[USC02] 49 USC Ch. 411: AIR CARRIER CERTIFICATES
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49 USC Ch. 411: AIR CARRIER CERTIFICATES
From Title 49—TRANSPORTATIONSUBTITLE VII—AVIATION PROGRAMSPART A—AIR COMMERCE AND SAFETYsubpart ii—economic regulation

CHAPTER 411—AIR CARRIER CERTIFICATES

Sec.
41101.
Requirement for a certificate.
41102.
General, temporary, and charter air transportation certificates of air carriers.
41103.
All-cargo air transportation certificates of air carriers.
41104.
Additional limitations and requirements of charter air carriers.
41105.
Transfers of certificates.
41106.
Airlift service.
41107.
Transportation of mail.
41108.
Applications for certificates.
41109.
Terms of certificates.
41110.
Effective periods and amendments, modifications, suspensions, and revocations of certificates.
41111.
Simplified procedure to apply for, amend, modify, suspend, and transfer certificates.
41112.
Liability insurance and financial responsibility.
41113.
Plans to address needs of families of passengers involved in aircraft accidents.

        

Amendments

1996Pub. L. 104–264, title VII, §703(b), Oct. 9, 1996, 110 Stat. 3268, added item 41113.

§41101. Requirement for a certificate

(a) General.—Except as provided in this chapter or another law—

(1) an air carrier may provide air transportation only if the air carrier holds a certificate issued under this chapter authorizing the air transportation;

(2) a charter air carrier may provide charter air transportation only if the charter air carrier holds a certificate issued under this chapter authorizing the charter air transportation; and

(3) an air carrier may provide all-cargo air transportation only if the air carrier holds a certificate issued under this chapter authorizing the all-cargo air transportation.


(b) Through Service and Joint Transportation.—A citizen of the United States providing transportation in a State of passengers or property as a common carrier for compensation with aircraft capable of carrying at least 30 passengers, under authority granted by the appropriate State authority—

(1) may provide transportation for passengers and property that includes through service by the citizen over its routes in the State and in air transportation by an air carrier or foreign air carrier; and

(2) subject to sections 41309 and 42111 of this title, may make an agreement with an air carrier or foreign air carrier to provide the joint transportation.


(c) Proprietary or Exclusive Right Not Conferred.—A certificate issued under this chapter does not confer a proprietary or exclusive right to use airspace, an airway of the United States, or an air navigation facility.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1118.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
41101(a)(1) 49 App.:1371(a). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, §401(a), (i), 72 Stat. 754, 756.
41101(a)(2) 49 App.:1301(14) (related to certificate). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, 72 Stat. 731, §101(14) (related to certificate); added Oct. 24, 1978, Pub. L. 95–504, §2(a)(1), 92 Stat. 1705.
41101(a)(3) (no source).
41101(b) 49 App.:1371(d) (4)(A)(i), (ii) (related to joint services). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, 72 Stat. 731, §401(d) (4)(A)(i), (ii) (related to joint services); added Nov. 9, 1977, Pub. L. 95–163, §9, 91 Stat. 1281; restated Oct. 24, 1978, Pub. L. 95–504, §9, 92 Stat. 1713.
41101(c) 49 App.:1371(i).

In subsections (a)(2) and (c), the words "issued under this chapter" are added for clarity.

In subsection (a), the word "provide" is substituted for "engage in" for consistency in the revised title. The words before clause (1) are added to inform the reader that other provisions of the chapter and other laws qualify the requirement of being licensed by the Secretary of Transportation. In clause (1), the word "holds" is substituted for "there is in force" to eliminate unnecessary words. The words "under this chapter" are substituted for "by the Board" for clarity. In clause (2), the words "of public convenience and necessity" are omitted as surplus. Clause (3) is included to inform the reader at the beginning of this chapter about all of the types of certificates and permits that the Secretary may issue under this subchapter.

In subsection (b), the word "passengers" is substituted for "persons" for consistency in the revised title. Before clause (1), the words "Notwithstanding any other provision of this chapter" are omitted as surplus. The words "providing transportation" are substituted for "undertakes . . . the carriage of" for consistency in the revised title. The words "or hire" are omitted as surplus and for consistency. The words "for such carriage within such State" are omitted as surplus. In clause (1), the words "through service" are substituted for "transportation" the first time it appears for clarity. In clause (2), the words "the requirements of" and "for such through services" are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (c), the word "property" is omitted as surplus. The words "landing area" are omitted because they are included in the definition of "air navigation facility" in section 40102(a) of the revised title.

§41102. General, temporary, and charter air transportation certificates of air carriers

(a) Issuance.—The Secretary of Transportation may issue a certificate of public convenience and necessity to a citizen of the United States authorizing the citizen to provide any part of the following air transportation the citizen has applied for under section 41108 of this title:

(1) air transportation as an air carrier.

(2) temporary air transportation as an air carrier for a limited period.

(3) charter air transportation as a charter air carrier.


(b) Findings Required for Issuance.—(1) Before issuing a certificate under subsection (a) of this section, the Secretary must find that the citizen is fit, willing, and able to provide the transportation to be authorized by the certificate and to comply with this part and regulations of the Secretary.

(2) In addition to the findings under paragraph (1) of this subsection, the Secretary, before issuing a certificate under subsection (a) of this section for foreign air transportation, must find that the transportation is consistent with the public convenience and necessity.

(c) Temporary Certificates.—The Secretary may issue a certificate under subsection (a) of this section for interstate air transportation (except the transportation of passengers) or foreign air transportation for a temporary period of time (whether the application is for permanent or temporary authority) when the Secretary decides that a test period is desirable—

(1) to decide if the projected services, efficiencies, methods, and prices and the projected results will materialize and remain for a sustained period of time; or

(2) to evaluate the new transportation.


(d) Foreign Air Transportation.—The Secretary shall submit each decision authorizing the provision of foreign air transportation to the President under section 41307 of this title.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1119.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
41102(a) 49 App.:1371(d)(1) (words before 1st comma and after semicolon), (2) (1st–32d words). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, §401(d)(1), (2), 72 Stat. 755; Oct. 24, 1978, Pub. L. 95–504, §8, 92 Stat. 1712; restated Feb. 15, 1980, Pub. L. 96–192, §4, 94 Stat. 37.
  49 App.:1371(d)(3) (words before 6th comma). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, 72 Stat. 731, §401(d)(3); added July 10, 1962, Pub. L. 87–528, §2, 76 Stat. 143; Oct. 24, 1978, Pub. L. 95–504, §8, 92 Stat. 1712; restated Feb. 15, 1980, Pub. L. 96–192, §4, 94 Stat. 37.
  49 App.:1551(b)(1)(E). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, 72 Stat. 731, §1601(b) (1)(E); added Oct. 4, 1984, Pub. L. 98–443, §3(e), 98 Stat. 1704.
41102(b)(1) 49 App.:1371(d)(1) (words between 1st and last commas), (2) (42d–last words), (3) (words after 7th comma).
  49 App.:1551(b)(1)(E).
41102(b)(2) 49 App.:1371(d)(1) (words between last comma and semicolon), (2) (33d–41st words), (3) (words between 6th and 7th commas).
  49 App.:1551(a)(1)(A). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, 72 Stat. 731, §1601(a) (1)(A), (B); added Oct. 24, 1978, Pub. L. 95–504, §40(a), 92 Stat. 1744.
  49 App.:1551(b)(1)(E).
41102(c) 49 App.:1371(d)(8) (1st sentence). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, 72 Stat. 731, §401(d)(8) (1st sentence); added Oct. 24, 1978, Pub. L. 95–504, §13, 92 Stat. 1718.
  49 App.:1551(a)(1)(B), (b)(1)(E).
41102(d) (no source).

In this section, the words "citizen of the United States" and "citizen" are substituted for "applicant" for clarity and consistency because only a citizen of the United States may be an "air carrier" as defined in section 40102(a) of the revised title, and only an air carrier may be a "charter air carrier" as defined in section 40102(a). The word "provide" is substituted for "perform" for consistency in the revised title.

In subsection (a), before clause (1), the words "of public convenience and necessity" are added for clarity. The words "any part of" are substituted for "the whole or any part of" to eliminate unnecessary words. In clauses (2) and (3), the words "In the case of" are omitted as surplus. In clause (3), the words "for such periods" are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (b)(1), the word "comply" is substituted for "conform" for consistency in the revised title. The words "properly" and "requirements" are omitted as surplus. The word "rules" is omitted as being synonymous with "regulations".

In subsection (b)(2), the words "foreign air transportation" are added because 49 App.:1551(a)(1)(A) provides that 49 App.:1371(d)(1)–(3) no longer applies to interstate or overseas transportation of persons. After January 1, 1985, other interstate and overseas air transportation and the domestic air transportation of mail do not require a certificate of public convenience and necessity. See H. Rept. 98–793, 98th Cong., 2d Sess., p.10 (1984).

In subsection (c), before clause (1), the words "issue a certificate" are substituted for "grant an application" for consistency in this chapter. The words "for interstate air transportation (except the transportation of passengers) or foreign air transportation" are added for clarity and consistency. The word "only" is omitted as surplus. In clause (1), the word "prices" is substituted for "rates, fares, charges" because of the definition of "price" in section 40102(a) of the revised title. The words "in fact" are omitted as surplus. In clause (2), the words "to assess the impact of the new services on the national air route structure, or otherwise" are omitted as surplus.

Subsection (d) is added for clarity.

§41103. All-cargo air transportation certificates of air carriers

(a) Applications.—A citizen of the United States may apply to the Secretary of Transportation for a certificate authorizing the citizen to provide all-cargo air transportation. The application must contain information and be in the form the Secretary by regulation requires.

(b) Issuance.—Not later than 180 days after an application for a certificate is filed under this section, the Secretary shall issue the certificate to a citizen of the United States authorizing the citizen, as an air carrier, to provide any part of the all-cargo air transportation applied for unless the Secretary finds that the citizen is not fit, willing, and able to provide the all-cargo air transportation to be authorized by the certificate and to comply with regulations of the Secretary.

(c) Terms.—The Secretary may impose terms the Secretary considers necessary when issuing a certificate under this section. However, the Secretary may not impose terms that restrict the places served or prices charged by the holder of the certificate.

(d) Exemptions and Status.—A citizen issued a certificate under this section—

(1) is exempt in providing the transportation under the certificate from the requirements of—

(A) section 41101(a)(1) of this title and regulations or procedures prescribed under section 41101(a)(1); and

(B) other provisions of this part and regulations or procedures prescribed under those provisions when the Secretary finds under regulations of the Secretary that the exemption is appropriate; and


(2) is an air carrier under this part except to the extent the carrier is exempt under this section from a requirement of this part.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1119; Pub. L. 103–429, §6(49), Oct. 31, 1994, 108 Stat. 4384.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Pub. L. 103–272
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
41103(a) 49 App.:1388(a)(4). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, 72 Stat. 731, §418(a)(4); added Nov. 9, 1977, Pub. L. 95–163, §17(a), 91 Stat. 1285; Mar. 14, 1978, Pub. L. 95–245, §1, 92 Stat. 156.
  49 App.:1551(b)(1)(E). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, 72 Stat. 731, §1601(b) (1)(E); added Oct. 4, 1984, Pub. L. 98–443, §3(e), 98 Stat. 1704.
41103(b) 49 App.:1388(b)(1)(B). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, 72 Stat. 731, §418(b)(1)(B); added Nov. 9, 1977, Pub. L. 95–163, §17(a), 91 Stat. 1285; Mar. 14, 1978, Pub. L. 95–245, §3, 92 Stat. 156.
  49 App.:1551(b)(1)(E).
41103(c) 49 App.:1388(b)(2). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, 72 Stat. 731, §418(b)(2), (c), (d); added Nov. 9, 1977, Pub. L. 95–163, §17(a), 91 Stat. 1285.
  49 App.:1551(b)(1)(E).
41103(d)(1) 49 App.:1388(c).
  49 App.:1551(b)(1)(E).
41103(d)(2) 49 App.:1388(d).

In subsection (a), the words "After the three hundred and sixty-fifth day which begins after November 9, 1977" are omitted as executed. The words "under this section" are omitted as surplus. The words "authorizing the citizen" are added for clarity and consistency in this chapter.

In subsection (b), the words "pursuant to paragraph (4) of subsection (a) of this section" are omitted as surplus. The word "citizen" is substituted for "applicant" for clarity and consistency because only a citizen of the United States may be an "air carrier" as defined in section 40102(a) of the revised title and only an air carrier can provide all–cargo air transportation. The words "to provide" are added for clarity and consistency in this subchapter. The word "rules" is omitted as being synonymous with "regulations". The word "promulgated" is omitted as surplus.

In subsection (c), the words "reasonable", "and limitations", and "and conditions" are omitted as surplus. The word "places" is substituted for "points" for consistency in the revised title.

Pub. L. 103–429

This amends 49:41103(a) to make the term consistent throughout subtitle VII of title 49.

Amendments

1994—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 103–429 substituted "all-cargo" for "all-property".

Effective Date of 1994 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 103–429 effective July 5, 1994, see section 9 of Pub. L. 103–429, set out as a note under section 321 of this title.

§41104. Additional limitations and requirements of charter air carriers

(a) Restrictions.—The Secretary of Transportation may prescribe a regulation or issue an order restricting the marketability, flexibility, accessibility, or variety of charter air transportation provided under a certificate issued under section 41102 of this title only to the extent required by the public interest. A regulation prescribed or order issued under this subsection may not be more restrictive than a regulation related to charter air transportation that was in effect on October 1, 1978.

(b) Scheduled Operations.—

(1) In general.—Except as provided in paragraphs (3) and (4), an air carrier, including an indirect air carrier, may not provide, in aircraft designed for more than 9 passenger seats, regularly scheduled charter air transportation, for which the public is provided in advance a schedule containing the departure location, departure time, and arrival location of the flight, to or from an airport that—

(A) does not have an airport operating certificate issued under part 139 of title 14, Code of Federal Regulations (or any subsequent similar regulation); or

(B) has an airport operating certificate issued under part 139 of title 14, Code of Federal Regulations (or any subsequent similar regulation) if the airport—

(i) is a reliever airport (as defined in section 47102) and is designated as such in the national plan of integrated airports maintained under section 47103; and

(ii) is located within 20 nautical miles (22 statute miles) of 3 or more airports that each annually account for at least 1 percent of the total United States passenger enplanements and at least 2 of which are operated by the sponsor of the reliever airport.


(2) Definition.—In this paragraph, the term "regularly scheduled charter air transportation" does not include operations for which the departure time, departure location, and arrival location are specifically negotiated with the customer or the customer's representative.

(3) Exception.—This subsection does not apply to any airport in the State of Alaska or to any airport outside the United States.

(4) Waivers.—The Secretary may waive the application of paragraph (1)(B) in cases in which the Secretary determines that the public interest so requires.


(c) Alaska.—An air carrier holding a certificate issued under section 41102 of this title may provide charter air transportation between places in Alaska only to the extent the Secretary decides the transportation is required by public convenience and necessity. The Secretary may make that decision when issuing, amending, or modifying the certificate. This subsection does not apply to a certificate issued under section 41102 to a citizen of the United States who, before July 1, 1977—

(1) maintained a principal place of business in Alaska; and

(2) conducted air transport operations between places in Alaska with aircraft with a certificate for gross takeoff weight of more than 40,000 pounds.


(d) Suspensions.—(1) The Secretary shall suspend for not more than 30 days any part of the certificate of a charter air carrier if the Secretary decides that the failure of the carrier to comply with the requirements described in sections 41110(e) and 41112 of this title, or a regulation or order of the Secretary under section 41110(e) or 41112, requires immediate suspension in the interest of the rights, welfare, or safety of the public. The Secretary may act under this paragraph without notice or a hearing.

(2) The Secretary shall begin immediately a hearing to decide if the certificate referred to in paragraph (1) of this subsection should be amended, modified, suspended, or revoked. Until the hearing is completed, the Secretary may suspend the certificate for additional periods totaling not more than 60 days. If the Secretary decides that the carrier is complying with the requirements described in sections 41110(e) and 41112 of this title and regulations and orders under sections 41110(e) and 41112, the Secretary immediately may end the suspension period and proceeding begun under this subsection. However, the Secretary is not prevented from imposing a civil penalty on the carrier for violating the requirements described in section 41110(e) or 41112 or a regulation or order under section 41110(e) or 41112.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1120; Pub. L. 106–181, title VII, §723, Apr. 5, 2000, 114 Stat. 165; Pub. L. 106–528, §8(c), Nov. 22, 2000, 114 Stat. 2522; Pub. L. 108–176, title VIII, §822, Dec. 12, 2003, 117 Stat. 2594.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
41104(a) 49 App.:1371(n)(2), (4). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, 72 Stat. 731, §401(n)(2)–(4); added July 10, 1962, Pub. L. 87–528, §4, 76 Stat. 144; restated Oct. 24, 1978, Pub. L. 95–504, §20(b), 92 Stat. 1721.
  49 App.:1551(a)(1)(E) (related to 49 App.:1371(n)(4)). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, 72 Stat. 731, §1601(a)(1)(E) (related to §401(n)(4)); added Oct. 24, 1978, Pub. L. 95–504, §40(a), 92 Stat. 1744.
  49 App.:1551(b)(1)(E). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, 72 Stat. 731, §1601(b) (1)(E); added Oct. 4, 1984, Pub. L. 98–443, §3(e), 98 Stat. 1704.
41104(b) 49 App.:1371(n)(3).
  49 App.:1551(b)(1)(E).
41104(c) 49 App.:1371(n)(5). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, 72 Stat. 731, §401(n)(5); added July 10, 1962, Pub. L. 87–528, §4, 76 Stat. 145; Oct. 24, 1978, Pub. L. 95–504, §20(c), 92 Stat. 1722.
  49 App.:1371(n)(6). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, 72 Stat. 731, §401(n)(6); added July 10, 1962, Pub. L. 87–528, §4, 76 Stat. 145.
  49 App.:1551(b)(1)(E).

In subsection (a), the word "rule" is omitted as being synonymous with "regulation". The words "charter air transportation" are substituted for "charter trips" for consistency in this part. The text of 49 App.:1371(n)(4) and 1551(n)(1)(E) (related to 49 App.:1371(n)(4)) is omitted because inclusive tour charters have been abolished and charter air carriers have received authority to sell public charter flights directly to the public.

In subsection (b), before clause (1), the words "Notwithstanding any other provision of this subchapter" are omitted as surplus. The words "An air carrier holding" are added for clarity. The words "State of" are omitted as surplus. The word "modifying" is added for consistency in the revised title. The words "citizen of the United States" are substituted for "person" for clarity and consistency because only a citizen of the United States may be an "air carrier" as defined in section 40102(a) of the revised title.

In subsection (c), the words "the requirements described in" are added for clarity.

In subsection (c)(1), the text of 49 App.:1371(n)(6) is omitted as surplus because of 49:322(a).

In subsection (c)(2), the word "amended" is added for consistency in the revised title.

Amendments

2003—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 108–176, §822(a), inserted a comma after "regularly scheduled charter air transportation", substituted "paragraphs (3) and (4)" for "paragraph (3)" and "flight, to or from an airport that—" for "flight unless such air transportation is to and from an airport that has an airport operating certificate issued under part 139 of title 14, Code of Federal Regulations (or any subsequent similar regulation).", and added subpars. (A) and (B).

Subsec. (b)(4). Pub. L. 108–176, §822(b), added par. (4).

2000—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 106–181, §723(2), added subsec. (b). Former subsec. (b) redesignated (c).

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 106–528, §8(c)(1), added par. (1) and struck out heading and text of former par. (1). Text read as follows: "An air carrier, including an indirect air carrier, which operates aircraft designed for more than nine passenger seats, may not provide regularly scheduled charter air transportation for which the general public is provided in advance a schedule containing the departure location, departure time, and arrival location of the flights to or from an airport that is not located in Alaska and that does not have an operating certificate issued under part 139 of title 14, Code of Federal Regulations (or any subsequent similar regulations)."

Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 106–528, §8(c)(2), added par. (3).

Subsecs. (c), (d). Pub. L. 106–181, §723(1), redesignated subsecs. (b) and (c) as (c) and (d), respectively.

Effective Date of 2003 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 108–176 applicable only to fiscal years beginning after Sept. 30, 2003, except as otherwise specifically provided, see section 3 of Pub. L. 108–176, set out as a note under section 106 of this title.

Effective Date of 2000 Amendments

Amendment by Pub. L. 106–528 effective 30 days after Nov. 22, 2000, see section 9 of Pub. L. 106–528, set out as a note under section 106 of this title.

Amendment by Pub. L. 106–181 applicable only to fiscal years beginning after Sept. 30, 1999, see section 3 of Pub. L. 106–181, set out as a note under section 106 of this title.

§41105. Transfers of certificates

(a) General.—A certificate issued under section 41102 of this title may be transferred only when the Secretary of Transportation approves the transfer as being consistent with the public interest.

(b) Certification to Congress.—When a certificate is transferred, the Secretary shall certify to the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate and the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure of the House of Representatives that the transfer is consistent with the public interest. The Secretary shall include with the certification a report analyzing the effects of the transfer on—

(1) the viability of each carrier involved in the transfer;

(2) competition in the domestic airline industry; and

(3) the trade position of the United States in the international air transportation market.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1121; Pub. L. 104–287, §5(9), Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3389.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
41105(a) 49 App.:1371(h)(1). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, §401(h)(1), 72 Stat. 756; Nov. 5, 1990, Pub. L. 101–508, §9127(1), 104 Stat. 1388–371.
  49 App.:1551(b)(1)(E). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, 72 Stat. 731, §1601(b)(1)(E); added Oct. 4, 1984, Pub. L. 98–443, §3(e), 98 Stat. 1704.
41105(b) 49 App.:1371(h)(2), (3). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, 72 Stat. 731, §401(h)(2), (3); added Nov. 5, 1990, Pub. L. 101–508, §9127(2), 104 Stat. 1388–371.

Amendments

1996—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 104–287 substituted "Transportation and Infrastructure" for "Public Works and Transportation".

§41106. Airlift service

(a) Interstate Transportation.—(1) Except as provided in subsection (d) of this section, the transportation of passengers or property by CRAF-eligible aircraft in interstate air transportation obtained by the Secretary of Defense or the Secretary of a military department through a contract for airlift service in the United States may be provided only by an air carrier that—

(A) has aircraft in the civil reserve air fleet or offers to place the aircraft in that fleet; and

(B) holds a certificate issued under section 41102 of this title.


(2) The Secretary of Transportation shall act as expeditiously as possible on an application for a certificate under section 41102 of this title to provide airlift service.

(b) Transportation Between the United States and Foreign Locations.—Except as provided in subsection (d), the transportation of passengers or property by CRAF-eligible aircraft between a place in the United States and a place outside the United States obtained by the Secretary of Defense or the Secretary of a military department through a contract for airlift service shall be provided by an air carrier referred to in subsection (a).

(c) Transportation Between Foreign Locations.—The transportation of passengers or property by CRAF-eligible aircraft between two places outside the United States obtained by the Secretary of Defense or the Secretary of a military department through a contract for airlift service shall be provided by an air carrier referred to in subsection (a) whenever transportation by such an air carrier is reasonably available.

(d) Exception.—When the Secretary of Defense decides that no air carrier holding a certificate under section 41102 is capable of providing, and willing to provide, the airlift service, the Secretary of Defense may make a contract to provide the service with an air carrier not having a certificate.

(e) CRAF-eligible Aircraft Defined.—In this section, "CRAF-eligible aircraft" means aircraft of a type the Secretary of Defense has determined to be eligible to participate in the civil reserve air fleet.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1121; Pub. L. 106–398, §1 [[div. A], title III, §385(a), (b)], Oct. 30, 2000, 114 Stat. 1654, 1654A-87; Pub. L. 112–81, div. A, title III, §365, Dec. 31, 2011, 125 Stat. 1380.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
41106 49 App.:1371(o). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, 72 Stat. 731, §401(o); added July 12, 1976, Pub. L. 94–353, §18(a), 90 Stat. 883.
  49 App.:1551(b)(1)(E). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, 72 Stat. 731, §1601(b)(1)(E); added Oct. 4, 1984, Pub. L. 98–443, §3(e), 98 Stat. 1704.

In subsection (a), before clause (1), the word "passengers" is substituted for "persons" for consistency in the revised title. The words "Secretary of Defense" are substituted for "Department of Defense" because of 10:113(a). The words "an air carrier" are substituted for "carriers" for clarity.

In subsection (b), the words "to provide the service" are added for clarity.

Amendments

2011—Subsecs. (a)(1), (b). Pub. L. 112–81, §365(a)(1), substituted "CRAF-eligible aircraft" for "transport category aircraft".

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 112–81, §365(a), substituted "CRAF-eligible aircraft" for "transport category aircraft" and "referred to in subsection (a)" for "that has aircraft in the civil reserve air fleet".

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 112–81, §365(b), added subsec. (e).

2000—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 106–398, §1 [[div. A], title III, §385(a)(1), (b)], in heading substituted "Interstate Transportation" for "General" and in introductory provisions of par. (1), substituted "Except as provided in subsection (d) of this section," for "Except as provided in subsection (b) of this section," and struck out "of at least 31 days" after "through a contract".

Subsecs. (b) to (d). Pub. L. 106–398, §1 [[div. A], title III, §385(a)(2), (3)], added subsecs. (b) and (c) and redesignated former subsec. (b) as (d).

Effective Date of 2000 Amendment

Pub. L. 106–398, §1 [[div. A], title III, §385(c)], Oct. 30, 2000, 114 Stat. 1654, 1654A-87, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall take effect on October 1, 2000."

§41107. Transportation of mail

When the United States Postal Service finds that the needs of the Postal Service require the transportation of mail by aircraft in foreign air transportation or between places in Alaska, in addition to the transportation of mail authorized under certificates in effect, the Postal Service shall certify that finding to the Secretary of Transportation with a statement about the additional transportation and facilities necessary to provide the additional transportation. A copy of each certification and statement shall be posted for at least 20 days in the office of the Secretary. After notice and an opportunity for a hearing, the Secretary shall issue a new certificate under section 41102 of this title, or amend or modify an existing certificate under section 41110(a)(2)(A) of this title, to provide the additional transportation and facilities if the Secretary finds the additional transportation is required by the public convenience and necessity.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §§1(e), 4(k)(1), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1121, 1370; Pub. L. 106–31, title VI, §6003, May 21, 1999, 113 Stat. 113.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e)
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
41107 49 App.:1371(m). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, §401(m), 72 Stat. 757.
  49 App.:1551(a)(4)(A) (related to 49 App.:1371(m)), (b)(1)(E). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, 72 Stat. 731, §1601(a)(4)(A) (related to §401(m)), (b)(1)(E); added Oct. 4, 1984, Pub. L. 98–443, §3(c), (e), 98 Stat. 1703, 1704.

The words "from time to time" are omitted as surplus. The words "United States Postal Service" and "Postal Service" are substituted for "Postmaster General" in section 401(m) of the Federal Aviation Act of 1958 (Public Law 85–726, 72 Stat. 757) because of sections 4(a) and 6(o) of the Postal Reorganization Act (Public Law 91–375, 84 Stat. 773, 783). The words "in foreign air transportation or between places in Alaska" are substituted for "between any points within the United States or between the United States and foreign countries" for consistency in the revised title and because 49 App.:1551(a)(4)(A) provides that 49 App.:1371(m) no longer applies to interstate or overseas air transportation (except transportation of mail between 2 places in Alaska). In addition, Congress did not intend to maintain the regulation of domestic air transportation of mail. See section 40102(a) of the revised title defining "air transportation" to mean interstate or foreign air transportation or the transportation of mail by aircraft. The word "currently" is omitted as surplus. The words "opportunity for a" are added for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the United States Code. The words "or certificates" are omitted as surplus because of 1:1. The word "modify" is added for consistency in the revised title.

Pub. L. 103–272, §4(k)
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
41107 49 App.:1551(a)(8). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, 72 Stat. 731, §1601(a)(8); added Oct. 4, 1984, Pub. L. 98–443, §3(c), 98 Stat. 1704; Sept. 30, 1988, Pub. L. 100–457, §346 (related to §1601(a)(8) of Federal Aviation Act of 1958), 102 Stat. 2155.
  49 App.:1551(b)(3). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, 72 Stat. 731, §1601(b)(3); added Oct. 4, 1984, Pub. L. 98–443, §3(f), 98 Stat. 1704; Sept. 30, 1988, Pub. L. 100–457, §346 (related to §1601(b)(3) of Federal Aviation Act of 1958), 102 Stat. 2155.

Section 4(k) reflects amendments to the restatement required by section 1601(a)(8) of the Federal Aviation Act of 1958 (Public Law 85–726, 72 Stat. 731), as added by section 3(c) of the Civil Aeronautics Board Sunset Act of 1984 (Public Law 98–443, 98 Stat. 1704), and section 1601(b)(3) of the Federal Aviation Act of 1958 (Public Law 85–726, 72 Stat. 731), as added by section 3(f) of the Civil Aeronautics Board Sunset Act of 1984 (Public Law 98–443, 98 Stat. 1704). Section 1601(a)(8) provides that the authority under 49 App.:1371(l) and (m) and 1375(b)–(d) as those sections relate to transportation of mail by aircraft between places in Alaska (restated in sections 41107 and 41901–41903 of the revised title) ceases on January 1, 1999. Section 1601(b)(3) transfers the authority for prescribing rates for transportation of mail between places in Alaska from the Secretary of Transportation to the Postal Service effective January 1, 1999.

Amendments

1999Pub. L. 106–31 repealed Pub. L. 103–272, §4(k). See 1994 Amendment note below.

1994Pub. L. 103–272, §4(k)(1), which directed the amendment of this section by substituting "foreign air transportation," for "foreign air transportation or between places in Alaska,", effective Jan. 1, 1999, was repealed by Pub. L. 106–31, §6003, effective Dec. 31, 1998.

Effective Date of 1999 Amendment

Pub. L. 106–31, title VI, §6003, May 21, 1999, 113 Stat. 113, provided that the amendment made by section 6003 is effective Dec. 31, 1998.

Effective Date of 1994 Amendment

Pub. L. 103–272, §4(k), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1370, which provided that the amendments made by that section (amending this section and sections 41901, 41902, and 41903 of this title) were effective Jan. 1, 1999, was repealed by Pub. L. 106–31, title VI, §6003, May 21, 1999, 113 Stat. 113, effective Dec. 31, 1998.

§41108. Applications for certificates

(a) Form, Contents, and Proof of Service.—To be issued a certificate of public convenience and necessity under section 41102 of this title, a citizen of the United States must apply to the Secretary of Transportation. The application must—

(1) be in the form and contain information required by regulations of the Secretary; and

(2) be accompanied by proof of service on interested persons as required by regulations of the Secretary and on each community that may be affected by the issuance of the certificate.


(b) Notice, Response, and Actions on Applications.—(1) When an application is filed, the Secretary shall post a notice of the application in the office of the Secretary and give notice of the application to other persons as required by regulations of the Secretary. An interested person may file a response with the Secretary opposing or supporting the issuance of the certificate. Not later than 90 days after the application is filed, the Secretary shall—

(A) provide an opportunity for a public hearing on the application;

(B) begin the procedure under section 41111 of this title; or

(C) dismiss the application on its merits.


(2) An order of dismissal issued by the Secretary under paragraph (1)(C) of this subsection is a final order and may be reviewed judicially under section 46110 of this title.

(3) If the Secretary provides an opportunity for a hearing under paragraph (1)(A) of this subsection, an initial or recommended decision shall be issued not later than 150 days after the date the Secretary provides the opportunity. The Secretary shall issue a final order on the application not later than 90 days after the decision is issued. However, if the Secretary does not act within the 90-day period, the initial or recommended decision on an application to provide—

(A) interstate air transportation is a final order and may be reviewed judicially under section 46110 of this title; and

(B) foreign air transportation shall be submitted to the President under section 41307 of this title.


(4) If the Secretary acts under paragraph (1)(B) of this subsection, the Secretary shall issue a final order on the application not later than 180 days after beginning the procedure on the application.

(5) If a citizen applying for a certificate does not meet the procedural schedule adopted by the Secretary in a proceeding, the Secretary may extend the period for acting under paragraphs (3) and (4) of this subsection by a period equal to the period of delay caused by the citizen. In addition to an extension under this paragraph, an initial or recommended decision under paragraph (3) of this subsection may be delayed for not more than 30 days in extraordinary circumstances.

(c) Proof Requirements.—(1) A citizen applying for a certificate must prove that the citizen is fit, willing, and able to provide the transportation referred to in section 41102 of this title and to comply with this part.

(2) A person opposing a citizen applying for a certificate must prove that the transportation referred to in section 41102(b)(2) of this title is not consistent with the public convenience and necessity. The transportation is deemed to be consistent with the public convenience and necessity unless the Secretary finds, by a preponderance of the evidence, that the transportation is not consistent with the public convenience and necessity.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1121.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
41108(a) 49 App.:1371(b). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, §401(b), 72 Stat. 754; Oct. 24, 1978, Pub. L. 95–504, §6, 92 Stat. 1710.
  49 App.:1551(b)(1)(E). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, 72 Stat. 731, §1601(b)(1)(E); added Oct. 4, 1984, Pub. L. 98–443, §3(e), 98 Stat. 1704.
41108(b) 49 App.:1371(c). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, 401(c), 72 Stat. 754; restated Oct. 24, 1978, Pub. L. 95–504, §7(a), 92 Stat. 1711.
  49 App.:1551(b)(1)(E).
41108(c) 49 App.:1371(d)(9). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, 72 Stat. 731, §401(d)(9); added Oct. 24, 1978, Pub. L. 95–504, §14, 92 Stat. 1719.
  49 App.:1551(b)(1)(E).

In subsection (a), the words "of public convenience and necessity under section 41102 of this title" are added for clarity.

In subsection (b)(1), before clause (A), the words "give due notice thereof to the public by" are omitted as surplus. The word "response" is substituted for "protest or memorandum" to eliminate unnecessary words. The words "requested by such application" are omitted as surplus. Clause (A) is substituted for 49 App.:1371(c)(1)(A) for clarity and consistency. Clause (B) is substituted for 49 App.:1371(c)(1)(B) to eliminate unnecessary words.

In subsection (b)(2), the words "An order of dismissal issued by the Secretary under paragraph (1)(C) of this subsection" are substituted for "Any order of dismissal of an application issued by the Board without setting such application for a hearing or beginning to make a determination with respect to such application under such simplified procedures" to eliminate unnecessary words.

In subsection (b)(3), before clause (A), the words "If the Secretary provides an opportunity for a hearing under paragraph (1)(A) of this subsection" are substituted for "If the Board determines that any application should be set for a public hearing under clause (A) of the second sentence of paragraph (1) of this subsection" to eliminate unnecessary words. The words "provides the opportunity" are substituted for "of such determination" for clarity. The words "for a certificate" are omitted as surplus. The words "to provide" are substituted for "to engage in" for consistency in the revised title.

In subsection (b)(4), the words "If the Secretary acts under paragraph (1)(B) of this subsection" are added for clarity. The words "after beginning the procedure on the application" are substituted for "after the Board begins to make a determination with respect to an application under the simplified procedures established by the Board in regulations pursuant to subsection (p) of this section" to eliminate unnecessary words.

In subsection (b)(5), the word "particular" is omitted as surplus. The words "by order" are omitted as surplus because of 5:ch. 5, subch. II.

In subsection (c)(1), the words "In any determination as to whether or not" are omitted as surplus. The word "provide" is substituted for "perform" for consistency in the revised title. The word "properly" is omitted as surplus. The word "comply" is substituted for "conform" for consistency in the revised title.

In subsection (c)(2), the words "In any determination as to whether" are omitted as surplus. The reference is to section 41102(b)(2), rather than 41102(a), of the revised title to reflect the termination of authority under 49 App.:1551(a)(1)(A).

§41109. Terms of certificates

(a) General.—(1) Each certificate issued under section 41102 of this title shall specify the type of transportation to be provided.

(2) The Secretary of Transportation—

(A) may prescribe terms for providing air transportation under the certificate that the Secretary finds may be required in the public interest; but

(B) may not prescribe a term preventing an air carrier from adding or changing schedules, equipment, accommodations, and facilities for providing the authorized transportation to satisfy business development and public demand.


(3) A certificate issued under section 41102 of this title to provide foreign air transportation shall specify the places between which the air carrier is authorized to provide the transportation only to the extent the Secretary considers practicable and otherwise only shall specify each general route to be followed. The Secretary shall authorize an air carrier holding a certificate to provide foreign air transportation to handle and transport mail of countries other than the United States.

(4) A certificate issued under section 41102 of this title to provide foreign charter air transportation shall specify the places between which the air carrier is authorized to provide the transportation only to the extent the Secretary considers practicable and otherwise only shall specify each geographical area in which, or between which, the transportation may be provided.

(5) As prescribed by regulation by the Secretary, an air carrier other than a charter air carrier may provide charter trips or other special services without regard to the places named or type of transportation specified in its certificate.

(b) Modifying Terms.—(1) An air carrier may file with the Secretary an application to modify any term of its certificate issued under section 41102 of this title to provide interstate or foreign air transportation. Not later than 60 days after an application is filed, the Secretary shall—

(A) provide the carrier an opportunity for an oral evidentiary hearing on the record; or

(B) begin to consider the application under section 41111 of this title.


(2) The Secretary shall modify each term the Secretary finds to be inconsistent with the criteria under section 40101(a) and (b) of this title.

(3) An application under this subsection may not be dismissed under section 41108(b)(1)(C) of this title.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1123; Pub. L. 104–287, §5(70), Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3396.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Pub. L. 103–272
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
41109(a)(1) 49 App.:1371(e)(1) (words before semicolon). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, §401(e)(1), 72 Stat. 755; restated July 10, 1962, Pub. L. 87–528, §3, 76 Stat. 143.
  49 App.:1551(a)(1)(C). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, 72 Stat. 731, §1601(a)(1)(C); added Oct. 24, 1978, Pub. L. 95–504, §40(a), 92 Stat. 1744.
41109(a)(2) 49 App.:1371(e)(1) (words after semicolon).
  49 App.:1371(e)(4). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, §401(e)(3), (4), 72 Stat. 755; restated July 10, 1962, Pub. L. 87–528, §3, 76 Stat. 143; Oct. 24, 1978, Pub. L. 95–504, §15(a), (b), 92 Stat. 1719.
  49 App.:1551(b)(1)(E). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, 72 Stat. 731, §1601(b)(1)(E); added Oct. 4, 1984, Pub. L. 98–443, §3(e), 98 Stat. 1704.
41109(a)(3) 49 App.:1371(e)(2). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, §401(e)(2), 72 Stat. 755; restated July 10, 1962, Pub. L. 87–528, §3, 76 Stat. 143; Feb. 15, 1980, Pub. L. 96–192, §5, 94 Stat. 37.
  49 App.:1551(b)(1)(E).
41109(a)(4) 49 App.:1371(e)(3).
  49 App.:1551(b)(1)(E).
41109(b) 49 App.:1371(e)(7)(B). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, 72 Stat. 731, §401(e)(7)(B); added Oct. 24, 1978, Pub. L. 95–504, §16, 92 Stat. 1720.
  49 App.:1551(b)(1)(E).

In subsection (a)(1), the text of 49 App.:1371(e)(1) (words before semicolon related to terminal and intermediate points) is omitted as obsolete because of 49 App.:1551(a)(1)(C) and because interstate and overseas air transportation is no longer regulated. The words "type of" are added for clarity. The word "provided" is substituted for "rendered" for consistency in the revised title.

In subsection (a)(2), the words before clause (A) are added for clarity. Clause (A) is substituted for 49 App.:1371(e)(1) (words after semicolon) for clarity and consistency and to eliminate unnecessary words. In clause (B), the words "may not prescribe a term preventing" are substituted for "No term, condition, or limitation of a certificate shall restrict the right" for clarity and consistency. The word "providing" is substituted for "performing" for consistency in the revised title.

In subsection (a)(3) and (4), the word "places" is substituted for "points", and the word "provide" is substituted for "engage in", for consistency in the revised title. The words "terminal and intermediate" are omitted as surplus. The words "between which the air carrier is authorized to provide the transportation" are added for clarity and consistency.

In subsection (a)(3), the words "or routes" are omitted because of 1:1. The words "The Secretary" are added for clarity.

In subsection (a)(4), the words "or areas" are omitted because of 1:1.

In subsection (b), the words "condition, or limitation" are omitted as being included in "term".

In subsection (b)(1), before clause (A), the word "modify" is substituted for "removal or modification" to eliminate unnecessary words. The word "provide" is substituted for "engage in" for consistency in the revised title. In clause (A), the words "provide the carrier an opportunity" are substituted for "set such application" for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the United States Code. In clause (B), the words "the simplified procedures established by the Board in regulations pursuant to" are omitted as surplus.

Pub. L. 104–287

This amends 49:41109(a) to clarify the restatement of 49 App.:1371(e) by section 1 of the Act of July 5, 1994 (Public Law 103–272, 108 Stat. 1123).

Amendments

1996—Subsec. (a)(5). Pub. L. 104–287 added par. (5).

Effective Date of 1996 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 104–287 effective July 5, 1994, see section 8(1) of Pub. L. 104–287, set out as a note under section 5303 of this title.

§41110. Effective periods and amendments, modifications, suspensions, and revocations of certificates

(a) General.—(1) Each certificate issued under section 41102 of this title is effective from the date specified in it and remains in effect until—

(A) the Secretary of Transportation suspends or revokes the certificate under this section;

(B) the end of the period the Secretary specifies for an air carrier having a certificate of temporary authority issued under section 41102(a)(2) of this title; or

(C) the Secretary certifies that transportation is no longer being provided under a certificate.


(2) On application or on the initiative of the Secretary and after notice and an opportunity for a hearing or, except as provided in paragraph (4) of this subsection, under section 41111 of this title, the Secretary may—

(A) amend, modify, or suspend any part of a certificate if the Secretary finds the public convenience and necessity require amendment, modification, or suspension; and

(B) revoke any part of a certificate if the Secretary finds that the holder of the certificate intentionally does not comply with this chapter, sections 41308–41310(a), 41501, 41503, 41504, 41506, 41510, 41511, 41701, 41702, 41705–41709, 41711, 41712, and 41731–41742, chapter 419, subchapter II of chapter 421, and section 46301(b) of this title, a regulation or order of the Secretary under any of those provisions, or a term of its certificate.


(3) The Secretary may revoke a certificate under paragraph (2)(B) of this subsection only if the holder of the certificate does not comply, within a reasonable time the Secretary specifies, with an order to the holder requiring compliance.

(4) A certificate to provide foreign air transportation may not be amended, modified, suspended, or revoked under section 41111 of this title if the holder of the certificate requests an oral evidentiary hearing or the Secretary finds, under all the facts and circumstances, that the hearing is required in the public interest.

(b) All-Cargo Air Transportation.—The Secretary may order that a certificate issued under section 41103 of this title authorizing all-cargo air transportation is ineffective if, after notice and an opportunity for a hearing, the Secretary finds that the transportation is not provided to the minimum extent specified by the Secretary.

(c) Foreign Air Transportation.—(1) Notwithstanding subsection (a)(2)–(4) of this section, after notice and a reasonable opportunity for the affected air carrier to present its views, but without a hearing, the Secretary may suspend or revoke the authority of an air carrier to provide foreign air transportation to a place under a certificate issued under section 41102 of this title if the carrier—

(A) notifies the Secretary, under section 41734(a) of this title or a regulation of the Secretary, that it intends to suspend all transportation to that place; or

(B) does not provide regularly scheduled transportation to the place for 90 days immediately before the date the Secretary notifies the carrier of the action the Secretary proposes.


(2) Paragraph (1)(B) of this subsection does not apply to a place provided seasonal transportation comparable to the transportation provided during the prior year.

(d) Temporary Certificates.—On application or on the initiative of the Secretary, the Secretary may—

(1) review the performance of an air carrier issued a certificate under section 41102(c) of this title on the basis that the air carrier will provide innovative or low-priced air transportation under the certificate; and

(2) amend, modify, suspend, or revoke the certificate or authority under subsection (a)(2) or (c) of this section if the air carrier has not provided, or is not providing, the transportation.


(e) Continuing Requirements.—(1) To hold a certificate issued under section 41102 of this title, an air carrier must continue to be fit, willing, and able to provide the transportation authorized by the certificate and to comply with this part and regulations of the Secretary.

(2) After notice and an opportunity for a hearing, the Secretary shall amend, modify, suspend, or revoke any part of a certificate issued under section 41102 of this title if the Secretary finds that the air carrier—

(A) is not fit, willing, and able to provide the transportation authorized by the certificate and to comply with this part and regulations of the Secretary; or

(B) does not file reports necessary for the Secretary to decide if the carrier is complying with the requirements of clause (A) of this paragraph.


(f) Illegal Importation of Controlled Substances.—The Secretary—

(1) in consultation with appropriate departments, agencies, and instrumentalities of the United States Government, shall reexamine immediately the fitness of an air carrier that—

(A) violates the laws and regulations of the United States related to the illegal importation of a controlled substance; or

(B) does not adopt available measures to prevent the illegal importation of a controlled substance into the United States on its aircraft; and


(2) when appropriate, shall amend, modify, suspend, or revoke the certificate of the carrier issued under this chapter.


(g) Responses.—An interested person may file a response with the Secretary opposing or supporting the amendment, modification, suspension, or revocation of a certificate under subsection (a) of this section.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1123; Pub. L. 103–429, §6(50), Oct. 31, 1994, 108 Stat. 4384.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Pub. L. 103–272
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
41110(a)(1) 49 App.:1371(f). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, §401(f), 72 Stat. 755; Oct. 24, 1978, Pub. L. 95–504, §§10(b), 17, 92 Stat. 1716, 1720.
  49 App.:1551(b)(1)(E). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, 72 Stat. 731, §1601(b)(1)(E); added Oct. 4, 1984, Pub. L. 98–443, §3(e), 98 Stat. 1704.
41110(a) (2)–(4) 49 App.:1371(g)(1). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, §401(g), 72 Stat. 756; Oct. 24, 1978, Pub. L. 95–504, §18, 92 Stat. 1720; restated Feb. 15, 1980, Pub. L. 96–192, §6, 94 Stat 37.
  49 App.:1551(b)(1)(E).
41110(b) 49 App.:1388(b)(4). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, 72 Stat. 731, §418(b)(4); added Nov. 9, 1977, Pub. L. 95–163, §17(a), 91 Stat. 1285.
  49 App.:1551(b)(1)(E).
41110(c) 49 App.:1371(g)(3).
  49 App.:1551(b)(1)(E).
41110(d) 49 App.:1371(d)(8) (last sentence). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, 72 Stat. 731, §401(d)(8) (last sentence); added Oct. 24, 1978, Pub. L. 95–504, §13, 92 Stat. 1719.
  49 App.:1551(a)(1)(B). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, 72 Stat. 731, §1601(a)(1)(B); added Oct. 24, 1978, Pub. L. 95–504, §40(a), 92 Stat. 1744.
  49 App.:1551(b)(1)(E).
41110(e) 49 App.:1371(r) (related to certificate). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, 72 Stat. 731, §401(r) (related to certificate); added Oct. 24, 1978, Pub. L. 95–504, §20(d)(1), 92 Stat. 1722.
  49 App.:1551(b)(1)(E).
41110(f) 49 App.:1371a (related to certificate). Aug. 15, 1985, Pub. L. 99–88, §100 (1st complete par. related to certificate on p. 352), 99 Stat. 352.
41110(g) 49 App.:1371(g)(2).
  49 App.:1551(b)(1)(E).

In subsection (a)(1)(C), the words "transportation is no longer being provided under a certificate" are substituted for "operation thereunder has ceased" and "operations thereunder have ceased" for clarity and consistency.

In subsections (a)(2) and (e), the words "opportunity for a" are added for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the United States Code.

In subsection (a)(2), before clause (A), the word "application" is substituted for "petition or complaint" for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the Code and to eliminate unnecessary words. The words "except as provided in paragraph (4) of this subsection" are added for clarity. The words "the simplified procedures under" are omitted as surplus. In clause (A), the word "alter" is omitted as surplus. In clause (B), the reference to 49 App.:1372 is omitted from the cross-references of "this subchapter" because 49 App.:1372 is concerned with foreign air carrier permits and not relevant to air carrier certificate revocation. The word "rule" is omitted as being synonymous with "regulation". The words "condition, or limitation" are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (a)(3), the words "to the provision, or to the order (other than an order issued in accordance with this sentence), rule, regulation, term, condition, or limitation found by the Board to have been violated" are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (a)(4), the word "provide" is substituted for "engage in" for consistency in the revised title. The words "altered" and "the simplified procedures of" are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (b), the words "to the extent of such service" are omitted as surplus. The word "provided" is substituted for "performed" for consistency in the revised title.

In subsection (c)(1), the word "place" is substituted for "point" for consistency in the revised title. In clause (A), the cross-reference is to section 41734(a) of the revised title for clarity because 49 App.:1371(j) is obsolete. The comparable provision is 49 App.:1389(b)(2), restated as section 41734(a). The words "provided by that carrier" are omitted as surplus. In clause (B), the word "immediately" is added for clarity.

In subsection (d)(2), the words "alter" and "the procedures prescribed in" are omitted as surplus.

In subsections (e) and (f)(2), the word "amend" is added for consistency.

In subsection (e), before clause (1), the words "The requirement that each applicant for a certificate or any other authority . . . shall be a continuing requirement applicable to each such air carrier with respect to the transportation authorized by the Board" are omitted as surplus. The words "by order" are omitted as unnecessary because of 5:ch. 5, subch. II. In clause (1), the word "provide" is substituted for "perform" for consistency in the revised title. The word "properly" is omitted as surplus. The word "comply" is substituted for "conform to" for consistency in the revised title. The word "rules" is omitted as being synonymous with "regulations". The word "requirements" is omitted as surplus.

In subsection (f), before clause (1), the words "Notwithstanding any other provision of law" are omitted as surplus. The words "on and after August 15, 1985" are omitted as executed. In clause (1), before subclause (A), the words "law enforcement and other" are omitted as surplus. The words "departments, agencies, and instrumentalities of the United States Government" are substituted for "agencies" for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the Code. The words "an air carrier" are substituted for "any carrier" for clarity. In clause (2), the words "of public convenience and necessity" are omitted as surplus. The words "issued under this chapter" are added for clarity.

In subsection (g), the word "response" is substituted for "protest or memorandum" to eliminate unnecessary words. The word "alteration" is omitted as surplus.

Pub. L. 103–429

This amends 49:41110(e) to clarify the restatement of 49 App.:1371(r) (related to certificate) by section 1 of the Act of July 5, 1994 (Public Law 103–272, 108 Stat. 1124).

Amendments

1994—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 103–429 reenacted heading without change and amended text generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "After notice and an opportunity for a hearing, the Secretary shall amend, modify, suspend, or revoke any part of a certificate issued under section 41102 of this title if the Secretary finds that the air carrier—

"(1) is not fit, willing, and able to continue to provide the transportation authorized by the certificate and to comply with this part and regulations of the Secretary; or

"(2) does not file reports necessary for the Secretary to decide if the carrier is complying with the requirements of clause (1) of this subsection."

Effective Date of 1994 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 103–429 effective July 5, 1994, see section 9 of Pub. L. 103–429, set out as a note under section 321 of this title.

§41111. Simplified procedure to apply for, amend, modify, suspend, and transfer certificates

(a) General Requirements.—(1) The Secretary of Transportation shall prescribe regulations that simplify the procedure for—

(A) acting on an application for a certificate to provide air transportation under section 41102 of this title; and

(B) amending, modifying, suspending, or transferring any part of that certificate under section 41105 or 41110(a) or (c) of this title.


(2) Regulations under this section shall provide for notice and an opportunity for each interested person to file appropriate written evidence and argument. An oral evidentiary hearing is not required to be provided under this section.

(b) When Simplified Procedure Used.—The Secretary may use the simplified procedure to act on an application for a certificate to provide air transportation under section 41102 of this title, or to amend, modify, suspend, or transfer any part of that certificate under section 41105 or 41110(a) or (c) of this title, when the Secretary decides the use of the procedure is in the public interest.

(c) Contents.—(1) To the extent the Secretary finds practicable, regulations under this section shall include each standard the Secretary will apply when—

(A) deciding whether to use the simplified procedure; and

(B) making a decision on an action in which the procedure is used.


(2) The regulations may provide that written evidence and argument may be filed under section 41108(b) of this title as a part of a response opposing or supporting the issuance of a certificate.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1125.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
41111(a) 49 App.:1371(p)(1) (1st, 2d sentences). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, 72 Stat. 731, §401(p); added Oct. 24, 1978, Pub. L. 95–504, §21(a)(1), 92 Stat. 1723.
  49 App.:1551(b)(1)(E). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, 72 Stat. 731, §1601(b)(1)(E); added Oct. 4, 1984, Pub. L. 98–443, §3(e), 98 Stat. 1704.
41111(b) 49 App.:1371(p)(2) (1st sentence).
  49 App.:1551(b)(1)(E).
41111(c) 49 App.:1371(p)(1) (last sentence), (2) (last sentence).
  49 App.:1551(b)(1)(E).

In this section, the words "acting on" and "act on" are substituted for "disposition of" for consistency.

In subsection (a)(1)(A), the word "provide" is substituted for "engage in" for consistency in the revised title.

In subsection (a)(1)(B), the word "alteration" is omitted as surplus.

In subsection (a)(2), the word "adequate" is omitted as surplus.

In subsection (b), the words "to act on an application for a certificate to provide air transportation under section 41102 of this title, or to amend, modify, suspend, or transfer any part of that certificate under section 41105 or 41110(a) or (c) of this title" are added for clarity.

In subsection (c)(2), the words "by such person" are omitted as surplus. The words "a response opposing or supporting the issuance of a certificate" are substituted for "a protest or memorandum filed with respect to such application" for consistency.

§41112. Liability insurance and financial responsibility

(a) Liability Insurance.—The Secretary of Transportation may issue a certificate to a citizen of the United States to provide air transportation as an air carrier under section 41102 of this title only if the citizen complies with regulations and orders of the Secretary governing the filing of an insurance policy or self-insurance plan approved by the Secretary. The policy or plan must be sufficient to pay, not more than the amount of the insurance, for bodily injury to, or death of, an individual or for loss of, or damage to, property of others, resulting from the operation or maintenance of the aircraft under the certificate. A certificate does not remain in effect unless the carrier complies with this subsection.

(b) Financial Responsibility.—To protect passengers and shippers using an aircraft operated by an air carrier issued a certificate under section 41102 of this title, the Secretary may require the carrier to file a performance bond or equivalent security in the amount and on terms the Secretary prescribes. The bond or security must be sufficient to ensure the carrier adequately will pay the passengers and shippers when the transportation the carrier agrees to provide is not provided. The Secretary shall prescribe the amounts to be paid under this subsection.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1126.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
41112 49 App.:1371(q). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, 72 Stat. 731, §401(q); added Oct. 24, 1978, Pub. L. 95–504, §20(d)(1), 92 Stat. 1722.
  49 App.:1551(b)(1)(E). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, 72 Stat. 731, §1601(b)(1)(E); added Oct. 4, 1984, Pub. L. 98–443, §3(e), 98 Stat. 1704.

In subsection (a), the words "citizen of the United States" and "citizen" are substituted for "applicant for such certificate or the air carrier" for clarity and consistency because only a citizen of the United States may be an "air carrier" as defined in section 40102(a) of the revised title and receive a certificate. The words "as the case may be" are omitted as surplus. The words "to provide air transportation as an air carrier under section 41102 of this title" are added for clarity. The words "approved by the Secretary" are substituted for "governing the filing and approval . . . in the amount prescribed by the Board" to eliminate unnecessary words. The words "The policy or plan must be sufficient to pay" are substituted for "which are conditioned to pay . . . amounts" for clarity. The words "for which such applicant or such air carrier may become liable for" are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (b), the word "passengers" is substituted for "travelers" for consistency in this chapter. The words "issued . . . under section 41102 of this title" are added for clarity. The word "arrangement" is omitted as surplus. The word "provide" is substituted for "perform" for consistency in the revised title.

§41113. Plans to address needs of families of passengers involved in aircraft accidents

(a) Submission of Plans.—Each air carrier holding a certificate of public convenience and necessity under section 41102 of this title shall submit to the Secretary and the Chairman of the National Transportation Safety Board a plan for addressing the needs of the families of passengers involved in any aircraft accident involving an aircraft of the air carrier and resulting in any loss of life.

(b) Contents of Plans.—A plan to be submitted by an air carrier under subsection (a) shall include, at a minimum, the following:

(1) A plan for publicizing a reliable, toll-free telephone number, and for providing staff, to handle calls from the families of the passengers.

(2) A process for notifying the families of the passengers, before providing any public notice of the names of the passengers, either by utilizing the services of the organization designated for the accident under section 1136(a)(2) of this title or the services of other suitably trained individuals.

(3) An assurance that the notice described in paragraph (2) will be provided to the family of a passenger as soon as the air carrier has verified that the passenger was aboard the aircraft (whether or not the names of all of the passengers have been verified) and, to the extent practicable, in person.

(4) An assurance that the air carrier will provide to the director of family support services designated for the accident under section 1136(a)(1) of this title, and to the organization designated for the accident under section 1136(a)(2) of this title, immediately upon request, a list (which is based on the best available information at the time of the request) of the names of the passengers aboard the aircraft (whether or not such names have been verified), and will periodically update the list.

(5) An assurance that the family of each passenger will be consulted about the disposition of all remains and personal effects of the passenger within the control of the air carrier.

(6) An assurance that if requested by the family of a passenger, any possession of the passenger within the control of the air carrier (regardless of its condition) will be returned to the family unless the possession is needed for the accident investigation or any criminal investigation.

(7) An assurance that any unclaimed possession of a passenger within the control of the air carrier will be retained by the air carrier for at least 18 months.

(8) An assurance that the family of each passenger will be consulted about construction by the air carrier of any monument to the passengers, including any inscription on the monument.

(9) An assurance that the treatment of the families of nonrevenue passengers (and any other victim of the accident, including any victim on the ground) will be the same as the treatment of the families of revenue passengers.

(10) An assurance that the air carrier will work with any organization designated under section 1136(a)(2) of this title on an ongoing basis to ensure that families of passengers receive an appropriate level of services and assistance following each accident.

(11) An assurance that the air carrier will provide reasonable compensation to any organization designated under section 1136(a)(2) of this title for services provided by the organization.

(12) An assurance that the air carrier will assist the family of a passenger in traveling to the location of the accident and provide for the physical care of the family while the family is staying at such location.

(13) An assurance that the air carrier will commit sufficient resources to carry out the plan.

(14) An assurance that, upon request of the family of a passenger, the air carrier will inform the family of whether the passenger's name appeared on a preliminary passenger manifest for the flight involved in the accident.

(15) An assurance that the air carrier will provide adequate training to the employees and agents of the carrier to meet the needs of survivors and family members following an accident.

(16) An assurance that the air carrier, in the event that the air carrier volunteers assistance to United States citizens within the United States with respect to an aircraft accident outside the United States involving any loss of life, will consult with the Board and the Department of State on the provision of the assistance.

(17)(A) An assurance that, in the case of an accident that results in any damage to a manmade structure or other property on the ground that is not government-owned, the air carrier will promptly provide notice, in writing, to the extent practicable, directly to the owner of the structure or other property about liability for any property damage and means for obtaining compensation.

(B) At a minimum, the written notice shall advise an owner (i) to contact the insurer of the property as the authoritative source for information about coverage and compensation; (ii) to not rely on unofficial information offered by air carrier representatives about compensation by the air carrier for accident-site property damage; and (iii) to obtain photographic or other detailed evidence of property damage as soon as possible after the accident, consistent with restrictions on access to the accident site.

(18) An assurance that, in the case of an accident in which the National Transportation Safety Board conducts a public hearing or comparable proceeding at a location greater than 80 miles from the accident site, the air carrier will ensure that the proceeding is made available simultaneously by electronic means at a location open to the public at both the origin city and destination city of the air carrier's flight if that city is located in the United States.


(c) Certificate Requirement.—The Secretary may not approve an application for a certificate of public convenience and necessity under section 41102 of this title unless the applicant has included as part of such application a plan that meets the requirements of subsection (b).

(d) Limitation on Liability.—An air carrier shall not be liable for damages in any action brought in a Federal or State court arising out of the performance of the air carrier in preparing or providing a passenger list, or in providing information concerning a preliminary passenger manifest, pursuant to a plan submitted by the air carrier under subsection (b), unless such liability was caused by conduct of the air carrier which was grossly negligent or which constituted intentional misconduct.

(e) Aircraft Accident and Passenger Defined.—In this section, the terms "aircraft accident" and "passenger" have the meanings such terms have in section 1136 of this title.

(f) Statutory Construction.—Nothing in this section may be construed as limiting the actions that an air carrier may take, or the obligations that an air carrier may have, in providing assistance to the families of passengers involved in an aircraft accident.

(Added Pub. L. 104–264, title VII, §703(a), Oct. 9, 1996, 110 Stat. 3267; amended Pub. L. 106–181, title IV, §402(a)(1)–(3), (5)–(c), Apr. 5, 2000, 114 Stat. 129, 130; Pub. L. 108–176, title VIII, §809(a), Dec. 12, 2003, 117 Stat. 2588; Pub. L. 115–254, div. C, §1109(a), Oct. 5, 2018, 132 Stat. 3434.)

Amendments

2018—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 115–254, §1109(a)(1), substituted "any loss of life" for "a major loss of life".

Subsec. (b)(9). Pub. L. 115–254, §1109(a)(2)(A), substituted "(and any other victim of the accident, including any victim on the ground)" for "(and any other victim of the accident)".

Subsec. (b)(16). Pub. L. 115–254, §1109(a)(2)(B), substituted "any loss of life" for "major loss of life".

Subsec. (b)(17)(A). Pub. L. 115–254, §1109(a)(2)(C), substituted "any damage" for "significant damage".

2003—Subsec. (b)(16). Pub. L. 108–176, §809(a)(1), struck out "the air carrier" after "major loss of life,".

Subsec. (b)(17), (18). Pub. L. 108–176, §809(a)(2), added pars. (17) and (18).

2000—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 106–181, §402(a)(5)(A), substituted "Each air carrier" for "Not later than 6 months after the date of the enactment of this section, each air carrier".

Subsec. (b)(14) to (16). Pub. L. 106–181, §402(a)(1)–(3), added pars. (14) to (16).

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 106–181, §402(a)(5)(B), substituted "The Secretary" for "After the date that is 6 months after the date of the enactment of this section, the Secretary".

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 106–181, §402(b), inserted ", or in providing information concerning a preliminary passenger manifest," before "pursuant to a plan".

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 106–181, §402(c), added subsec. (f).

Effective Date of 2003 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 108–176 applicable only to fiscal years beginning after Sept. 30, 2003, except as otherwise specifically provided, see section 3 of Pub. L. 108–176, set out as a note under section 106 of this title.

Effective Date of 2000 Amendment

Amendment by section 402(a)(5)(B) to (c) of Pub. L. 106–181 applicable only to fiscal years beginning after Sept. 30, 1999, see section 3 of Pub. L. 106–181, set out as a note under section 106 of this title.

Pub. L. 106–181, title IV, §402(a)(4), Apr. 5, 2000, 114 Stat. 130, provided that: "The amendments made by paragraphs (1), (2), and (3) [amending this section] shall take effect on the 180th day following the date of the enactment of this Act [Apr. 5, 2000]. On or before such 180th day, each air carrier holding a certificate of public convenience and necessity under section 41102 of title 49, United States Code, shall submit to the Secretary [of Transportation] and the Chairman of the National Transportation Safety Board an updated plan under section 41113 of such title that meets the requirements of the amendments made by paragraphs (1), (2), and (3)."

Effective Date

Except as otherwise specifically provided, section applicable only to fiscal years beginning after Sept. 30, 1996, and not to be construed as affecting funds made available for a fiscal year ending before Oct. 1, 1996, see section 3 of Pub. L. 104–264, set out as an Effective Date of 1996 Amendment note under section 106 of this title.

Update Plans

Pub. L. 108–176, title VIII, §809(c), Dec. 12, 2003, 117 Stat. 2589, provided that: "Air carriers and foreign air carriers shall update their plans under sections 41113 and 41313 of title 49, United States Code, respectively, to reflect the amendments made by subsections (a) and (b) of this section [amending this section and section 41313 of this title] not later than 90 days after the date of enactment of this Act [Dec. 12, 2003]."

Establishment of Task Force

Pub. L. 104–264, title VII, §704, Oct. 9, 1996, 110 Stat. 3268, provided that:

"(a) Establishment.—The Secretary of Transportation, in cooperation with the National Transportation Safety Board, the Federal Emergency Management Agency, the American Red Cross, air carriers, and families which have been involved in aircraft accidents shall establish a task force consisting of representatives of such entities and families, representatives of air carrier employees, and representatives of such other entities as the Secretary considers appropriate.

"(b) Guidelines and Recommendations.—The task force established pursuant to subsection (a) shall develop—

"(1) guidelines to assist air carriers in responding to aircraft accidents;

"(2) recommendations on methods to ensure that attorneys and representatives of media organizations do not intrude on the privacy of families of passengers involved in an aircraft accident;

"(3) recommendations on methods to ensure that the families of passengers involved in an aircraft accident who are not citizens of the United States receive appropriate assistance;

"(4) recommendations on methods to ensure that State mental health licensing laws do not act to prevent out-of-state mental health workers from working at the site of an aircraft accident or other related sites;

"(5) recommendations on the extent to which military experts and facilities can be used to aid in the identification of the remains of passengers involved in an aircraft accident; and

"(6) recommendations on methods to improve the timeliness of the notification provided by air carriers to the families of passengers involved in an aircraft accident, including—

"(A) an analysis of the steps that air carriers would have to take to ensure that an accurate list of passengers on board the aircraft would be available within 1 hour of the accident and an analysis of such steps to ensure that such list would be available within 3 hours of the accident;

"(B) an analysis of the added costs to air carriers and travel agents that would result if air carriers were required to take the steps described in subparagraph (A);

"(C) an analysis of any inconvenience to passengers, including flight delays, that would result if air carriers were required to take the steps described in subparagraph (A); and

"(D) an analysis of the implications for personal privacy that would result if air carriers were required to take the steps described in subparagraph (A).

"(c) Report.—Not later than 1 year after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 9, 1996], the Secretary shall transmit to Congress a report containing the model plan and recommendations developed by the task force under subsection (b)."

Limitation on Statutory Construction

Pub. L. 104–264, title VII, §705, Oct. 9, 1996, 110 Stat. 3269, provided that: "Nothing in this title [enacting this section and section 1136 of this title, amending section 1155 of this title, and enacting provisions set out as notes under this section and section 40101 of this title] or any amendment made by this title may be construed as limiting the actions that an air carrier may take, or the obligations that an air carrier may have, in providing assistance to the families of passengers involved in an aircraft accident."