absence of fraud or collusion, that the insured has violated a term of the contract, unless the contract was cancelled before the claim arose.

(Added Pub. L. 95–393, §7(a), Sept. 30, 1978, 92 Stat. 809; amended Pub. L. 97–241, title II, §203(b)(4), Aug. 24, 1982, 96 Stat. 291; Pub. L. 100–204, title I, §138(a), Dec. 22, 1987, 101 Stat. 1347.)


Editorial Notes

Codification

Two other sections 1364 were renumbered sections 1365 and 1366 of this title.

Amendments

1987—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 100–204 inserted ", or was at the time of the tortious act or omission," after "who is".

1982—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 97–241 substituted "within the meaning of section 2(3) of the Diplomatic Relations Act (22 U.S.C. 254a(3))" for "as defined in the Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations".


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Effective Date of 1987 Amendment

Pub. L. 100–204, title I, §138(b), Dec. 22, 1987, 101 Stat. 1347, provided that: "The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply to the first tortious act or omission occurring after the date of enactment of this Act [Dec. 22, 1987]."

Effective Date of 1982 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 97–241 effective Oct. 1, 1982, see section 204 of Pub. L. 97–241, set out as an Effective Date note under section 4301 of Title 22, Foreign Relations and Intercourse.

Effective Date

Section effective at end of ninety-day period beginning on Sept. 30, 1978, see section 9 of Pub. L. 95–393, set out as a note under section 254a of Title 22, Foreign Relations and Intercourse.

§1365. Senate actions

(a) The United States District Court for the District of Columbia shall have original jurisdiction, without regard to the amount in controversy, over any civil action brought by the Senate or any authorized committee or subcommittee of the Senate to enforce, to secure a declaratory judgment concerning the validity of, or to prevent a threatened refusal or failure to comply with, any subpena or order issued by the Senate or committee or subcommittee of the Senate to any entity acting or purporting to act under color or authority of State law or to any natural person to secure the production of documents or other materials of any kind or the answering of any deposition or interrogatory or to secure testimony or any combination thereof. This section shall not apply to an action to enforce, to secure a declaratory judgment concerning the validity of, or to prevent a threatened refusal to comply with, any subpena or order issued to an officer or employee of the executive branch of the Federal Government acting within his or her official capacity, except that this section shall apply if the refusal to comply is based on the assertion of a personal privilege or objection and is not based on a governmental privilege or objection the assertion of which has been authorized by the executive branch of the Federal Government.

(b) Upon application by the Senate or any authorized committee or subcommittee of the Senate, the district court shall issue an order to an entity or person refusing, or failing to comply with, or threatening to refuse or not to comply with, a subpena or order of the Senate or committee or subcommittee of the Senate requiring such entity or person to comply forthwith. Any refusal or failure to obey a lawful order of the district court issued pursuant to this section may be held by such court to be a contempt thereof. A contempt proceeding shall be commenced by an order to show cause before the court why the entity or person refusing or failing to obey the court order should not be held in contempt of court. Such contempt proceeding shall be tried by the court and shall be summary in manner. The purpose of sanctions imposed as a result of such contempt proceeding shall be to compel obedience to the order of the court. Process in any such action or contempt proceeding may be served in any judicial district wherein the entity or party refusing, or failing to comply, or threatening to refuse or not to comply, resides, transacts business, or may be found, and subpenas for witnesses who are required to attend such proceeding may run into any other district. Nothing in this section shall confer upon such court jurisdiction to affect by injunction or otherwise the issuance or effect of any subpena or order of the Senate or any committee or subcommittee of the Senate or to review, modify, suspend, terminate, or set aside any such subpena or order. An action, contempt proceeding, or sanction brought or imposed pursuant to this section shall not abate upon adjournment sine die by the Senate at the end of a Congress if the Senate or the committee or subcommittee of the Senate which issued the subpena or order certifies to the court that it maintains its interest in securing the documents, answers, or testimony during such adjournment.

[(c) Repealed. Pub. L. 98–620, title IV, §402(29)(D), Nov. 8, 1984, 98 Stat. 3359.]

(d) The Senate or any committee or subcommittee of the Senate commencing and prosecuting a civil action or contempt proceeding under this section may be represented in such action by such attorneys as the Senate may designate.

(e) A civil action commenced or prosecuted under this section, may not be authorized pursuant to the Standing Order of the Senate "authorizing suits by Senate Committees" (S. Jour. 572, May 28, 1928).

(f) For the purposes of this section the term "committee" includes standing, select, or special committees of the Senate established by law or resolution.

(Added Pub. L. 95–521, title VII, §705(f)(1), Oct. 26, 1978, 92 Stat. 1879, §1364; amended Pub. L. 98–620, title IV, §402(29)(D), Nov. 8, 1984, 98 Stat. 3359; renumbered §1365, Pub. L. 99–336, §6(a)(1)(B), June 19, 1986, 100 Stat. 638; Pub. L. 104–292, §4, Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3460.)


Editorial Notes

Amendments

1996—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 104–292 substituted "executive branch of the Federal Government acting within his or her official capacity, except that this section shall apply if the refusal to comply is based on the assertion of a personal privilege or objection and is not based on a governmental privilege or objection the assertion of which has been authorized by the executive branch of the Federal Government" for "Federal Government acting within his official capacity".

1984—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 98–620 struck out subsec. (c) which provided that in any civil action or contempt proceeding brought pursuant to this section, the court had to assign the action or proceeding for hearing at the earliest practicable date and cause the action or proceeding in every way to be expedited, and that any appeal or petition for review from any order or judgment in such action or proceeding had to be expedited in the same manner.


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 98–620 not applicable to cases pending on Nov. 8, 1984, see section 403 of Pub. L. 98–620, set out as an Effective Date note under section 1657 of this title.

Effective Date

Section effective Jan. 3, 1979, see section 717 of Pub. L. 95–521, set out as a note under section 288 of Title 2, The Congress.

§1366. Construction of references to laws of the United States or Acts of Congress

For the purposes of this chapter, references to laws of the United States or Acts of Congress do not include laws applicable exclusively to the District of Columbia.

(Added Pub. L. 91–358, title I, §172(c)(1), July 29, 1970, 84 Stat. 590, §1363; renumbered §1364, Pub. L. 95–572, §6(b)(1), Nov. 2, 1978, 92 Stat. 2456; renumbered §1366, Pub. L. 99–336, §6(a)(1)(C), June 19, 1986, 100 Stat. 639.)

§1367. Supplemental jurisdiction

(a) Except as provided in subsections (b) and (c) or as expressly provided otherwise by Federal statute, in any civil action of which the district courts have original jurisdiction, the district courts shall have supplemental jurisdiction over all other claims that are so related to claims in the action within such original jurisdiction that they form part of the same case or controversy under Article III of the United States Constitution. Such supplemental jurisdiction shall include claims that involve the joinder or intervention of additional parties.

(b) In any civil action of which the district courts have original jurisdiction founded solely on section 1332 of this title, the district courts shall not have supplemental jurisdiction under subsection (a) over claims by plaintiffs against persons made parties under Rule 14, 19, 20, or 24 of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure, or over claims by persons proposed to be joined as plaintiffs under Rule 19 of such rules, or seeking to intervene as plaintiffs under Rule 24 of such rules, when exercising supplemental jurisdiction over such claims would be inconsistent with the jurisdictional requirements of section 1332.

(c) The district courts may decline to exercise supplemental jurisdiction over a claim under subsection (a) if—

(1) the claim raises a novel or complex issue of State law,

(2) the claim substantially predominates over the claim or claims over which the district court has original jurisdiction,

(3) the district court has dismissed all claims over which it has original jurisdiction, or

(4) in exceptional circumstances, there are other compelling reasons for declining jurisdiction.


(d) The period of limitations for any claim asserted under subsection (a), and for any other claim in the same action that is voluntarily dismissed at the same time as or after the dismissal of the claim under subsection (a), shall be tolled while the claim is pending and for a period of 30 days after it is dismissed unless State law provides for a longer tolling period.

(e) As used in this section, the term "State" includes the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, and any territory or possession of the United States.

(Added Pub. L. 101–650, title III, §310(a), Dec. 1, 1990, 104 Stat. 5113.)


Editorial Notes

References in Text

The Federal Rules of Civil Procedure, referred to in subsec. (b), are set out in the Appendix to this title.


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Effective Date

Pub. L. 101–650, title III, §310(c), Dec. 1, 1990, 104 Stat. 5114, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [enacting this section] shall apply to civil actions commenced on or after the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 1, 1990]."

§1368. Counterclaims in unfair practices in international trade.

The district courts shall have original jurisdiction of any civil action based on a counterclaim raised pursuant to section 337(c) of the Tariff Act of 1930, to the extent that it arises out of the transaction or occurrence that is the subject matter of the opposing party's claim in the proceeding under section 337(a) of that Act.

(Added Pub. L. 103–465, title III, §321(b)(3)(A), Dec. 8, 1994, 108 Stat. 4946.)


Editorial Notes

References in Text

Section 337 of the Tariff Act of 1930, referred to in text, is classified to section 1337 of Title 19, Customs Duties.


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Effective Date

Section applicable with respect to complaints filed under section 1337 of Title 19, Customs Duties, on or after the date on which the World Trade Organization Agreement enters into force with respect to the United States [Jan. 1, 1995], or in cases under section 1337 of Title 19 in which no complaint is filed, with respect to investigations initiated under such section on or after such date, see section 322 of Pub. L. 103–465, set out as an Effective Date of 1994 Amendment note under section 1337 of Title 19.

§1369. Multiparty, multiforum jurisdiction

(a) In General.—The district courts shall have original jurisdiction of any civil action involving minimal diversity between adverse parties that arises from a single accident, where at least 75 natural persons have died in the accident at a discrete location, if—

(1) a defendant resides in a State and a substantial part of the accident took place in another State or other location, regardless of whether that defendant is also a resident of the State where a substantial part of the accident took place;

(2) any two defendants reside in different States, regardless of whether such defendants are also residents of the same State or States; or

(3) substantial parts of the accident took place in different States.


(b) Limitation of Jurisdiction of District Courts.—The district court shall abstain from hearing any civil action described in subsection (a) in which—

(1) the substantial majority of all plaintiffs are citizens of a single State of which the primary defendants are also citizens; and

(2) the claims asserted will be governed primarily by the laws of that State.


(c) Special Rules and Definitions.—For purposes of this section—

(1) minimal diversity exists between adverse parties if any party is a citizen of a State and any adverse party is a citizen of another State, a citizen or subject of a foreign state, or a foreign state as defined in section 1603(a) of this title;

(2) a corporation is deemed to be a citizen of any State, and a citizen or subject of any foreign state, in which it is incorporated or has its principal place of business, and is deemed to be a resident of any State in which it is incorporated or licensed to do business or is doing business;

(3) the term "injury" means—

(A) physical harm to a natural person; and

(B) physical damage to or destruction of tangible property, but only if physical harm described in subparagraph (A) exists;


(4) the term "accident" means a sudden accident, or a natural event culminating in an accident, that results in death incurred at a discrete location by at least 75 natural persons; and

(5) the term "State" includes the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, and any territory or possession of the United States.


(d) Intervening Parties.—In any action in a district court which is or could have been brought, in whole or in part, under this section, any person with a claim arising from the accident described in subsection (a) shall be permitted to intervene as a party plaintiff in the action, even if that person could not have brought an action in a district court as an original matter.

(e) Notification of Judicial Panel on Multidistrict Litigation.—A district court in which an action under this section is pending shall promptly notify the judicial panel on multidistrict litigation of the pendency of the action.

(Added Pub. L. 107–273, div. C, title I, §11020(b)(1)(A), Nov. 2, 2002, 116 Stat. 1826.)


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Effective Date

Pub. L. 107–273, div. C, title I, §11020(c), Nov. 2, 2002, 116 Stat. 1829, provided that: "The amendments made by subsection (b) [enacting this section and sections 1697 and 1785 of this title and amending sections 1391 and 1441 of this title] shall apply to a civil action if the accident giving rise to the cause of action occurred on or after the 90th day after the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 2, 2002]."

CHAPTER 87—DISTRICT COURTS; VENUE

Sec.
1390.
Scope.
1391.
Venue generally.
[1392, 1393. Repealed.]
1394.
Banking association's action against Comptroller of Currency.
1395.
Fine, penalty or forfeiture.
1396.
Internal revenue taxes.
1397.
Interpleader.
1398.
Interstate Commerce Commission's orders.
1399.
Partition action involving United States.
1400.
Patents and copyrights, mask works, and designs.
1401.
Stockholder's derivative action.
1402.
United States as defendant.
1403.
Eminent domain.
1404.
Change of venue.
1405.
Creation or alteration of district or division.
1406.
Cure or waiver of defects.
1407.
Multidistrict litigation.
1408.
Venue of cases under title 11.
1409.
Venue of proceedings arising under title 11 or arising in or related to cases under title 11.
1410.
Venue of cases ancillary to foreign proceedings.
1411.
Jury trials.
1412.
Change of venue.
1413.
Venue of cases under chapter 5 of title 3.

        

Editorial Notes

Amendments

2011Pub. L. 112–63, title II, §§201(b), 203, Dec. 7, 2011, 125 Stat. 763, 764, added item 1390 and struck out item 1392 "Defendants or property in different districts in same State".

1998Pub. L. 105–304, title V, §503(c)(3), Oct. 28, 1998, 112 Stat. 2917 inserted ", mask works, and designs" in item 1400.

1996Pub. L. 104–331, §3(b)(2)(B), Oct. 26, 1996, 110 Stat. 4069, which directed amendment of table of sections for chapter 37 by adding item 1413 at end, was executed by adding item 1413 at end of table of sections for chapter 87 to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

1988Pub. L. 100–702, title X, §1001(a), Nov. 19, 1988, 102 Stat. 4664, struck out item 1393 "Divisions; single defendant; defendants in different divisions".

1984Pub. L. 98–353, title I, §102(b), July 10, 1984, 98 Stat. 335, added items 1408 to 1412.

1978Pub. L. 95–598, title II, §240(b), Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2668, directed the addition of item 1408, "Bankruptcy appeals", which amendment did not become effective pursuant to section 402(b) of Pub. L. 95–598, as amended, set out as an Effective Date note preceding section 101 of Title 11, Bankruptcy.

1968Pub. L. 90–296, §2, Apr. 29, 1968, 82 Stat. 110, added item 1407.

§1390. Scope

(a) Venue Defined.—As used in this chapter, the term "venue" refers to the geographic specification of the proper court or courts for the litigation of a civil action that is within the subject-matter jurisdiction of the district courts in general, and does not refer to any grant or restriction of subject-matter jurisdiction providing for a civil action to be adjudicated only by the district court for a particular district or districts.

(b) Exclusion of Certain Cases.—Except as otherwise provided by law, this chapter shall not govern the venue of a civil action in which the district court exercises the jurisdiction conferred by section 1333, except that such civil actions may be transferred between district courts as provided in this chapter.

(c) Clarification Regarding Cases Removed From State Courts.—This chapter shall not determine the district court to which a civil action pending in a State court may be removed, but shall govern the transfer of an action so removed as between districts and divisions of the United States district courts.

(Added Pub. L. 112–63, title II, §201(a), Dec. 7, 2011, 125 Stat. 762.)


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Effective Date

Pub. L. 112–63, title II, §205, Dec. 7, 2011, 125 Stat. 764, provided that: "The amendments made by this title [enacting this section, amending sections 1391 and 1404 of this title, and repealing section 1392 of this title]—

"(1) shall take effect upon the expiration of the 30-day period beginning on the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 7, 2011]; and

"(2) shall apply to—

"(A) any action that is commenced in a United States district court on or after such effective date; and

"(B) any action that is removed from a State court to a United States district court and that had been commenced, within the meaning of State law, on or after such effective date."

§1391. Venue generally

(a) Applicability of Section.—Except as otherwise provided by law—

(1) this section shall govern the venue of all civil actions brought in district courts of the United States; and

(2) the proper venue for a civil action shall be determined without regard to whether the action is local or transitory in nature.


(b) Venue in General.—A civil action may be brought in—

(1) a judicial district in which any defendant resides, if all defendants are residents of the State in which the district is located;

(2) a judicial district in which a substantial part of the events or omissions giving rise to the claim occurred, or a substantial part of property that is the subject of the action is situated; or

(3) if there is no district in which an action may otherwise be brought as provided in this section, any judicial district in which any defendant is subject to the court's personal jurisdiction with respect to such action.


(c) Residency.—For all venue purposes—

(1) a natural person, including an alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence in the United States, shall be deemed to reside in the judicial district in which that person is domiciled;

(2) an entity with the capacity to sue and be sued in its common name under applicable law, whether or not incorporated, shall be deemed to reside, if a defendant, in any judicial district in which such defendant is subject to the court's personal jurisdiction with respect to the civil action in question and, if a plaintiff, only in the judicial district in which it maintains its principal place of business; and

(3) a defendant not resident in the United States may be sued in any judicial district, and the joinder of such a defendant shall be disregarded in determining where the action may be brought with respect to other defendants.


(d) Residency of Corporations in States With Multiple Districts.—For purposes of venue under this chapter, in a State which has more than one judicial district and in which a defendant that is a corporation is subject to personal jurisdiction at the time an action is commenced, such corporation shall be deemed to reside in any district in that State within which its contacts would be sufficient to subject it to personal jurisdiction if that district were a separate State, and, if there is no such district, the corporation shall be deemed to reside in the district within which it has the most significant contacts.

(e) Actions Where Defendant Is Officer or Employee of the United States.—

(1) In general.—A civil action in which a defendant is an officer or employee of the United States or any agency thereof acting in his official capacity or under color of legal authority, or an agency of the United States, or the United States, may, except as otherwise provided by law, be brought in any judicial district in which (A) a defendant in the action resides, (B) a substantial part of the events or omissions giving rise to the claim occurred, or a substantial part of property that is the subject of the action is situated, or (C) the plaintiff resides if no real property is involved in the action. Additional persons may be joined as parties to any such action in accordance with the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure and with such other venue requirements as would be applicable if the United States or one of its officers, employees, or agencies were not a party.

(2) Service.—The summons and complaint in such an action shall be served as provided by the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure except that the delivery of the summons and complaint to the officer or agency as required by the rules may be made by certified mail beyond the territorial limits of the district in which the action is brought.


(f) Civil Actions Against a Foreign State.—A civil action against a foreign state as defined in section 1603(a) of this title may be brought—

(1) in any judicial district in which a substantial part of the events or omissions giving rise to the claim occurred, or a substantial part of property that is the subject of the action is situated;

(2) in any judicial district in which the vessel or cargo of a foreign state is situated, if the claim is asserted under section 1605(b) of this title;

(3) in any judicial district in which the agency or instrumentality is licensed to do business or is doing business, if the action is brought against an agency or instrumentality of a foreign state as defined in section 1603(b) of this title; or

(4) in the United States District Court for the District of Columbia if the action is brought against a foreign state or political subdivision thereof.


(g) Multiparty, Multiforum Litigation.—A civil action in which jurisdiction of the district court is based upon section 1369 of this title may be brought in any district in which any defendant resides or in which a substantial part of the accident giving rise to the action took place.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 646, 62 Stat. 935; Pub. L. 87–748, §2, Oct. 5, 1962, 76 Stat. 744; Pub. L. 88–234, Dec. 23, 1963, 77 Stat. 473; Pub. L. 89–714, §§1, 2, Nov. 2, 1966, 80 Stat. 1111; Pub. L. 94–574, §3, Oct. 21, 1976, 90 Stat. 2721; Pub. L. 94–583, §5, Oct. 21, 1976, 90 Stat. 2897; Pub. L. 100–702, title X, §1013(a), Nov. 19, 1988, 102 Stat. 4669; Pub. L. 101–650, title III, §311, Dec. 1, 1990, 104 Stat. 5114;