[USC05] 49 USC Ch. 601: SAFETY
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TEXT OF PART V OF SUBTITLE A (3001 ET SEQ.), EFFECTIVE JANUARY 1, 2022, CURRENTLY SET OUT AS A PREVIEW

49 USC Ch. 601: SAFETY
From Title 49—TRANSPORTATIONSUBTITLE VIII—PIPELINES

CHAPTER 601—SAFETY

Sec.
60101.
Definitions.
60102.
Purpose and general authority.
60103.
Standards for liquefied natural gas pipeline facilities.
60104.
Requirements and limitations.
60105.
State pipeline safety program certifications.
60106.
State pipeline safety agreements.
60107.
State pipeline safety grants.
60108.
Inspection and maintenance.
60109.
High-density population areas and environmentally sensitive areas.
60110.
Excess flow valves.
60111.
Financial responsibility for liquefied natural gas facilities.
60112.
Pipeline facilities hazardous to life and property.
60113.
Customer-owned natural gas service lines.
60114.
One-call notification systems.
60115.
Technical safety standards committees.
60116.
Public education programs.
60117.
Administrative.
60118.
Compliance and waivers.
60119.
Judicial review.
60120.
Enforcement.
60121.
Actions by private persons.
60122.
Civil penalties.
60123.
Criminal penalties.
60124.
Biennial reports.
60125.
Authorization of appropriations.
60126.
Risk management.
60127.
Population encroachment and rights-of-way.
60128.
Dumping within pipeline rights-of-way.
60129.
Protection of employees providing pipeline safety information.
60130.
Pipeline safety information grants to communities.
60131.
Verification of pipeline qualification programs.
60132.
National pipeline mapping system.
60133.
Coordination of environmental reviews.
60134.
State damage prevention programs.
60135.
Enforcement transparency.
60136.
Petroleum product transportation capacity study.
60137.
Pipeline control room management.
60138.
Response plans.
60139.
Maximum allowable operating pressure.
60140.
Cover over buried pipelines.
60141.
Standards for underground natural gas storage facilities.
60142.
Pipeline safety enhancement programs.
60143.
Idled pipelines.

        

Amendments

2020Pub. L. 116–260, div. R, title I, §§104(b), 109(b), Dec. 27, 2020, 134 Stat. 2219, 2224, added items 60142 and 60143.

2016Pub. L. 114–183, §12(d)(1), June 22, 2016, 130 Stat. 524, added item 60141.

2012Pub. L. 112–90, §§6(c)(2), 23(b), 28(b), Jan. 3, 2012, 125 Stat. 1910, 1919, 1921, added items 60138 to 60140.

2006Pub. L. 109–468, §§2(b)(3), 6(b), 8(b), 12(b), Dec. 29, 2006, 120 Stat. 3489, 3491, 3492, 3495, added items 60134 to 60137.

2002Pub. L. 107–355, §§6(c), 9(c), 11(b), 13(a)(2), 15(b), 16(b), 20(a)(2)(B), Dec. 17, 2002, 116 Stat. 2993, 2995, 2997, 3001, 3006, 3008, 3010, substituted "Purpose and general authority" for "General authority" in item 60102 and "Population encroachment and rights-of-way" for "Population encroachment" in item 60127 and added items 60129 to 60133.

1996Pub. L. 104–304, §§5(f)[(b)], 15(c)[(b)], 16(b), 18(b)(2), 20(e), Oct. 12, 1996, 110 Stat. 3800, 3803, 3804, substituted "State pipeline safety program certifications" for "State certifications" in item 60105, "State pipeline safety agreements" for "State agreements" in item 60106, "State pipeline safety grants" for "State grants" in item 60107, and "Biennial reports" for "Annual reports" in item 60124 and added items 60126, 60127, and 60128.

Expediting Review of Pipeline Projects From Cushing, Oklahoma, to Port Arthur, Texas, and Other Domestic Pipeline Infrastructure Projects

Memorandum of President of the United States, Mar. 22, 2012, 77 F.R. 18891, provided:

Memorandum for the Heads of Executive Departments and Agencies

In an economy that relies on oil, rising prices at the pump affect all of us. With crude oil prices controlling about three-quarters of gasoline prices, the most important driver of the price here at home is the world oil price—making our economy vulnerable to events halfway around the globe. There are no quick fixes to this problem. In the long run we need to reduce America's dependence on oil—which is why my Administration is implementing historic fuel economy standards for cars and trucks, launching new programs to improve energy efficiency in our buildings, and facilitating the safe and responsible development of our natural gas resources.

But for the foreseeable future, we will continue to rely on oil to help fuel our transportation system. As a result, we must safely and responsibly develop our oil resources here at home, as part of an all-of-the-above energy strategy to grow our economy and make us more secure.

Because of rising oil production, more efficient cars and trucks, and a world-class refining sector that last year was a net exporter of petroleum products for the first time in 60 years, we have cut net imports by a million barrels a day in the last year alone. By reducing our dependence on foreign oil, we will make our Nation more secure and improve our trade balance—creating jobs and supporting domestic industry.

In order to realize these potential benefits, we need an energy infrastructure system that can keep pace with advances in production. To promote American energy sources, we must not only extract oil—we must also be able to transport it to our world-class refineries, and ultimately to consumers.

The need for infrastructure is particularly acute right now. Because of advances in drilling technology that allow us to tap new oil deposits, we are producing more oil from unconventional sources—places like the Eagle Ford Shale in South Texas, where production grew by more than 200 percent last year, or the Bakken formation of North Dakota and Montana, where output has increased tenfold in the last 5 years alone. In States like North Dakota, Montana, and Colorado, rising production is outpacing the capacity of pipelines to deliver the oil to refineries.

Cushing, Oklahoma, is a prime example. There, in part due to rising domestic production, more oil is flowing in than can flow out, creating a bottleneck that is dampening incentives for new production while restricting oil from reaching state-of-the-art refineries on the Gulf Coast. Moving forward on a pipeline from Cushing to Port Arthur, Texas, could create jobs, promote American energy production, and ultimately benefit consumers.

Although expanding and modernizing our Nation's pipeline infrastructure will not lower prices right away, it is a vital part of a sustained strategy to continue to reduce our reliance on foreign oil and enhance our Nation's energy security. Therefore, as part of my Administration's broader efforts to improve the performance of Federal permitting and review processes, we must make pipeline infrastructure a priority, ensuring the health, safety, and security of communities and the environment while supporting projects that can contribute to economic growth and a secure energy future. In doing so, the Federal Government must work in partnership with State, local, and tribal governments, which play a central role in the siting and permitting of pipelines; and, we must protect our natural resources and address the concerns of local communities.

Section 1. Expedited Review of Pipeline Projects from Cushing to Port Arthur and Other Domestic Pipeline Infrastructure Projects. (a) To address the existing bottleneck in Cushing, as well as other current or anticipated bottlenecks, agencies shall, to the maximum extent practicable and consistent with available resources and applicable laws (including those relating to public safety, public health, and environmental protection), coordinate and expedite their reviews, consultations, and other processes as necessary to expedite decisions related to domestic pipeline infrastructure projects that would contribute to a more efficient domestic pipeline system for the transportation of crude oil, such as a pipeline from Cushing to Port Arthur. This subsection shall be implemented consistent with my Executive Order of March 22, 2012 (Improving Performance of Federal Permitting and Review of Infrastructure Projects), and applicable projects shall have their status tracked on the online Federal Infrastructure Projects Dashboard referenced therein.

(b) In expediting reviews pursuant to subsection (a) of this section, agencies shall, to the maximum extent practicable and consistent with applicable law, utilize and incorporate information from prior environmental reviews and studies conducted in connection with previous applications for similar or overlapping infrastructure projects so as to avoid duplicating effort.

Sec. 2. General Provisions. (a) Nothing in this memorandum shall be construed to impair or otherwise affect:

(i) the authority granted by law to a department or agency, or the head thereof; or

(ii) the functions of the Director of the Office of Management and Budget related to budgetary, administrative, or legislative proposals.

(b) This memorandum shall be implemented consistent with applicable law and subject to the availability of appropriations.

(c) This memorandum is not intended to, and does not, create any right or benefit, substantive or procedural, enforceable at law or in equity by any party against the United States, its departments, agencies, or entities, its officers, employees, or agents, or any other person.

(d) The Director of the Office of Management and Budget is hereby authorized and directed to publish this memorandum in the Federal Register.

Barack Obama.      

§60101. Definitions

(a) General.—In this chapter—

(1) "existing liquefied natural gas facility"—

(A) means a liquefied natural gas facility for which an application to approve the site, construction, or operation of the facility was filed before March 1, 1978, with—

(i) the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (or any predecessor); or

(ii) the appropriate State or local authority, if the facility is not subject to the jurisdiction of the Commission under the Natural Gas Act (15 U.S.C. 717 et seq.); but


(B) does not include a facility on which construction is begun after November 29, 1979, without the approval;


(2) "gas" means natural gas, flammable gas, or toxic or corrosive gas;

(3) "gas pipeline facility" includes a pipeline, a right of way, a facility, a building, or equipment used in transporting gas or treating gas during its transportation;

(4) "hazardous liquid" means—

(A) petroleum or a petroleum product;

(B) nonpetroleum fuel, including biofuel, that is flammable, toxic, or corrosive or would be harmful to the environment if released in significant quantities; and

(C) a substance the Secretary of Transportation decides may pose an unreasonable risk to life or property when transported by a hazardous liquid pipeline facility in a liquid state (except for liquefied natural gas);


(5) "hazardous liquid pipeline facility" includes a pipeline, a right of way, a facility, a building, or equipment used or intended to be used in transporting hazardous liquid;

(6) "interstate gas pipeline facility" means a gas pipeline facility—

(A) used to transport gas; and

(B) subject to the jurisdiction of the Commission under the Natural Gas Act (15 U.S.C. 717 et seq.);


(7) "interstate hazardous liquid pipeline facility" means a hazardous liquid pipeline facility used to transport hazardous liquid in interstate or foreign commerce;

(8) "interstate or foreign commerce"—

(A) related to gas, means commerce—

(i) between a place in a State and a place outside that State; or

(ii) that affects any commerce described in subclause (A)(i) of this clause; and


(B) related to hazardous liquid, means commerce between—

(i) a place in a State and a place outside that State; or

(ii) places in the same State through a place outside the State;


(9) "intrastate gas pipeline facility" means a gas pipeline facility and transportation of gas within a State not subject to the jurisdiction of the Commission under the Natural Gas Act (15 U.S.C. 717 et seq.);

(10) "intrastate hazardous liquid pipeline facility" means a hazardous liquid pipeline facility that is not an interstate hazardous liquid pipeline facility;

(11) "liquefied natural gas" means natural gas in a liquid or semisolid state;

(12) "liquefied natural gas accident" means a release, burning, or explosion of liquefied natural gas from any cause, except a release, burning, or explosion that, under regulations prescribed by the Secretary, does not pose a threat to public health or safety, property, or the environment;

(13) "liquefied natural gas conversion" means conversion of natural gas into liquefied natural gas or conversion of liquefied natural gas into natural gas;

(14) "liquefied natural gas pipeline facility"—

(A) means a gas pipeline facility used for transporting or storing liquefied natural gas, or for liquefied natural gas conversion, in interstate or foreign commerce; but

(B) does not include any part of a structure or equipment located in navigable waters (as defined in section 3 of the Federal Power Act (16 U.S.C. 796));


(15) "municipality" means a political subdivision of a State;

(16) "new liquefied natural gas pipeline facility" means a liquefied natural gas pipeline facility except an existing liquefied natural gas pipeline facility;

(17) "person", in addition to its meaning under section 1 of title 1 (except as to societies), includes a State, a municipality, and a trustee, receiver, assignee, or personal representative of a person;

(18) "pipeline facility" means a gas pipeline facility and a hazardous liquid pipeline facility;

(19) "pipeline transportation" means transporting gas and transporting hazardous liquid;

(20) "State" means a State of the United States, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico;

(21) "transporting gas"—

(A) means—

(i) the gathering, transmission, or distribution of gas by pipeline, or the storage of gas, in interstate or foreign commerce; and

(ii) the movement of gas through regulated gathering lines; but


(B) does not include gathering gas (except through regulated gathering lines) in a rural area outside a populated area designated by the Secretary as a nonrural area;


(22) "transporting hazardous liquid"—

(A) means—

(i) the movement of hazardous liquid by pipeline, or the storage of hazardous liquid incidental to the movement of hazardous liquid by pipeline, in or affecting interstate or foreign commerce; and

(ii) the movement of hazardous liquid through regulated gathering lines; but


(B) does not include moving hazardous liquid through—

(i) gathering lines (except regulated gathering lines) in a rural area;

(ii) onshore production, refining, or manufacturing facilities; or

(iii) storage or in-plant piping systems associated with onshore production, refining, or manufacturing facilities;


(23) "risk management" means the systematic application, by the owner or operator of a pipeline facility, of management policies, procedures, finite resources, and practices to the tasks of identifying, analyzing, assessing, reducing, and controlling risk in order to protect employees, the general public, the environment, and pipeline facilities;

(24) "risk management plan" means a management plan utilized by a gas or hazardous liquid pipeline facility owner or operator that encompasses risk management;

(25) "Secretary" means the Secretary of Transportation; and

(26) "underground natural gas storage facility" means a gas pipeline facility that stores natural gas in an underground facility, including—

(A) a depleted hydrocarbon reservoir;

(B) an aquifer reservoir; or

(C) a solution-mined salt cavern reservoir.


(b) Gathering Lines.—(1)(A) Not later than October 24, 1994, the Secretary shall prescribe standards defining the term "gathering line".

(B) In defining "gathering line" for gas, the Secretary—

(i) shall consider functional and operational characteristics of the lines to be included in the definition; and

(ii) is not bound by a classification the Commission establishes under the Natural Gas Act (15 U.S.C. 717 et seq.).


(2)(A) Not later than October 24, 1995, the Secretary, if appropriate, shall prescribe standards defining the term "regulated gathering line". In defining the term, the Secretary shall consider factors such as location, length of line from the well site, operating pressure, throughput, and the composition of the transported gas or hazardous liquid, as appropriate, in deciding on the types of lines that functionally are gathering but should be regulated under this chapter because of specific physical characteristics.

(B)(i) The Secretary also shall consider diameter when defining "regulated gathering line" for hazardous liquid.

(ii) The definition of "regulated gathering line" for hazardous liquid may not include a crude oil gathering line that has a nominal diameter of not more than 6 inches, is operated at low pressure, and is located in a rural area that is not unusually sensitive to environmental damage.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §§1(e), 4(s), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1301, 1371; Pub. L. 104–287, §5(90), Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3398; Pub. L. 104–304, §§3, 20(f), Oct. 12, 1996, 110 Stat. 3793, 3805; Pub. L. 109–468, §7, Dec. 29, 2006, 120 Stat. 3491; Pub. L. 112–90, §14, Jan. 3, 2012, 125 Stat. 1914; Pub. L. 114–183, §12(a), June 22, 2016, 130 Stat. 522.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e)
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
60101(a)(1) 49 App.:1671(10). Aug. 12, 1968, Pub. L. 90–481, §2(10), 82 Stat. 720; Oct. 11, 1976, Pub. L. 94–477, §3(2), 90 Stat. 2073; Nov. 30, 1979, Pub. L. 96–129, §151, 93 Stat. 998.
  49 App.:1671(14). Aug. 12, 1968, Pub. L. 90–481, 82 Stat. 720, §2(11)–(17); added Nov. 30, 1979, Pub. L. 96–129, §151, 93 Stat. 998.
  49 App.:2001(11). Nov. 30, 1979, Pub. L. 96–129, §202(1)–(4) (1st–27th words), (5)–(9), (11), 93 Stat. 1003, 1004.
60101(a)(2) 49 App.:1671(2). Aug. 12, 1968, Pub. L. 90–481, §2(1), (2), (4) (1st–32d words), (5), (6), 82 Stat. 720.
60101(a)(3) 49 App.:1671(4) (1st–32d words).
60101(a)(4) 49 App.:2001(2).
60101(a)(5) 49 App.:2001(4) (1st–27th words).
60101(a)(6) 49 App.:1671(8). Aug. 12, 1968, Pub. L. 90–481, §2(8), 82 Stat. 720; Oct. 11, 1976, Pub. L. 94–477, §3(1), 90 Stat. 2073; Nov. 30, 1979, Pub. L. 96–129, §109(b) (related to §2(8)), 93 Stat. 996.
60101(a)(7) 49 App.:2001(5).
60101(a) (8)(A) 49 App.:1671(17).
60101(a) (8)(B) 49 App.:2001(7).
60101(a)(9) 49 App.:1671(9). Aug. 12, 1968, Pub. L. 90–481, 82 Stat. 720, §2(9); added Oct. 11, 1976, Pub. L. 94–477, §3(2), 90 Stat. 2073; Nov. 30, 1979, Pub. L. 96–129, §§109(b) (related to §2(9)), 151, 93 Stat. 996, 998.
60101(a)(10) 49 App.:2001(6).
60101(a)(11) 49 App.:1671(11).
60101(a)(12) 49 App.:1671(16).
60101(a)(13) 49 App.:1671(13).
60101(a)(14) 49 App.:1671(12).
60101(a)(15) 49 App.:1671(6).
  49 App.:2001(9).
60101(a)(16) 49 App.:1671(15).
60101(a)(17) 49 App.:1671(1).
  49 App.:2001(1).
60101(a)(18), (19) (no source).
60101(a)(20) 49 App.:1671(5).
  49 App.:2001(8).
60101(a)(21) 49 App.:1671(3). Aug. 12, 1968, Pub. L. 90–481, §2(3), 82 Stat. 720; Nov. 30, 1979, Pub. L. 96–129, §152(b)(1), 93 Stat. 1001.
60101(a)(22) 49 App.:2001(3).
60101(b) 49 App.:1688. Aug. 12, 1968, Pub. L. 90–481, 82 Stat. 720, §21; added Oct. 24, 1992, Pub. L. 102–508, §109(b), 106 Stat. 3295.
  49 App.:2016. Nov. 30, 1979, Pub. L. 96–129, 93 Stat. 989, §220; added Oct. 24, 1992, Pub. L. 102–508, §208(b), 106 Stat. 3303.

In this chapter, the words "liquefied natural gas" are substituted for "LNG" for clarity. The word "authority" is substituted for "agency" for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the United States Code. The words "gas" and "hazardous liquid" are added where applicable because of the restatement.

In subsection (a), before clause (1), the text of 49 App.:1671(10) and 2001(11) is omitted because the complete name of the Secretary of Transportation is used the first time the term appears in a section. The words "As used" are omitted as surplus. In clause (1)(A), the words "Federal Energy Regulatory Commission" and "Commission" are substituted for "Department of Energy" because under 42:7171(a) and 7172(a)(1) the Commission is statutorily independent of the Department and has the responsibility for siting, construction, and operating applications. In clauses (3) and (5), the words "without limitation, new and existing" are omitted as surplus. In clause (4)(B), the words "or material" are omitted as surplus. In clause (6), before subclause (A), the word "pipeline" is substituted for "transmission" for clarity and consistency. In clause (8)(A), before subclause (i), the words "trade, traffic, transportation, exchange, or other" are omitted as surplus. In subclause (ii), the words "trade, transportation, exchange, or other" are omitted as surplus. In clause (8)(B), the word "place" is substituted for "point" for clarity and consistency in the revised title. In clause (9), before subclause (A), the word "facility" is substituted for "transportation" for clarity and consistency. In clause (12), the words "resulting from" and the text of 49 App.:1671(16)(A)–(D) are omitted as surplus. In clause (13), the words "(liquefaction or solidification)" and "(vaporization)" are omitted as surplus. In clauses (14) and (16), the word "pipeline" is added for clarity. In clause (15), the words "city, county, or any other" are omitted as surplus. In clause (17), the words "in addition to its meaning under section 1 of title 1 (except as to societies)" are substituted for "any individual, firm, joint venture, partnership, corporation, association . . . cooperative association, or joint stock association" to eliminate unnecessary words, for clarity, and for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the Code. Clauses (18) and (19) are added because of the restatement. In clause (20), the words "of the United States" are substituted for "of the several" for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the Code. In clause (21)(B), the words "outside a populated area" are substituted for "which lie outside the limits of any incorporated or unincorporated city, town, village, or any other designated residential or commercial area such as a subdivision, a business or shopping center, a community development, or any similar populated area" to eliminate unnecessary words. In clause (22)(B)(i), the word "area" is substituted for "locations" for consistency.

Pub. L. 103–272, §4(s)
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
60101(a)(21), (22) 49 App.:1671 (note). Oct. 24, 1992, Pub. L. 102–508, §109(a), 106 Stat. 3294.
  49 App.:2001 (note). Oct. 24, 1992, Pub. L. 102–508, §208(a), 106 Stat. 3303.

Section 4(s) reflects an amendment to the restatement required by sections 109(a) and 208(a) of the Pipeline Safety Act of 1992 (Public Law 102–508, 106 Stat. 3294, 3303).

Pub. L. 104–287

This amends 49:60101 for consistency with the style of title 49.

References in Text

The Natural Gas Act, referred to in subsecs. (a)(1)(A)(ii), (6)(B), (9) and (b)(1)(B)(ii), is act June 21, 1938, ch. 556, 52 Stat. 821, which is classified generally to chapter 15B (§717 et seq.) of Title 15, Commerce and Trade. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 717w of Title 15 and Tables.

Codification

The amendments by section 4(s) of Pub. L. 103–272 to pars. (21) and (22) of subsec. (a) of this section were executed after the amendments by Pub. L. 104–304 to those pars. pursuant to the effective date provisions of section 4(s). See Effective Date of 1994 Amendment note and 1994 and 1996 Amendment notes below.

Amendments

2016—Subsec. (a)(21)(B). Pub. L. 114–183, §12(a)(1), substituted "nonrural area;" for "nonrural area."

Subsec. (a)(22)(B)(iii). Pub. L. 114–183, §12(a)(2), substituted "facilities;" for "facilities."

Subsec. (a)(26). Pub. L. 114–183, §12(a)(3)–(5), added par. (26).

2012—Subsec. (a)(4)(B), (C). Pub. L. 112–90 added subpar. (B) and redesignated former subpar. (B) as (C).

2006—Subsec. (a)(6). Pub. L. 109–468, §7(1), added par. (6) and struck out former par. (6) which defined "interstate gas pipeline facility".

Subsec. (a)(9). Pub. L. 109–468, §7(2), added par. (9) and struck out former par. (9) which defined "intrastate gas pipeline facility".

1996—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 104–287 inserted heading.

Subsec. (a)(1) to (20). Pub. L. 104–304, §3(a)(1), substituted semicolon for period at end of pars. (1) to (20).

Subsec. (a)(21)(B). Pub. L. 104–304, §3(a)(2), added subpar. (B) and struck out former subpar. (B) which read as follows: "does not include gathering gas in a rural area outside a populated area designated by the Secretary as a nonrural area;". See Codification note above.

Pub. L. 104–304, §3(a)(1), substituted semicolon for period at end. See Codification note above.

Subsec. (a)(22). Pub. L. 104–304, §3(a)(1), substituted semicolon for period at end. See Codification note above.

Subsec. (a)(23) to (25). Pub. L. 104–304, §3(a)(3), added pars. (23) to (25).

Subsec. (b)(1)(A). Pub. L. 104–304, §20(f), substituted "prescribe standards defining" for "define by regulation".

Subsec. (b)(2)(A). Pub. L. 104–304, §§3(b), 20(f), inserted ", if appropriate," after "Not later than October 24, 1995, the Secretary" and substituted "prescribe standards defining" for "define by regulation".

1994—Subsec. (a)(21), (22). Pub. L. 103–272, §4(s), amended pars. (21) and (22) generally. Prior to amendment, pars. (21) and (22) defined "transporting gas" and "transporting hazardous liquid".

Effective Date of 1994 Amendment

Pub. L. 103–272, §4(s), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1371, provided that the amendment made by that section is effective on the date the regulation required under subsec. (b) of this section is effective. See regulations effective Apr. 14, 2006, 71 F.R. 13289, and July 3, 2008, 73 F.R. 31634.

Short Title of 2020 Amendment

Pub. L. 116–260, div. R, §1(a), Dec. 27, 2020, 134 Stat. 2210, provided that: "This division [enacting sections 60142, 60143, and 60303 of this title, amending sections 6107, 60102, 60105, 60108, 60109, 60117, 60118, 60122, 60125, 60129, 60130 and 60134 of this title, enacting provisions set out as notes under this section and sections 60102, 60103, 60105, 60108, and 60109 of this title, and amending provisions set out as notes under this section and section 60109 of this title] may be cited as the 'Protecting our Infrastructure of Pipelines and Enhancing Safety Act of 2020' or the 'PIPES Act of 2020'."

Pub. L. 116–260, div. R, title II, §201, Dec. 27, 2020, 134 Stat. 2237, provided that: "This title [amending sections 60102, 60105, and 60109 of this title and enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 60103 and 60105 of this title] may be cited as the 'Leonel Rondon Pipeline Safety Act'."

Short Title of 2016 Amendment

Pub. L. 114–183, §1(a), June 22, 2016, 130 Stat. 514, provided that: "This Act [enacting sections 60141 and 60302 of this title, amending this section and sections 6107, 60103, 60106 to 60109, 60115, 60117, 60124, 60125, and 60130 of this title, enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 108, 60102, 60103, 60108, 60109, and 60117 of this title, and amending provisions set out as a note under this section] may be cited as the 'Protecting our Infrastructure of Pipelines and Enhancing Safety Act of 2016' or the 'PIPES Act of 2016'."

Short Title of 2012 Amendment

Pub. L. 112–90, §1(a), Jan. 3, 2012, 125 Stat. 1904, provided that: "This Act [enacting sections 60138 to 60140 of this title, amending this section, sections 6103, 6107, 60102, 60107 to 60109, 60117 to 60120, 60122, 60125, 60130, 60132, and 60134 of this title, and section 1321 of Title 33, Navigation and Navigable Waters, enacting provisions set out as notes under this section and sections 6103, 60108, 60109, 60117, and 60132 of this title, and amending provisions set out as a note under this section] may be cited as the 'Pipeline Safety, Regulatory Certainty, and Job Creation Act of 2011'."

Short Title of 2006 Amendment

Pub. L. 109–468, §1(a), Dec. 29, 2006, 120 Stat. 3486, provided that: "This Act [enacting sections 6109 and 60134 to 60137 of this title, amending this section and sections 6107, 60102, 60105, 60107, 60109, 60114, 60117, 60118, 60122, 60125, and 60130 of this title, enacting provisions set out as notes under this section and sections 60102 and 60117 of this title, and amending provisions set out as a note under this section] may be cited as the 'Pipeline Inspection, Protection, Enforcement, and Safety Act of 2006'."

Short Title of 2002 Amendment

Pub. L. 107–355, §1(a), Dec. 17, 2002, 116 Stat. 2985, provided that: "This Act [enacting sections 60129 to 60133 of this title, amending sections 6103 to 6105, 6107, 60102, 60104, 60106, 60109, 60110, 60112, 60114 to 60118, 60120, 60122, 60123, 60125, and 60127 of this title, and enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 1135, 60101, 60102, 60108, 60109, 60114, 60122, and 60131 of this title and section 717m of Title 15, Commerce and Trade] may be cited as the 'Pipeline Safety Improvement Act of 2002'."

Short Title of 1996 Amendment

Pub. L. 104–304, §1, Oct. 12, 1996, 110 Stat. 3793, provided that: "This Act [enacting sections 60126 to 60128 of this title, amending this section and sections 60102, 60105 to 60110, 60113 to 60118, 60123 to 60125 of this title, and enacting provisions set out as a note under section 60301 of this title] may be cited as the 'Accountable Pipeline Safety and Partnership Act of 1996'."

Rule of Construction

Pub. L. 116–260, div. R, title I, §123, Dec. 27, 2020, 134 Stat. 2236, provided that: "Nothing in this title [enacting sections 60142, 60143, and 60303 of this title, amending sections 6107, 60102, 60108, 60109, 60117, 60118, 60122, 60125, 60129, 60130 and 60134 of this title, enacting provisions set out as notes under this section and sections 60102, 60103, 60108, and 60109 of this title, and amending provisions set out as notes under this section and section 60109 of this title] or an amendment made by this title may be construed to affect the authority of the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency under the Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C. 7401 et seq.), the authority of the Secretary of the Interior under the Mineral Leasing Act (30 U.S.C. 181 et seq.), or the authority of any State, to regulate a release of pollutants or hazardous substances to air, water, or land, including through the establishment and enforcement of requirements relating to such release."

Transfer of Functions

For transfer of duties, powers, and authority of Research and Special Programs Administration under this chapter to the Administrator of the Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration, see section 2(b) of Pub. L. 108–426, set out as a note under section 108 of this title.

Pipeline Workforce Development

Pub. L. 116–260, div. R, title I, §102, Dec. 27, 2020, 134 Stat. 2214, provided that:

"(a) Inspector Training.—Not later than 1 year after the date of enactment of this Act [Dec. 27, 2020], the Administrator [of the Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration] shall—

"(1) review the inspector training programs provided at the Inspector Training and Qualifications Division of the Administration in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma; and

"(2) determine whether any of the programs referred to in paragraph (1), or any portions of the programs, could be provided online through teletraining or another type of distance learning.

"(b) Staffing.—

"(1) In general.—The Secretary [of Transportation] shall increase the number of full-time equivalent employees (as compared to the number of positions on the date of enactment of this Act) by 8 full-time employees with subject matter expertise in pipeline safety, pipeline facilities, and pipeline systems to finalize outstanding rulemakings and fulfill congressional mandates.

"(2) Pipeline inspection and enforcement personnel.—The Secretary shall ensure that the number of full-time positions for pipeline inspection and enforcement personnel in the Office of Pipeline Safety of the Administration does not fall below the following:

"(A) 224 for fiscal year 2021.

"(B) 235 for fiscal year 2022.

"(C) 247 for fiscal year 2023.

"(c) Recruitment and Retention Incentives.—

"(1) In general.—The Secretary shall use incentives, as necessary, to recruit and retain a qualified workforce, including inspection and enforcement personnel and attorneys and subject matter experts at the Office of Pipeline Safety of the Administration, including—

"(A) special pay rates permitted under section 5305 of title 5, United States Code;

"(B) repayment of student loans permitted under section 5379 of that title;

"(C) tuition assistance permitted under chapter 41 of that title;

"(D) recruitment incentives permitted under section 5753 of that title; and

"(E) retention incentives permitted under section 5754 of that title.

"(2) Continued service agreement.—The Secretary shall ensure that the incentives described in paragraph (1) are accompanied by a continued service agreement.

"(3) Approval.—The Secretary shall request, as necessary, the approval of the Office of Personnel Management to use the incentives described in paragraph (1)."

Technical Assistance Program

Pub. L. 109–468, §24, Dec. 29, 2006, 120 Stat. 3500, provided that:

"(a) In General.—The Secretary of Transportation may award, through a competitive process, grants to universities with expertise in pipeline safety and security to establish jointly a collaborative program to conduct pipeline safety and technical assistance programs.

"(b) Duties.—In cooperation with the Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration and representatives from States and boards of public utilities, the participants in the collaborative program established under subsection (a) shall be responsible for development of workforce training and technical assistance programs through statewide and regional partnerships that provide for—

"(1) communication of national, State, and local safety information to pipeline operators;

"(2) distribution of technical resources and training to support current and future Federal mandates; and

"(3) evaluation of program outcomes.

"(c) Training and Educational Materials.—The collaborative program established under subsection (a) may include courses in recent developments, techniques, and procedures related to—

"(1) safety and security of pipeline systems;

"(2) incident and risk management for such systems;

"(3) integrity management for such systems;

"(4) consequence modeling for such systems;

"(5) detection of encroachments and monitoring of rights-of-way for such systems; and

"(6) vulnerability assessment of such systems at both project and national levels.

"(d) Reports.—

"(1) University.—Not later than March 31, 2009, the universities awarded grants under subsection (a) shall submit to the Secretary a report on the results of the collaborative program.

"(2) Secretary.—Not later than October 1, 2009, the Secretary shall transmit the reports submitted to the Secretary under paragraph (1), along with any findings, recommendations, or legislative options for Congress to consider, to the Committees on Transportation and Infrastructure and Energy and Commerce of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate.

"(e) Authorization of Appropriations.—There are authorized to be appropriated such sums as may be necessary to carry out this section for each of fiscal years 2007 through 2010."

Pipeline Integrity, Safety, and Reliability Research and Development

Pub. L. 107–355, §12, Dec. 17, 2002, 116 Stat. 2997, as amended by Pub. L. 109–468, §26, Dec. 29, 2006, 120 Stat. 3501; Pub. L. 112–90, §32(f), Jan. 3, 2012, 125 Stat. 1923; Pub. L. 114–183, §§2(e), 22(b)(2), June 22, 2016, 130 Stat. 516, 529; Pub. L. 116–260, div. R, title I, §101(g), Dec. 27, 2020, 134 Stat. 2214, provided that:

"(a) In General.—The heads of the participating agencies shall carry out a program of research, development, demonstration, and standardization to ensure the integrity of pipeline facilities.

"(b) Memorandum of Understanding.—

"(1) In general.—Not later than 120 days after the date of enactment of this Act [Dec. 17, 2002], the heads of the participating agencies shall enter into a memorandum of understanding detailing their respective responsibilities in the program authorized by subsection (a).

"(2) Areas of expertise.—Under the memorandum of understanding, each of the participating agencies shall have the primary responsibility for ensuring that the elements of the program within its expertise are implemented in accordance with this section. The Department of Transportation's responsibilities shall reflect its lead role in pipeline safety and expertise in pipeline inspection, integrity management, and damage prevention. The Department of Energy's responsibilities shall reflect its expertise in system reliability, low-volume gas leak detection, and surveillance technologies. The National Institute of Standards and Technology's responsibilities shall reflect its expertise in materials research and assisting in the development of consensus technical standards, as that term is used in section 12(d)(4) [probably should be "12(d)(5)"] of Public Law 104–13 [Pub. L. 104–113] (15 U.S.C. 272 note).

"(c) Program Elements.—The program authorized by subsection (a) shall include research, development, demonstration, and standardization activities related to—

"(1) materials inspection;

"(2) stress and fracture analysis, detection of cracks, abrasion, and other abnormalities inside pipelines that lead to pipeline failure, and development of new equipment or technologies that are inserted into pipelines to detect anomalies;

"(3) internal inspection and leak detection technologies, including detection of leaks at very low volumes;

"(4) methods of analyzing content of pipeline throughput;

"(5) pipeline security, including improving the real-time surveillance of pipeline rights-of-way, developing tools for evaluating and enhancing pipeline security and infrastructure, reducing natural, technological, and terrorist threats, and protecting first response units and persons near an incident;

"(6) risk assessment methodology, including vulnerability assessment and reduction of third-party damage;

"(7) communication, control, and information systems surety;

"(8) fire safety of pipelines;

"(9) improved excavation, construction, and repair technologies;

"(10) corrosion detection and improving methods, best practices, and technologies for identifying, detecting, preventing, and managing internal and external corrosion and other safety risks; and

"(11) other appropriate elements.

The results of activities carried out under paragraph (10) shall be used by the participating agencies to support development and improvement of national consensus standards.

"(d) Program Plan.—

"(1) In general.—Not later than 1 year after the date of enactment of this section [Dec. 17, 2002], the Secretary of Transportation, in coordination with the Secretary of Energy and the Director of the National Institute of Standards and Technology, shall prepare and transmit to Congress a 5-year program plan to guide activities under this section. Such program plan shall be submitted to the Technical Pipeline Safety Standards Committee and the Technical Hazardous Liquid Pipeline Safety Standards Committee for review, and the report to Congress shall include the comments of the committees. The 5-year program plan shall be based on the memorandum of understanding under subsection (b) and take into account related activities of other Federal agencies.

"(2) Consultation.—In preparing the program plan and selecting and prioritizing appropriate project proposals, the Secretary of Transportation shall consult with or seek the advice of appropriate representatives of the natural gas, crude oil, and petroleum product pipeline industries, utilities, manufacturers, institutions of higher learning, Federal agencies, pipeline research institutions, national laboratories, State pipeline safety officials, labor organizations, environmental organizations, pipeline safety advocates, and professional and technical societies.

"(3) Ongoing pipeline transportation research and development.—

"(A) In general.—After the initial 5-year program plan has been carried out by the participating agencies, the Secretary of Transportation, in coordination with the Director of the National Institute of Standards and Technology, as appropriate, shall prepare a research and development program plan every 5 years thereafter and shall transmit a report to Congress on the status and results-to-date of implementation of the program every 2 years. The biennial report shall include a summary of updated research needs and priorities identified through the consultation requirements of paragraph (2).

"(B) Consultation.—The Secretary shall comply with the consultation requirements of paragraph (2) when preparing the program plan and in the selection and prioritization of research and development projects.

"(C) Funding from non-federal sources.—The Secretary shall ensure that—

"(i) at least 30 percent of the costs of technology research and development activities may be carried out using non-Federal sources;

"(ii) at least 20 percent of the costs of basic research and development with universities may be carried out using non-Federal sources; and

"(iii) up to 100 percent of the costs of research and development for purely governmental purposes may be carried out using Federal funds.

"(e) Reports to Congress.—Not later than 1 year after the date of enactment of this Act [Dec. 17, 2002], and annually thereafter, the heads of the participating agencies shall transmit jointly to Congress a report on the status and results to date of the implementation of the program plan prepared under subsection (d).

"(f) Pipeline Integrity Program.—Of the amounts available in the Oil Spill Liability Trust Fund established by section 9509 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 (26 U.S.C. 9509), $3,000,000 shall be transferred to the Secretary of Transportation, as provided in appropriation Acts, to carry out programs for detection, prevention, and mitigation of oil spills for each of the fiscal years 2021 through 2023.

"(g) Participating Agencies Defined.—In this section, the term 'participating agencies' means the Department of Transportation, the Department of Energy, and the National Institute of Standards and Technology.

"(h) Independent Experts.—Not later than 180 days after the date of enactment of the PIPES Act of 2016 [June 22, 2016], the Secretary shall—

"(1) implement processes and procedures to ensure that activities listed under subsection (c), to the greatest extent practicable, produce results that are peer-reviewed by independent experts and not by persons or entities that have a financial interest in the pipeline, petroleum, or natural gas industries, or that would be directly impacted by the results of the projects; and

"(2) submit to the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure, the Committee on Energy and Commerce, and the Committee on Science, Space, and Technology of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate a report describing the processes and procedures implemented under paragraph (1).

"(i) Conflict of Interest.—The Secretary shall take all practical steps to ensure that each recipient of an agreement under this section discloses in writing to the Secretary any conflict of interest on a research and development project carried out under this section, and includes any such disclosure as part of the final deliverable pursuant to such agreement. The Secretary may not make an award under this section directly to a pipeline owner or operator that is regulated by the Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration or a State-certified regulatory authority if there is a conflict of interest relating to such owner or operator."

Definitions

Pub. L. 116–260, div. R, §2, Dec. 27, 2020, 134 Stat. 2211, provided that: "In this Act [div. R of Pub. L. 116–260, see Short Title of 2020 Amendment note above]:

"(1) Administration.—The term 'Administration' means the Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration.

"(2) Administrator.—The term 'Administrator' means the Administrator of the Administration.

"(3) Secretary.—The term 'Secretary' means the Secretary of Transportation."

Pub. L. 112–90, §1(c), Jan. 3, 2012, 125 Stat. 1904, provided that:

"(1) Applicability of chapter 601 definitions.—In this Act [see Short Title of 2012 Amendment note above], any term defined in chapter 601 of title 49, United States Code, has the meaning given that term in that chapter.

"(2) High-consequence area.—In this Act, the term 'high-consequence area' means an area described in section 60109(a) of title 49, United States Code."

§60102. Purpose and general authority

(a) Purpose and Minimum Safety Standards.—

(1) Purpose.—The purpose of this chapter is to provide adequate protection against risks to life and property posed by pipeline transportation and pipeline facilities by improving the regulatory and enforcement authority of the Secretary of Transportation.

(2) Minimum safety standards.—The Secretary shall prescribe minimum safety standards for pipeline transportation and for pipeline facilities. The standards—

(A) apply to any or all of the owners or operators of pipeline facilities;

(B) may apply to the design, installation, inspection, emergency plans and procedures, testing, construction, extension, operation, replacement, and maintenance of pipeline facilities; and

(C) shall include a requirement that all individuals who operate and maintain pipeline facilities shall be qualified to operate and maintain the pipeline facilities.


(3) Qualifications of pipeline operators.—The qualifications applicable to an individual who operates and maintains a pipeline facility shall address the ability to recognize and react appropriately to abnormal operating conditions that may indicate a dangerous situation or a condition exceeding design limits. The operator of a pipeline facility shall ensure that employees who operate and maintain the facility are qualified to operate and maintain the pipeline facilities.


(b) Practicability and Safety Needs Standards.—

(1) In general.—A standard prescribed under subsection (a) shall be—

(A) practicable; and

(B) designed to meet the need for—

(i) gas pipeline safety, or safely transporting hazardous liquids, as appropriate; and

(ii) protecting the environment.


(2) Factors for consideration.—When prescribing any standard under this section or section 60101(b), 60103, 60108, 60109, 60110, or 60113, the Secretary shall consider—

(A) relevant available—

(i) gas pipeline safety information;

(ii) hazardous liquid pipeline safety information; and

(iii) environmental information;


(B) the appropriateness of the standard for the particular type of pipeline transportation or facility;

(C) the reasonableness of the standard;

(D) based on a risk assessment, the reasonably identifiable or estimated benefits expected to result from implementation or compliance with the standard;

(E) based on a risk assessment, the reasonably identifiable or estimated costs expected to result from implementation or compliance with the standard;

(F) comments and information received from the public; and

(G) the comments and recommendations of the Technical Pipeline Safety Standards Committee, the Technical Hazardous Liquid Pipeline Safety Standards Committee, or both, as appropriate.


(3) Risk assessment.—In conducting a risk assessment referred to in subparagraphs (D) and (E) of paragraph (2), the Secretary shall—

(A) identify the regulatory and nonregulatory options that the Secretary considered in prescribing a proposed standard;

(B) identify the costs and benefits associated with the proposed standard;

(C) include—

(i) an explanation of the reasons for the selection of the proposed standard in lieu of the other options identified; and

(ii) with respect to each of those other options, a brief explanation of the reasons that the Secretary did not select the option; and


(D) identify technical data or other information upon which the risk assessment information and proposed standard is based.


(4) Review.—

(A) In general.—The Secretary shall—

(i) submit any risk assessment information prepared under paragraph (3) of this subsection to the Technical Pipeline Safety Standards Committee, the Technical Hazardous Liquid Pipeline Safety Standards Committee, or both, as appropriate; and

(ii) make that risk assessment information available to the general public.


(B) Peer review panels.—The committees referred to in subparagraph (A) shall serve as peer review panels to review risk assessment information prepared under this section. Not later than 90 days after receiving risk assessment information for review pursuant to subparagraph (A), each committee that receives that risk assessment information shall prepare and submit to the Secretary a report that includes—

(i) an evaluation of the merit of the data and methods used; and

(ii) any recommended options relating to that risk assessment information and the associated standard that the committee determines to be appropriate.


(C) Review by secretary.—Not later than 90 days after receiving a report submitted by a committee under subparagraph (B), the Secretary—

(i) shall review the report;

(ii) shall provide a written response to the committee that is the author of the report concerning all significant peer review comments and recommended alternatives contained in the report; and

(iii) may revise the risk assessment and the proposed standard before promulgating the final standard.


(5) Secretarial decisionmaking.—Except where otherwise required by statute, the Secretary shall propose or issue a standard under this chapter only upon a reasoned determination that the benefits, including safety and environmental benefits, of the intended standard justify its costs.

(6) Exceptions from application.—The requirements of subparagraphs (D) and (E) of paragraph (2) do not apply when—

(A) the standard is the product of a negotiated rulemaking, or other rulemaking including the adoption of industry standards that receives no significant adverse comment within 60 days of notice in the Federal Register;

(B) based on a recommendation (in which three-fourths of the members voting concur) by the Technical Pipeline Safety Standards Committee, the Technical Hazardous Liquid Pipeline Safety Standards Committee, or both, as applicable, the Secretary waives the requirements; or

(C) the Secretary finds, pursuant to section 553(b)(3)(B) of title 5, United States Code, that notice and public procedure are not required.


(7) Report.—Not later than March 31, 2000, the Secretary shall transmit to the Congress a report that—

(A) describes the implementation of the risk assessment requirements of this section, including the extent to which those requirements have affected regulatory decisionmaking and pipeline safety; and

(B) includes any recommendations that the Secretary determines would make the risk assessment process conducted pursuant to the requirements under this chapter a more effective means of assessing the benefits and costs associated with alternative regulatory and nonregulatory options in prescribing standards under the Federal pipeline safety regulatory program under this chapter.


(c) Public Safety Program Requirements.—(1) The Secretary shall include in the standards prescribed under subsection (a) of this section a requirement that an operator of a gas pipeline facility participate in a public safety program that—

(A) notifies an operator of proposed demolition, excavation, tunneling, or construction near or affecting the facility;

(B) requires an operator to identify a pipeline facility that may be affected by the proposed demolition, excavation, tunneling, or construction, to prevent damaging the facility; and

(C) the Secretary decides will protect a facility adequately against a hazard caused by demolition, excavation, tunneling, or construction.


(2) To the extent a public safety program referred to in paragraph (1) of this subsection is not available, the Secretary shall prescribe standards requiring an operator to take action the Secretary prescribes to provide services comparable to services that would be available under a public safety program.

(3) The Secretary may include in the standards prescribed under subsection (a) of this section a requirement that an operator of a hazardous liquid pipeline facility participate in a public safety program meeting the requirements of paragraph (1) of this subsection or maintain and carry out a damage prevention program that provides services comparable to services that would be available under a public safety program.

(4) Promoting public awareness.—

(A) Not later than one year after the date of enactment of the Accountable Pipeline Safety and Accountability Act of 1996,1 and annually thereafter, the owner or operator of each interstate gas pipeline facility shall provide to the governing body of each municipality in which the interstate gas pipeline facility is located, a map identifying the location of such facility.

(B)(i) Not later than June 1, 1998, the Secretary shall survey and assess the public education programs under section 60116 and the public safety programs under section 60102(c) and determine their effectiveness and applicability as components of a model program. In particular, the survey shall include the methods by which operators notify residents of the location of the facility and its right of way, public information regarding existing One-Call programs, and appropriate procedures to be followed by residents of affected municipalities in the event of accidents involving interstate gas pipeline facilities.

(ii) Not later than one year after the survey and assessment are completed, the Secretary shall institute a rulemaking to determine the most effective public safety and education program components and promulgate if appropriate, standards implementing those components on a nationwide basis. In the event that the Secretary finds that promulgation of such standards are not appropriate, the Secretary shall report to Congress the reasons for that finding.


(d) Facility Operation Information Standards.—The Secretary shall prescribe minimum standards requiring an operator of a pipeline facility subject to this chapter to maintain, to the extent practicable, information related to operating the facility as required by the standards prescribed under this chapter and, when requested, to make the information available to the Secretary and an appropriate State official as determined by the Secretary. The information shall include—

(1) the business name, address, and telephone number, including an operations emergency telephone number, of the operator;

(2) accurate maps and a supplementary geographic description, including an identification of areas described in regulations prescribed under section 60109 of this title, that show the location in the State of—

(A) major gas pipeline facilities of the operator, including transmission lines and significant distribution lines; and

(B) major hazardous liquid pipeline facilities of the operator;


(3) a description of—

(A) the characteristics of the operator's pipelines in the State; and

(B) products transported through the operator's pipelines in the State;


(4) the manual that governs operating and maintaining pipeline facilities in the State;

(5) an emergency response plan describing the operator's procedures for responding to and containing releases, including—

(A) identifying specific action the operator will take on discovering a release;

(B) liaison procedures with State and local authorities for emergency response; and

(C) communication and alert procedures for immediately notifying State and local officials at the time of a release; and


(6) other information the Secretary considers useful to inform a State of the presence of pipeline facilities and operations in the State.


(e) Pipe Inventory Standards.—The Secretary shall prescribe minimum standards requiring an operator of a pipeline facility subject to this chapter to maintain for the Secretary, to the extent practicable, an inventory with appropriate information about the types of pipe used for the transportation of gas or hazardous liquid, as appropriate, in the operator's system and additional information, including the material's history and the leak history of the pipe. The inventory—

(1) for a gas pipeline facility, shall include an identification of each facility passing through an area described in regulations prescribed under section 60109 of this title but shall exclude equipment used with the compression of gas; and

(2) for a hazardous liquid pipeline facility, shall include an identification of each facility and gathering line passing through an area described in regulations prescribed under section 60109 of this title, whether the facility or gathering line otherwise is subject to this chapter, but shall exclude equipment associated only with the pipeline pumps or storage facilities.


(f) Standards as Accommodating "Smart Pigs".—

(1) Minimum safety standards.—The Secretary shall prescribe minimum safety standards requiring that—

(A) the design and construction of new natural gas transmission pipeline or hazardous liquid pipeline facilities, and

(B) when the replacement of existing natural gas transmission pipeline or hazardous liquid pipeline facilities or equipment is required, the replacement of such existing facilities be carried out, to the extent practicable, in a manner so as to accommodate the passage through such natural gas transmission pipeline or hazardous liquid pipeline facilities of instrumented internal inspection devices (commonly referred to as "smart pigs"). The Secretary may extend such standards to require existing natural gas transmission pipeline or hazardous liquid pipeline facilities, whose basic construction would accommodate an instrumented internal inspection device to be modified to permit the inspection of such facilities with instrumented internal inspection devices.


(2) Periodic inspections.—Not later than October 24, 1995, the Secretary shall prescribe, if necessary, additional standards requiring the periodic inspection of each pipeline the operator of the pipeline identifies under section 60109 of this title. The standards shall include any circumstances under which an inspection shall be conducted with an instrumented internal inspection device and, if the device is not required, use of an inspection method that is at least as effective as using the device in providing for the safety of the pipeline.


(g) Effective Dates.—A standard prescribed under this section and section 60110 of this title is effective on the 30th day after the Secretary prescribes the standard. However, the Secretary for good cause may prescribe a different effective date when required because of the time reasonably necessary to comply with the standard. The different date must be specified in the regulation prescribing the standard.

(h) Safety Condition Reports.—(1) The Secretary shall prescribe regulations requiring each operator of a pipeline facility (except a master meter) to submit to the Secretary a written report on any—

(A) condition that is a hazard to life, property, or the environment; and

(B) safety-related condition that causes or has caused a significant change or restriction in the operation of a pipeline facility.


(2) Submission of report.—As soon as practicable, but not later than 5 business days, after a representative of a person to whom this section applies first establishes that a condition described in paragraph (1) exists, the operator shall submit the report required under that paragraph to—

(A) the Secretary;

(B) the appropriate State authority or, where no appropriate State authority exists, to the Governor of a State where the subject of the Safety Related Condition report occurred; and

(C) the appropriate Tribe where the subject of the Safety Related Condition report occurred.


(3) Submission of report to other entities.—Upon request, a State authority or a Governor that receives a report submitted under this subsection may submit the report to any relevant emergency response or planning entity, including any—

(A) State emergency response commission established pursuant to section 301 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-To-Know Act of 1986 (42 U.S.C. 11001);

(B) Tribal emergency response commission or emergency planning committee (as defined in part 355 of title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (or a successor regulation));

(C) local emergency planning committee established pursuant to section 301 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-To-Know Act of 1986 (42 U.S.C. 11001); or

(D) other public agency responsible for emergency response.


(i) Carbon Dioxide Regulation.—

(1) Transportation in liquid state.—The Secretary shall regulate carbon dioxide transported by a hazardous liquid pipeline facility. The Secretary shall prescribe standards related to hazardous liquid to ensure the safe transportation of carbon dioxide by such a facility.

(2) Transportation in gaseous state.—

(A) Minimum safety standards.—The Secretary shall prescribe minimum safety standards for the transportation of carbon dioxide by pipeline in a gaseous state.

(B) Considerations.—In establishing the standards, the Secretary shall consider whether applying the minimum safety standards in part 195 of title 49, Code of Federal Regulations, as in effect on the date of enactment of this paragraph, for the transportation of carbon dioxide in a liquid state to the transportation of carbon dioxide in a gaseous state would ensure safety.


(3) Limitation on statutory construction.—Nothing in this subsection authorizes the Secretary to regulate piping or equipment used in the production, extraction, recovery, lifting, stabilization, separation, or treatment of carbon dioxide or the preparation of carbon dioxide for transportation by pipeline at production, refining, or manufacturing facilities.


(j) Emergency Flow Restricting Devices.—(1) Not later than October 24, 1994, the Secretary shall survey and assess the effectiveness of emergency flow restricting devices (including remotely controlled valves and check valves) and other procedures, systems, and equipment used to detect and locate hazardous liquid pipeline ruptures and minimize product releases from hazardous liquid pipeline facilities.

(2) Not later than 2 years after the survey and assessment are completed, the Secretary shall prescribe standards on the circumstances under which an operator of a hazardous liquid pipeline facility must use an emergency flow restricting device or other procedure, system, or equipment described in paragraph (1) of this subsection on the facility.

(k) Low-Stress Hazardous Liquid Pipelines.—

(1) Minimum standards.—Not later than December 31, 2007, the Secretary shall issue regulations subjecting low-stress hazardous liquid pipelines to the same standards and regulations as other hazardous liquid pipelines, except as provided in paragraph (3). The implementation of the applicable standards and regulatory requirements may be phased in. The regulations issued under this paragraph shall not apply to gathering lines.

(2) General prohibition against low internal stress exception.—Except as provided in paragraph (3), the Secretary may not provide an exception to the requirements of this chapter for a hazardous liquid pipeline because the pipeline operates at low internal stress.

(3) Limited exceptions.—The Secretary shall provide or continue in force exceptions to this subsection for low-stress hazardous liquid pipelines that—

(A) are subject to safety regulations of the United States Coast Guard; or

(B) serve refining, manufacturing, or truck, rail, or vessel terminal facilities if the pipeline is less than 1 mile long (measured outside the facility grounds) and does not cross an offshore area or a waterway currently used for commercial navigation,


until regulations issued under paragraph (1) become effective. After such regulations become effective, the Secretary may retain or remove those exceptions as appropriate.

(4) Relationship to other laws.—Nothing in this subsection shall be construed to prohibit or otherwise affect the applicability of any other statutory or regulatory exemption to any hazardous liquid pipeline.

(5) Definition.—For purposes of this subsection, the term "low-stress hazardous liquid pipeline" means a hazardous liquid pipeline that is operated in its entirety at a stress level of 20 percent or less of the specified minimum yield strength of the line pipe.

(6) Effective date.—The requirements of this subsection shall not take effect as to low-stress hazardous liquid pipeline operators before the effective date of the rules promulgated by the Secretary under this subsection.


(l) Updating Standards.—The Secretary shall, to the extent appropriate and practicable, update incorporated industry standards that have been adopted as part of the Federal pipeline safety regulatory program under this chapter.

(m) Inspections by Direct Assessment.—Not later than 1 year after the date of the enactment of this subsection, the Secretary shall issue regulations prescribing standards for inspection of a pipeline facility by direct assessment.

(n) Automatic and Remote-Controlled Shut-off Valves for New Transmission Pipelines.—

(1) In general.—Not later than 2 years after the date of enactment of this subsection, and after considering the factors specified in subsection (b)(2), the Secretary, if appropriate, shall require by regulation the use of automatic or remote-controlled shut-off valves, or equivalent technology, where economically, technically, and operationally feasible on transmission pipeline facilities constructed or entirely replaced after the date on which the Secretary issues the final rule containing such requirement.

(2) High-consequence area study.—

(A) Study.—The Comptroller General of the United States shall conduct a study on the ability of transmission pipeline facility operators to respond to a hazardous liquid or gas release from a pipeline segment located in a high-consequence area.

(B) Considerations.—In conducting the study, the Comptroller General shall consider the swiftness of leak detection and pipeline shutdown capabilities, the location of the nearest response personnel, and the costs, risks, and benefits of installing automatic and remote-controlled shut-off valves.

(C) Report.—Not later than 1 year after the date of enactment of this subsection, the Comptroller General shall submit to the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure and the Committee on Energy and Commerce of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate a report on the results of the study.


(o) Transportation-Related Oil Flow Lines.—

(1) Data collection.—The Secretary may collect geospatial or technical data on transportation-related oil flow lines, including unregulated transportation-related oil flow lines.

(2) Transportation-related oil flow line defined.—In this subsection, the term "transportation-related oil flow line" means a pipeline transporting oil off of the grounds of the well where it originated and across areas not owned by the producer, regardless of the extent to which the oil has been processed, if at all.

(3) Limitation.—Nothing in this subsection authorizes the Secretary to prescribe standards for the movement of oil through production, refining, or manufacturing facilities or through oil production flow lines located on the grounds of wells.


(p) Limitation on Incorporation of Documents by Reference.—Beginning 3 years after the date of enactment of this subsection, the Secretary may not issue a regulation pursuant to this chapter that incorporates by reference any documents or portions thereof unless the documents or portions thereof are made available to the public, free of charge.

(q) Gas Pipeline Leak Detection and Repair.—

(1) In general.—Not later than 1 year after the date of enactment of this subsection, the Secretary shall promulgate final regulations that require operators of regulated gathering lines (as defined pursuant to subsection (b) of section 60101 for purposes of subsection (a)(21) of that section) in a Class 2 location, Class 3 location, or Class 4 location, as determined under section 192.5 of title 49, Code of Federal Regulations, operators of new and existing gas transmission pipeline facilities, and operators of new and existing gas distribution pipeline facilities to conduct leak detection and repair programs—

(A) to meet the need for gas pipeline safety, as determined by the Secretary; and

(B) to protect the environment.


(2) Leak detection and repair programs.—

(A) Minimum performance standards.—The final regulations promulgated under paragraph (1) shall include, for the leak detection and repair programs described in that paragraph, minimum performance standards that reflect the capabilities of commercially available advanced technologies that, with respect to each pipeline covered by the programs, are appropriate for—

(i) the type of pipeline;

(ii) the location of the pipeline;

(iii) the material of which the pipeline is constructed; and

(iv) the materials transported by the pipeline.


(B) Requirement.—The leak detection and repair programs described in paragraph (1) shall be able to identify, locate, and categorize all leaks that—

(i) are hazardous to human safety or the environment; or

(ii) have the potential to become explosive or otherwise hazardous to human safety.


(3) Advanced leak detection technologies and practices.—

(A) In general.—The final regulations promulgated under paragraph (1) shall—

(i) require the use of advanced leak detection technologies and practices described in subparagraph (B);

(ii) identify any scenarios where operators may use leak detection practices that depend on human senses; and

(iii) include a schedule for repairing or replacing each leaking pipe, except a pipe with a leak so small that it poses no potential hazard, with appropriate deadlines.


(B) Advanced leak detection technologies and practices described.—The advanced leak detection technologies and practices referred to in subparagraph (A)(i) include—

(i) for new and existing gas distribution pipeline facilities, technologies and practices to detect pipeline leaks—

(I) through continuous monitoring on or along the pipeline; or

(II) through periodic surveys with handheld equipment, equipment mounted on mobile platforms, or other means using commercially available technology;


(ii) for new and existing gas transmission pipeline facilities, technologies and practices to detect pipeline leaks through—

(I) equipment that is capable of continuous monitoring; or

(II) periodic surveys with handheld equipment, equipment mounted on mobile platforms, or other means using commercially available technology; and


(iii) for regulated gathering lines in Class 2 locations, Class 3 locations, or Class 4 locations, technologies and practices to detect pipeline leaks through—

(I) equipment that is capable of continuous monitoring; or

(II) periodic surveys with handheld equipment, equipment mounted on mobile platforms, or other means using commercially available technology.


(4) Rules of construction.—

(A) Surveys and timelines.—In promulgating regulations under this subsection, the Secretary—

(i) may not reduce the frequency of surveys required under any other provision of this chapter or stipulated by regulation as of the date of enactment of this subsection; and

(ii) may not extend the duration of any timelines for the repair or remediation of leaks that are stipulated by regulation as of the date of enactment of this subsection.


(B) Application.—The limitations in this paragraph do not restrict the Secretary's ability to modify any regulations through proceedings separate from or subsequent to the final regulations required under paragraph (1).

(C) Existing authority.—Nothing in this subsection may be construed to alter the authority of the Secretary to regulate gathering lines as defined pursuant to section 60101.


(r) Emergency Response Plans.—Not later than 2 years after the date of enactment of this subsection, the Secretary shall update regulations to ensure that each emergency response plan developed by an operator of a distribution system under subsection (d)(5), includes written procedures for—

(1) establishing communication with first responders and other relevant public officials, as soon as practicable, beginning from the time of confirmed discovery, as determined by the Secretary, by the operator of a gas pipeline emergency involving a release of gas from a distribution system of that operator that results in—

(A) a fire related to an unintended release of gas;

(B) an explosion;

(C) 1 or more fatalities; or

(D) the unscheduled release of gas and shutdown of gas service to a significant number of customers, as determined by the Secretary;


(2) establishing general public communication through an appropriate channel—

(A) as soon as practicable, as determined by the Secretary, after a gas pipeline emergency described in paragraph (1); and

(B) that provides information regarding—

(i) the emergency described in subparagraph (A); and

(ii) the status of public safety; and


(3) the development and implementation of a voluntary, opt-in system that would allow operators of distribution systems to rapidly communicate with customers in the event of an emergency.


(s) Operations and Maintenance Manuals.—Not later than 2 years after the date of enactment of this subsection, the Secretary shall update regulations to ensure that each procedural manual for operations, maintenance, and emergencies developed by an operator of a distribution pipeline under subsection (d)(4), includes written procedures for—

(1) responding to overpressurization indications, including specific actions and an order of operations for immediately reducing pressure in or shutting down portions of the gas distribution system, if necessary; and

(2) a detailed procedure for the management of the change process, which shall—

(A) be applied to significant technology, equipment, procedural, and organizational changes to the distribution system; and

(B) ensure that relevant qualified personnel, such as an engineer with a professional engineer licensure, subject matter expert, or other employee who possesses the necessary knowledge, experience, and skills regarding natural gas distribution systems, review and certify construction plans for accuracy, completeness, and correctness.


(t) Other Pipeline Safety Practices.—

(1) Records.—Not later than 2 years after the date of enactment of this subsection, the Secretary shall promulgate regulations to require an operator of a distribution system—

(A) to identify and manage traceable, reliable, and complete records, including maps and other drawings, critical to ensuring proper pressure controls for a gas distribution system, and updating these records as needed, while collecting and identifying other records necessary for risk analysis on an opportunistic basis; and

(B) to ensure that the records required under subparagraph (A) are—

(i) accessible to all personnel responsible for performing or overseeing relevant construction or engineering work; and

(ii) submitted to, or made available for inspection by, the Secretary or the relevant State authority with a certification in effect under section 60105.


(2) Presence of qualified employees.—

(A) In general.—Not later than 180 days after the date of enactment of this subsection, the Secretary shall promulgate regulations to require that not less than 1 agent of an operator of a distribution system who is qualified to perform relevant covered tasks, as determined by the Secretary, shall monitor gas pressure at the district regulator station or at an alternative site with equipment capable of ensuring proper pressure controls and have the capability to promptly shut down the flow of gas or control over pressurization at a district regulator station during any construction project that has the potential to cause a hazardous overpressurization at that station, including tie-ins and abandonment of distribution lines and mains, based on an evaluation, conducted by the operator, of threats that could result in unsafe operation.

(B) Exclusion.—In promulgating regulations under subparagraph (A), the Secretary shall ensure that those regulations do not apply to a district regulating station that has a monitoring system and the capability for remote or automatic shutoff.


(3) District regulator stations.—

(A) In general.—Not later than 1 year after the date of enactment of this subsection, the Secretary shall promulgate regulations to require that each operator of a distribution system assesses and upgrades, as appropriate, each district regulator station of the operator to ensure that—

(i) the risk of the gas pressure in the distribution system exceeding, by a common mode of failure, the maximum allowable operating pressure (as described in section 192.623 of title 49, Code of Federal Regulations (or a successor regulation)) allowed under Federal law (including regulations) is minimized;

(ii) the gas pressure of a low-pressure distribution system is monitored, particularly at or near the location of critical pressure-control equipment;

(iii) the regulator station has secondary or backup pressure-relieving or overpressure-protection safety technology, such as a relief valve or automatic shutoff valve, or other pressure-limiting devices appropriate for the configuration and siting of the station and, in the case of a regulator station that employs the primary and monitor regulator design, the operator shall eliminate the common mode of failure or provide backup protection capable of either shutting the flow of gas, relieving gas to the atmosphere to fully protect the distribution system from overpressurization events, or there must be technology in place to eliminate a common mode of failure; and

(iv) if the Secretary determines that it is not operationally possible for an operator to implement the requirements under clause (iii), the Secretary shall require such operator to identify actions in their plan that minimize the risk of an overpressurization event.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1304; Pub. L. 104–304, §§4, 20(g), Oct. 12, 1996, 110 Stat. 3794, 3805; Pub. L. 107–355, §§20(a)(1), (2)(A), 23, Dec. 17, 2002, 116 Stat. 3009, 3011; Pub. L. 109–468, §4, Dec. 29, 2006, 120 Stat. 3490; Pub. L. 112–90, §§4, 12, 15, 18(b), 24, Jan. 3, 2012, 125 Stat. 1906, 1913, 1915, 1916, 1919; Pub. L. 113–30, §1, Aug. 9, 2013, 127 Stat. 510; Pub. L. 116–260, div. R, title I, §§113, 118, 121, title II, §§203, 204, 206, Dec. 27, 2020, 134 Stat. 2228, 2234, 2236, 2239-2241.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
60102(a)(1) 49 App.:1672(a)(1) (1st, 2d sentences). Aug. 12, 1968, Pub. L. 90–481, §3(a)(1) (1st, 2d, 7th, 8th sentences), 82 Stat. 721; Oct. 11, 1976, Pub. L. 94–477, §4(1), 90 Stat. 2073; Nov. 30, 1979, Pub. L. 96–129, §§101(a), 109(c)–(e), 93 Stat. 990, 996; Oct. 24, 1992, Pub. L. 102–508, §101(a)(1), (2), 106 Stat. 3290.
  49 App.:1672(a)(1) (3d sentence). Aug. 12, 1968, Pub. L. 90–481, 82 Stat. 720, §3(a)(1) (3d sentence); added Oct. 31, 1988, Pub. L. 100–561, §101, 102 Stat. 2806; Oct. 24, 1992, Pub. L. 102–508, §106(1), 102 Stat. 3293.
  49 App.:2002(a)(1) (1st, 2d sentences). Nov. 30, 1979, Pub. L. 96–129, 203(a)(1), 93 Stat. 1004; Oct. 22, 1986, Pub. L. 99–516, §3(b)(1)(A), 100 Stat. 2966; Oct. 24, 1992, Pub. L. 102–508, §201(a)(1), 106 Stat. 3299.
  49 App.:2002(c) (1st sentence). Nov. 30, 1979, Pub. L. 96–129, §203(c) (1st sentence), (e), (f), 93 Stat. 1004.
  49 App.:2002(c) (2d sentence). Nov. 30, 1979, Pub. L. 96–129, 93 Stat. 989, §203(c) (2d sentence); added Oct. 31, 1988, Pub. L. 100–561, §201, 102 Stat. 2809; Oct. 24, 1992, Pub. L. 102–508, §205(1), 106 Stat. 3302.
60102(a)(2) 49 App.:1672(a)(1) (4th, 5th sentences). Aug. 12, 1968, Pub. L. 90–481, 82 Stat. 720, §3(a)(1) (4th, 5th sentences); added Oct. 24, 1992, Pub. L. 102–508, §106(2), 102 Stat. 3293.
  49 App.:2002(c) (3d, 4th sentences). Nov. 30, 1979, Pub. L. 96–129, 93 Stat. 989, §203(c) (3d, 4th sentences); added Oct. 24, 1992, Pub. L. 102–508, §205(2), 106 Stat. 3302.
60102(b) 49 App.:1672(a)(1) (7th, 8th sentences).
  49 App.:2002(a)(1) (last sentence).
  49 App.:2002(b) (1st sentence). Nov. 30, 1979, Pub. L. 96–129, §203(b) (1st sentence), 93 Stat. 1004; Oct. 24, 1992, Pub. L. 102–508, §201(a)(3), 106 Stat. 3300.
60102(c)(1), (2) 49 App.:1672(a)(2). Aug. 12, 1968, Pub. L. 90–481, 82 Stat. 720, §3(a)(2); added Nov. 30, 1979, Pub. L. 96–129, §§101(a), 109(c), 93 Stat. 990, 996.
60102(c)(3) 49 App.:2002(e).
60102(d) 49 App.:1672(e). Aug. 12, 1968, Pub. L. 90–481, 82 Stat. 720, §3(e); added Oct. 31, 1988, Pub. L. 100–561, §102, 102 Stat. 2806; Oct. 24, 1992, Pub. L. 102–508, §102(b), 106 Stat. 3291.
  49 App.:2002(i). Nov. 30, 1979, Pub. L. 96–129, 93 Stat. 989, §203(i); added Oct. 31, 1988, Pub. L. 100–561, §202, 102 Stat. 2810; Oct. 24, 1992, Pub. L. 102–508, §202(b), 106 Stat. 3301.
60102(e) 49 App.:1672(f). Aug. 12, 1968, Pub. L. 90–481, 82 Stat. 720, §3(f); added Oct. 31, 1988, Pub. L. 100–561, §102, 102 Stat. 2806; Oct. 24, 1992, Pub. L. 102–508, §102(a)(1), 106 Stat. 3290.
  49 App.:2002(j). Nov. 30, 1979, Pub. L. 96–129, 93 Stat. 989, §203(j); added Oct. 31, 1988, Pub. L. 100–561, §202, 102 Stat. 2810; Oct. 24, 1992, Pub. L. 102–508, §202(a)(1), 106 Stat. 3300.
60102(f) 49 App.:1672(g). Aug. 12, 1968, Pub. L. 90–481, 82 Stat. 720, §3(g); added Oct. 31, 1988, Pub. L. 100–561, §108(b), 102 Stat. 2808; Oct. 24, 1992, Pub. L. 102–508, §103, 106 Stat. 3291.
  49 App.:2002(k). Nov. 30, 1979, Pub. L. 96–129, 93 Stat. 989, §203(k); added Oct. 31, 1988, Pub. L. 100–561, §207(b), 102 Stat. 2812; Oct. 24, 1992, Pub. L. 102–508, §203, 106 Stat. 3301.
60102(g) 49 App.:1672(b). Aug. 12, 1968, Pub. L. 90–481, §3(b), 82 Stat. 721; Nov. 30, 1979, Pub. L. 96–129, §109(c), (f), 93 Stat. 996.
  49 App.:2002(f).
60102(h) 49 App.:1672(a)(3). Aug. 12, 1968, Pub. L. 90–481, 82 Stat. 720, §3(a)(3); added Oct. 22, 1986, Pub. L. 99–516, §3(a)(1), 100 Stat. 2965; Oct. 24, 1992, Pub. L. 102–508, §101(a)(3), 106 Stat. 3290.
  49 App.:2002(a)(2). Nov. 30, 1979, Pub. L. 96–129, 93 Stat. 989, §203(a)(2); added Oct. 22, 1986, Pub. L. 99–516, §3(b)(1)(B), 100 Stat. 2966; Oct. 24, 1992, Pub. L. 102–508, §201(a)(2), 106 Stat. 3300.
60102(i) 49 App.:2015. Nov. 30, 1979, Pub. L. 96–129, 93 Stat. 989, §219; added Oct. 31, 1988, Pub. L. 100–561, §211(a), 102 Stat. 2813.
  49 App.:2015 (note). Oct. 31, 1988, Pub. L. 100–561, §211(c), 102 Stat. 2813.
60102(j) 49 App.:2002(n). Nov. 30, 1979, Pub. L. 96–129, 93 Stat. 989, §203(n); added Oct. 24, 1992, Pub. L. 102–508, §212, 106 Stat. 3304.
60102(k) 49 App.:2002(b) (last sentence). Nov. 30, 1979, Pub. L. 96–129, 93 Stat. 989, §203(b) (last sentence); added Oct. 24, 1992, Pub. L. 102–508, §206, 106 Stat. 3302.

In this section, the word "Federal" is omitted as surplus.

In subsection (a)(1), before clause (A), the word "prescribe" is substituted for "by regulation, establish" for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the United States Code. Standards are made applicable to transporters of gas and to owners and operators of gas pipeline facilities because of 49 App.:1677(a)(1), restated in section 60118 of the revised title.

In subsection (b), before clause (1), the words "Except as provided in section 60103 of this title" are added for clarity. In clause (3), the word "proposed" is omitted as surplus.

In subsection (c)(1), before clause (A), the words "Not later than 12 months after November 30, 1979" are omitted as executed. The word "gas" is added because of the restatement. In clause (B), the word "specific" is omitted as surplus. In clause (C), the words "will protect" are substituted for "is being carried out in a manner . . . to assure protection" to eliminate unnecessary words.

In subsection (c)(2) and (3), the words "to the public with respect to that operator's pipeline facilities which are" are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (c)(2), the word "prescribe" is substituted for "provide" for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the Code.

In subsection (c)(3), the words "participate in a public safety program meeting the requirements of paragraph (1) of this subsection" are substituted for 49 App.:2002(e)(1) to eliminate unnecessary words.

In subsection (d), before clause (1), the words "Not later than 1 year after October 31, 1988" are omitted as obsolete. The word "prescribe" is substituted for "establish by regulation" for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the Code. The word "maintain" is substituted for "provide, and revise as necessary" and "completed and maintained" to eliminate unnecessary words. The words "as the case may be" are omitted as surplus. In clause (2), before subclause (A), the words "map or" and "appropriate" are omitted as surplus. In clause (5)(B), the word "government" is omitted as surplus and for consistency in this chapter. In clause (6), the words "and necessary" are omitted as surplus.

In subsections (e) and (f), the word "prescribe" is substituted for "by regulation, establish" for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the Code.

In subsection (e), before clause (1), the words "not later than 1 year after October 31, 1988" are omitted as obsolete. The words "complete and" and "and to revise as appropriate thereafter" are omitted as surplus.

In subsections (e)(2) and (k), the words "regulation under" are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (g), the words "and amendments thereto" and "recited" are omitted as surplus. The word "different" is substituted for "earlier or later" to eliminate unnecessary words. The words "or amending" are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (h)(1), before clause (A), the words "Not later than 12 months after October 22, 1986" are omitted as obsolete.

In subsection (i), the words "In addition to hazardous liquids", "under this chapter", and "as necessary and appropriate" are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (k), the words "In exercising any discretion under this chapter" are omitted as surplus. The word "because" is substituted for "on the basis of the fact that" to eliminate unnecessary words.

References in Text

The date of enactment of the Accountable Pipeline Safety and Accountability Act of 1996, referred to in subsec. (c)(4)(A), probably means the date of enactment of the Accountable Pipeline Safety and Partnership Act of 1996, Pub. L. 104–304, which amended this section and was approved Oct. 12, 1996.

The date of enactment of this paragraph, referred to in subsec. (i)(2)(B), and the date of enactment of this subsection, referred to in subsecs. (n) and (p), are the date of enactment of Pub. L. 112–90, which was approved Jan. 3, 2012.

The date of the enactment of this subsection, referred to in subsec. (m), is the date of enactment of Pub. L. 107–355, which was approved Dec. 17, 2002.

The date of enactment of this subsection, referred to in subsecs. (q) to (t), is the date of enactment of Pub. L. 116–260, which was approved Dec. 27, 2020.

Amendments

2020—Subsec. (b)(5). Pub. L. 116–260, §118, substituted "chapter" for "Chapter" and inserted ", including safety and environmental benefits," after "benefits".

Subsec. (h)(2), (3). Pub. L. 116–260, §121, added pars. (2) and (3) and struck out former par. (2) which read as follows: "The Secretary must receive the report not later than 5 working days after a representative of a person to which this section applies first establishes that the condition exists. Notice of the condition shall be given concurrently to appropriate State authorities."

Subsec. (q). Pub. L. 116–260, §113, added subsec. (q).

Subsec. (r). Pub. L. 116–260, §203, added subsec. (r).

Subsec. (s). Pub. L. 116–260, §204, added subsec. (s).

Subsec. (t). Pub. L. 116–260, §206, added subsec. (t).

2013—Subsec. (p). Pub. L. 113–30 substituted "3 years" for "1 year" and struck out "guidance or" before "a regulation" and ", on an Internet Web site" before period at end.

2012—Subsec. (a)(2)(A). Pub. L. 112–90, §18(b), substituted "any or all of the owners or operators" for "owners and operators".

Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 112–90, §15, designated existing provisions as par. (1), inserted heading, and added pars. (2) and (3).

Subsec. (j)(3). Pub. L. 112–90, §4(1), struck out par. (3). Text read as follows:

"(A) Not later than June 1, 1998, the Secretary shall survey and assess the effectiveness of remotely controlled valves to shut off the flow of natural gas in the event of a rupture of an interstate natural gas pipeline facility and shall make a determination about whether the use of remotely controlled valves is technically and economically feasible and would reduce risks associated with a rupture of an interstate natural gas pipeline facility.

"(B) Not later than one year after the survey and assessment are completed, if the Secretary has determined that the use of remotely controlled valves is technically and economically feasible and would reduce risks associated with a rupture of an interstate natural gas pipeline facility, the Secretary shall prescribe standards under which an operator of an interstate natural gas pipeline facility must use a remotely controlled valve. These standards shall include, but not be limited to, requirements for high-density population areas."

Subsec. (n). Pub. L. 112–90, §4(2), added subsec. (n).

Subsec. (o). Pub. L. 112–90, §12, added subsec. (o).

Subsec. (p). Pub. L. 112–90, §24, added subsec. (p).

2006—Subsec. (k). Pub. L. 109–468 amended heading and text of subsec. (k) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "The Secretary may not provide an exception to this chapter for a hazardous liquid pipeline facility only because the facility operates at low internal stress."

2002Pub. L. 107–355, §20(a)(2)(A), substituted "Purpose and general authority" for "General authority" in section catchline.

Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 107–355, §20(a)(1), inserted subsec. heading, added par. (1), redesignated former par. (1) as (2), realigned margins, and substituted "Minimum safety standards" for "Minimum Safety Standards" in heading and "The Secretary" for "The Secretary of Transportation" in introductory provisions, and redesignated former par. (2) as (3) and inserted heading.

Subsec. (m). Pub. L. 107–355, §23, added subsec. (m).

1996—Subsec. (a)(1)(A). Pub. L. 104–304, §4(a)(1), struck out "transporters of gas and hazardous liquid and to" after "apply to".

Subsec. (a)(1)(C). Pub. L. 104–304, §4(a)(2), added subpar. (C) and struck out former subpar. (C) which read as follows: "shall include a requirement that all individuals responsible for the operation and maintenance of pipeline facilities be tested for qualifications and certified to operate and maintain those facilities."

Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 104–304, §4(a)(3), added par. (2) and struck out former par. (2) which read as follows: "As the Secretary considers appropriate, the operator of a pipeline facility may make the certification under paragraph (1)(C) of this subsection. Testing and certification under paragraph (1)(C) shall address the ability to recognize and react appropriately to abnormal operating conditions that may indicate a dangerous situation or a condition exceeding design limits."

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 104–304, §4(b), reenacted heading without change and amended text generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "A standard prescribed under subsection (a) of this section shall be practicable and designed to meet the need for gas pipeline safety, for safely transporting hazardous liquid, and for protecting the environment. Except as provided in section 60103 of this title, when prescribing the standard the Secretary shall consider—

"(1) relevant available—

"(A) gas pipeline safety information; or

"(B) hazardous liquid pipeline information;

"(2) the appropriateness of the standard for the particular type of pipeline transportation or facility;

"(3) the reasonableness of the standard; and

"(4) the extent to which the standard will contribute to public safety and the protection of the environment."

Subsec. (c)(4). Pub. L. 104–304, §4(g), added par. (4).

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 104–304, §4(c), inserted "as required by the standards prescribed under this chapter" after "operating the facility", substituted "to make the information available" for "to provide the information", and inserted "as determined by the Secretary" after "to the Secretary and an appropriate State official".

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 104–304, §4(d)(2), substituted "transportation" for "transmission" in introductory provisions.

Pub. L. 104–304, §4(d)(1), in introductory provisions, directed striking out "and, to the extent the Secretary considers necessary, an operator of a gathering line that is not a regulated gather line (as defined under section 60101(b)(2) of this title)," after "subject to this chapter", which was executed by striking out text which read in part "regulated gathering line" instead of "regulated gather line", to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

Subsec. (f)(1). Pub. L. 104–304, §4(e)(1), added heading and text of par. (1) and struck out former par. (1) which read as follows: "The Secretary shall prescribe minimum safety standards requiring that the design and construction of a new gas pipeline transmission facility or hazardous liquid pipeline facility, and the required replacement of an existing gas pipeline transmission facility, hazardous liquid pipeline facility, or equipment, be carried out, to the extent practicable, in a way that accommodates the passage through the facility of an instrumented internal inspection device (commonly referred to as a 'smart pig'). The Secretary may apply the standard to an existing gas or hazardous liquid transmission facility and require the facility to be changed to allow the facility to be inspected with an instrumented internal inspection device if the basic construction of the facility will accommodate the device."

Subsec. (f)(2). Pub. L. 104–304, §§4(e)(2), 20(g), inserted heading, realigned margins, inserted ", if necessary, additional" after "the Secretary shall prescribe", and substituted "standards" for "regulations" in two places.

Subsecs. (i), (j)(2). Pub. L. 104–304, §20(g), substituted "standards" for "regulations".

Subsec. (j)(3). Pub. L. 104–304, §4(h), added par. (3).

Subsec. (l). Pub. L. 104–304, §4(f), added subsec. (l).

Interstate Drug and Alcohol Oversight

Pub. L. 116–260, div. R, title I, §117, Dec. 27, 2020, 134 Stat. 2234, provided that:

"(a) In General.—Not later than 18 months after the date of enactment of this Act [Dec. 27, 2020], the Secretary [of Transportation] shall amend the auditing program for the drug and alcohol regulations in part 199 of title 49, Code of Federal Regulations, to improve the efficiency and processes of those regulations as applied to—

"(1) operators; and

"(2) pipeline contractors working for multiple operators in multiple States.

"(b) Requirement.—In carrying out subsection (a), the Secretary shall minimize duplicative audits of the same operators, and the contractors working for those operators, by the Administration and multiple State agencies.

"(c) Rule of Construction.—Nothing in this section may be construed to require modification of the inspection or enforcement authority of any Federal agency or State."

Rulemaking on Shut-Off Valves and Hazardous Liquid Pipeline Facilities Leak Detection Systems

Pub. L. 116–94, div. H, title I, Dec. 20, 2019, 133 Stat. 2968, provided in part: "That no later than 90 days after enactment of this Act [Dec. 20, 2019], the Secretary of Transportation shall initiate a rulemaking on automatic and remote-controlled shut-off valves and hazardous liquid pipeline facilities leak detection systems as required under section 4 [amending this section] and section 8 [enacting provisions set out as a note under section 60108 of this title] of the Pipeline Safety, Regulatory Certainty, and Job Creation Act of 2011 (Public Law 112–90), respectively, and shall issue a final rule no later than one year after enactment of this Act."

Rulemaking To Expand Applicability of Comprehensive Oil Spill Response Plans

Pub. L. 116–6, div. G, title I, Feb. 15, 2019, 133 Stat. 427, provided in part: "That the Secretary of Transportation shall issue a final rule to expand the applicability of comprehensive oil spill response plans within 90 days of enactment of this Act [Feb. 15, 2019]".

Pub. L. 115–141, div. L, title I, Mar. 23, 2018, 132 Stat. 1001, provided in part: "That the Secretary of Transportation shall issue a final rule to expand the applicability of comprehensive oil spill response plans within 5 days of enactment of this Act [Mar. 23, 2018]."

Pub. L. 115–31, div. K, title I, May 5, 2017, 131 Stat. 752, provided in part: "That the Secretary of Transportation shall issue a final rule to expand the applicability of comprehensive oil spill response plans no later than August 1, 2017".

Pub. L. 114–113, div. L, title I, Dec. 18, 2015, 129 Stat. 2861, provided in part: "That no later than 90 days after the date of enactment of this Act [Dec. 18, 2015], the Secretary of Transportation shall initiate a rulemaking to expand the applicability of comprehensive oil spill response plans, and shall issue a final rule no later than one year after the date of enactment of this Act."

Response Plans

Pub. L. 114–183, §18, June 22, 2016, 130 Stat. 527, provided that: "Each owner or operator of a hazardous liquid pipeline facility required to prepare a response plan pursuant to part 194 of title 49, Code of Federal Regulations, shall—

"(1) consider the impact of a discharge into or on navigable waters or adjoining shorelines, including those that may be covered in whole or in part by ice; and

"(2) include procedures and resources for responding to such discharge in the plan."

Standards To Implement NTSB Recommendations

Pub. L. 109–468, §19, Dec. 29, 2006, 120 Stat. 3498, as amended by Pub. L. 110–244, title III, §302(j), June 6, 2008, 122 Stat. 1618, provided that: "Not later than June 1, 2008, the Secretary of Transportation shall issue standards that implement the following recommendations contained in the National Transportation Safety Board's report entitled 'Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) in Liquid Pipelines' and adopted November 29, 2005:

"(1) Implementation of the American Petroleum Institute's Recommended Practice 1165 for the use of graphics on the supervisory control and data acquisition screens.

"(2) Implementation of a standard for pipeline companies to review and audit alarms on monitoring equipment.

"(3) Implementation of standards for pipeline controller training that include simulator or noncomputerized simulations for controller recognition of abnormal pipeline operating conditions, in particular, leak events."

State Pipeline Safety Advisory Committees

Pub. L. 107–355, §24, Dec. 17, 2002, 116 Stat. 3011, provided that: "Within 90 days after receiving recommendations for improvements to pipeline safety from an advisory committee appointed by the Governor of any State, the Secretary of Transportation shall respond in writing to the committee setting forth what action, if any, the Secretary will take on those recommendations and the Secretary's reasons for acting or not acting upon any of the recommendations."

1 See References in Text note below.

§60103. Standards for liquefied natural gas pipeline facilities

(a) Location Standards.—The Secretary of Transportation shall prescribe minimum safety standards for deciding on the location of a new liquefied natural gas pipeline facility. In prescribing a standard, the Secretary shall consider the—

(1) kind and use of the facility;

(2) existing and projected population and demographic characteristics of the location;

(3) existing and proposed land use near the location;

(4) natural physical aspects of the location;

(5) medical, law enforcement, and fire prevention capabilities near the location that can cope with a risk caused by the facility;

(6) need to encourage remote siting; and

(7) national security.


(b) Design, Installation, Construction, Inspection, and Testing Standards.—The Secretary of Transportation shall prescribe minimum safety standards for designing, installing, constructing, initially inspecting, and initially testing a new liquefied natural gas pipeline facility. When prescribing a standard, the Secretary shall consider—

(1) the characteristics of material to be used in constructing the facility and of alternative material;

(2) design factors;

(3) the characteristics of the liquefied natural gas to be stored or converted at, or transported by, the facility; and

(4) the public safety factors of the design and of alternative designs, particularly the ability to prevent and contain a liquefied natural gas spill.


(c) Nonapplication.—(1) Except as provided in paragraph (2) of this subsection, a design, location, installation, construction, initial inspection, or initial testing standard prescribed under this chapter after March 1, 1978, does not apply to an existing liquefied natural gas pipeline facility if the standard is to be applied because of authority given—

(A) under this chapter; or

(B) under another law, and the standard is not prescribed at the time the authority is applied.


(2)(A) Any design, installation, construction, initial inspection, or initial testing standard prescribed under this chapter after March 1, 1978, may provide that the standard applies to any part of a replacement component of a liquefied natural gas pipeline facility if the component or part is placed in service after the standard is prescribed and application of the standard—

(i) does not make the component or part incompatible with other components or parts; or

(ii) is not impracticable otherwise.


(B) Any location standard prescribed under this chapter after March 1, 1978, does not apply to any part of a replacement component of an existing liquefied natural gas pipeline facility.

(3) A design, installation, construction, initial inspection, or initial testing standard does not apply to a liquefied natural gas pipeline facility existing when the standard is adopted.

(d) Operation and Maintenance Standards.—The Secretary of Transportation shall prescribe minimum operating and maintenance standards for a liquefied natural gas pipeline facility. In prescribing a standard, the Secretary shall consider—

(1) the conditions, features, and type of equipment and structures that make up or are used in connection with the facility;

(2) the fire prevention and containment equipment at the facility;

(3) security measures to prevent an intentional act that could cause a liquefied natural gas accident;

(4) maintenance procedures and equipment;

(5) the training of personnel in matters specified by this subsection; and

(6) other factors and conditions related to the safe handling of liquefied natural gas.


(e) Effective Dates.—A standard prescribed under this section is effective on the 30th day after the Secretary of Transportation prescribes the standard. However, the Secretary for good cause may prescribe a different effective date when required because of the time reasonably necessary to comply with the standard. The different date must be specified in the regulation prescribing the standard.

(f) Contingency Plans.—A new liquefied natural gas pipeline facility may be operated only after the operator submits an adequate contingency plan that states the action to be taken if a liquefied natural gas accident occurs. The Secretary of Energy or appropriate State or local authority shall decide if the plan is adequate.

(g) Effect on Other Standards.—This section does not preclude applying a standard prescribed under section 60102 of this title to a gas pipeline facility (except a liquefied natural gas pipeline facility) associated with a liquefied natural gas pipeline facility.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1307; Pub. L. 114–183, §27(a), June 22, 2016, 130 Stat. 531.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
60103(a) 49 App.:1674a(a) (1)(A), (d)(1), (e). Aug. 12, 1968, Pub. L. 90–481, 82 Stat. 720, §6; added Nov. 30, 1979, Pub. L. 96–129, §152(a), 93 Stat. 999.
60103(b) 49 App.:1674a(a) (1)(B), (2), (d)(2), (e).
60103(c)(1), (2) 49 App.:1674a(c)(1).
60103(c)(3) 49 App.:1674a(c)(3).
60103(d) 49 App.:1674a(b), (d)(3), (e).
60103(e) 49 App.:1674a(f).
60103(f) 49 App.:1674a(a)(3).
60103(g) 49 App.:1674a(c)(2).

In subsections (a), (b), and (d), the words "general safety" are omitted as surplus. The text of 49 App.:1674a(e) is omitted for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the United States Code.

In subsections (a) and (b), before each clause (1), the words "Not later than 180 days after November 30, 1979" are omitted as executed. The word "prescribe" is substituted for "establish by regulation" for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the Code.

In subsection (a), before clause (1), the words "with respect to standards relating to the location of any new LNG facility" are omitted because of the restatement. In clause (2), the word "involved" is omitted as surplus. In clause (4), the words "meteorological, geological, topographical, seismic, and other" are omitted as surplus. In clause (5), the word "existing" is omitted as surplus.

In subsection (b), before clause (1), the text of 49 App.:1674a(a)(2) (1st sentence) is omitted as executed. The text of 49 App.:1674a(a)(2) (last sentence) is omitted as surplus. The words "with respect to standards applicable to the design, installation, construction, initial inspection, and initial testing of any new LNG facility" are omitted because of the restatement. In clause (1), the words "thermal resistance and other" are omitted as surplus. In clause (2), the words "(such as multiple diking, insulated concrete, and vapor containment barriers)" are omitted as surplus. In clause (3), the words "(for example, whether it is to be in a liquid or semisolid state)" are omitted as surplus. In clause (4), the words "under such a design" are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (c)(1) and (2), the word "prescribed" is substituted for "issued" for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the Code.

In subsection (c)(1), before clause (A), the words "if the standard is to be applied" are added for clarity. The word "either" is omitted as surplus. In clause (B), the word "Federal" is omitted as surplus. The words "the authority is applied" are substituted for "such authority was exercised" for clarity.

In subsection (c)(2)(A), before clause (i), the words "design, installation, construction, initial inspection, or initial testing standard prescribed under this chapter after March 1, 1978" are substituted for "Any such standard (other than one affecting location)" for clarity. In clause (i), the words "of the facility involved" are omitted as surplus. In clause (ii), the word "otherwise" is omitted as surplus.

In subsection (d), before clause (1), the words "Not later than 270 days after November 30, 1979" are omitted as executed. The words "with respect to standards for the operation and maintance [sic] of any LNG facility" are omitted because of the restatement. In clause (3), the words "to be used with respect to the operation of such facility" and "sabotage or other" are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (e), the text of 49 App.:1674a(f) (related to 49 App.:1672(a)(1) (8th, last sentences), (c), and (d)) is omitted as surplus because those provisions apply to all standards prescribed under the Natural Gas Pipeline Safety Act of 1968 (Public Law 90–481, 82 Stat. 720).

In subsection (f), the words "Secretary of Energy" are substituted for "Department of Energy" because of 42:7131. The words "or local" are added for clarity. The words "in the case of any facility not subject to the jurisdiction of the Department under the Natural Gas Act" are omitted as surplus.

Amendments

2016—Subsec. (a)(7). Pub. L. 114–183 added par. (7).

Savings Clause

Pub. L. 114–183, §27(c), June 22, 2016, 130 Stat. 532, provided that: "Nothing in this section [amending this section and enacting provisions set out as a note below] shall be construed to limit the Secretary's authority under chapter 601 of title 49, United States Code, to regulate liquefied natural gas pipeline facilities."

Updates to Standards for Liquefied Natural Gas Facilities

Pub. L. 116–260, div. R, title I, §110, Dec. 27, 2020, 134 Stat. 2224, provided that:

"(a) In General.—Not later than 3 years after the date of enactment of this Act [Dec. 27, 2020], the Secretary [of Transportation] shall—

"(1) review the minimum operating and maintenance standards prescribed under section 60103(d) of title 49, United States Code; and

"(2) based on the review under paragraph (1), update the standards described in that paragraph applicable to large-scale liquefied natural gas facilities (other than peak shaving facilities) to provide for a risk-based regulatory approach for such facilities, consistent with this section.

"(b) Scope.—In updating the minimum operating and maintenance standards under subsection (a)(2), the Secretary shall ensure that all regulations, guidance, and internal documents—

"(1) are developed and applied in a manner consistent with this section; and

"(2) achieve a level of safety that is equivalent to, or greater than, the level of safety required by the standards prescribed as of the date of enactment of this Act under—

"(A) section 60103(d) of title 49, United States Code; and

"(B) part 193 of title 49, Code of Federal Regulations (as in effect on the date of enactment of this Act).

"(c) Requirements.—The updates to the operating and maintenance standards required under subsection (a)(2) shall, at a minimum, require operators—

"(1) to develop and maintain written safety information identifying hazards associated with—

"(A) the processes of liquefied natural gas conversion, storage, and transport;

"(B) equipment used in the processes; and

"(C) technology used in the processes;

"(2) to conduct a hazard assessment, including the identification of potential sources of accidental releases;

"(3)(A) to consult with employees and representatives of employees on the development and execution of hazard assessments under paragraph (2); and

"(B) to provide employees access to the records of the hazard assessments and any other records required under the updated standards;

"(4) to establish a system to respond to the findings of a hazard assessment conducted under paragraph (2) that addresses prevention, mitigation, and emergency responses;

"(5) to review, when a design change occurs, the most recent hazard assessment conducted under paragraph (2) and the response system established under paragraph (4);

"(6) to develop and implement written operating procedures for the processes of liquefied natural gas conversion, storage, and transport;

"(7)(A) to provide written safety and operating information to employees; and

"(B) to train employees in operating procedures with an emphasis on addressing hazards and using safe practices;

"(8) to ensure contractors and contract employees are provided appropriate information and training;

"(9) to train and educate employees and contractors in emergency response;

"(10) to establish a quality assurance program to ensure that equipment, maintenance materials, and spare parts relating to the operations and maintenance of liquefied natural gas facilities are fabricated and installed consistent with design specifications;

"(11) to establish maintenance systems for critical process-related equipment, including written procedures, employee training, appropriate inspections, and testing of that equipment to ensure ongoing mechanical integrity;

"(12) to conduct pre-start-up safety reviews of all newly installed or modified equipment;

"(13) to establish and implement written procedures to manage change to processes of liquefied natural gas conversion, storage, and transport, technology, equipment, and facilities; and

"(14)(A) to investigate each incident that results in, or could have resulted in—

"(i) loss of life;

"(ii) destruction of private property; or

"(iii) a major accident; and

"(B) to have operating personnel—

"(i) review any findings of an investigation under subparagraph (A); and

"(ii) if appropriate, take responsive measures.

"(d) Submission and Approval.—

"(1) In general.—The Secretary shall require that operators that are subject to the regulations under subsection (a)(2) submit to the Secretary for approval a plan for the implementation of the requirements described in subsection (c).

"(2) Requirement.—The implementation plan described in paragraph (1) shall include—

"(A) an anticipated schedule for the implementation of the requirements described in subsection (c); and

"(B) an overview of the process for implementation.

"(e) Inspection and Compliance Assurance.—

"(1) Determination of inadequate programs.—If the Secretary determines during an inspection carried out under chapter 601 of title 49, United States Code, that an operator's implementation of the requirements described in subsection (c) does not comply with the requirements of that chapter (including any regulations promulgated under that chapter), has not been adequately implemented, is inadequate for the safe operation of a large-scale liquefied natural gas facility, or is otherwise inadequate, the Secretary may conduct enforcement proceedings under that chapter.

"(2) Savings clause.—Nothing in this section shall affect the authority of the Secretary to carry out inspections or conduct enforcement proceedings under chapter 601 of title 49, United States Code.

"(f) Emergencies and Compliance.—Nothing in this section may be construed to diminish or modify—

"(1) the authority of the Secretary under this title [enacting sections 60142, 60143, and 60303 of this title, amending sections 6107, 60102, 60108, 60109, 60117, 60118, 60122, 60125, 60129, 60130 and 60134 of this title, enacting provisions set out as notes under this section and sections 60101, 60102, 60108, and 60109 of this title, and amending provisions set out as notes under sections 60101 and section 60109 of this title] to act in the case of an emergency; or

"(2) the authority of the Secretary under sections 60118 through 60123 of title 49, United States Code.

"(g) Civil Penalties.—A person violating the standards prescribed under this section, including any revisions to the minimum operating and maintenance standards prescribed under 60103 of title 49, United States Code, shall be liable for a civil penalty that may not exceed $200,000 for each violation pursuant to section 60122(a)(1) of that title."

National Center of Excellence for Liquefied Natural Gas Safety

Pub. L. 116–260, div. R, title I, §111, Dec. 27, 2020, 134 Stat. 2226, provided that:

"(a) Definitions.—In this section:

"(1) Center.—The term 'Center' means the National Center of Excellence for Liquefied Natural Gas Safety that may be established under subsection (b).

"(2) LNG.—The term 'LNG' means liquefied natural gas.

"(3) LNG sector stakeholder.—The term 'LNG sector stakeholder' means a representative of—

"(A) LNG facilities that represent the broad array of LNG facilities operating in the United States;

"(B) States, Indian Tribes, and units of local government;

"(C) postsecondary education;

"(D) labor organizations;

"(E) safety organizations; or

"(F) Federal regulatory agencies of jurisdiction, which may include—

"(i) the [Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety] Administration;

"(ii) the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission;

"(iii) the Department of Energy;

"(iv) the Occupational Safety and Health Administration;

"(v) the Coast Guard; and

"(vi) the Maritime Administration.

"(b) Establishment.—Only after submitting the report under subsection (c) to the committees of Congress described in that subsection, and subject to the availability of funds appropriated by Congress for the applicable purpose, the Secretary [of Transportation], in consultation with LNG sector stakeholders, may establish a center, to be known as the 'National Center of Excellence for Liquefied Natural Gas Safety'.

"(c) Report.—

"(1) In general.—Not later than 18 months after the date of enactment of this Act [Dec. 27, 2020], the Secretary shall submit to the Committees on Commerce, Science, and Transportation and Appropriations of the Senate and the Committees on Transportation and Infrastructure, Energy and Commerce, and Appropriations of the House of Representatives a report on—

"(A) the resources necessary to establish the Center; and

"(B) the manner in which the Center will carry out the functions described in subsection (d).

"(2) Requirement.—The report under paragraph (1) shall include an estimate of all potential costs and appropriations necessary to carry out the functions described in subsection (d).

"(d) Functions.—The Center shall, for activities regulated under section 60103 of title 49, United States Code, enhance the United States as the leader and foremost expert in LNG operations by—

"(1) furthering the expertise of the Federal Government in the operations, management, and regulatory practices of LNG facilities through—

"(A) the use of performance-based principles;

"(B) experience and familiarity with LNG operational facilities; and

"(C) increased communication with LNG experts to learn and support state-of-the-art operational practices;

"(2) acting as a repository of information on best practices for the operation of LNG facilities; and

"(3) facilitating collaboration among LNG sector stakeholders.

"(e) Location.—

"(1) In general.—The Center shall be located in close proximity to critical LNG transportation infrastructure on, and connecting to, the Gulf of Mexico, as determined by the Secretary.

"(2) Considerations.—In determining the location of the Center, the Secretary shall—

"(A) take into account the strategic value of locating resources in close proximity to LNG facilities; and

"(B) locate the Center in the State with the largest LNG production capacity, as determined by the total capacity (in billion cubic feet per day) of LNG production authorized by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission under section 3 of the Natural Gas Act (15 U.S.C. 717b) as of the date of enactment of this Act [Dec. 27, 2020].

"(f) Coordination With TQ Training Center.—In carrying out the functions described in subsection (d), the Center shall coordinate with the Training and Qualifications Training Center of the Administration in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, to facilitate knowledge sharing among, and enhanced training opportunities for, Federal and State pipeline safety inspectors and investigators.

"(g) Joint Operation With Educational Institution.—The Secretary may enter into an agreement with an appropriate official of an institution of higher education—

"(1) to provide for joint operation of the Center; and

"(2) to provide necessary administrative services for the Center."

Best Available Technologies or Practices

Pub. L. 116–260, div. R, title I, §114(d), Dec. 27, 2020, 134 Stat. 2232, provided that:

"(1) Report of the secretary.—Not later than 18 months after the date of enactment of this Act [Dec. 27, 2020], the Secretary [of Transportation] shall submit to the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate and the Committees on Transportation and Infrastructure and Energy and Commerce of the House of Representatives a report—

"(A) discussing—

"(i) the best available technologies or practices to prevent or minimize, without compromising pipeline safety, the release of natural gas when making planned repairs, replacements, or maintenance to a pipeline facility;

"(ii) the best available technologies or practices to prevent or minimize, without compromising pipeline safety, the release of natural gas when the operator intentionally vents or releases natural gas, including blowdowns; and

"(iii) pipeline facility designs that, without compromising pipeline safety, mitigate the need to intentionally vent natural gas; and

"(B) recommending a timeline for updating pipeline safety regulations, as the Secretary determines to be appropriate, to address the matters described in subparagraph (A).

"(2) Rulemaking.—Not later than 180 days after the date on which the Secretary submits the report under this subsection, the Secretary shall update pipeline safety regulations that the Secretary has determined are necessary to protect the environment without compromising pipeline safety."

Pipeline Safety Management Systems

Pub. L. 116–260, div. R, title II, §205, Dec. 27, 2020, 134 Stat. 2240, provided that:

"(a) In General.—Not later than 3 years after the date of enactment of this Act [Dec. 27, 2020], the Secretary [of Transportation] shall submit to the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate and the Committees on Transportation and Infrastructure and Energy and Commerce of the House of Representatives a report describing—

"(1) the number of operators of natural gas distribution systems who have implemented a pipeline safety management system in accordance with the standard established by the American Petroleum Institute entitled 'Pipeline Safety Management System Requirements' and numbered American Petroleum Institute Recommended Practice 1173;

"(2) the progress made by operators of natural gas distribution systems who have implemented, or are in the process of implementing, a pipeline safety management system described in paragraph (1); and

"(3) the feasibility of an operator of a natural gas distribution system implementing a pipeline safety management system described in paragraph (1) based on the size of the operator as measured by—

"(A) the number of customers the operator has; and

"(B) the amount of natural gas the operator transports.

"(b) Requirements.—As part of the report required under subsection (a), the Secretary shall provide guidance or recommendations that would further the adoption of safety management systems in accordance with the standard established by the American Petroleum Institute entitled 'Pipeline Safety Management System Requirements' and numbered American Petroleum Institute Recommended Practice 1173.

"(c) Evaluation and Promotion of Safety Management Systems.—The Secretary and the relevant State authority with a certification in effect under section 60105 of title 49, United States Code, as applicable, shall—

"(1) promote and assess pipeline safety management systems frameworks developed by operators of natural gas distribution systems and described in the report under subsection (a), including—

"(A) if necessary, using independent third-party evaluators; and

"(B) through a system that promotes self-disclosure of—

"(i) errors; and

"(ii) deviations from regulatory standards; and

"(2) if a deviation from a regulatory standard is identified during the development and application of a pipeline safety management system, certify that—

"(A) due consideration will be given to factors such as flawed procedures, honest mistakes, or lack of understanding; and

"(B) the operators and regulators use the most appropriate tools to fix the deviation, return to compliance, and prevent the recurrence of the deviation, including—

"(i) root cause analysis; and

"(ii) training, education, or other appropriate improvements to procedures or training programs."

Update to Minimum Safety Standards

Pub. L. 114–183, §27(b), June 22, 2016, 130 Stat. 532, provided that: "The Secretary of Transportation shall review and update the minimum safety standards prescribed pursuant to section 60103 of title 49, United States Code, for permanent, small scale liquefied natural gas pipeline facilities."

§60104. Requirements and limitations

(a) Opportunity To Present Views.—The Secretary of Transportation shall give an interested person an opportunity to make oral and written presentations of information, views, and arguments when prescribing a standard under this chapter.

(b) Nonapplication.—A design, installation, construction, initial inspection, or initial testing standard does not apply to a pipeline facility existing when the standard is adopted.

(c) Preemption.—A State authority that has submitted a current certification under section 60105(a) of this title may adopt additional or more stringent safety standards for intrastate pipeline facilities and intrastate pipeline transportation only if those standards are compatible with the minimum standards prescribed under this chapter. A State authority may not adopt or continue in force safety standards for interstate pipeline facilities or interstate pipeline transportation. Notwithstanding the preceding sentence, a State authority may enforce a requirement of a one-call notification program of the State if the program meets the requirements for one-call notification programs under this chapter or chapter 61.

(d) Consultation.—(1) When continuity of gas service is affected by prescribing a standard or waiving compliance with standards under this chapter, the Secretary of Transportation shall consult with and advise the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission or a State authority having jurisdiction over the affected gas pipeline facility before prescribing the standard or waiving compliance. The Secretary shall delay the effective date of the standard or waiver until the Commission or State authority has a reasonable opportunity to grant an authorization it considers necessary.

(2) In a proceeding under section 3 or 7 of the Natural Gas Act (15 U.S.C. 717b or 717f), each applicant for authority to import natural gas or to establish, construct, operate, or extend a gas pipeline facility subject to an applicable safety standard shall certify that it will design, install, inspect, test, construct, operate, replace, and maintain a gas pipeline facility under those standards and plans for inspection and maintenance under section 60108 of this title. The certification is binding on the Secretary of Energy and the Commission except when an appropriate enforcement agency has given timely written notice to the Commission that the applicant has violated a standard prescribed under this chapter.

(e) Location and Routing of Facilities.—This chapter does not authorize the Secretary of Transportation to prescribe the location or routing of a pipeline facility.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1308; Pub. L. 107–355, §3(a), Dec. 17, 2002, 116 Stat. 2986.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
60104(a) 49 App.:1672(c). Aug. 12, 1968, Pub. L. 90–481, §3(c), 82 Stat. 721; Nov. 30, 1979, Pub. L. 96–129, §§104(a)(2), (c), 109(c), 93 Stat. 992, 994, 996.
  49 App.:2002(g). Nov. 30, 1979, Pub. L. 96–129, §§202(4) (28th–last words), 203(c) (last sentence), (g), 93 Stat. 1003, 1004, 1005.
60104(b) 49 App.:1672(a)(1) (6th sentence). Aug. 12, 1968, Pub. L. 90–481, §3(a)(1) (6th, 9th, last sentences), 82 Stat. 721; Oct. 11, 1976, Pub. L. 94–477, §4(2), 90 Stat. 2073; Nov. 30, 1979, Pub. L. 96–129, §§101(a), 109(c), (e), 93 Stat. 990, 996; Oct. 24, 1992, Pub. L. 102–508, §116, 106 Stat. 3298.
  49 App.:2002(c) (last sentence).
60104(c) 49 App.:1672(a)(1) (9th, last sentences).
  49 App.:2002(d). Nov. 30, 1979, Pub. L. 96–129, §203(d), 93 Stat. 1004; Oct. 24, 1992, Pub. L. 102–508, §215, 106 Stat. 3305.
60104(d) 49 App.:1676(a). Aug. 12, 1968, Pub. L. 90–481, §9(a), 82 Stat. 725; Nov. 30, 1979, Pub. L. 96–129, §§109(i), 152(a), (b)(3), 93 Stat. 997, 999, 1001; Oct. 30, 1988, Pub. L. 100–561, §105(1), 102 Stat. 2807.
60104(e) 49 App.:1671(4) (33d–last words). Aug. 12, 1968, Pub. L. 90–481, §2(4) (33d–last words), 82 Stat. 720.
  49 App.:2001(4) (28th–last words).

Subsection (a) is substituted for 49 App.:1672(c) (last sentence) and 2002(g) (last sentence) to eliminate unnecessary words. The text of 49 App.:1672(c) (1st sentence) and 2002(g) (1st sentence) is omitted as unnecessary because 5:ch. 5, subch. II applies unless otherwise stated.

In subsection (c), the words "prescribed under this chapter" are added for clarity. The words "after the Federal minimum standards become effective" in 49 App.:1672(a) (last sentence) are omitted as obsolete.

In subsection (d)(1), the words "waiving compliance" are substituted for "action upon application for waiver" and "acting on the waiver application" to eliminate unnecessary words. The words "the provisions of" are omitted as surplus. The word "authority" is substituted for "commission" for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the Code.

In subsection (d)(2), the words "and conclusive" are omitted as being included in "binding". The words "Secretary of Energy" are substituted for "Department of Energy" because of 42:7231.

Amendments

2002—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 107–355 inserted at end "Notwithstanding the preceding sentence, a State authority may enforce a requirement of a one-call notification program of the State if the program meets the requirements for one-call notification programs under this chapter or chapter 61."

§60105. State pipeline safety program certifications

(a) General Requirements and Submission.—Except as provided in this section and sections 60114 and 60121 of this title, the Secretary of Transportation may not prescribe or enforce safety standards and practices for an intrastate pipeline facility or intrastate pipeline transportation to the extent that the safety standards and practices are regulated by a State authority (including a municipality if the standards and practices apply to intrastate gas pipeline transportation) that submits to the Secretary annually a certification for the facilities and transportation that complies with subsections (b) and (c) of this section.

(b) Contents.—Each certification submitted under subsection (a) of this section shall state that the State authority—

(1) has regulatory jurisdiction over the standards and practices to which the certification applies;

(2) has adopted, by the date of certification, each applicable standard prescribed under this chapter or, if a standard under this chapter was prescribed not later than 120 days before certification, is taking steps to adopt that standard;

(3) is enforcing each adopted standard through ways that include inspections conducted by State employees meeting the qualifications the Secretary prescribes under section 60107(d)(1)(C) of this title;

(4) is encouraging and promoting the establishment of a program designed to prevent damage by demolition, excavation, tunneling, or construction activity to the pipeline facilities to which the certification applies that subjects persons who violate the applicable requirements of that program to civil penalties and other enforcement actions that are substantially the same as are provided under this chapter, and addresses the elements in section 60134(b);

(5) may require record maintenance, reporting, and inspection substantially the same as provided under section 60117 of this title;

(6) may require that plans for inspection and maintenance under section 60108 (a) and (b) of this title be filed for approval;

(7) may enforce safety standards of the authority under a law of the State by injunctive relief and civil penalties substantially the same as provided under sections 60120 and 60122(a)(1) and (b)–(f) of this title;

(8) has the capability to sufficiently review and evaluate the adequacy of the plans and manuals described in section 60109(e)(7)(C)(i); and

(9) has a sufficient number of employees described in paragraph (3) to ensure safe operations of pipeline facilities, updating the State Inspection Calculation Tool to take into account factors including—

(A) the number of miles of natural gas and hazardous liquid pipelines in the State, including the number of miles of cast iron and bare steel pipelines;

(B) the number of services in the State;

(C) the age of the gas distribution system in the State; and

(D) environmental factors that could impact the integrity of the pipeline, including relevant geological issues.


(c) Reports.—(1) Each certification submitted under subsection (a) of this section shall include a report that contains—

(A) the name and address of each person to whom the certification applies that is subject to the safety jurisdiction of the State authority;

(B) each accident or incident reported during the prior 12 months by that person involving a fatality, personal injury requiring hospitalization, or property damage or loss of more than an amount the Secretary establishes (even if the person sustaining the fatality, personal injury, or property damage or loss is not subject to the safety jurisdiction of the authority), any other accident the authority considers significant, and a summary of the investigation by the authority of the cause and circumstances surrounding the accident or incident;

(C) the record maintenance, reporting, and inspection practices conducted by the authority to enforce compliance with safety standards prescribed under this chapter to which the certification applies, including the number of inspections of pipeline facilities the authority made during the prior 12 months; and

(D) any other information the Secretary requires.


(2) The report included in the first certification submitted under subsection (a) of this section is only required to state information available at the time of certification.

(d) Application.—A certification in effect under this section does not apply to safety standards prescribed under this chapter after the date of certification. This chapter applies to each applicable safety standard prescribed after the date of certification until the State authority adopts the standard and submits the appropriate certification to the Secretary under subsection (a) of this section.

(e) Monitoring.—The Secretary may monitor a safety program established under this section to ensure that the program complies with the certification. A State authority shall cooperate with the Secretary under this subsection.

(f) Rejections of Certification.—If after receiving a certification the Secretary decides the State authority is not enforcing satisfactorily compliance with applicable safety standards prescribed under this chapter, the Secretary may reject the certification, assert United States Government jurisdiction, or take other appropriate action to achieve adequate enforcement. The Secretary shall give the authority notice and an opportunity for a hearing before taking final action under this subsection. When notice is given, the burden of proof is on the authority to demonstrate that it is enforcing satisfactorily compliance with the prescribed standards.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1309; Pub. L. 104–304, §20(a), Oct. 12, 1996, 110 Stat. 3804; Pub. L. 109–468, §2(b)(1), Dec. 29, 2006, 120 Stat. 3487; Pub. L. 116–260, div. R, title II, §202(b)(1), Dec. 27, 2020, 134 Stat. 2239.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
60105(a) 49 App.:1674(a) (1st sentence words before "that such State agency"). Aug. 12, 1968, Pub. L. 90–481, §5(a), 82 Stat. 722; Aug. 22, 1972, Pub. L. 92–401, §1, 86 Stat. 616; Oct. 11, 1976, Pub. L. 94–477, §5(a), 90 Stat. 2073; Nov. 30, 1979, Pub. L. 96–129, §§101(b), 103(a), (b)(3), 109(g), (h)(1), 93 Stat. 990, 991, 996; Jan. 14, 1983, Pub. L. 97–468, §104, 96 Stat. 2543; Oct. 31, 1988, Pub. L. 100–561, §§103, 303(b)(1), 102 Stat. 2807, 2816; Oct. 24, 1992, Pub. L. 102–508, §§110(a), 111, 106 Stat. 3295.
  49 App.:2004(a) (1st sentence words before "that such State agency"). Nov. 30, 1979, Pub. L. 96–129, §205(a), 93 Stat. 1006; Oct. 31, 1988, Pub. L. 100–561, §203, 102 Stat. 2810; Oct. 24, 1992, Pub. L. 102–508, §§209(a), 210, 106 Stat. 3304.
60105(b) 49 App.:1674(a) (1st sentence words after "an annual certification").
  49 App.:2004(a) (1st sentence words after "an annual certification").
60105(c) 49 App.:1674(a) (2d, 3d sentences).
  49 App.:2004(a) (2d, last sentences).
60105(d) 49 App.:1674(e). Aug. 12, 1968, Pub. L. 90–481, §5(e), 82 Stat. 724; Oct. 11, 1976, Pub. L. 94–477, §5(c), 90 Stat. 2074; Nov. 30, 1979, Pub. L. 96–129, §103(b)(2)(B), 93 Stat. 991.
  49 App.:2004(e). Nov. 30, 1979, Pub. L. 96–129, §205(c) (related to certification), (e), (f), 93 Stat. 1007, 1008.
60105(e) 49 App.:1674(c) (related to certification). Aug. 12, 1968, Pub. L. 90–481, 82 Stat. 720, §5(c) (related to certification); added Nov. 30, 1979, Pub. L. 96–129, §103(b)(2)(C), 93 Stat. 991.
  49 App.:2004(c) (related to certification).
60105(f) 49 App.:1674(a) (4th, last sentences).
  49 App.:2004(f).

In subsection (a), the words "applicable to same" are omitted as surplus. The words "for the facilities and transportation that complies with subsections (b) and (c) of this section" are added for clarity.

In subsections (b) and (c), the words "to which the certification applies" and "to whom the certification applies" are added because of the restatement.

In subsection (b)(2), the words "Federal safety" and "pursuant to State law" are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (b)(7), the words "injunctive relief and civil penalties" are substituted for "injunctive and monetary sanctions" for clarity and consistency.

In subsection (c)(1), before clause (A), the word "annual" is omitted as surplus. The words "in such form as the Secretary may by regulation provide" are omitted as surplus because of 49:322(a). In clause (B), the words "or loss" are added for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the United States Code. In clause (C), the words "a detail of" are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (d), the words "with respect" and "new or amended Federal" are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (e), the words "conduct whatever . . . may be necessary" and "fully" are omitted as surplus. The words "with the Secretary" are substituted for "in any monitoring of their programs" for clarity.

In subsection (f), the words "prescribed under this chapter" are added for clarity. The word "reasonable" is omitted as surplus.

Amendments

2020—Subsec. (b)(8), (9). Pub. L. 116–260 added pars. (8) and (9).

2006—Subsec. (b)(4). Pub. L. 109–468 amended par. (4) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (4) read as follows: "is encouraging and promoting programs designed to prevent damage by demolition, excavation, tunneling, or construction activity to the pipeline facilities to which the certification applies;".

1996Pub. L. 104–304 substituted "State pipeline safety program certifications" for "State certifications" in section catchline.

Regulations

Pub. L. 116–260, div. R, title II, §202(b)(2), Dec. 27, 2020, 134 Stat. 2239, provided that: "The Secretary [of Transportation] shall promulgate regulations to require that a State authority with a certification in effect under section 60105 of title 49, United States Code, has a sufficient number of qualified inspectors to ensure safe operations, as determined by the State Inspection Calculation Tool and other factors determined to be appropriate by the Secretary."

Pub. L. 116–260, div. R, title II, §202(b)(3), Dec. 27, 2020, 134 Stat. 2239, provided that: "Not later than 2 years after the date of enactment of this Act [Dec. 27, 2020], the Secretary [of Transportation] shall promulgate regulations to implement the amendments made by this subsection [amending this section]."

§60106. State pipeline safety agreements

(a) Agreements Without Certification.—If the Secretary of Transportation does not receive a certification under section 60105 of this title, the Secretary may make an agreement with a State authority (including a municipality if the agreement applies to intrastate gas pipeline transportation) authorizing it to take necessary action. Each agreement shall—

(1) establish an adequate program for record maintenance, reporting, and inspection designed to assist compliance with applicable safety standards prescribed under this chapter; and

(2) prescribe procedures for approval of plans of inspection and maintenance substantially the same as required under section 60108 (a) and (b) of this title.


(b) Agreements With Certification.—

(1) In general.—If the Secretary accepts a certification under section 60105 and makes the determination required under this subsection, the Secretary may make an agreement with a State authority authorizing it to participate in the oversight of interstate pipeline transportation. Each such agreement shall include a plan for the State authority to participate in special investigations involving incidents or new construction and allow the State authority to participate in other activities overseeing interstate pipeline transportation or to assume additional inspection or investigatory duties. Nothing in this section modifies section 60104(c) or authorizes the Secretary to delegate the enforcement of safety standards for interstate pipeline facilities prescribed under this chapter to a State authority.

(2) Determinations required.—The Secretary may not enter into an agreement under this subsection, unless the Secretary determines in writing that—

(A) the agreement allowing participation of the State authority is consistent with the Secretary's program for inspection and consistent with the safety policies and provisions provided under this chapter;

(B) the interstate participation agreement would not adversely affect the oversight responsibilities of intrastate pipeline transportation by the State authority;

(C) the State is carrying out a program demonstrated to promote preparedness and risk prevention activities that enable communities to live safely with pipelines;

(D) the State meets the minimum standards for State one-call notification set forth in chapter 61; and

(E) the actions planned under the agreement would not impede interstate commerce or jeopardize public safety.


(3) Existing agreements.—If requested by the State authority, the Secretary shall authorize a State authority which had an interstate agreement in effect after January 31, 1999, to oversee interstate pipeline transportation pursuant to the terms of that agreement until the Secretary determines that the State meets the requirements of paragraph (2) and executes a new agreement, or until December 31, 2003, whichever is sooner. Nothing in this paragraph shall prevent the Secretary, after affording the State notice, hearing, and an opportunity to correct any alleged deficiencies, from terminating an agreement that was in effect before enactment of the Pipeline Safety Improvement Act of 2002 if—

(A) the State authority fails to comply with the terms of the agreement;

(B) implementation of the agreement has resulted in a gap in the oversight responsibilities of intrastate pipeline transportation by the State authority; or

(C) continued participation by the State authority in the oversight of interstate pipeline transportation has had an adverse impact on pipeline safety.


(4) Notice upon denial.—If a State authority requests an interstate agreement under this section and the Secretary denies such request, the Secretary shall provide written notification to the State authority of the denial that includes an explanation of the reasons for such denial.


(c) Notification.—

(1) In general.—Each agreement shall require the State authority to notify the Secretary promptly of a violation or probable violation of an applicable safety standard discovered as a result of action taken in carrying out an agreement under this section.

(2) Response by secretary.—If a State authority notifies the Secretary under paragraph (1) of a violation or probable violation of an applicable safety standard, the Secretary, not later than 60 days after the date of receipt of the notification, shall—

(A) issue an order under section 60118(b) or take other appropriate enforcement actions to ensure compliance with this chapter; or

(B) provide the State authority with a written explanation as to why the Secretary has determined not to take such actions.


(d) Monitoring.—The Secretary may monitor a safety program established under this section to ensure that the program complies with the agreement. A State authority shall cooperate with the Secretary under this subsection.

(e) Ending Agreements.—

(1) Permissive termination.—The Secretary may end an agreement under this section when the Secretary finds that the State authority has not complied with any provision of the agreement.

(2) Mandatory termination of agreement.—The Secretary shall end an agreement for the oversight of interstate pipeline transportation if the Secretary finds that—

(A) implementation of such agreement has resulted in a gap in the oversight responsibilities of intrastate pipeline transportation by the State authority;

(B) the State actions under the agreement have failed to meet the requirements under subsection (b); or

(C) continued participation by the State authority in the oversight of interstate pipeline transportation would not promote pipeline safety.


(3) Procedural requirements.—The Secretary shall give notice and an opportunity for a hearing to a State authority before ending an agreement under this section. The Secretary may provide a State an opportunity to correct any deficiencies before ending an agreement. The finding and decision to end the agreement shall be published in the Federal Register and may not become effective for at least 15 days after the date of publication unless the Secretary finds that continuation of an agreement poses an imminent hazard.


(f) Joint Inspectors.—At the request of a State authority, the Secretary shall allow for a certified State authority under section 60105 to participate in the inspection of an interstate pipeline facility.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1310; Pub. L. 104–304, §20(b), Oct. 12, 1996, 110 Stat. 3804; Pub. L. 107–355, §4, Dec. 17, 2002, 116 Stat. 2986; Pub. L. 114–183, §§13, 24(b), June 22, 2016, 130 Stat. 524, 530.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
60106(a) 49 App.:1674(b) (1st sentence). Aug. 12, 1968, Pub. L. 90–481, §5(b), 82 Stat. 723; Oct. 11, 1976, Pub. L. 94–477, §5(b), 90 Stat. 2074; Nov. 30, 1979, Pub. L. 96–129, §§103(b)(1), 109(h)(2), 93 Stat. 991, 996.
  49 App.:2004(b) (1st sentence). Nov. 30, 1979, Pub. L. 96–129, §205(b), (c) (related to agreement), (g), 93 Stat. 1007, 1008.
60106(b) 49 App.:1674(b) (last sentence).
  49 App.:2004(b) (last sentence).
60106(c) 49 App.:1674(c) (related to agreement). Aug. 12, 1968, Pub. L. 90–481, 82 Stat. 720, §5(c) (related to agreement); added Nov. 30, 1979, Pub. L. 96–129, §103(b)(2)(C), 93 Stat. 991.
  49 App.:2004(c) (related to agreement).
60106(d) 49 App.:1674(f). Aug. 12, 1968, Pub. L. 90–481, §5(f), 82 Stat. 724; Nov. 30, 1979, Pub. L. 96–129, §103(b) (2)(B), 93 Stat. 991.
  49 App.:2004(g).

In subsection (a), before clause (1), the word "annual" is omitted as surplus. The words "to take necessary action" are substituted for "to assume responsibility for, and carry out" for clarity. The words "on behalf of the Secretary" are omitted as surplus. In clause (1), the words "applicable . . . prescribed under this chapter" are added for clarity. The word "Federal" is omitted as surplus. In clause (2), the word "prescribe" is substituted for "establish" for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the United States Code.

In subsection (b), the words "action taken in carrying out an agreement" are substituted for "its program" for clarity.

In subsection (c), the words "conduct whatever . . . may be necessary" and "fully" are omitted as surplus. The words "with the Secretary" are substituted for "in any monitoring of their programs" for clarity.

References in Text

Enactment of the Pipeline Safety Improvement Act of 2002, referred to in subsec. (b)(3), is the enactment of Pub. L. 107–355, which was approved Dec. 17, 2002.

Amendments

2016—Subsec. (b)(4). Pub. L. 114–183, §24(b), added par. (4).

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 114–183, §13, added subsec. (f).

2002—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 107–355, §4(a)(1), substituted "Agreements Without Certification" for "General Authority" in heading.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 107–355, §4(a)(3), added subsec. (b). Former subsec. (b) redesignated (c).

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 107–355, §4(a)(2), (c), redesignated subsec. (b) as (c), designated existing provisions as par. (1), inserted par. heading, realigned margins, and added par. (2). Former subsec. (c) redesignated (d).

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 107–355, §4(a)(2), redesignated subsec. (c) as (d). Former subsec. (d) redesignated (e).

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 107–355, §4(a)(2), (b), redesignated subsec. (d) as (e), reenacted heading without change and amended text generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "The Secretary may end an agreement made under this section when the Secretary finds that the State authority has not complied with any provision of the agreement. The Secretary shall give the authority notice and an opportunity for a hearing before ending an agreement. The finding and decision to end the agreement shall be published in the Federal Register and may not become effective for at least 15 days after the date of publication."

1996Pub. L. 104–304 substituted "State pipeline safety agreements" for "State agreements" in section catchline.

§60107. State pipeline safety grants

(a) General Authority.—If a State authority files an application not later than September 30 of a calendar year, the Secretary of Transportation shall pay not more than 80 percent of the cost of the personnel, equipment, and activities the authority reasonably requires during the next calendar year—

(1) to carry out a safety program under a certification under section 60105 of this title or an agreement under section 60106 of this title; or

(2) to act as an agent of the Secretary on interstate gas pipeline facilities or interstate hazardous liquid pipeline facilities.


(b) Payments.—After notifying and consulting with a State authority, the Secretary may withhold any part of a payment when the Secretary decides that the authority is not carrying out satisfactorily a safety program or not acting satisfactorily as an agent. The Secretary may pay an authority under this section only when the authority ensures the Secretary that it will provide the remaining costs of a safety program, except when the Secretary waives this requirement.

(c) Apportionment and Method of Payment.—The Secretary shall apportion the amount appropriated to carry out this section among the States. A payment may be made under this section in installments, in advance, or on a reimbursable basis.

(d) Additional Authority and Considerations.—(1) The Secretary may prescribe—

(A) the form of, and way of filing, an application under this section;

(B) reporting and fiscal procedures the Secretary considers necessary to ensure the proper accounting of money of the Government; and

(C) qualifications for a State to meet to receive a payment under this section, including qualifications for State employees who perform inspection activities under section 60105 or 60106 of this title.


(2) The qualifications prescribed under paragraph (1)(C) of this subsection may—

(A) consider the experience and training of the employee;

(B) order training or other requirements; and

(C) provide for approval of qualifications on a conditional basis until specified requirements are met.


(e) Repurposing of Funds.—If a State program's certification is rejected under section 60105(f) or such program is otherwise suspended or interrupted, the Secretary may use any undistributed, deobligated, or recovered funds authorized under this section to carry out pipeline safety activities for that State within the period of availability for such funds.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1311; Pub. L. 104–304, §20(c), Oct. 12, 1996, 110 Stat. 3804; Pub. L. 109–468, §2(c), (d), Dec. 29, 2006, 120 Stat. 3489; Pub. L. 112–90, §19, Jan. 3, 2012, 125 Stat. 1916; Pub. L. 114–183, §17, June 22, 2016, 130 Stat. 526.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
60107(a) 49 App.:1674(d)(1) (1st sentence). Aug. 12, 1968, Pub. L. 90–481, §5(d)(1), (3), (4), 82 Stat. 724; Aug. 22, 1972, Pub. L. 92–401, §2, 86 Stat. 616; Aug. 30, 1974, Pub. L. 93–403, §2, 88 Stat. 802; Nov. 30, 1979, Pub. L. 96–129, §103(b)(2)(B), 93 Stat. 991.
  49 App.:2004(d)(1) (1st sentence). Nov. 30, 1979, Pub. L. 96–129, §205(d)(1), (3), (4), 93 Stat. 1008.
60107(b) 49 App.:1674(d)(1) (2d, last sentences).
  49 App.:2004(d)(1) (2d, last sentences).
60107(c) 49 App.:1674(d)(2). Aug. 12, 1968, Pub. L. 90–481, 82 Stat. 720, §5(d)(2); added Aug. 30, 1974, Pub. L. 93–403, §2, 88 Stat. 802; Nov. 30, 1979, Pub. L. 96–129, §§103(b)(2)(B), 109(h)(3), 93 Stat. 991, 996; Apr. 7, 1986, Pub. L. 99–272, §7002(b)(1), 100 Stat. 139.
  49 App.:1674(d)(3).
  49 App.:2004(d)(2). Nov. 30, 1979, Pub. L. 96–129, §205(d)(2), 93 Stat. 1008; Apr. 7, 1986, Pub. L. 99–272, §7002(b)(2), 100 Stat. 139.
  49 App.:2004(d)(3).
60107(d) (1)(A), (B) 49 App.:1674(d)(4).
  49 App.:2004(d)(4).
60107(d) (1)(C), (2) 49 App.:1674(d)(5). Aug. 12, 1968, Pub. L. 90–481, 82 Stat. 720, §5(d)(5); added Oct. 31, 1988, Pub. L. 100–561, §104, 102 Stat. 2807.
  49 App. 2004(d)(5). Nov. 30, 1979, Pub. L. 96–129, 93 Stat. 989, §205(d)(5); added Oct. 31, 1988, Pub. L. 100–561, §204, 102 Stat. 2811.

In subsection (a), before clause (1), the words "Except as otherwise provided in this section" and "out of funds appropriated or otherwise made available" are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (b), before clause (1), the word "payment" is substituted for "funds" for clarity. The words "the total State amount spent" are substituted for "the aggregate expenditures of funds for the State", and the words "at least equal the average amount spent" are substituted for "be maintained at a level which does not fall below the average level of such expenditures", to eliminate unnecessary words. In clause (1), the words "that ended June 30, 1967, and June 30, 1968" are substituted for "last two . . . preceding August 12, 1968" for clarity. In clause (2), the words "that ended September 30, 1978, and September 30, 1979" are substituted for "last two . . . preceding November 30, 1979" for clarity.

In subsection (c), the words "the Federal grants-in-aid provisions of", "for payments to aid in the conduct of pipeline safety programs in accordance with paragraph (1) of this subsection", and "with necessary adjustments on account of overpayments and underpayments" are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (d)(1), before clause (A), the word "prescribe" is substituted for "by regulation, provide for" and "establish by regulation" for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the United States Code. In clause (C), the words "to receive a payment under this section" are substituted for "in order to participate in the pipeline safety grant program under this subsection", and the words "under section 60105 or 60106 of this title" are substituted for "pursuant to either an annual certification by a State agency or an agreement relating to inspection between a State agency and the Secretary", to eliminate unnecessary words.

In subsection (d)(2), before clause (A), the words "qualifications prescribed" are substituted for "regulations" for clarity and consistency.

Amendments

2016—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 114–183, §17(1), added subsec. (b) and struck out former subsec. (b). Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "After notifying and consulting with a State authority, the Secretary may withhold any part of a payment when the Secretary decides that the authority is not carrying out satisfactorily a safety program or not acting satisfactorily as an agent. The Secretary may pay an authority under this section only when the authority ensures the Secretary that it will provide the remaining costs of a safety program and that the total State amount spent for a safety program (excluding grants of the United States Government) will at least equal the average amount spent for gas and hazardous liquid safety programs for the 3 fiscal years prior to the fiscal year in which the Secretary makes the payment, except when the Secretary waives this requirement. For each of fiscal years 2012 and 2013, the Secretary shall grant such a waiver to a State if the State can demonstrate an inability to maintain or increase the required funding share of its safety program at or above the level required by this subsection due to economic hardship in that State. For fiscal year 2014, and each fiscal year thereafter, the Secretary may grant such a waiver to a State if the State can make the demonstration described in the preceding sentence."

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 114–183, §17(2), added subsec. (e).

2012—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 112–90 inserted at end "For each of fiscal years 2012 and 2013, the Secretary shall grant such a waiver to a State if the State can demonstrate an inability to maintain or increase the required funding share of its safety program at or above the level required by this subsection due to economic hardship in that State. For fiscal year 2014, and each fiscal year thereafter, the Secretary may grant such a waiver to a State if the State can make the demonstration described in the preceding sentence."

2006—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 109–468, §2(c), substituted "not more than 80 percent" for "not more than 50 percent" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 109–468, §2(d), substituted "spent for gas and hazardous liquid safety programs for the 3 fiscal years prior to the fiscal year in which the Secretary makes the payment, except when the Secretary waives this requirement." for "spent—

"(1) for a gas safety program, for the fiscal years that ended June 30, 1967, and June 30, 1968; and

"(2) for a hazardous liquid safety program, for the fiscal years that ended September 30, 1978, and September 30, 1979."

1996Pub. L. 104–304 substituted "State pipeline safety grants" for "State grants" in section catchline.

§60108. Inspection and maintenance

(a) Plans.—(1) Each person owning or operating a gas pipeline facility or hazardous liquid pipeline facility shall carry out a current written plan (including any changes) for inspection and maintenance of each facility used in the transportation and owned or operated by the person. A copy of the plan shall be kept at any office of the person the Secretary of Transportation considers appropriate. The Secretary also may require a person owning or operating a pipeline facility subject to this chapter to file a plan for inspection and maintenance for approval.

(2) If the Secretary or a State authority responsible for enforcing standards prescribed under this chapter decides that a plan required under paragraph (1) of this subsection is inadequate for safe operation, the Secretary or authority shall require the person to revise the plan. Revision may be required only after giving notice and an opportunity for a hearing. A plan required under paragraph (1) must be practicable and designed to meet the need for pipeline safety, must meet the requirements of any regulations promulgated under section 60102(q), and must include terms designed to enhance the ability to discover safety-related conditions described in section 60102(h)(1) of this title. In deciding on the adequacy of a plan, the Secretary or authority shall consider—

(A) relevant available pipeline safety information;

(B) the appropriateness of the plan for the particular kind of pipeline transportation or facility;

(C) the reasonableness of the plan;

(D) the extent to which the plan will contribute to—

(i) public safety;

(ii) eliminating hazardous leaks and minimizing releases of natural gas from pipeline facilities; and

(iii) the protection of the environment; and


(E) the extent to which the plan addresses the replacement or remediation of pipelines that are known to leak based on the material (including cast iron, unprotected steel, wrought iron, and historic plastics with known issues), design, or past operating and maintenance history of the pipeline.


(3) Review of plans.—

(A) In general.—Not later than 2 years after the date of enactment of this subparagraph, and not less frequently than once every 5 years thereafter, the Secretary or relevant State authority with a certification in effect under section 60105 shall review each plan described in this subsection.

(B) Context of review.—The Secretary may conduct a review under this paragraph as an element of the inspection of the operator carried out by the Secretary under subsection (b).

(C) Inadequate programs.—If the Secretary determines that a plan reviewed under this paragraph does not comply with the requirements of this chapter (including any regulations promulgated under this chapter), has not been adequately implemented, is inadequate for the safe operation of a pipeline facility, or is otherwise inadequate, the Secretary may conduct enforcement proceedings under this chapter.


(b) Inspection and Testing.—(1) The Secretary shall inspect and require appropriate testing of a pipeline facility subject to this chapter that is not covered by a certification under section 60105 of this title or an agreement under section 60106 of this title. The Secretary shall decide on the frequency and type of inspection and testing under this subsection on a case-by-case basis after considering the following:

(A) the location of the pipeline facility.

(B) the type, size, age, manufacturer, method of construction, construction material, and condition of the pipeline facility.

(C) the nature and volume of material transported through the pipeline facility.

(D) the pressure at which that material is transported.

(E) climatic, geologic, and seismic characteristics (including soil characteristics) and conditions of the area in which the pipeline facility is located.

(F) existing and projected population and demographic characteristics of the area in which the pipeline facility is located.

(G) for a hazardous liquid pipeline facility, the proximity of the area in which the facility is located to an area that is unusually sensitive to environmental damage.

(H) the frequency of leaks.

(I) other factors the Secretary decides are relevant to the safety of pipeline facilities.


(2) To the extent and in amounts provided in advance in an appropriation law, the Secretary shall decide on the frequency of inspection under paragraph (1) of this subsection. The Secretary may reduce the frequency of an inspection of a master meter system.

(3) Testing under this subsection shall use the most appropriate technology practicable.

(c) Pipeline Facilities Offshore and in Other Waters.—(1) In this subsection—

(A) "abandoned" means permanently removed from service.

(B) "pipeline facility" includes an underwater abandoned pipeline facility.

(C) if a pipeline facility has no operator, the most recent operator of the facility is deemed to be the operator of the facility.


(2)(A) Not later than May 16, 1993, on the basis of experience with the inspections under section 3(h)(1)(A) of the Natural Gas Pipeline Safety Act of 1968 or section 203(l)(1)(A) of the Hazardous Liquid Pipeline Safety Act of 1979, as appropriate, and any other information available to the Secretary, the Secretary shall establish a mandatory, systematic, and, where appropriate, periodic inspection program of—

(i) all offshore pipeline facilities; and

(ii) any other pipeline facility crossing under, over, or through waters where a substantial likelihood of commercial navigation exists, if the Secretary decides that the location of the facility in those waters could pose a hazard to navigation or public safety.


(B) In prescribing standards to carry out subparagraph (A) of this paragraph—

(i) the Secretary shall identify what is a hazard to navigation with respect to an underwater abandoned pipeline facility; and

(ii) for an underwater pipeline facility abandoned after October 24, 1992, the Secretary shall include requirements that will lessen the potential that the facility will pose a hazard to navigation and shall consider the relationship between water depth and navigational safety and factors relevant to the local marine environment.


(3)(A) The Secretary shall establish by regulation a program requiring an operator of a pipeline facility described in paragraph (2) of this subsection to report a potential or existing navigational hazard involving that pipeline facility to the Secretary through the appropriate Coast Guard office.

(B) The operator of a pipeline facility described in paragraph (2) of this subsection that discovers any part of the pipeline facility that is a hazard to navigation shall mark the location of the hazardous part with a Coast-Guard-approved marine buoy or marker and immediately shall notify the Secretary as provided by the Secretary under subparagraph (A) of this paragraph. A marine buoy or marker used under this subparagraph is deemed a pipeline sign or right-of-way marker under section 60123(c) of this title.

(4)(A) The Secretary shall establish a standard that each pipeline facility described in paragraph (2) of this subsection that is a hazard to navigation is buried not later than 6 months after the date the condition of the facility is reported to the Secretary. The Secretary may extend that 6-month period for a reasonable period to ensure compliance with this paragraph.

(B) In prescribing standards for subparagraph (A) of this paragraph for an underwater pipeline facility abandoned after October 24, 1992, the Secretary shall include requirements that will lessen the potential that the facility will pose a hazard to navigation and shall consider the relationship between water depth and navigational safety and factors relevant to the local marine environment.

(5)(A) Not later than October 24, 1994, the Secretary shall establish standards on what is an exposed offshore pipeline facility and what is a hazard to navigation under this subsection.

(B) Not later than 6 months after the Secretary establishes standards under subparagraph (A) of this paragraph, or October 24, 1995, whichever occurs first, the operator of each offshore pipeline facility not described in section 3(h)(1)(A) of the Natural Gas Pipeline Safety Act of 1968 or section 203(l)(1)(A) of the Hazardous Liquid Pipeline Safety Act of 1979, as appropriate, shall inspect the facility and report to the Secretary on any part of the facility that is exposed or is a hazard to navigation. This subparagraph applies only to a facility that is between the high water mark and the point at which the subsurface is under 15 feet of water, as measured from mean low water. An inspection that occurred after October 3, 1989, may be used for compliance with this subparagraph if the inspection conforms to the requirements of this subparagraph.

(C) The Secretary may extend the time period specified in subparagraph (B) of this paragraph for not more than 6 months if the operator of a facility satisfies the Secretary that the operator has made a good faith effort, with reasonable diligence, but has been unable to comply by the end of that period.

(6)(A) The operator of a pipeline facility abandoned after October 24, 1992, shall report the abandonment to the Secretary in a way that specifies whether the facility has been abandoned properly according to applicable United States Government and State requirements.

(B) Not later than October 24, 1995, the operator of a pipeline facility abandoned before October 24, 1992, shall report to the Secretary reasonably available information related to the facility, including information that a third party possesses. The information shall include the location, size, date, and method of abandonment, whether the facility has been abandoned properly under applicable law, and other relevant information the Secretary may require. Not later than April 24, 1994, the Secretary shall specify how the information shall be reported. The Secretary shall ensure that the Government maintains the information in a way accessible to appropriate Government agencies and State authorities.

(C) The Secretary shall request that a State authority having information on a collision between a vessel and an underwater pipeline facility report the information to the Secretary in a timely way and make a reasonable effort to specify the location, date, and severity of the collision. Chapter 35 of title 44 does not apply to this subparagraph.

(7) The Secretary may not exempt from this chapter an offshore hazardous liquid pipeline facility only because the pipeline facility transfers hazardous liquid in an underwater pipeline between a vessel and an onshore facility.

(8) If, after reviewing existing Federal and State regulations for hazardous liquid gathering lines located offshore in the United States, including within the inlets of the Gulf of Mexico, the Secretary determines it is appropriate, the Secretary shall issue regulations, after notice and an opportunity for a hearing, subjecting offshore hazardous liquid gathering lines and hazardous liquid gathering lines located within the inlets of the Gulf of Mexico to the same standards and regulations as other hazardous liquid gathering lines. The regulations issued under this paragraph shall not apply to production pipelines or flow lines.

(d) Replacing Cast Iron Gas Pipelines.—(1) The Secretary shall publish a notice on the availability of industry guidelines, developed by the Gas Piping Technology Committee, for replacing cast iron pipelines. Not later than 2 years after the guidelines become available, the Secretary shall conduct a survey of gas pipeline operators with cast iron pipe in their systems to establish—

(A) the extent to which each operator has adopted a plan for the safe management and replacement of cast iron;

(B) the elements of the plan, including the anticipated rate of replacement; and

(C) the progress that has been made.


(2) Chapter 35 of title 44 does not apply to the conduct of the survey.

(3) This subsection does not prevent the Secretary from developing Government guidelines or standards for cast iron gas pipelines as the Secretary considers appropriate.

(4) Not later than December 31, 2012, and every 2 years thereafter, the Secretary shall conduct a follow-up survey to measure the progress that owners and operators of pipeline facilities have made in adopting and implementing their plans for the safe management and replacement of cast iron gas pipelines.

(e) In General.—After the completion of a Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration pipeline safety inspection, the Administrator of such Administration, or the State authority certified under section 60105 of title 49, United States Code, to conduct such inspection, shall—

(1) within 30 days, conduct a post-inspection briefing with the owner or operator of the gas or hazardous liquid pipeline facility inspected outlining any concerns; and

(2) within 90 days, to the extent practicable, provide the owner or operator with written preliminary findings of the inspection.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1312; Pub. L. 104–304, §§6, 20(h), Oct. 12, 1996, 110 Stat. 3800, 3805; Pub. L. 112–90, §§7(a), 18(a), 21(c), Jan. 3, 2012, 125 Stat. 1910, 1916, 1917; Pub. L. 114–183, §7(a), June 22, 2016, 130 Stat. 518; Pub. L. 116–260, div. R, title I, §114(a), Dec. 27, 2020, 134 Stat. 2230.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
60108(a)(1) 49 App.:1680(a) (1st, 2d sentences). Aug. 12, 1968, Pub. L. 90–481, §13(a), 82 Stat. 726; Oct. 11, 1976, Pub. L. 94–477, §6, 90 Stat. 2075; Nov. 30, 1979, Pub. L. 96–129, §§104(b), 105(a), 93 Stat. 992, 994; Oct. 22, 1986, Pub. L. 99–516, §3(a)(2), 100 Stat. 2966; Oct. 31, 1988, Pub. L. 100–561, §108(a)(1), 102 Stat. 2808; Oct. 24, 1992, Pub. L. 102–508, §102(c), 106 Stat. 3291.
  49 App.:2009(a) (1st, 2d sentences). Nov. 30, 1979, Pub. L. 96–129, §210(a), 93 Stat. 1011; Oct. 22, 1986, Pub. L. 99–516, §3(b)(2), 100 Stat. 2966; Oct. 31, 1988, Pub. L. 100–561, §207(c), 102 Stat. 2812.
60108(a)(2) 49 App.:1680(a) (3d–5th, last sentences).
  49 App.:2009(a) (3d sentence 1st–18th words, last sentence).
  49 App.:2009(b). Nov. 30, 1979, Pub. L. 96–129, §210(b), 93 Stat. 1012; Oct. 24, 1992, Pub. L. 102–508, §202(c)(1), 106 Stat. 3301.
60108(a)(3) 49 App.:1680(a) (6th sentence).
  49 App.:2009(a) (3d sentence 19th–last words).
60108(b)(1) 49 App.:1680(b)(1) (1st sentence), (2). Aug. 12, 1968, Pub. L. 90–481, 82 Stat. 720, §13(b); added Oct. 31, 1988, Pub. L. 100–561, §108(a)(2), 102 Stat. 2808.
  49 App.:2009(d)(1) (1st sentence), (2). Nov. 30, 1979, Pub. L. 96–129, 93 Stat. 989, §210(d); added Oct. 31, 1988, Pub. L. 100–561, §207(a), 102 Stat. 2811; Oct. 24, 1992, Pub. L. 102–508, §202(c)(2) (related to §210(d)(2)(D)), 106 Stat. 3301.
60108(b)(2) 49 App.:1680(b)(1) (2d, 3d sentences).
  49 App.:2009(d)(1) (2d, 3d sentences).
60108(b)(3) 49 App.:1680(b)(1) (last sentence).
  49 App.:2009(d)(1) (last sentence).
60108(c)(1) 49 App.:1672(h)(6)(A), (D). Aug. 12, 1968, Pub. L. 90–481, 82 Stat. 720, §3(h)(6); added Oct. 24, 1992, Pub. L. 102–508, §117, 106 Stat. 3298.
  49 App.:2002(l)(7)(A), (D). Nov. 30, 1979, Pub. L. 96–129, 93 Stat. 989, §203(l)(7); added Oct. 24, 1992, Pub. L. 102–508, §216, 106 Stat. 3306.
60108(c) (2)(A) 49 App.:1672(h)(3). Aug. 12, 1968, Pub. L. 90–481, 82 Stat. 720, §3(h)(1)–(4); added Nov. 16, 1990, Pub. L. 101–599, §1(a), 104 Stat. 3038; Oct. 24, 1992, Pub. L. 102–508, §108(1)–(4), 106 Stat. 3293.
  49 App.:2002(l)(3). Nov. 30, 1979, Pub. L. 96–129, 93 Stat. 989, §203(l)(1)–(4); added Nov. 16, 1990, Pub. L. 101–599, §1(b), 104 Stat. 3039; Oct. 24, 1992, Pub. L. 102–508, §207(1)–(4), 106 Stat. 3302.
60108(c) (2)(B) 49 App.:1672(h)(6) (B)(i), (ii) (related to paragraph (3)).
  49 App.:2002(l)(7) (B)(i), (ii) (related to paragraph (3)).
60108(c)(3) 49 App.:1672(h)(1), (2).
  49 App.:2002(l)(1), (2).
60108(c) (4)(A) 49 App.:1672(h)(4).
  49 App.:2002(l)(4).
60108(c) (4)(B) 49 App.:1672(h) (6)(B)(ii) (related to paragraph (4)).
  49 App.:2002(l) (7)(B)(ii) (related to paragraph (4)).
60108(c)(5) 49 App.:1672(h)(5). Aug. 12, 1968, Pub. L. 90–481, 82 Stat. 720, §3(h)(5); added Oct. 24, 1992, Pub. L. 102–508, §108(5), 106 Stat. 3294.
  49 App.:2002(l)(6). Nov. 30, 1979, Pub. L. 96–129, 93 Stat. 989, §203(l)(5), (6); added Oct. 24, 1992, Pub. L. 102–508, §207(5), 106 Stat. 3302.
60108(c)(6) 49 App.:1672(h)(6)(C).
  49 App.:2002(l)(7)(C).
60108(c)(7) 49 App.:2002(l)(5).
60108(d) 49 App.:1680(c). Aug. 12, 1968, Pub. L. 90–481, 82 Stat. 720, §13(c); added Oct. 24, 1992, Pub. L. 102–508, §107, 106 Stat. 3293.

In subsection (a)(1), the word "prepare" is omitted as surplus. The words "or offices" are omitted because of 1:1. The words "in accordance with regulations prescribed by the Secretary or appropriate State agency" in 49 App.:1680(a) (1st sentence), "in accordance with regulations prescribed by the Secretary or, where a certification or agreement pursuant to section 2004 of this Appendix is in effect, by the appropriate State agency" in 49 App.:2009(a) (1st sentence), and "by regulation" are omitted as surplus because of 49:322(a) and sections 60102–60105 of the revised title.

In subsection (a)(2), before clause (A), the words "the Secretary or" are added for clarity. The words "at any time" in 49 App.:1680(a) (3d sentence) are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (a)(3), the word "appropriate" is omitted as surplus.

In subsection (b)(1), before clause (A), the words "to ensure the safety of such pipeline facilities" and "factors" are omitted as surplus. In clause (G), the words "if any" are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (b)(2), the text of 49 App.:1680(b)(1) (3d sentence) and 2009(d)(1) (3d sentence) is omitted as obsolete.

In subsection (c)(1)(B), the words "except with respect to the initial inspection required under paragraph (1)" are omitted as obsolete.

In subsection (c)(1)(C), the word "current" is omitted as surplus.

In subsection (c)(2)(B), before clause (i), the words "to carry out" are substituted for "under" because the Secretary does not prescribe regulations under 49 App.:1672(h)(3) or 2002(l)(3).

In subsection (c)(3), the text of 49 App.:1672(h)(1) and 2002(l)(1) is omitted as executed.

In subsection (c)(4)(A), the text of 49 App.:1672(h)(4)(A) and 2002(l)(4)(A) is omitted as obsolete.

In subsection (c)(5)(A), the words "for the purposes of this paragraph" are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (c)(5)(C), the words "an additional period of" and "and care" are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (c)(6)(C), the words "relating to coordination of Federal information policies" are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (c)(7), the words "regulation under" are omitted as surplus. The word "because" is substituted for "on the basis of the fact that" to eliminate unnecessary words.

In subsection (d)(2), the words "(relating to coordination of Federal information policy)" are omitted as surplus.

References in Text

The date of enactment of this subparagraph, referred to in subsec. (a)(3)(A), is the date of enactment of Pub. L. 116–260, which was approved Dec. 27, 2020.

Section 3(h)(1)(A) of the Natural Gas Pipeline Safety Act of 1968, referred to in subsec. (c)(2)(A), (5)(B), is section 3(h)(1)(A) of Pub. L. 90–481, which was classified to section 1672(h)(1)(A) of former Title 49, Transportation, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 103–272, §7(b), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1379. For further details, see Historical and Revision Notes above.

Section 203(l)(1)(A) of the Hazardous Liquid Pipeline Safety Act of 1979, referred to in subsec. (c)(2)(A), (5)(B), is section 203(l)(1)(A) of Pub. L. 96–129, which was classified to section 2002(l)(1)(A) of former Title 49, Transportation, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 103–272, §7(b), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1379. For further details, see Historical and Revision Notes above.

Amendments

2020—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 116–260, §114(a)(1)(A)(i), in introductory provisions, inserted ", must meet the requirements of any regulations promulgated under section 60102(q)," after "the need for pipeline safety".

Subsec. (a)(2)(D), (E). Pub. L. 116–260, §114(a)(1)(A)(ii), (iii), added subpars. (D) and (E) and struck out former subpar. (D) which read as follows: "the extent to which the plan will contribute to public safety and the protection of the environment."

Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 116–260, §114(a)(1)(B), added par. (3) and struck out former par. (3) which read as follows: "A plan required under this subsection shall be made available to the Secretary or State authority on request under section 60117 of this title."

Subsec. (b)(1)(B). Pub. L. 116–260, §114(a)(2), inserted "construction material," after "method of construction,".

2016—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 114–183 added subsec. (e).

2012—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 112–90, §18(a), substituted "a gas pipeline" for "an intrastate gas pipeline".

Subsec. (c)(8). Pub. L. 112–90, §21(c), added par. (8).

Subsec. (d)(4). Pub. L. 112–90, §7(a), added par. (4).

1996—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 104–304, §6(1), struck out "transporting gas or hazardous liquid or" after "Each person" and "a person".

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 104–304, §6(2), struck out after first sentence "However, an inspection must occur at least once every 2 years."

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 104–304, §6(3), substituted "Other Waters" for "Navigable Waters" in heading.

Subsec. (c)(2)(A)(ii). Pub. L. 104–304, §6(4), added cl. (ii) and struck out former cl. (ii) which read as follows: "any other pipeline facility crossing under, over, or through navigable waters (as defined by the Secretary) if the Secretary decides that the location of the facility in those navigable waters could pose a hazard to navigation or public safety."

Subsec. (c)(2)(B). Pub. L. 104–304, §20(h)(1), substituted "standards" for "regulations" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (c)(4)(A). Pub. L. 104–304, §20(h)(2), substituted "establish a standard" for "require by regulation".

Subsecs. (c)(4)(B), (d)(3). Pub. L. 104–304, §20(h)(1), substituted "standards" for "regulations".

Transfer of Functions

For transfer of authorities, functions, personnel, and assets of the Coast Guard, including the authorities and functions of the Secretary of Transportation relating thereto, to the Department of Homeland Security, and for treatment of related references, see sections 468(b), 551(d), 552(d), and 557 of Title 6, Domestic Security, and the Department of Homeland Security Reorganization Plan of November 25, 2002, as modified, set out as a note under section 542 of Title 6.

Deadline

Pub. L. 116–260, div. R, title I, §114(b), Dec. 27, 2020, 134 Stat. 2231, provided that: "Not later than 1 year after the date of enactment of this Act [Dec. 27, 2020], each pipeline operator shall update the inspection and maintenance plan prepared by the operator under section 60108(a) of title 49, United States Code, to address the elements described in the amendments to that section made by subsection (a)."

Information-Sharing System

Pub. L. 114–183, §10, June 22, 2016, 130 Stat. 520, provided that:

"(a) In General.—Not later than 180 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [June 22, 2016], the Secretary of Transportation shall convene a working group to consider the development of a voluntary information-sharing system to encourage collaborative efforts to improve inspection information feedback and information sharing with the purpose of improving gas transmission and hazardous liquid pipeline facility integrity risk analysis.

"(b) Membership.—The working group convened pursuant to subsection (a) shall include representatives from—

"(1) the Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration;

"(2) industry stakeholders, including operators of pipeline facilities, inspection technology, coating, and cathodic protection vendors, and pipeline inspection organizations;

"(3) safety advocacy groups;

"(4) research institutions;

"(5) State public utility commissions or State officials responsible for pipeline safety oversight;

"(6) State pipeline safety inspectors;

"(7) labor representatives; and

"(8) other entities, as determined appropriate by the Secretary.

"(c) Considerations.—The working group convened pursuant to subsection (a) shall consider and provide recommendations to the Secretary on—

"(1) the need for, and the identification of, a system to ensure that dig verification data are shared with in-line inspection operators to the extent consistent with the need to maintain proprietary and security-sensitive data in a confidential manner to improve pipeline safety and inspection technology;

"(2) ways to encourage the exchange of pipeline inspection information and the development of advanced pipeline inspection technologies and enhanced risk analysis;

"(3) opportunities to share data, including dig verification data between operators of pipeline facilities and in-line inspector vendors to expand knowledge of the advantages and disadvantages of the different types of in-line inspection technology and methodologies;

"(4) options to create a secure system that protects proprietary data while encouraging the exchange of pipeline inspection information and the development of advanced pipeline inspection technologies and enhanced risk analysis;

"(5) means and best practices for the protection of safety- and security-sensitive information and proprietary information; and

"(6) regulatory, funding, and legal barriers to sharing the information described in paragraphs (1) through (4).

"(d) Publication.—The Secretary shall publish the recommendations provided under subsection (c) on a publicly available Web site of the Department of Transportation."

Nationwide Integrated Pipeline Safety Regulatory Database

Pub. L. 114–183, §11, June 22, 2016, 130 Stat. 521, provided that:

"(a) Report.—Not later than 1 year after the date of enactment of this Act [June 22, 2016], the Secretary of Transportation shall submit to the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure and the Committee on Energy and Commerce of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate a report on the feasibility of establishing a national integrated pipeline safety regulatory inspection database to improve communication and collaboration between the Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration and State pipeline regulators.

"(b) Contents.—The report submitted under subsection (a) shall include—

"(1) a description of any efforts underway to test a secure information-sharing system for the purpose described in subsection (a);

"(2) a description of any progress in establishing common standards for maintaining, collecting, and presenting pipeline safety regulatory inspection data, and a methodology for sharing the data;

"(3) a description of any inadequacies or gaps in State and Federal inspection, enforcement, geospatial, or other pipeline safety regulatory inspection data;

"(4) a description of the potential safety benefits of a national integrated pipeline safety regulatory inspection database; and

"(5) recommendations, including those of stakeholders for how to implement a secure information-sharing system that protects proprietary and security sensitive information and data for the purpose described in subsection (a).

"(c) Consultation.—In implementing this section, the Secretary shall consult with stakeholders, including each State authority operating under a certification to regulate intrastate pipelines under section 60105 of title 49, United States Code.

"(d) Establishment of Database.—The Secretary may establish, if appropriate, a national integrated pipeline safety regulatory database—

"(1) after submission of the report required under subsection (a); or

"(2) upon notification to the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure and the Committee on Energy and Commerce of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate of the need to establish such database prior to the submission of the report under subsection (a)."

Report on Natural Gas Leak Reporting

Pub. L. 114–183, §29, June 22, 2016, 130 Stat. 532, provided that:

"(a) In General.—Not later than 1 year after the date of the enactment of this Act [June 22, 2016], the Administrator of the Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration shall submit to Congress a report on the metrics provided to the Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration and other Federal and State agencies related to lost and unaccounted for natural gas from distribution pipelines and systems.

"(b) Elements.—The report required under subsection (a) shall include the following elements:

"(1) An examination of different reporting requirements or standards for lost and unaccounted for natural gas to different agencies, the reasons for any such discrepancies, and recommendations for harmonizing and improving the accuracy of reporting.

"(2) An analysis of whether separate or alternative reporting could better measure the amounts and identify the location of lost and unaccounted for natural gas from natural gas distribution systems.

"(3) A description of potential safety issues associated with natural gas that is lost and unaccounted for from natural gas distribution systems.

"(4) An assessment of whether alternate reporting and measures will resolve any safety issues identified under paragraph (3), including an analysis of the potential impact, including potential savings, on rate payers and end users of natural gas products of such reporting and measures.

"(c) Consideration of Recommendations.—If the Administrator determines that alternate reporting structures or recommendations included in the report required under subsection (a) would significantly improve the reporting and measurement of lost and unaccounted for gas and safety of natural gas distribution systems, the Administrator shall, not later than 1 year after making such determination, issue regulations, as the Administrator determines appropriate, to implement the recommendations."

Review of State Policies Relating to Natural Gas Leaks

Pub. L. 114–183, §30, June 22, 2016, 130 Stat. 533, provided that:

"(a) Review.—The Administrator of the Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration shall conduct a State-by-State review of State-level policies that—

"(1) encourage the repair and replacement of leaking natural gas distribution pipelines or systems that pose a safety threat, such as timelines to repair leaks and limits on cost recovery from ratepayers; and

"(2) may create barriers for entities to conduct work to repair and replace leaking natural gas pipelines or distribution systems.

"(b) Report.—Not later than 1 year after the date of the enactment of this Act [June 22, 2016], the Administrator shall submit to the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure and the Committee on Energy and Commerce of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate a report containing the findings of the review conducted under subsection (a) and recommendations on Federal or State policies or best practices to improve safety by accelerating the repair and replacement of natural gas pipelines or systems that are leaking or releasing natural gas. The report shall consider the potential impact, including potential savings, of the implementation of such recommendations on ratepayers or end users of the natural gas pipeline system.

"(c) Implementation of Recommendations.—If the Administrator determines that the recommendations made under subsection (b) would significantly improve pipeline safety, the Administrator shall, not later than 1 year after making such determination, and in coordination with the heads of other relevant agencies as appropriate, issue regulations, as the Administrator determines appropriate, to implement the recommendations."

Leak Detection

Pub. L. 112–90, §8, Jan. 3, 2012, 125 Stat. 1911, provided that:

"(a) Leak Detection Report.—

"(1) In general.—Not later than 1 year after the date of enactment of this Act [Jan. 3, 2012], the Secretary of Transportation shall submit to the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate and the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure and the Committee on Energy and Commerce of the House of Representatives a report on leak detection systems utilized by operators of hazardous liquid pipeline facilities and transportation-related flow lines.

"(2) Contents.—The report shall include—

"(A) an analysis of the technical limitations of current leak detection systems, including the ability of the systems to detect ruptures and small leaks that are ongoing or intermittent, and what can be done to foster development of better technologies; and

"(B) an analysis of the practicability of establishing technically, operationally, and economically feasible standards for the capability of such systems to detect leaks, and the safety benefits and adverse consequences of requiring operators to use leak detection systems.

"(b) Rulemaking Requirements.—

"(1) Review period defined.—In this subsection, the term 'review period' means the period beginning on the date of enactment of this Act [Jan. 3, 2012] and ending on the earlier of—

"(A) the date that is 1 year after the date of completion of the report under subsection (a); or

"(B) the date that is 2 years after the date of enactment of this Act.

"(2) Congressional authority.—In order to provide Congress the necessary time to review the results of the report required by subsection (a) and implement appropriate recommendations, the Secretary, during the review period, shall not issue final regulations described in paragraph (3).

"(3) Standards.—As soon as practicable following the review period, if the report required by subsection (a) finds that it is practicable to establish technically, operationally, and economically feasible standards for the capability of leak detection systems to detect leaks, the Secretary shall issue final regulations that—

"(A) require operators of hazardous liquid pipeline facilities to use leak detection systems where practicable; and

"(B) establish technically, operationally, and economically feasible standards for the capability of such systems to detect leaks.

"(4) Savings clause.—

"(A) In general.—Notwithstanding any other provision of this subsection, the Secretary, during the review period, may issue final regulations described in paragraph (3) if the Secretary determines that a condition that poses a risk to public safety, property, or the environment is present or an imminent hazard exists and that the regulations will address the risk or hazard.

"(B) Imminent hazard defined.—In subparagraph (A), the term 'imminent hazard' means the existence of a condition related to pipelines or pipeline operations that presents a substantial likelihood that death, serious illness, severe personal injury, or substantial endangerment to health, property, or the environment may occur."

[Terms used in section 8 of Pub. L. 112–90, set out above, have the meaning given those terms in this chapter, see section 1(c)(1) of Pub. L. 112–90, set out as a note under section 60101 of this title.]

Pipeline Bridge Risk Study

Pub. L. 107–355, §25, Dec. 17, 2002, 116 Stat. 3011, required the Secretary of Transportation to conduct a study to determine whether cable-suspension pipeline bridges pose structural or other risks warranting particularized attention in connection with pipeline operators risk assessment programs and whether particularized inspection standards need to be developed by the Department of Transportation to recognize the peculiar risks posed by such bridges and to transmit a report detailing the results of the completed study within 2 years after Dec. 17, 2002.

Study of Underwater Abandoned Pipeline Facilities

Pub. L. 102–508, title III, §307, Oct. 24, 1992, 106 Stat. 3309, directed Secretary of Transportation, in consultation with State and other Federal agencies having authority over underwater natural gas and hazardous liquid pipeline facilities and with pipeline owners and operators, fishing and maritime industries, and other affected groups, to submit to Congress, not later than 3 years after Oct. 24, 1992, report and recommendations on abandonment of such pipeline facilities, including analysis of problems caused by such facilities, alternative methods to abandonment, as well as navigational, safety, economic, and environmental impacts associated with abandonment, and further authorized Secretary to require, based on findings of such study, additional appropriate actions to prevent hazards to navigation in connection with such facilities.

§60109. High-density population areas and environmentally sensitive areas

(a) Identification Requirements.—Not later than October 24, 1994, the Secretary of Transportation shall prescribe standards that—

(1) establish criteria for identifying—

(A) by operators of gas pipeline facilities, each gas pipeline facility (except a natural gas distribution line) located in a high-density population area; and

(B) by operators of hazardous liquid pipeline facilities and gathering lines—

(i) each hazardous liquid pipeline facility, whether otherwise subject to this chapter, that crosses waters where a substantial likelihood of commercial navigation exists or that is located in an area described in the criteria as a high-density population area; and

(ii) each hazardous liquid pipeline facility and gathering line, whether otherwise subject to this chapter, located in an area that the Secretary, in consultation with the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency, describes as unusually sensitive to environmental damage if there is a hazardous liquid pipeline accident; and


(2) provide that the identification be carried out through the inventory required under section 60102(e) of this title.


(b) Areas To Be Included as Unusually Sensitive.—When describing areas that are unusually sensitive to environmental damage if there is a hazardous liquid pipeline accident, the Secretary shall consider areas where a pipeline rupture would likely cause permanent or long-term environmental damage, including—

(1) locations near pipeline rights-of-way that are critical to drinking water, including intake locations for community water systems and critical sole source aquifer protection areas; and

(2) locations near pipeline rights-of-way that are part of the Great Lakes or have been identified as coastal beaches, certain coastal waters, critical wetlands, riverine or estuarine systems, national parks, wilderness areas, wildlife preservation areas or refuges, wild and scenic rivers, or critical habitat areas for threatened and endangered species.


(c) Risk Analysis and Integrity Management Programs.—

(1) Requirement.—Each operator of a gas pipeline facility shall conduct an analysis of the risks to each facility of the operator located in an area identified pursuant to subsection (a)(1) and defined in chapter 192 of title 49, Code of Federal Regulations, including any subsequent modifications, and shall adopt and implement a written integrity management program for such facility to reduce the risks.

(2) Regulations.—

(A) In general.—Not later than 12 months after the date of enactment of this subsection, the Secretary shall issue regulations prescribing standards to direct an operator's conduct of a risk analysis and adoption and implementation of an integrity management program under this subsection. The regulations shall require an operator to conduct a risk analysis and adopt an integrity management program within a time period prescribed by the Secretary, ending not later than 24 months after such date of enactment. Not later than 18 months after such date of enactment, each operator of a gas pipeline facility shall begin a baseline integrity assessment described in paragraph (3).

(B) Authority to issue regulations.—The Secretary may satisfy the requirements of this paragraph through the issuance of regulations under this paragraph or under other authority of law.


(3) Minimum requirements of integrity management programs.—An integrity management program required under paragraph (1) shall include, at a minimum, the following requirements:

(A) A baseline integrity assessment of each of the operator's facilities in areas identified pursuant to subsection (a)(1) and defined in chapter 192 of title 49, Code of Federal Regulations, including any subsequent modifications, by internal inspection device, pressure testing, direct assessment, or an alternative method that the Secretary determines would provide an equal or greater level of safety. The operator shall complete such assessment not later than 10 years after the date of enactment of this subsection. At least 50 percent of such facilities shall be assessed not later than 5 years after such date of enactment. The operator shall prioritize such facilities for assessment based on all risk factors, including any previously discovered defects or anomalies and any history of leaks, repairs, or failures. The operator shall ensure that assessments of facilities with the highest risks are given priority for completion and that such assessments will be completed not later than 5 years after such date of enactment.

(B) Subject to paragraph (5), periodic reassessments of the facility, at a minimum of once every 7 calendar years, using methods described in subparagraph (A). The Secretary may extend such deadline for an additional 6 months if the operator submits written notice to the Secretary with sufficient justification of the need for the extension.

(C) Clearly defined criteria for evaluating the results of assessments conducted under subparagraphs (A) and (B) and for taking actions based on such results.

(D) A method for conducting an analysis on a continuing basis that integrates all available information about the integrity of the facility and the consequences of releases from the facility.

(E) A description of actions to be taken by the operator to promptly address any integrity issue raised by an evaluation conducted under subparagraph (C) or the analysis conducted under subparagraph (D).

(F) A description of measures to prevent and mitigate the consequences of releases from the facility.

(G) A method for monitoring cathodic protection systems throughout the pipeline system of the operator to the extent not addressed by other regulations.

(H) If the Secretary raises a safety concern relating to the facility, a description of the actions to be taken by the operator to address the safety concern, including issues raised with the Secretary by States and local authorities under an agreement entered into under section 60106.


(4) Treatment of baseline integrity assessments.—In the case of a baseline integrity assessment conducted by an operator in the period beginning on the date of enactment of this subsection and ending on the date of issuance of regulations under this subsection, the Secretary shall accept the assessment as complete, and shall not require the operator to repeat any portion of the assessment, if the Secretary determines that the assessment was conducted in accordance with the requirements of this subsection.

(5) Waivers and modifications.—In accordance with section 60118(c), the Secretary may waive or modify any requirement for reassessment of a facility under paragraph (3)(B) for reasons that may include the need to maintain local product supply or the lack of internal inspection devices if the Secretary determines that such waiver is not inconsistent with pipeline safety.

(6) Standards.—The standards prescribed by the Secretary under paragraph (2) shall address each of the following factors:

(A) The minimum requirements described in paragraph (3).

(B) The type or frequency of inspections or testing of pipeline facilities, in addition to the minimum requirements of paragraph (3)(B).

(C) The manner in which the inspections or testing are conducted.

(D) The criteria used in analyzing results of the inspections or testing.

(E) The types of information sources that must be integrated in assessing the integrity of a pipeline facility as well as the manner of integration.

(F) The nature and timing of actions selected to address the integrity of a pipeline facility.

(G) Such other factors as the Secretary determines appropriate to ensure that the integrity of a pipeline facility is addressed and that appropriate mitigative measures are adopted to protect areas identified under subsection (a)(1).


In prescribing those standards, the Secretary shall ensure that all inspections required are conducted in a manner that minimizes environmental and safety risks, and shall take into account the applicable level of protection established by national consensus standards organizations.

(7) Additional optional standards.—The Secretary may also prescribe standards requiring an operator of a pipeline facility to include in an integrity management program under this subsection—

(A) changes to valves or the establishment or modification of systems that monitor pressure and detect leaks based on the operator's risk analysis; and

(B) the use of emergency flow restricting devices.


(8) Lack of regulations.—In the absence of regulations addressing the elements of an integrity management program described in this subsection, the operator of a pipeline facility shall conduct a risk analysis and adopt and implement an integrity management program described in this subsection not later than 24 months after the date of enactment of this subsection and shall complete the baseline integrity assessment described in this subsection not later than 10 years after such date of enactment. At least 50 percent of such facilities shall be assessed not later than 5 years after such date of enactment. The operator shall prioritize such facilities for assessment based on all risk factors, including any previously discovered defects or anomalies and any history of leaks, repairs, or failures. The operator shall ensure that assessments of facilities with the highest risks are given priority for completion and that such assessments will be completed not later than 5 years after such date of enactment.

(9) Review of integrity management programs.—

(A) Review of programs.—

(i) In general.—The Secretary shall review a risk analysis and integrity management program under paragraph (1) and record the results of that review for use in the next review of an operator's program.

(ii) Context of review.—The Secretary may conduct a review under clause (i) as an element of the Secretary's inspection of an operator.

(iii) Inadequate programs.—If the Secretary determines that a risk analysis or integrity management program does not comply with the requirements of this subsection or regulations issued as described in paragraph (2), has not been adequately implemented, or is inadequate for the safe operation of a pipeline facility, the Secretary may conduct proceedings under this chapter.


(B) Amendments to programs.—In order to facilitate reviews under this paragraph, an operator of a pipeline facility shall notify the Secretary of any amendment made to the operator's integrity management program not later than 30 days after the date of adoption of the amendment. The Secretary shall review any such amendment in accordance with this paragraph.

(C) Transmittal of programs to state authorities.—The Secretary shall provide a copy of each risk analysis and integrity management program reviewed by the Secretary under this paragraph to any appropriate State authority with which the Secretary has entered into an agreement under section 60106.


(10) State review of integrity management plans.—A State authority that enters into an agreement pursuant to section 60106, permitting the State authority to review the risk analysis and integrity management program pursuant to paragraph (9), may provide the Secretary with a written assessment of the risk analysis and integrity management program, make recommendations, as appropriate, to address safety concerns not adequately addressed by the operator's risk analysis or integrity management program, and submit documentation explaining the State-proposed revisions. The Secretary shall consider carefully the State's proposals and work in consultation with the States and operators to address safety concerns.

(11) Application of standards.—Section 60104(b) shall not apply to this section.

(12) Distribution pipelines.—

(A) Study.—The Secretary shall conduct a study of methods that may be used under paragraph (3), other than direct assessment, to assess distribution pipelines to determine whether any such method—

(i) would provide a greater level of safety than direct assessment of the pipelines; and

(ii) is feasible.


(B) Report.—Not later than 2 years after the date of enactment of this paragraph, the Secretary shall submit to the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate and the Committees on Energy and Commerce and Transportation and Infrastructure of the House of Representatives a report describing—

(i) the results of the study under subparagraph (A); and

(ii) recommendations based on that study, if any.


(d) Evaluation of Integrity Management Regulations.—Not later than 4 years after the date of enactment of this subsection, the Comptroller General shall complete an assessment and evaluation of the effects on public safety and the environment of the requirements for the implementation of integrity management programs contained in the standards prescribed as described in subsection (c)(2).

(e) Distribution Integrity Management Programs.—

(1) Minimum standards.—Not later than December 31, 2007, the Secretary shall prescribe minimum standards for integrity management programs for distribution pipelines.

(2) Additional authority of secretary.—In carrying out this subsection, the Secretary may require operators of distribution pipelines to continually identify and assess risks on their distribution lines, to remediate conditions that present a potential threat to line integrity, and to monitor program effectiveness.

(3) Excess flow valves.—

(A) In general.—The minimum standards shall include a requirement for an operator of a natural gas distribution system to install an excess flow valve on each single family residence service line connected to such system if—

(i) the service line is installed or entirely replaced after June 1, 2008;

(ii) the service line operates continuously throughout the year at a pressure not less than 10 pounds per square inch gauge;

(iii) the service line is not connected to a gas stream with respect to which the operator has had prior experience with contaminants the presence of which could interfere with the operation of an excess flow valve;

(iv) the installation of an excess flow valve on the service line is not likely to cause loss of service to the residence or interfere with necessary operation or maintenance activities, such as purging liquids from the service line; and

(v) an excess flow valve meeting performance standards developed under section 60110(e) of title 49, United States Code, is commercially available to the operator, as determined by the Secretary.


(B) Distribution branch services, multifamily facilities, and small commercial facilities.—Not later than 2 years after the date of enactment of the Pipeline Safety, Regulatory Certainty, and Job Creation Act of 2011, and after issuing a final report on the evaluation of the National Transportation Safety Board's recommendation on excess flow valves in applications other than service lines serving one single family residence, the Secretary, if appropriate, shall by regulation require the use of excess flow valves, or equivalent technology, where economically, technically, and operationally feasible on new or entirely replaced distribution branch services, multifamily facilities, and small commercial facilities.

(C) Reports.—Operators of natural gas distribution systems shall report annually to the Secretary on the number of excess flow valves installed on their systems under subparagraph (A).


(4) Applicability.—The Secretary shall determine which distribution pipelines will be subject to the minimum standards.

(5) Development and implementation.—Each operator of a distribution pipeline that the Secretary determines is subject to the minimum standards prescribed by the Secretary under this subsection shall develop and implement an integrity management program in accordance with those standards.

(6) Savings clause.—Subject to section 60104(c), a State authority having a current certification under section 60105 may adopt or continue in force additional integrity management requirements, including additional requirements for installation of excess flow valves, for gas distribution pipelines within the boundaries of that State.

(7) Evaluation of risk.—

(A) In general.—Not later than 2 years after the date of enactment of this paragraph, the Secretary shall promulgate regulations to ensure that each distribution integrity management plan developed by an operator of a distribution system includes an evaluation of—

(i) the risks resulting from the presence of cast iron pipes and mains in the distribution system; and

(ii) the risks that could lead to or result from the operation of a low-pressure distribution system at a pressure that makes the operation of any connected and properly adjusted low-pressure gas burning equipment unsafe, as determined by the Secretary.


(B) Consideration.—In carrying out subparagraph (A)(ii), the Secretary shall ensure that an operator of a distribution system—

(i) considers factors other than past observed abnormal operating conditions (as defined in section 192.803 of title 49, Code of Federal Regulations (or a successor regulation)) in ranking risks and identifying measures to mitigate those risks; and

(ii) may not determine that there are no potential consequences associated with low probability events unless that determination is otherwise supported by engineering analysis or operational knowledge.


(C) Deadlines.—

(i) In general.—Not later than 2 years after the date of enactment of this paragraph, each operator of a distribution system shall make available to the Secretary or the relevant State authority with a certification in effect under section 60105, as applicable, a copy of—

(I) the distribution integrity management plan of the operator;

(II) the emergency response plan under section 60102(d)(5); and

(III) the procedural manual for operations, maintenance, and emergencies under section 60102(d)(4).


(ii) Updates.—Each operator of a distribution system shall make available to the Secretary or make available for inspection to the relevant State authority described in clause (i), if applicable, an updated plan or manual described in that clause by not later than 60 days after the date of a significant update, as determined by the Secretary.

(iii) Applicability of foia.—Nothing in this subsection shall be construed to authorize the disclosure of any information that is exempt from disclosure under section 552(b) of title 5.


(D) Review of plans and documents.—

(i) Timing.—

(I) In general.—Not later than 2 years after the date of promulgation of the regulations under subparagraph (A), and not less frequently than once every 5 years thereafter, the Secretary or relevant State authority with a certification in effect under section 60105 shall review the distribution integrity management plan, the emergency response plan, and the procedural manual for operations, maintenance, and emergencies of each operator of a distribution system and record the results of that review for use in the next review of the program of that operator.

(II) Grace period.—For the third, fourth, and fifth years after the date of promulgation of the regulations under subparagraph (A), the Secretary—

(aa) shall not use subclause (I) as justification to reduce funding, decertify, or penalize in any way under section 60105, 60106, or 60107 a State authority that has in effect a certification under section 60105 or an agreement under section 60106; and

(bb) shall—

(AA) submit to the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate and the Committees on Transportation and Infrastructure and Energy and Commerce of the House of Representatives a list of States found to be noncompliant with subclause (I) during the annual program evaluation; and

(BB) provide a written notice to each State authority described in item (aa) that is not in compliance with the requirements of subclause (I).


(ii) Review.—Each plan or procedural manual made available under subparagraph (C)(i) shall be reexamined—

(I) on significant change to the plans or procedural manual, as applicable;

(II) on significant change to the gas distribution system of the operator, as applicable; and

(III) not less frequently than once every 5 years.


(iii) Context of review.—The Secretary may conduct a review under clause (i) or (ii) as an element of the inspection of the operator carried out by the Secretary.

(iv) Inadequate programs.—If the Secretary determines that the documents reviewed under clause (i) or (ii) do not comply with the requirements of this chapter (including regulations to implement this chapter), have not been adequately implemented, or are inadequate for the safe operation of a pipeline facility, the Secretary may conduct proceedings under this chapter.


(f) Certification of Pipeline Integrity Management Program Performance.—The Secretary shall establish procedures requiring certification of annual and semiannual pipeline integrity management program performance reports by a senior executive officer of the company operating a pipeline subject to this chapter. The procedures shall require a signed statement, which may be effected electronically in accordance with the provisions of the Electronic Signatures in Global and National Commerce Act (15 U.S.C. 7001 et seq.), certifying that—

(1) the signing officer has reviewed the report; and

(2) to the best of such officer's knowledge and belief, the report is true and complete.


(g) Hazardous Liquid Pipeline Facilities.—

(1) Integrity assessments.—Notwithstanding any pipeline integrity management program or integrity assessment schedule otherwise required by the Secretary, each operator of a pipeline facility to which this subsection applies shall ensure that pipeline integrity assessments—

(A) using internal inspection technology appropriate for the integrity threat are completed not less often than once every 12 months; and

(B) using pipeline route surveys, depth of cover surveys, pressure tests, external corrosion direct assessment, or other technology that the operator demonstrates can further the understanding of the condition of the pipeline facility are completed on a schedule based on the risk that the pipeline facility poses to the high consequence area in which the pipeline facility is located, but not less often than once every 12 months.


(2) Application.—This subsection shall apply to any underwater hazardous liquid pipeline facility located in a high consequence area—

(A) that is not an offshore pipeline facility; and

(B) any portion of which is located at depths greater than 150 feet under the surface of the water.


(3) High consequence area defined.—For purposes of this subsection, the term "high consequence area" has the meaning given that term in section 195.450 of title 49, Code of Federal Regulations.

(4) Inspection and enforcement.—The Secretary shall conduct inspections under section 60117(d) to determine whether each operator of a pipeline facility to which this subsection applies is complying with this section.

(5) Considerations.—In carrying out this subsection, each operator shall implement procedures that assess potential impacts by maritime equipment or other vessels, including anchors, anchor chains, or any other attached equipment.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1315; Pub. L. 103–429, §6(75), Oct. 31, 1994, 108 Stat. 4388; Pub. L. 104–304, §§7, 20(i), Oct. 12, 1996, 110 Stat. 3800, 3805; Pub. L. 107–355, §14(a), (b), Dec. 17, 2002, 116 Stat. 3002, 3005; Pub. L. 109–468, §§9, 14, 16, Dec. 29, 2006, 120 Stat. 3493, 3496; Pub. L. 112–90, §§5(e), 22, Jan. 3, 2012, 125 Stat. 1908, 1917; Pub. L. 114–183, §§19(a), 25, June 22, 2016, 130 Stat. 527, 530; Pub. L. 116–260, div. R, title I, §§108(b)(1), 120(b), (d), 122, title II, §202(a), Dec. 27, 2020, 134 Stat. 2223, 2235-2237.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Pub. L. 103–272
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
60109(a) (1)(A) 49 App.:1672(i)(1) (1st sentence), (2). Aug. 12, 1968, Pub. L. 90–481, 82 Stat. 720, §3(i); added Oct. 24, 1992, Pub. L. 102–508, §102(a)(2), 106 Stat. 3291.
60109(a) (1)(B) 49 App.:2002(m)(1) (1st sentence). Nov. 30, 1979, Pub. L. 96–129, 93 Stat. 989, §203(m); added Oct. 24, 1992, Pub. L. 102–508, §202(a)(2), 106 Stat. 3300.
60109(a)(2) 49 App.:1672(i)(1) (last sentence).
  49 App.:2002(m)(1) (2d sentence).
60109(b) 49 App.:2002(m)(1) (last sentence).

In subsection (a)(1)(B)(i) and (ii), the words "regulation under" and "or not" are omitted as surplus.

Pub. L. 103–429

This amends 49:60109(a)(2) to correct an error in the codification enacted by section 1 of the Act of July 5, 1994 (Public Law 103–272, 108 Stat. 1315).

References in Text

The date of enactment of this subsection, referred to in subsecs. (c) and (d), is the date of enactment of Pub. L. 107–355, which was approved Dec. 17, 2002.

The date of enactment of this paragraph, referred to in subsecs. (c)(12)(B) and (e)(7)(A), (C)(i), is the date of enactment of Pub. L. 116–260, which was approved Dec. 27, 2020.

The date of enactment of the Pipeline Safety, Regulatory Certainty, and Job Creation Act of 2011, referred to in subsec. (e)(3)(B), is the date of enactment of Pub. L. 112–90, which was approved Jan. 3, 2012.

The Electronic Signatures in Global and National Commerce Act, referred to in subsec. (f), is Pub. L. 106–229, June 30, 2000, 114 Stat. 464, which is classified principally to chapter 96 (§7001 et seq.) of Title 15, Commerce and Trade. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 7001 of Title 15 and Tables.

Amendments

2020—Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 116–260, §120(b), substituted "certain coastal waters" for "marine coastal waters".

Subsec. (c)(12). Pub. L. 116–260, §122, added par. (12).

Subsec. (e)(7). Pub. L. 116–260, §202(a), added par. (7).

Subsec. (g)(1)(B). Pub. L. 116–260, §120(d)(1), inserted ", but not less often than once every 12 months" before period at end.

Subsec. (g)(4). Pub. L. 116–260, §108(b)(1), substituted "section 60117(d)" for "section 60117(c)".

Subsec. (g)(5). Pub. L. 116–260, §120(d)(2), added par. (5).

2016—Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 114–183, §19(a), substituted "are part of the Great Lakes or have been identified as coastal beaches, marine coastal waters," for "have been identified as".

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 114–183, §25, added subsec. (g).

2012—Subsec. (c)(3)(B). Pub. L. 112–90, §5(e), amended subpar. (B) generally. Prior to amendment, subpar. (B) read as follows: "Subject to paragraph (5), periodic reassessment of the facility, at a minimum of once every 7 years, using methods described in subparagraph (A)."

Subsec. (e)(3)(B), (C). Pub. L. 112–90, §22, added subpar. (B) and redesignated former subpar. (B) as (C).

2006—Subsec. (c)(9)(A)(iii). Pub. L. 109–468, §14, reenacted heading without change and amended text generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "If the Secretary determines that a risk analysis or integrity management program does not comply with the requirements of this subsection or regulations issued as described in paragraph (2), or is inadequate for the safe operation of a pipeline facility, the Secretary shall act under section 60108(a)(2) to require the operator to revise the risk analysis or integrity management program."

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 109–468, §9, added subsec. (e).

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 109–468, §16, added subsec. (f).

2002—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 107–355, §14(a), added subsec. (c).

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 107–355, §14(b), added subsec. (d).

1996—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 104–304, §20(i), substituted "standards" for "regulations" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (a)(1)(B)(i). Pub. L. 104–304, §7(a), substituted "waters where a substantial likelihood of commercial navigation exists" for "a navigable waterway (as the Secretary defines by regulation)".

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 104–304, §7(b), reenacted heading without change and amended text generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "When describing an area that is unusually sensitive to environmental damage if there is a hazardous liquid pipeline accident, the Secretary shall consider including—

"(1) earthquake zones and areas subject to landslides and other substantial ground movements;

"(2) areas of likely ground water contamination if a hazardous liquid pipeline facility ruptures;

"(3) freshwater lakes, rivers, and waterways; and

"(4) river deltas and other areas subject to soil erosion or subsidence from flooding or other water action where a hazardous liquid pipeline facility is likely to become exposed or undermined."

1994—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 103–429 substituted "section 60102(e)" for "section 60102(c)".

Effective Date of 1994 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 103–429 effective July 5, 1994, see section 9 of Pub. L. 103–429, set out as a note under section 321 of this title.

Consideration of Pipeline Class Location Changes

Pub. L. 116–260, div. R, title I, §115, Dec. 27, 2020, 134 Stat. 2232, provided that:

"(a) In General.—Not later than 1 year after the date of enactment of this Act [Dec. 27, 2020], the Administrator of the Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration shall—

"(1) review all comments submitted in response to the advance notice of proposed rulemaking entitled 'Pipeline Safety: Class Location Change Requirements' (83 Fed. Reg. 36861 (July 31, 2018));

"(2) complete any other activities or procedures necessary—

"(A) to make a determination whether to publish a notice of proposed rulemaking; and

"(B) if a positive determination is made under subparagraph (A), to advance in the rulemaking process, including by taking any actions required under section 60115 of title 49, United State Code; and

"(3) consider the issues raised in the report to Congress entitled 'Evaluation of Expanding Pipeline Integrity Management Beyond High-Consequence Areas and Whether Such Expansion Would Mitigate the Need for Gas Pipeline Class Location Requirements' prepared by the Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration and submitted to Congress on June 8, 2016, including the adequacy of existing integrity management programs.

"(b) Rule of Construction.—Nothing in this section may be construed to require the Administrator of the Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration to publish a notice of proposed rulemaking or otherwise continue the rulemaking process with respect to the advance notice of proposed rulemaking described in subsection (a)(1).

"(c) Reporting.—For purposes of this section, the requirements of section 106 [134 Stat. 2220] shall apply during the period beginning on the date that is 180 days after the date of enactment of this Act [Dec. 27, 2020] and ending on the date on which the requirements of subsection (a) are completed."

Unusually Sensitive Areas (USA) Ecological Resources

Pub. L. 116–260, div. R, title I, §120(c), Dec. 27, 2020, 134 Stat. 2235, provided that: "The Secretary [of Transportation] shall complete the revision to regulations required under section 19(b) of the PIPES Act of 2016 (49 U.S.C. 60109 note; Public Law 114–183) (as amended by subsection (a)) [set out below] by not later than 90 days after the date of enactment of this Act [Dec. 27, 2020]."

Pub. L. 114–183, §19(b), June 22, 2016, 130 Stat. 527, as amended by Pub. L. 116–260, div. R, title I, §120(a), Dec. 27, 2020, 134 Stat. 2235, provided that:

"(1) Definitions.—In this subsection:

"(A) Certain coastal waters.—The term 'certain coastal waters' means—

"(i) the territorial sea of the United States;

"(ii) the Great Lakes and their connecting waters; and

"(iii) the marine and estuarine waters of the United States up to the head of tidal influence.

"(B) Coastal beach.—The term 'coastal beach' means any land between the high- and low-water marks of certain coastal waters.

"(2) Revision.—The Secretary of Transportation shall revise section 195.6(b) of title 49, Code of Federal Regulations, to explicitly state that the Great Lakes, coastal beaches, and certain coastal waters are USA ecological resources for purposes of determining whether a pipeline is in a high consequence area (as defined in section 195.450 of such title)."

Integrity Management

Pub. L. 112–90, §5, Jan. 3, 2012, 125 Stat. 1907, provided that:

"(a) Evaluation.—Not later than 18 months after the date of enactment of this Act [Jan. 3, 2012], the Secretary of Transportation shall evaluate—

"(1) whether integrity management system requirements, or elements thereof, should be expanded beyond high-consequence areas; and

"(2) with respect to gas transmission pipeline facilities, whether applying integrity management program requirements, or elements thereof, to additional areas would mitigate the need for class location requirements.

"(b) Factors.—In conducting the evaluation under subsection (a), the Secretary shall consider, at a minimum, the following:

"(1) The continuing priority to enhance protections for public safety.

"(2) The continuing importance of reducing risk in high-consequence areas.

"(3) The incremental costs of applying integrity management standards to pipelines outside of high-consequence areas where operators are already conducting assessments beyond what is required under chapter 601 of title 49, United States Code.

"(4) The need to undertake integrity management assessments and repairs in a manner that is achievable and sustainable, and that does not disrupt pipeline service.

"(5) The options for phasing in the extension of integrity management requirements beyond high-consequence areas, including the most effective and efficient options for decreasing risks to an increasing number of people living or working in proximity to pipeline facilities.

"(6) The appropriateness of applying repair criteria, such as pressure reductions and special requirements for scheduling remediation, to areas that are not high-consequence areas.

"(c) Report.—Not later than 2 years after the date of enactment of this Act [Jan. 3, 2012], the Secretary shall submit to the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure and the Committee on Energy and Commerce of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate a report, based on the evaluation conducted under subsection (a), containing the Secretary's analysis and findings regarding—

"(1) expansion of integrity management requirements, or elements thereof, beyond high-consequence areas; and

"(2) with respect to gas transmission pipeline facilities, whether applying the integrity management program requirements, or elements thereof, to additional areas would mitigate the need for class location requirements.

"(d) Data Reporting.—The Secretary shall collect any relevant data necessary to complete the evaluation required by subsection (a).

"(e) Technical Correction.—[Amended this section.]

"(f) Rulemaking Requirements.—

"(1) Review period defined.—In this subsection, the term 'review period' means the period beginning on the date of enactment of this Act [Jan. 3, 2012] and ending on the earlier of—

"(A) the date that is 1 year after the date of completion of the report under subsection (c); or

"(B) the date that is 3 years after the date of enactment of this Act.

"(2) Congressional authority.—In order to provide Congress the necessary time to review the results of the report required by subsection (c) and implement appropriate recommendations, the Secretary shall not, during the review period, issue final regulations described in paragraph (3)(B).

"(3) Standards.—

"(A) Findings.—As soon as practicable following the review period, the Secretary shall issue final regulations described in subparagraph (B), if the Secretary finds, in the report required under subsection (c), that—

"(i) integrity management system requirements, or elements thereof, should be expanded beyond high-consequence areas; and

"(ii) with respect to gas transmission pipeline facilities, applying integrity management program requirements, or elements thereof, to additional areas would mitigate the need for class location requirements.

"(B) Regulations.—Regulations issued by the Secretary under subparagraph (A), if any, shall—

"(i) expand integrity management system requirements, or elements thereof, beyond high-consequence areas; and

"(ii) remove redundant class location requirements for gas transmission pipeline facilities that are regulated under an integrity management program adopted and implemented under section 60109(c)(2) of title 49, United States Code.

"(4) Savings clause.—

"(A) In general.—Notwithstanding any other provision of this subsection, the Secretary, during the review period, may issue final regulations described in paragraph (3)(B), if the Secretary determines that a condition that poses a risk to public safety, property, or the environment is present or an imminent hazard exists and that the regulations will address the risk or hazard.

"(B) Imminent hazard defined.—In subparagraph (A), the term 'imminent hazard' means the existence of a condition related to pipelines or pipeline operations that presents a substantial likelihood that death, serious illness, severe personal injury, or substantial endangerment to health, property, or the environment may occur.

"(g) Report to Congress on Risk-Based Pipeline Reassessment Intervals.—Not later than 2 years after the date of enactment of this Act [Jan. 3, 2012], the Comptroller General of the United States shall evaluate—

"(1) whether risk-based reassessment intervals are a more effective alternative for managing risks to pipelines in high-consequence areas once baseline assessments are complete when compared to the reassessment interval specified in section 60109(c)(3)(B) of title 49, United States Code;

"(2) the number of anomalies found in baseline assessments required under section 60109(c)(3)(A) of title 49, United States Code, as compared to the number of anomalies found in reassessments required under section 60109(c)(3)(B) of such title; and

"(3) the progress made in implementing the recommendations in GAO Report 06–945 and the current relevance of those recommendations that have not been implemented."

[Terms used in section 5 of Pub. L. 112–90, set out above, have the meaning given those terms in this chapter, see section 1(c)(1) of Pub. L. 112–90, set out as a note under section 60101 of this title. For definition of "high-consequence area" as used in section 5 of Pub. L. 112–90, see section 1(c)(2) of Pub. L. 112–90, set out as a note under section 60101 of this title.]

Seismicity

Pub. L. 112–90, §29, Jan. 3, 2012, 125 Stat. 1921, provided that: "In identifying and evaluating all potential threats to each pipeline segment pursuant to parts 192 and 195 of title 49, Code of Federal Regulations, an operator of a pipeline facility shall consider the seismicity of the area."

[Terms used in section 29 of Pub. L. 112–90, set out above, have the meaning given those terms in this chapter, see section 1(c)(1) of Pub. L. 112–90, set out as a note under section 60101 of this title.]

Study of Reassessment Intervals

Pub. L. 107–355, §14(d), Dec. 17, 2002, 116 Stat. 3005, required the Comptroller General to study the 7-year reassessment interval required by section 60109(c)(3)(B) of title 49 and to transmit to Congress a report on the study not later than 4 years after Dec. 17, 2002.

§60110. Excess flow valves

(a) Application.—This section applies only to—

(1) a natural gas distribution system installed after the effective date of regulations prescribed under this section; and

(2) any other natural gas distribution system when repair to the system requires replacing a part to accommodate installing excess flow valves.


(b) Installation Requirements and Considerations.—Not later than April 24, 1994, the Secretary of Transportation shall prescribe standards on the circumstances, if any, under which an operator of a natural gas distribution system must install excess flow valves in the system. The Secretary shall consider—

(1) the system design pressure;

(2) the system operating pressure;

(3) the types of customers to which the distribution system supplies gas, including hospitals, schools, and commercial enterprises;

(4) the technical feasibility and cost of installing, operating, and maintaining the valve;

(5) the public safety benefits of installing the valve;

(6) the location of customer meters; and

(7) other factors the Secretary considers relevant.


(c) Notification of Availability.—(1) Not later than October 24, 1994, the Secretary shall prescribe standards requiring an operator of a natural gas distribution system to notify in writing its customers having lines in which excess flow valves are not required by law but can be installed according to the standards prescribed under subsection (e) of this section, of—

(A) the availability of excess flow valves for installation in the system;

(B) safety benefits to be derived from installation; and

(C) costs associated with installation, maintenance, and replacement.


(2) The standards shall provide that, except when installation is required under subsection (b) of this section, excess flow valves shall be installed at the request of the customer if the customer will pay all costs associated with installation.

(d) Report.—If the Secretary decides under subsection (b) of this section that there are no circumstances under which an operator must install excess flow valves, the Secretary shall submit to Congress a report on the reasons for the decision not later than 30 days after the decision is made.

(e) Performance Standards.—Not later than April 24, 1994, the Secretary shall develop standards for the performance of excess flow valves used to protect lines in a natural gas distribution system. The Secretary may adopt industry accepted performance standards in order to comply with the requirement under the preceding sentence. The standards shall be incorporated into regulations the Secretary prescribes under this section. All excess flow valves shall be installed according to the standards.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1316; Pub. L. 104–304, §§8, 20(j), Oct. 12, 1996, 110 Stat. 3800, 3805; Pub. L. 107–355, §21(1), Dec. 17, 2002, 116 Stat. 3010.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
60110(a) 49 App.:1672(j)(5). Aug. 12, 1968, Pub. L. 90–481, 82 Stat. 720, §3(j); added Oct. 24, 1992, Pub. L. 102–508, §104, 106 Stat. 3291.
60110(b) 49 App.:1672(j)(1).
60110(c) 49 App.:1672(j)(2).
60110(d) 49 App.:1672(j)(3).
60110(e) 49 App.:1672(j)(4).

In subsection (a)(2), the words "in a manner" are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (b), before clause (1), the words "on when" are substituted for "prescribing the circumstances, if any, under which" to eliminate unnecessary words.

Amendments

2002—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 107–355 substituted "circumstances, if any, under which an operator" for "circumstances under which an operator" in introductory provisions.

1996—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 104–304, §20(j), substituted "standards" for "regulations" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 104–304, §8(1), which directed the insertion of ", if any," after "circumstances" in the first sentence of subsection (b)(1), could not be executed because the word "circumstances" did not appear in subsec. (b)(1).

Subsec. (b)(4). Pub. L. 104–304, §8(2), inserted ", operating, and maintaining" after "cost of installing".

Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 104–304, §20(j), substituted "standards" for "regulations" after "prescribe" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (c)(1)(C). Pub. L. 104–304, §8(3), inserted ", maintenance, and replacement" after "installation".

Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 104–304, §20(j), substituted "standards" for "regulations".

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 104–304, §8(4), inserted after first sentence "The Secretary may adopt industry accepted performance standards in order to comply with the requirement under the preceding sentence."

§60111. Financial responsibility for liquefied natural gas facilities

(a) Notice.—When the Secretary of Transportation believes that an operator of a liquefied natural gas facility does not have adequate financial responsibility for the facility, the Secretary may issue a notice to the operator about the inadequacy and the amount of financial responsibility the Secretary considers adequate.

(b) Hearings.—An operator receiving a notice under subsection (a) of this section may have a hearing on the record not later than 30 days after receiving the notice. The operator may show why the Secretary should not issue an order requiring the operator to demonstrate and maintain financial responsibility in at least the amount the Secretary considers adequate.

(c) Orders.—After an opportunity for a hearing on the record, the Secretary may issue the order if the Secretary decides it is justified in the public interest.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1317.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
60111(a) 49 App.:1674b(b)(1), (c). Aug. 12, 1968, Pub. L. 90–481, 82 Stat. 720, §7(b)(1)–(3), (c); added Nov. 30, 1979, Pub. L. 96–129, §153, 93 Stat. 1002.
60111(b) 49 App.:1674b(b)(2).
60111(c) 49 App.:1674b(b)(3).

In subsection (a), the words "is not maintaining adequate insurance or otherwise", the text of 49 App.:1674b(c), and the words "and serve upon" and "a statement of" are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (b), the words "in accordance with section 554 of title 5" are omitted for consistency in the revised title and because 5:554 applies to a hearing on the record unless otherwise stated. The words "to be held" and "cause as to" are omitted as surplus. The words "the Secretary considers adequate" are substituted for "indicated in the notice under paragraph (1)" for clarity and to eliminate unnecessary words.

Subsection (c) is substituted for 49 App.:1674b(b)(3) to eliminate unnecessary words.

§60112. Pipeline facilities hazardous to life and property

(a) General Authority.—After notice and an opportunity for a hearing, the Secretary of Transportation may decide that a pipeline facility is hazardous if the Secretary decides that—

(1) operation of the facility is or would be hazardous to life, property, or the environment; or

(2) the facility is or would be constructed or operated, or a component of the facility is or would be constructed or operated, with equipment, material, or a technique that the Secretary decides is hazardous to life, property, or the environment.


(b) Considerations.—In making a decision under subsection (a) of this section, the Secretary shall consider, if relevant—

(1) the characteristics of the pipe and other equipment used in the pipeline facility, including the age, manufacture, physical properties, and method of manufacturing, constructing, or assembling the equipment;

(2) the nature of the material the pipeline facility transports, the corrosive and deteriorative qualities of the material, the sequence in which the material are 1 transported, and the pressure required for transporting the material;

(3) the aspects of the area in which the pipeline facility is located, including climatic and geologic conditions and soil characteristics;

(4) the proximity of the area in which the hazardous liquid pipeline facility is located to environmentally sensitive areas;

(5) the population density and population and growth patterns of the area in which the pipeline facility is located;

(6) any recommendation of the National Transportation Safety Board made under another law; and

(7) other factors the Secretary considers appropriate.


(c) Opportunity for State Comment.—The Secretary shall provide, to any appropriate official of a State in which a pipeline facility is located and about which a proceeding has begun under this section, notice and an opportunity to comment on an agreement the Secretary proposes to make to resolve the proceeding. State comment shall incorporate comments of affected local officials.

(d) Corrective Action Orders.—

(1) In general.—If the Secretary decides under subsection (a) of this section that a pipeline facility is or would be hazardous, the Secretary shall order the operator of the facility to take necessary corrective action, including suspended or restricted use of the facility, physical inspection, testing, repair, replacement, or other appropriate action.

(2) Actions attributable to an employee.—If, in the case of a corrective action order issued following an accident, the Secretary determines that the actions of an employee carrying out an activity regulated under this chapter, including duties under section 60102(a), may have contributed substantially to the cause of the accident, the Secretary shall direct the operator to relieve the employee from performing those activities, reassign the employee, or place the employee on leave until the earlier of the date on which—

(A) the Secretary, after notice and an opportunity for a hearing, determines that the employee's actions did not contribute substantially to the cause of the accident; or

(B) the Secretary determines the employee has been re-qualified or re-trained as provided for in section 60131 and can safely perform those activities.


(3) Effect of collective bargaining agreements.—An action taken by an operator under paragraph (2) shall be in accordance with the terms and conditions of any applicable collective bargaining agreement.


(e) Waiver of Notice and Hearing in Emergency.—The Secretary may waive the requirements for notice and an opportunity for a hearing under this section and issue expeditiously an order under this section if the Secretary decides failure to issue the order expeditiously will result in likely serious harm to life, property, or the environment. An order under this subsection shall provide an opportunity for a hearing as soon as practicable after the order is issued.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1317; Pub. L. 103–429, §6(76), Oct. 31, 1994, 108 Stat. 4388; Pub. L. 107–355, §§8(a), 10(b), Dec. 17, 2002, 116 Stat. 2993, 2995.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Pub. L. 103–272
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
60112(a) 49 App.:1679b(b)(1) (1st sentence words before 3d comma), (2). Aug. 12, 1968, Pub. L. 90–481, 82 Stat. 720, §12(b)(1)–(5); added Nov. 30, 1979, Pub. L. 96–129, §104(b), 93 Stat. 993; Oct. 24, 1992, Pub. L. 102–508, §101(b), 106 Stat. 3290.
  49 App.:2008(b)(1) (1st sentence words before 3d comma), (2). Nov. 30, 1979, Pub. L. 96–129, §209(b)(1)–(5), 93 Stat. 1010; Oct. 24, 1992, Pub. L. 102–508, §201(b), 106 Stat. 3300.
60112(b) 49 App.:1679b(b)(3).
  49 App.:2008(b)(3).
60112(c) 49 App.:1679b(b)(6). Aug. 12, 1968, Pub. L. 90–481, 82 Stat. 720, §12(b)(6); added Oct. 24, 1992, Pub. L. 102–508, §113(a), 106 Stat. 3296.
  49 App.:2008(b)(6). Nov. 30, 1979, Pub. L. 96–129, 93 Stat. 989, §209(b)(6); added Oct. 24, 1992, Pub. L. 102–508, §213(a), 106 Stat. 3305.
60112(d) 49 App.:1679b(b)(1) (1st sentence words after 3d comma, last sentence).
  49 App.:2008(b)(1) (1st sentence words after 3d comma, last sentence).
60112(e) 49 App.:1679b(b)(4), (5).
  49 App.:2008(b)(4), (5).

In subsection (a), before clause (1), the word "reasonable" and the text of 49 App.:1679b(b)(1) (last sentence) and 2008(b)(1) (last sentence) are omitted as surplus. Clauses (1) and (2) are substituted for "that any pipeline facility is hazardous to life or property" and 49 App.:1679b(b)(2) and 2008(b)(2) to eliminate unnecessary words.

In subsection (b)(1), the words "involved" and "(including its resistance to corrosion and deterioration)" are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (b)(5), the words "in connection with any investigation conducted by the Board" are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (c), the words "responsible for pipeline safety" are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (e), the text of 49 App.:1679b(b)(4) and 2008(b)(4) is omitted because of 28:516 and 1331.

Pub. L. 103–429

This amends 49:60112(d) to clarify the restatement of 49 App.:1679b(b)(1) and 2008(b)(1) by section 1 of the Act of July 5, 1994 (Public Law 103–272, 108 Stat. 1317).

Amendments

2002—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 107–355, §8(a)(1), reenacted heading without change and amended text generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "After notice and an opportunity for a hearing, the Secretary of Transportation may decide a pipeline facility is hazardous if the Secretary decides the facility is—

"(1) hazardous to life, property, or the environment; or

"(2) constructed or operated, or a component of the facility is constructed or operated, with equipment, material, or a technique the Secretary decides is hazardous to life, property, or the environment."

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 107–355, §10(b), designated existing provisions as par. (1), inserted heading, realigned margins, and added pars. (2) and (3).

Pub. L. 107–355, §8(a)(2), substituted "is or would be hazardous" for "is hazardous".

1994—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 103–429 inserted before period at end ", including suspended or restricted use of the facility, physical inspection, testing, repair, replacement, or other appropriate action".

Effective Date of 1994 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 103–429 effective July 5, 1994, see section 9 of Pub. L. 103–429, set out as a note under section 321 of this title.

1 So in original. Probably should be "is".

§60113. Customer-owned natural gas service lines

Not later than October 24, 1993, the Secretary of Transportation shall prescribe standards requiring an operator of a natural gas distribution pipeline that does not maintain customer-owned natural gas service lines up to building walls to advise its customers of—

(1) the requirements for maintaining those lines;

(2) any resources known to the operator that could assist customers in carrying out the maintenance;

(3) information the operator has on operating and maintaining its lines that could assist customers; and