[USC02] 49 USC SUBTITLE V, PART A, CHAPTER 201, SUBCHAPTER II: PARTICULAR ASPECTS OF SAFETY
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TEXT OF PART V OF SUBTITLE A (§3001 ET SEQ.), EFFECTIVE JANUARY 1, 2022, CURRENTLY SET OUT AS A PREVIEW

49 USC SUBTITLE V, PART A, CHAPTER 201, SUBCHAPTER II: PARTICULAR ASPECTS OF SAFETY
From Title 49—TRANSPORTATIONSUBTITLE V—RAIL PROGRAMSPART A—SAFETYCHAPTER 201—GENERAL

SUBCHAPTER II—PARTICULAR ASPECTS OF SAFETY

§20131. Restricted access to rolling equipment

The Secretary of Transportation shall prescribe regulations and issue orders that may be necessary to require that when railroad carrier employees (except train or yard crews) assigned to inspect, test, repair, or service rolling equipment have to work on, under, or between that equipment, every manually operated switch, including each crossover switch, providing access to the track on which the equipment is located is lined against movement to that track and secured by an effective locking device that can be removed only by the class or craft of employees performing the inspection, testing, repair, or service.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 872.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
20131 45:431(g) (1st sentence cl. (1)). Oct. 16, 1970, Pub. L. 91–458, 84 Stat. 971, §202(g) (1st sentence cl. (1)); added July 8, 1976, Pub. L. 94–348, §5(b), 90 Stat. 820.

The words "within 180 days after July 8, 1976" are omitted as expired.

§20132. Visible markers for rear cars

(a) General.—The Secretary of Transportation shall prescribe regulations and issue orders that may be necessary to require that—

(1) the rear car of each passenger and commuter train has at least one highly visible marker that is lighted during darkness and when weather conditions restrict clear visibility; and

(2) the rear car of each freight train has highly visible markers during darkness and when weather conditions restrict clear visibility.


(b) Preemption.—Notwithstanding section 20106 of this title, subsection (a) of this section does not prohibit a State from continuing in force a law, regulation, or order in effect on July 8, 1976, related to lighted markers on the rear car of a freight train except to the extent it would cause the car to be in violation of this section.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 873.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
20132(a) 45:431(g) (1st sentence cls. (2), (3)). Oct. 16, 1970, Pub. L. 91–458, 84 Stat. 971, §202(g) (1st sentence cls. (2), (3), last sentence); added July 8, 1976, Pub. L. 94–348, §5(b), 90 Stat. 820.
20132(b) 45:431(g) (last sentence).

In subsection (a), before clause (1), the words "within 180 days after July 8, 1976" are omitted as expired.

§20133. Passenger cars

(a) Minimum Standards.—The Secretary of Transportation shall prescribe regulations establishing minimum standards for the safety of cars used by railroad carriers to transport passengers. Before prescribing such regulations, the Secretary shall consider—

(1) the crashworthiness of the cars;

(2) interior features (including luggage restraints, seat belts, and exposed surfaces) that may affect passenger safety;

(3) maintenance and inspection of the cars;

(4) emergency response procedures and equipment; and

(5) any operating rules and conditions that directly affect safety not otherwise governed by regulations.


The Secretary may make applicable some or all of the standards established under this subsection to cars existing at the time the regulations are prescribed, as well as to new cars, and the Secretary shall explain in the rulemaking document the basis for making such standards applicable to existing cars.

(b) Initial and Final Regulations.—(1) The Secretary shall prescribe initial regulations under subsection (a) within 3 years after November 2, 1994. The initial regulations may exempt equipment used by tourist, historic, scenic, and excursion railroad carriers to transport passengers.

(2) The Secretary shall prescribe final regulations under subsection (a) within 5 years after November 2, 1994.

(c) Personnel.—The Secretary may establish within the Department of Transportation 2 additional full-time equivalent positions beyond the number permitted under existing law to assist with the drafting, prescribing, and implementation of regulations under this section.

(d) Consultation.—In prescribing regulations, issuing orders, and making amendments under this section, the Secretary may consult with Amtrak, public authorities operating railroad passenger service, other railroad carriers transporting passengers, organizations of passengers, and organizations of employees. A consultation is not subject to the Federal Advisory Committee Act (5 U.S.C. App.), but minutes of the consultation shall be placed in the public docket of the regulatory proceeding.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 873; Pub. L. 103–440, title II, §215(a), Nov. 2, 1994, 108 Stat. 4623; Pub. L. 104–287, §5(47), Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3393.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
20133(a) 45:431(h)(1)(A) (1st, last sentences), (B), (4). Oct. 16, 1970, Pub. L. 91–458, 84 Stat. 971, §202(h); added Oct. 10, 1980, Pub. L. 96–423, §14, 94 Stat. 1817; Jan. 14, 1983, Pub. L. 97–468, §702(a), 96 Stat. 2579.
20133(b) 45:431(h)(1)(A) (2d, 3d sentences), (2).
20133(c) 45:431(h)(3).

In subsection (a), the words "within one year after January 14, 1983" and "initial" are omitted as obsolete. The text of 45:431(h)(1)(B) is omitted as executed. The words "after a hearing in accordance with subsection (b) of this section" are omitted as surplus because of section 20103(e) of the revised title.

In subsections (b) and (c), the word "subsequent" is omitted as surplus.

In subsection (c), the word "Amtrak" is substituted for "National Railroad Passenger Corporation" for consistency in this subtitle. The word "regulatory" is substituted for "rulemaking" for consistency in the revised title.

References in Text

The Federal Advisory Committee Act, referred to in subsec. (d), is Pub. L. 92–463, Oct. 6, 1972, 86 Stat. 770, as amended, which is set out in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

Amendments

1996—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 104–287, §5(47)(A), substituted "November 2, 1994" for "the date of enactment of the Federal Railroad Safety Authorization Act of 1994".

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 104–287, §5(47)(B), substituted "November 2, 1994" for "such date of enactment".

1994Pub. L. 103–440 amended section generally, substituting present provisions for provisions requiring the Secretary to take administrative action to ensure that the construction, operation, and maintenance of passenger rail equipment maximize the safety of passengers, and providing for areas of consideration and concentration, as well as consultation with Amtrak.

§20134. Grade crossings and railroad rights of way

(a) General.—To the extent practicable, the Secretary of Transportation shall maintain a coordinated effort to develop and carry out solutions to the railroad grade crossing problem and measures to protect pedestrians in densely populated areas along railroad rights of way. To carry out this subsection, the Secretary may use the authority of the Secretary under this chapter and over highway, traffic, and motor vehicle safety and over highway construction. The Secretary may purchase items of nominal value and distribute them to the public without charge as part of an educational or awareness program to accomplish the purposes of this section and of any other sections of this title related to improving the safety of highway-rail crossings and to preventing trespass on railroad rights of way, and the Secretary shall prescribe guidelines for the administration of this authority.

(b) Signal Systems and Other Devices.—Not later than June 22, 1989, the Secretary shall prescribe regulations and issue orders to ensure the safe maintenance, inspection, and testing of signal systems and devices at railroad highway grade crossings.

(c) Demonstration Projects.—(1) The Secretary shall establish demonstration projects to evaluate whether accidents and incidents involving trains would be reduced by—

(A) reflective markers installed on the road surface or on a signal post at railroad grade crossings;

(B) stop signs or yield signs installed at grade crossings; and

(C) speed bumps or rumble strips installed on the road surfaces at the approaches to grade crossings.


(2) Not later than June 22, 1990, the Secretary shall submit a report on the results of the demonstration projects to the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 873; Pub. L. 104–287, §5(48), Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3393; Pub. L. 110–432, div. A, title II, §208(c), Oct. 16, 2008, 122 Stat. 4876.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
20134(a) 45:433(b). Oct. 16, 1970, Pub. L. 91–458, §204(b), 84 Stat. 972.
20134(b) 45:431(q). Oct. 16, 1970, Pub. L. 91–458, 84 Stat. 971, §§202(q), 215(a), (b); added June 22, 1988, Pub. L. 100–342, §§20, 23, 102 Stat. 638, 639; Sept. 3, 1992, Pub. L. 102–365, §2(4), 106 Stat. 972.
20134(c) 45:445(a), (b).

In subsection (a), the words "In addition" are omitted as surplus. The word "maintain" is substituted for "undertake" for clarity because the effort has begun. The words "the objective of" are omitted as surplus. The words "To carry out this section, the Secretary may use" are added for clarity.

In subsection (b), the words "Not later than June 22, 1989" are substituted for "within one year after June 22, 1988" for clarity.

In subsection (c)(1), before clause (A), and (2), the word "Secretary" is substituted for "Federal Railroad Administration" for clarity and consistency in the revised title. In this restatement, the Secretary of Transportation carries out all laws. However, this subsection is based on source provisions that provide that the Federal Railroad Administration carries out the subsection. A cross-reference to this subsection has been included in 49:103 to preserve duties and powers under this subsection to the Administrator of the Federal Railroad Administration.

In subsection (c)(1), before clause (A), the words "and incidents" are added for consistency in this part.

Amendments

2008—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 110–432 inserted at end "The Secretary may purchase items of nominal value and distribute them to the public without charge as part of an educational or awareness program to accomplish the purposes of this section and of any other sections of this title related to improving the safety of highway-rail crossings and to preventing trespass on railroad rights of way, and the Secretary shall prescribe guidelines for the administration of this authority."

1996—Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 104–287 substituted "Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure" for "Committee on Energy and Commerce".

Pedestrian Crossing Safety

Pub. L. 110–432, div. A, title II, §201, Oct. 16, 2008, 122 Stat. 4868, provided that: "Not later than 1 year after the date of enactment of this Act [Oct. 16, 2008], the Secretary shall provide guidance to railroads on strategies and methods to prevent pedestrian accidents, incidents, injuries, and fatalities at or near passenger stations, including—

"(1) providing audible warning of approaching trains to the pedestrians at railroad passenger stations;

"(2) using signs, signals, or other visual devices to warn pedestrians of approaching trains;

"(3) installing infrastructure at pedestrian crossings to improve the safety of pedestrians crossing railroad tracks;

"(4) installing fences to prohibit access to railroad tracks; and

"(5) other strategies or methods as determined by the Secretary."

[For definitions of "crossing", "Secretary", and "railroad", as used in section 201 of Pub. L. 110–432, set out above, see section 2(a) of Pub. L. 110–432, set out as a note under section 20102 of this title.]

§20135. Licensing or certification of locomotive operators

(a) General.—The Secretary of Transportation shall prescribe regulations and issue orders to establish a program requiring the licensing or certification, after one year after the program is established, of any operator of a locomotive.

(b) Program Requirements.—The program established under subsection (a) of this section—

(1) shall be carried out through review and approval of each railroad carrier's operator qualification standards;

(2) shall provide minimum training requirements;

(3) shall require comprehensive knowledge of applicable railroad carrier operating practices and rules;

(4) except as provided in subsection (c)(1) of this section, shall require consideration, to the extent the information is available, of the motor vehicle driving record of each individual seeking licensing or certification, including—

(A) any denial, cancellation, revocation, or suspension of a motor vehicle operator's license by a State for cause within the prior 5 years; and

(B) any conviction within the prior 5 years of an offense described in section 30304(a)(3)(A) or (B) of this title;


(5) may require, based on the individual's driving record, disqualification or the granting of a license or certification conditioned on requirements the Secretary prescribes; and

(6) shall require an individual seeking a license or certification—

(A) to request the chief driver licensing official of each State in which the individual has held a motor vehicle operator's license within the prior 5 years to provide information about the individual's driving record to the individual's employer, prospective employer, or the Secretary, as the Secretary requires; and

(B) to make the request provided for in section 30305(b)(4) of this title for information to be sent to the individual's employer, prospective employer, or the Secretary, as the Secretary requires.


(c) Waivers.—(1) The Secretary shall prescribe standards and establish procedures for waiving subsection (b)(4) of this section for an individual or class of individuals who the Secretary decides are not currently unfit to operate a locomotive. However, the Secretary may waive subsection (b)(4) for an individual or class of individuals with a conviction, cancellation, revocation, or suspension described in paragraph (2)(A) or (B) of this subsection only if the individual or class, after the conviction, cancellation, revocation, or suspension, successfully completes a rehabilitation program established by a railroad carrier or approved by the Secretary.

(2) If an individual, after the conviction, cancellation, revocation, or suspension, successfully completes a rehabilitation program established by a railroad carrier or approved by the Secretary, the individual may not be denied a license or certification under subsection (b)(4) of this section because of—

(A) a conviction for operating a motor vehicle when under the influence of, or impaired by, alcohol or a controlled substance; or

(B) the cancellation, revocation, or suspension of the individual's motor vehicle operator's license for operating a motor vehicle when under the influence of, or impaired by, alcohol or a controlled substance.


(d) Opportunity for Hearing.—An individual denied a license or certification or whose license or certification is conditioned on requirements prescribed under subsection (b)(4) of this section shall be entitled to a hearing under section 20103(e) of this title to decide whether the license has been properly denied or conditioned.

(e) Opportunity to Examine and Comment on Information.—The Secretary, employer, or prospective employer, as appropriate, shall make information obtained under subsection (b)(6) of this section available to the individual. The individual shall be given an opportunity to comment in writing about the information. Any comment shall be included in any record or file maintained by the Secretary, employer, or prospective employer that contains information to which the comment is related.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 874.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
20135(a) 45:431(i)(1). Oct. 16, 1970, Pub. L. 91–458, 84 Stat. 971, §202(i); added June 22, 1988, Pub. L. 100–342, §§4(a), 7(b), 102 Stat. 625, 628; Sept. 3, 1992, Pub. L. 102–365, §2(1), 106 Stat. 972.
20135(b) 45:431(i)(2).
20135(c)(1) 45:431(i)(4).
20135(c)(2) 45:431(i)(6).
20135(d) 45:431(i)(5).
20135(e) 45:431(i)(3).

In subsection (a), the words "within 12 months after June 22, 1988" are omitted as executed. The words "including any locomotive engineer" are omitted as surplus. The words "after one year after" are substituted for "after the expiration of 12 months following" to eliminate unnecessary words.

In subsection (b)(5), the word "requirements" is substituted for "terms" for consistency in this section.

In subsection (c)(1), the words "In establishing the program under this subsection" are omitted as surplus.

§20136. Automatic train control and related systems

The Secretary of Transportation shall prescribe regulations and issue orders to require that—

(1) an individual performing a test of an automatic train stop, train control, or cab signal apparatus required by the Secretary to be performed before entering territory where the apparatus will be used shall certify in writing that the test was performed properly; and

(2) the certification required under clause (1) of this section shall be maintained in the same way and place as the daily inspection report for the locomotive.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 875; Pub. L. 103–429, §6(19), Oct. 31, 1994, 108 Stat. 4379.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Pub. L. 103–272
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
20136 45:431(j). Oct. 16, 1970, Pub. L. 91–458, 84 Stat. 971, §202(j); added June 22, 1988, Pub. L. 100–342, §9, 102 Stat. 628.

The words "Within 90 days after June 22, 1988" are omitted as expired.

Pub. L. 103–429

This amends 49:20136(2) to correct an error in the codification enacted by section 1 of the Act of July 5, 1994 (Public Law 103–272, 108 Stat. 875).

Amendments

1994—Par. (2). Pub. L. 103–429 substituted "section" for "subsection".

Effective Date of 1994 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 103–429 effective July 5, 1994, see section 9 of Pub. L. 103–429, set out as a note under section 321 of this title.

§20137. Event recorders

(a) Definition.—In this section, "event recorder" means a device that—

(1) records train speed, hot box detection, throttle position, brake application, brake operations, and any other function the Secretary of Transportation considers necessary to record to assist in monitoring the safety of train operation, such as time and signal indication; and

(2) is designed to resist tampering.


(b) Regulations and Orders.—Not later than December 22, 1989, the Secretary shall prescribe regulations and issue orders that may be necessary to enhance safety by requiring that a train be equipped with an event recorder not later than one year after the regulations are prescribed and the orders are issued. However, if the Secretary finds it is impracticable to equip trains within that one-year period, the Secretary may extend the period to a date that is not later than 18 months after the regulations are prescribed and the orders are issued.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 875.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
20137 45:431(m). Oct. 16, 1970, Pub. L. 91–458, 84 Stat. 971, §202(m); added June 22, 1988, Pub. L. 100–342, §10, 102 Stat. 629.

In subsection (b), the words "Not later than December 22, 1989" are substituted for "within 18 months after June 22, 1988" for clarity. The words "may extend the period to a date that is not later than 18 months after the regulations are prescribed and the orders are issued" are substituted for "may extend the deadline for compliance with such requirement, but in no event shall such deadline be extended past 18 months after such rules, regulations, orders, and standards are issued" to eliminate unnecessary words.

§20138. Tampering with safety and operational monitoring devices

(a) General.—The Secretary of Transportation shall prescribe regulations and issue orders to prohibit the willful tampering with, or disabling of, any specified railroad safety or operational monitoring device.

(b) Penalties.—(1) A railroad carrier operating a train on which a safety or operational monitoring device is tampered with or disabled in violation of a regulation prescribed or order issued under subsection (a) of this section is liable to the United States Government for a civil penalty under section 21301 of this title.

(2) An individual tampering with or disabling a safety or operational monitoring device in violation of a regulation prescribed or order issued under subsection (a) of this section, or knowingly operating or allowing to be operated a train on which such a device has been tampered with or disabled, is liable for penalties established by the Secretary. The penalties may include—

(A) a civil penalty under section 21301 of this title;

(B) suspension from work; and

(C) suspension or loss of a license or certification issued under section 20135 of this title.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 876.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
20138 45:431(o). Oct 16, 1970, Pub. L. 91–458, 84 Stat. 971, §202(o); added June 22, 1988, Pub. L. 100–342, §21, 102 Stat. 638; Sept. 3, 1992, Pub. L. 102–365, §2(3), 106 Stat. 972.

In subsection (a), the words "within 90 days after June 22, 1988" are omitted as expired.

In subsection (b), the words "by another person" are omitted as surplus.

§20139. Maintenance-of-way operations on railroad bridges

Not later than June 22, 1989, the Secretary of Transportation shall prescribe regulations and issue orders for the safety of maintenance-of-way employees on railroad bridges. The Secretary at least shall provide in those regulations standards for bridge safety equipment, including nets, walkways, handrails, and safety lines, and requirements for the use of vessels when work is performed on bridges located over bodies of water.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 876.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
20139 45:431(n). Oct. 16, 1970, Pub. L. 91–458, 84 Stat. 971, §202(n); added June 22, 1988, Pub. L. 100–342, §19(a), 102 Stat. 637; Sept. 3, 1992, Pub. L. 102–365, §2(2), 106 Stat. 972.

The words "Not later than June 22, 1989" are substituted for "within one year after June 22, 1988" for clarity.

§20140. Alcohol and controlled substances testing

(a) Definition.—In this section, "controlled substance" means any substance under section 102 of the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970 (21 U.S.C. 802) specified by the Secretary of Transportation.

(b) General.—(1) In the interest of safety, the Secretary of Transportation shall prescribe regulations and issue orders, not later than October 28, 1992, related to alcohol and controlled substances use in railroad operations. The regulations shall establish a program requiring—

(A) a railroad carrier to conduct preemployment, reasonable suspicion, random, and post-accident testing of all railroad employees responsible for safety-sensitive functions (as decided by the Secretary) for the use of a controlled substance in violation of law or a United States Government regulation, and to conduct reasonable suspicion, random, and post-accident testing of such employees for the use of alcohol in violation of law or a United States Government regulation; the regulations shall permit such railroad carriers to conduct preemployment testing of such employees for the use of alcohol; and

(B) when the Secretary considers it appropriate, disqualification for an established period of time or dismissal of any employee found—

(i) to have used or been impaired by alcohol when on duty; or

(ii) to have used a controlled substance, whether or not on duty, except as allowed for medical purposes by law or a regulation or order under this chapter.


(2) When the Secretary of Transportation considers it appropriate in the interest of safety, the Secretary may prescribe regulations and issue orders requiring railroad carriers to conduct periodic recurring testing of railroad employees responsible for safety-sensitive functions (as decided by the Secretary) for the use of alcohol or a controlled substance in violation of law or a Government regulation.

(c) Testing and Laboratory Requirements.—In carrying out this section, the Secretary of Transportation shall develop requirements that shall—

(1) promote, to the maximum extent practicable, individual privacy in the collection of specimens;

(2) for laboratories and testing procedures for controlled substances, incorporate the Department of Health and Human Services scientific and technical guidelines dated April 11, 1988, and any amendments to those guidelines, including mandatory guidelines establishing—

(A) comprehensive standards for every aspect of laboratory controlled substances testing and laboratory procedures to be applied in carrying out this section, including standards requiring the use of the best available technology to ensure the complete reliability and accuracy of controlled substances tests and strict procedures governing the chain of custody of specimens collected for controlled substances testing;

(B) the minimum list of controlled substances for which individuals may be tested; and

(C) appropriate standards and procedures for periodic review of laboratories and criteria for certification and revocation of certification of laboratories to perform controlled substances testing in carrying out this section;


(3) require that a laboratory involved in controlled substances testing under this section have the capability and facility, at the laboratory, of performing screening and confirmation tests;

(4) provide that all tests indicating the use of alcohol or a controlled substance in violation of law or a Government regulation be confirmed by a scientifically recognized method of testing capable of providing quantitative information about alcohol or a controlled substance;

(5) provide that each specimen be subdivided, secured, and labeled in the presence of the tested individual and that a part of the specimen be retained in a secure manner to prevent the possibility of tampering, so that if the individual's confirmation test results are positive the individual has an opportunity to have the retained part tested by a 2d confirmation test done independently at another certified laboratory if the individual requests the 2d confirmation test not later than 3 days after being advised of the results of the first confirmation test;

(6) ensure appropriate safeguards for testing to detect and quantify alcohol in breath and body fluid samples, including urine and blood, through the development of regulations that may be necessary and in consultation with the Secretary of Health and Human Services;

(7) provide for the confidentiality of test results and medical information (other than information about alcohol or a controlled substance) of employees, except that this clause does not prevent the use of test results for the orderly imposition of appropriate sanctions under this section; and

(8) ensure that employees are selected for tests by nondiscriminatory and impartial methods, so that no employee is harassed by being treated differently from other employees in similar circumstances.


(d) Rehabilitation.—The Secretary of Transportation shall prescribe regulations or issue orders establishing requirements for rehabilitation programs that at least provide for the identification and opportunity for treatment of railroad employees responsible for safety-sensitive functions (as decided by the Secretary) in need of assistance in resolving problems with the use of alcohol or a controlled substance in violation of law or a Government regulation. The Secretary shall decide on the circumstances under which employees shall be required to participate in a program. Each railroad carrier is encouraged to make such a program available to all of its employees in addition to employees responsible for safety-sensitive functions. This subsection does not prevent a railroad carrier from establishing a program under this subsection in cooperation with another railroad carrier.

(e) International Obligations and Foreign Laws and Regulations.—In carrying out this section, the Secretary of Transportation—

(1) shall establish only requirements that are consistent with international obligations of the United States; and

(2) shall consider applicable laws and regulations of foreign countries.


(f) Other Regulations Allowed.—This section does not prevent the Secretary of Transportation from continuing in effect, amending, or further supplementing a regulation prescribed or order issued before October 28, 1991, governing the use of alcohol or a controlled substance in railroad operations.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 876; Pub. L. 104–59, title III, §342(b), Nov. 28, 1995, 109 Stat. 609.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
20140(a) 45:431(r)(5). Oct. 16, 1970, Pub. L. 91–458, 84 Stat. 971, §202(r); added Oct. 28, 1991, Pub. L. 102–143, §4, 105 Stat. 957.
20140(b) 45:431(r)(1) (1st–3d sentences).
20140(c) 45:431(r)(2).
20140(d) 45:431(r)(3).
20140(e) 45:431(r)(4).
20140(f) 45:431(r)(1) (last sentence).

In subsection (b)(1), before clause (A), the words "controlled substances" are substituted for "drug" for consistency in this section. In clauses (B) and (C), the word "found" is substituted for "determined" for consistency in the revised title.

In subsection (c)(3), the words "of any employee" are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (c)(4), the words "by any employee" are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (c)(5), the word "tested" is substituted for "assayed" for consistency. The words "2d confirmation test" are substituted for "independent test" for clarity and consistency.

Amendments

1995—Subsec. (b)(1)(A). Pub. L. 104–59 amended subpar. (A) generally. Prior to amendment, subpar. (A) read as follows: "a railroad carrier to conduct preemployment, reasonable suspicion, random, and post-accident testing of all railroad employees responsible for safety-sensitive functions (as decided by the Secretary) for the use of alcohol or a controlled substance in violation of law or a United States Government regulation; and".

Alcohol and Controlled Substance Testing of Mechanical Employees

Pub. L. 115–271, title VIII, §8102, Oct. 24, 2018, 132 Stat. 4104, provided that:

"(a) In General.—Not later than 2 years after the date of enactment of this Act [Oct. 24, 2018], the Secretary of Transportation shall publish a rule in the Federal Register revising the regulations promulgated under section 20140 of title 49, United States Code, to cover all employees of railroad carriers who perform mechanical activities.

"(b) Definition of Mechanical Activities.—For the purposes of the rule under subsection (a), the Secretary shall define the term 'mechanical activities' by regulation."

Alcohol and Controlled Substance Testing for Maintenance-of-Way Employees

Pub. L. 110–432, div. A, title IV, §412, Oct. 16, 2008, 122 Stat. 4889, as amended by Pub. L. 114–94, div. A, title XI, §11316(j)(6), Dec. 4, 2015, 129 Stat. 1678, provided that: "Not later than 2 years following the date of enactment of this Act [Oct. 16, 2008], the Secretary shall complete a rulemaking proceeding to revise the regulations prescribed under section 20140 of title 49, United States Code, to cover all employees of railroad carriers and contractors or subcontractors to railroad carriers who perform maintenance-of-way activities."

[For definition of "railroad carrier", as used in section 412 of Pub. L. 110–432, set out above, see section 2(a) of Pub. L. 110–432, set out as a note under section 20102 of this title.]'

§20141. Power brake safety

(a) Review and Revision of Existing Regulations.—The Secretary of Transportation shall review existing regulations on railroad power brakes and, not later than December 31, 1993, revise the regulations based on safety information presented during the review. Where applicable, the Secretary shall prescribe regulations that establish standards on dynamic braking equipment.

(b) 2-Way End-of-Train Devices.—(1) The Secretary shall require 2-way end-of-train devices (or devices able to perform the same function) on road trains, except locals, road switchers, or work trains, to enable the initiation of emergency braking from the rear of a train. The Secretary shall prescribe regulations as soon as possible, but not later than December 31, 1993, requiring the 2-way end-of-train devices. The regulations at least shall—

(A) establish standards for the devices based on performance;

(B) prohibit a railroad carrier, on or after the date that is one year after the regulations are prescribed, from acquiring any end-of-train device for use on trains that is not a 2-way device meeting the standards established under clause (A) of this paragraph;

(C) require that the trains be equipped with 2-way end-of-train devices meeting those standards not later than 4 years after the regulations are prescribed; and

(D) provide that any 2-way end-of-train device acquired for use on trains before the regulations are prescribed shall be deemed to meet the standards.


(2) The Secretary may consider petitions to amend the regulations prescribed under paragraph (1) of this subsection to allow the use of alternative technologies that meet the same basic performance requirements established by the regulations.

(3) In developing the regulations required by paragraph (1) of this subsection, the Secretary shall consider information presented under subsection (a) of this section.

(c) Exclusions.—The Secretary may exclude from regulations prescribed under subsections (a) and (b) of this section any category of trains or rail operations if the Secretary decides that the exclusion is in the public interest and is consistent with railroad safety. The Secretary shall make public the reasons for the exclusion. The Secretary at least shall exclude from the regulations prescribed under subsection (b)—

(1) trains that have manned cabooses;

(2) passenger trains with emergency brakes;

(3) trains that operate only on track that is not part of the general railroad system;

(4) trains that do not exceed 30 miles an hour and do not operate on heavy grades, except for any categories of trains specifically designated by the Secretary; and

(5) trains that operate in a push mode.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 878.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
20141(a) 45:431(r)(1), (2). Oct. 16, 1970, Pub. L. 91–458, 84 Stat. 971, §202(r); added Sept. 3, 1992, Pub. L. 102–365, §7, 106 Stat. 976.
20141(b) 45:431(r)(3).
20141(c) 45:431(r)(4).

Study and Testing of Electronically Controlled Pneumatic Brakes

Pub. L. 114–94, div. A, title VII, §7311, Dec. 4, 2015, 129 Stat. 1601, provided that:

"(a) Government Accountability Office Study.—

"(1) In general.—The Comptroller General of the United States shall conduct an independent evaluation of ECP brake systems, pilot program data, and the Department [of Transportation]'s research and analysis on the costs, benefits, and effects of ECP brake systems.

"(2) Study elements.—In completing the independent evaluation under paragraph (1), the Comptroller General shall examine the following issues related to ECP brake systems:

"(A) Data and modeling results on safety benefits relative to conventional brakes and to other braking technologies or systems, such as distributed power and 2-way end-of-train devices.

"(B) Data and modeling results on business benefits, including the effects of dynamic braking.

"(C) Data on costs, including up-front capital costs and on-going maintenance costs.

"(D) Analysis of potential operational benefits and challenges, including the effects of potential locomotive and car segregation, technical reliability issues, and network disruptions.

"(E) Analysis of potential implementation challenges, including installation time, positive train control integration complexities, component availability issues, and tank car shop capabilities.

"(F) Analysis of international experiences with the use of advanced braking technologies.

"(3) Report.—Not later than 18 months after the date of enactment of this Act [Dec. 4, 2015], the Comptroller General shall transmit to the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate a report on the results of the independent evaluation under paragraph (1).

"(b) Emergency Braking Application Testing.—

"(1) In general.—The Secretary [of Transportation] shall enter into an agreement with the National Academy of Sciences to—

"(A) complete testing of ECP brake systems during emergency braking application, including more than 1 scenario involving the uncoupling of a train with 70 or more DOT–117 specification or DOT–117R specification tank cars; and

"(B) transmit, not later than 18 months after the date of enactment of this Act, to the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate a report on the results of the testing.

"(2) Independent experts.—In completing the testing under paragraph (1)(A), the National Academy of Sciences may contract with 1 or more engineering or rail experts, as appropriate, that—

"(A) are not railroad carriers, entities funded by such carriers, or entities directly impacted by the final rule issued on May 8, 2015, entitled "Enhanced Tank Car Standards and Operational Controls for High-Hazard Flammable Trains" (80 Fed. Reg. 26643); and

"(B) have relevant experience in conducting railroad safety technology tests or similar crash tests.

"(3) Testing framework.—In completing the testing under paragraph (1), the National Academy of Sciences and each contractor described in paragraph (2) shall ensure that the testing objectively, accurately, and reliably measures the performance of ECP brake systems relative to other braking technologies or systems, such as distributed power and 2-way end-of-train devices, including differences in—

"(A) the number of cars derailed;

"(B) the number of cars punctured;

"(C) the measures of in-train forces; and

"(D) the stopping distance.

"(4) Funding.—The Secretary shall provide funding, as part of the agreement under paragraph (1), to the National Academy of Sciences for the testing required under this section—

"(A) using sums made available to carry out sections 20108 and 5118 of title 49, United States Code; and

"(B) to the extent funding under subparagraph (A) is insufficient or unavailable to fund the testing required under this section, using such sums as are necessary from the amounts appropriated to the Secretary, the Federal Railroad Administration, or the Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration, or a combination thereof.

"(5) Equipment.—

"(A) Receipt.—The National Academy of Sciences and each contractor described in paragraph (2) may receive or use rolling stock, track, and other equipment or infrastructure from a railroad carrier or other private entity for the purposes of conducting the testing required under this section.

"(B) Contracted use.—Notwithstanding paragraph (2)(A), to facilitate testing, the National Academy of Sciences and each contractor may contract with a railroad carrier or any other private entity for the use of such carrier or entity's rolling stock, track, or other equipment and receive technical assistance on their use.

"(c) Evidence-Based Approach.—

"(1) Analysis.—The Secretary shall—

"(A) not later than 90 days after the report date, fully incorporate the results of the evaluation under subsection (a) and the testing under subsection (b) and update the regulatory impact analysis of the final rule described in subsection (b)(2)(A) of the costs, benefits, and effects of the applicable ECP brake system requirements;

"(B) as soon as practicable after completion of the updated analysis under subparagraph (A), solicit public comment in the Federal Register on the analysis for a period of not more than 30 days; and

"(C) not later than 60 days after the end of the public comment period under subparagraph (B), post the final updated regulatory impact analysis on the Department of Transportation's Internet Web site.

"(2) Determination.—Not later than 2 years after the date of enactment of this Act, the Secretary shall—

"(A) determine, based on whether the final regulatory impact analysis described in paragraph (1)(C) demonstrates that the benefits, including safety benefits, of the applicable ECP brake system requirements exceed the costs of such requirements, whether the applicable ECP brake system requirements are justified;

"(B) if the applicable ECP brake system requirements are justified, publish in the Federal Register the determination and reasons for such determination; and

"(C) if the Secretary does not publish the determination under subparagraph (B), repeal the applicable ECP brake system requirements.

"(3) Savings clause.—Nothing in this section shall be construed to prohibit the Secretary from implementing the final rule described under subsection (b)(2)(A) prior to the determination required under subsection (c)(2) of this section, or require the Secretary to promulgate a new rule on the provisions of such final rule, other than on the applicable ECP brake system requirements, if the Secretary does not determine that the applicable ECP brake system requirements are justified pursuant to this subsection.

"(d) Definitions.—In this section, the following definitions apply:

"(1) Applicable ecp brake system requirements.—The term 'applicable ECP brake system requirements' means sections 174.310(a)(3)(ii), 174.310(a)(3)(iii), 174.310(a)(5)(v), 179.202–10, 179.202–12(g), and 179.202–13(i) of title 49, Code of Federal Regulations, and any other regulation in effect on the date of enactment of this Act requiring the installation of ECP brakes or operation in ECP brake mode.

"(2) Class 3 flammable liquid.—The term 'Class 3 flammable liquid' has the meaning given the term flammable liquid in section 173.120(a) of title 49, Code of Federal Regulations.

"(3) ECP.—The term 'ECP' means electronically controlled pneumatic when applied to a brake or brakes.

"(4) ECP brake mode.—The term 'ECP brake mode' includes any operation of a rail car or an entire train using an ECP brake system.

"(5) ECP brake system.—

"(A) In general.—The term 'ECP brake system' means a train power braking system actuated by compressed air and controlled by electronic signals from the locomotive or an ECP–EOT to the cars in the consist for service and emergency applications in which the brake pipe is used to provide a constant supply of compressed air to the reservoirs on each car but does not convey braking signals to the car.

"(B) Inclusions.—The term 'ECP brake system' includes dual mode and stand-alone ECP brake systems.

"(6) Railroad carrier.—The term 'railroad carrier' has the meaning given the term in section 20102 of title 49, United States Code.

"(7) Report date.—The term 'report date' means the date that the reports under subsections (a)(3) and (b)(1)(B) are required to be transmitted pursuant to those subsections."

§20142. Track safety

(a) Review of Existing Regulations.—Not later than March 3, 1993, the Secretary of Transportation shall begin a review of Department of Transportation regulations related to track safety standards. The review at least shall include an evaluation of—

(1) procedures associated with maintaining and installing continuous welded rail and its attendant structure, including cold weather installation procedures;

(2) the need for revisions to regulations on track excepted from track safety standards; and

(3) employee safety.


(b) Revision of Regulations.—Not later than September 1, 1995, the Secretary shall prescribe regulations and issue orders to revise track safety standards, considering safety information presented during the review under subsection (a) of this section and the report of the Comptroller General submitted under subsection (c) of this section.

(c) Comptroller General's Study and Report.—The Comptroller General shall study the effectiveness of the Secretary's enforcement of track safety standards, with particular attention to recent relevant railroad accident experience and information. Not later than September 3, 1993, the Comptroller General shall submit a report to Congress and the Secretary on the results of the study, with recommendations for improving enforcement of those standards.

(d) Identification of Internal Rail Defects.—In carrying out subsections (a) and (b), the Secretary shall consider whether or not to prescribe regulations and issue orders concerning—

(1) inspection procedures to identify internal rail defects, before they reach imminent failure size, in rail that has significant shelling; and

(2) any specific actions that should be taken when a rail surface condition, such as shelling, prevents the identification of internal defects.


(e) Track Standards.—

(1) In general.—Within 90 days after the date of enactment of this subsection, the Federal Railroad Administration shall—

(A) require each track owner using continuous welded rail track to include procedures (in its procedures filed with the Administration pursuant to section 213.119 of title 49, Code of Federal Regulations) to improve the identification of cracks in rail joint bars;

(B) instruct Administration track inspectors to obtain copies of the most recent continuous welded rail programs of each railroad within the inspectors' areas of responsibility and require that inspectors use those programs when conducting track inspections; and

(C) establish a program to review continuous welded rail joint bar inspection data from railroads and Administration track inspectors periodically.


(2) Inspection.—Whenever the Administration determines that it is necessary or appropriate, the Administration may require railroads to increase the frequency of inspection, or improve the methods of inspection, of joint bars in continuous welded rail.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 879; Pub. L. 103–440, title II, §208, Nov. 2, 1994, 108 Stat. 4621; Pub. L. 109–59, title IX, §9005(a), Aug. 10, 2005, 119 Stat. 1924.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
20142(a) 45:431(s)(1) (1st sentence), (2). Oct. 16, 1970, Pub. L. 91–458, 84 Stat. 971, §202(s); added Sept. 3, 1992, Pub. L. 102–365, §8, 106 Stat. 976.
20142(b) 45:431(s)(1) (last sentence).
20142(c) 45:431(s)(3).

In subsection (c), the word "information" is substituted for "data" for consistency in the revised title.

References in Text

The date of enactment of this subsection, referred to in subsec. (e)(1), is the date of enactment of Pub. L. 109–59, which was approved Aug. 10, 2005.

Amendments

2005—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 109–59 added subsec. (e).

1994—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 103–440, §208(2), inserted ", including cold weather installation procedures" after "attendant structure".

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 103–440, §208(1), substituted "September 1, 1995" for "September 3, 1994".

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 103–440, §208(3), added subsec. (d).

Commuter Rail Track Inspections

Pub. L. 114–94, div. A, title XI, §11409, Dec. 4, 2015, 129 Stat. 1684, provided that:

"(a) In General.—The Secretary [of Transportation] shall evaluate track inspection regulations to determine if a railroad carrier providing commuter rail passenger transportation on high density commuter railroad lines should be required to inspect the lines in the same manner as is required for other commuter railroad lines.

"(b) Rulemaking.—Considering safety, including railroad carrier employee and contractor safety, system capacity, and other relevant factors, the Secretary may promulgate a rule for high density commuter railroad lines. If, after the evaluation under subsection (a), the Secretary determines that it is necessary to promulgate a rule, the Secretary shall specifically consider the following regulatory requirements for high density commuter railroad lines:

"(1) At least once every 2 weeks—

"(A) traverse each main line by vehicle; or

"(B) inspect each main line on foot.

"(2) At least once each month, traverse and inspect each siding by vehicle or by foot.

"(c) Report.—If, after the evaluation under subsection (a), the Secretary determines it is not necessary to revise the regulations under this section, the Secretary, not later than 18 months after the date of enactment of this Act [Dec. 4, 2015], shall transmit to the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate and the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure of the House of Representatives a report explaining the reasons for not revising the regulations.

"(d) Construction.—Nothing in this section may be construed to limit the authority of the Secretary to promulgate regulations or issue orders under any other law."

Track Inspection Time Study

Pub. L. 110–432, div. A, title IV, §403, Oct. 16, 2008, 122 Stat. 4884, provided that:

"(a) Study.—Not later that [sic] 2 years after the date of enactment of this Act [Oct. 16, 2008], the Secretary shall transmit to the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate a report containing the results of a study to determine whether—

"(1) the required intervals of track inspections for each class of track should be amended;

"(2) track remedial action requirements should be amended;

"(3) different track inspection and repair priorities or methods should be required; and

"(4) the speed at which railroad track inspection vehicles operate and the scope of the territory they generally cover allow for proper inspection of the track and whether such speed and appropriate scope should be regulated by the Secretary.

"(b) Considerations.—In conducting the study the Secretary shall consider—

"(1) the most current rail flaw, rail defect growth, rail fatigue, and other relevant track- or rail-related research and studies;

"(2) the availability and feasibility of developing and implementing new or novel rail inspection technology for routine track inspections;

"(3) information from National Transportation Safety Board or Federal Railroad Administration accident investigations where track defects were the cause or a contributing cause; and

"(4) other relevant information, as determined by the Secretary.

"(c) Update of Regulations.—Not later than 2 years after the completion of the study required by subsection (a), the Secretary shall prescribe regulations based on the results of the study conducted under subsection (a).

"(d) Concrete Cross Ties.—Not later than 18 months after the date of enactment of this Act [Oct. 16, 2008], the Secretary shall promulgate regulations for concrete cross ties. In developing the regulations for class 1 through 5 track, the Secretary may address, as appropriate—

"(1) limits for rail seat abrasion;

"(2) concrete cross tie pad wear limits;

"(3) missing or broken rail fasteners;

"(4) loss of appropriate toeload pressure;

"(5) improper fastener configurations; and

"(6) excessive lateral rail movement."

[For definitions of "Secretary" and "railroad", as used in section 403 of Pub. L. 110–432, set out above, see section 2(a) of Pub. L. 110–432, set out as a note under section 20102 of this title.]

§20143. Locomotive visibility

(a) Definition.—In this section, "locomotive visibility" means the enhancement of day and night visibility of the front end unit of a train, considering in particular the visibility and perspective of a driver of a motor vehicle at a grade crossing.

(b) Interim Regulations.—Not later than December 31, 1992, the Secretary of Transportation shall prescribe temporary regulations identifying ditch, crossing, strobe, and oscillating lights as temporary locomotive visibility measures and authorizing and encouraging the installation and use of those lights. Subchapter II of chapter 5 of title 5 does not apply to a temporary regulation or to an amendment to a temporary regulation.

(c) Review of Regulations.—The Secretary shall review the Secretary's regulations on locomotive visibility. Not later than December 31, 1993, the Secretary shall complete the current research of the Department of Transportation on locomotive visibility. In conducting the review, the Secretary shall collect relevant information from operational experience by rail carriers using enhanced visibility measures.

(d) Regulatory Proceeding.—Not later than June 30, 1994, the Secretary shall begin a regulatory proceeding to prescribe final regulations requiring substantially enhanced locomotive visibility measures. In the proceeding, the Secretary shall consider at least—

(1) revisions to the existing locomotive headlight standards, including standards for placement and intensity;

(2) requiring the use of reflective material to enhance locomotive visibility;

(3) requiring the use of additional alerting lights, including ditch, crossing, strobe, and oscillating lights;

(4) requiring the use of auxiliary lights to enhance locomotive visibility when viewed from the side;

(5) the effect of an enhanced visibility measure on the vision, health, and safety of train crew members; and

(6) separate standards for self-propelled, push-pull, and multi-unit passenger operations without a dedicated head end locomotive.


(e) Final Regulations.—(1) Not later than June 30, 1995, the Secretary shall prescribe final regulations requiring enhanced locomotive visibility measures. The Secretary shall require that not later than December 31, 1997, a locomotive not excluded from the regulations be equipped with temporary visibility measures under subsection (b) of this section or the visibility measures the final regulations require.

(2) In prescribing regulations under paragraph (1) of this subsection, the Secretary may exclude a category of trains or rail operations from a specific visibility requirement if the Secretary decides the exclusion is in the public interest and is consistent with rail safety, including grade-crossing safety.

(3) A locomotive equipped with temporary visibility measures prescribed under subsection (b) of this section when final regulations are prescribed under paragraph (1) of this subsection is deemed to be complying with the final regulations for 4 years after the final regulations are prescribed.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 880.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
20143(a) 45:431(u)(6). Oct. 16, 1970, Pub. L. 91–458, 84 Stat. 971, §202(u); added Oct. 27, 1992, Pub. L. 102–533, §14, 106 Stat. 3522.
20143(b) 45:431(u)(2) (1st, 2d sentences).
20143(c) 45:431(u)(1).
20143(d) 45:431(u)(3).
20143(e)(1) 45:431(u)(5).
20143(e)(2) 45:431(u)(4).
20143(e)(3) 45:431(u)(2) (last sentence).

In this section, the word "visibility" is substituted for "conspicuity" for clarity and consistency in this chapter.

In subsection (a), the words "by means of lighting, reflective materials, or other means" are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (b), the words "those lights" are substituted for "such measures" for clarity.

In subsection (c), the word "Secretary's" is substituted for "Department of Transportation's" because of 49:102(b). The word "using" is substituted for "having . . . in service" to eliminate unnecessary words.

In subsection (e)(2) and (3) of this section, the reference is to paragraph (1) of this subsection, rather than to subsection (d) of this section, because the regulations are prescribed under paragraph (1).

In subsection (e)(2), the words "a category" are substituted for "and category" to correct an apparent mistake in the source provision. See S. Rept. 102–990, 102d Cong., 2d Sess., p. 18 (1992).

In subsection (e)(3), the word "full" is omitted as surplus.

§20144. Blue signal protection for on-track vehicles

The Secretary of Transportation shall prescribe regulations applying blue signal protection to on-track vehicles where rest is provided.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 881.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
20144 (uncodified). June 22, 1988, Pub. L. 100–342, §19(c), 102 Stat. 638.

The words "prescribe regulations" are substituted for "within one year after the date of the enactment of this Act, amend part 218 of title 49, Code of Federal Regulations" because the regulations to carry out this section have been prescribed.

§20145. Report on bridge displacement detection systems

Not later than 18 months after November 2, 1994, the Secretary of Transportation shall transmit to the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate and the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure of the House of Representatives a report concerning any action that has been taken by the Secretary on railroad bridge displacement detection systems.

(Added Pub. L. 103–440, title II, §207(a), Nov. 2, 1994, 108 Stat. 4621; amended Pub. L. 104–287, §5(48), (49), Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3393.)

Amendments

1996Pub. L. 104–287 substituted "November 2, 1994" for "the date of enactment of the Federal Railroad Safety Authorization Act of 1994" and "Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure" for "Committee on Energy and Commerce".

§20146. Institute for Railroad Safety

The Secretary of Transportation, in conjunction with a university or college having expertise in transportation safety, shall establish, within one year after November 2, 1994, an Institute for Railroad Safety. The Institute shall research, develop, fund, and test measures for reducing the number of fatalities and injuries relevant to railroad operations. There are authorized to be appropriated to the Secretary $1,000,000 for each of the fiscal years 1996 through 2000 to fund activities carried out under this section by the Institute, which shall report at least once each year on its use of such funds in carrying out such activities and the results thereof to the Secretary of Transportation and the Congress.

(Added Pub. L. 103–440, title II, §210(a), Nov. 2, 1994, 108 Stat. 4621; amended Pub. L. 104–287, §5(49), Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3393.)

Amendments

1996Pub. L. 104–287 substituted "November 2, 1994" for "the date of enactment of the Federal Railroad Safety Authorization Act of 1994".

§20147. Warning of civil liability

The Secretary of Transportation shall encourage railroad carriers to warn the public about potential liability for violation of regulations related to vandalism of railroad signs, devices, and equipment and to trespassing on railroad property.

(Added Pub. L. 103–440, title II, §211(a), Nov. 2, 1994, 108 Stat. 4622.)

§20148. Railroad car visibility

(a) Review of Rules.—The Secretary of Transportation shall conduct a review of the Department of Transportation's rules with respect to railroad car visibility. As part of this review, the Secretary shall collect relevant data from operational experience by railroads having enhanced visibility measures in service.

(b) Regulations.—If the review conducted under subsection (a) establishes that enhanced railroad car visibility would likely improve safety in a cost-effective manner, the Secretary shall initiate a rulemaking proceeding to prescribe regulations requiring enhanced visibility standards for newly manufactured and remanufactured railroad cars. In such proceeding the Secretary shall consider, at a minimum—

(1) visibility of railroad cars from the perspective of nonrailroad traffic;

(2) whether certain railroad car paint colors should be prohibited or required;

(3) the use of reflective materials;

(4) the visibility of lettering on railroad cars;

(5) the effect of any enhanced visibility measures on the health and safety of train crew members; and

(6) the cost/benefit ratio of any new regulations.


(c) Exclusions.—In prescribing regulations under subsection (b), the Secretary may exclude from any specific visibility requirement any category of trains or railroad operations if the Secretary determines that such an exclusion is in the public interest and is consistent with railroad safety.

(Added Pub. L. 103–440, title II, §212(a), Nov. 2, 1994, 108 Stat. 4622.)

§20149. Coordination with the Department of Labor

The Secretary of Transportation shall consult with the Secretary of Labor on a regular basis to ensure that all applicable laws affecting safe working conditions for railroad employees are appropriately enforced to ensure a safe and productive working environment for the railroad industry.

(Added Pub. L. 103–440, title II, §213(a), Nov. 2, 1994, 108 Stat. 4623.)

§20150. Positive train control system progress report

The Secretary of Transportation shall submit a report to the Congress on the development, deployment, and demonstration of positive train control systems by December 31, 1995.

(Added Pub. L. 103–440, title II, §214(a), Nov. 2, 1994, 108 Stat. 4623.)

§20151. Railroad trespassing, vandalism, and highway-rail grade crossing warning sign violation prevention strategy

(a) Evaluation of Existing Laws.—In consultation with affected parties, the Secretary of Transportation shall evaluate and review current local, State, and Federal laws regarding trespassing on railroad property, vandalism affecting railroad safety, and violations of highway-rail grade crossing signs, signals, markings, or other warning devices and develop model prevention strategies and enforcement laws to be used for the consideration of State and local legislatures and governmental entities. The first such evaluation and review shall be completed within 1 year after the date of enactment of the Rail Safety Improvement Act of 2008. The Secretary shall revise the model prevention strategies and enforcement codes periodically.

(b) Outreach Program for Trespassing and Vandalism Prevention.—The Secretary shall develop and maintain a comprehensive outreach program to improve communications among Federal railroad safety inspectors, State inspectors certified by the Federal Railroad Administration, railroad police, and State and local law enforcement officers, for the purpose of addressing trespassing and vandalism problems on railroad property, and strengthening relevant enforcement strategies. This program shall be designed to increase public and police awareness of the illegality of, dangers inherent in, and the extent of, trespassing on railroad rights-of-way, to develop strategies to improve the prevention of trespassing and vandalism, and to improve the enforcement of laws relating to railroad trespass, vandalism, and safety.

(c) Model Legislation.—(1) Within 18 months after November 2, 1994, the Secretary, after consultation with State and local governments and railroad carriers, shall develop and make available to State and local governments model State legislation providing for—

(A) civil or criminal penalties, or both, for vandalism of railroad equipment or property which could affect the safety of the public or of railroad employees; and

(B) civil or criminal penalties, or both, for trespassing on a railroad owned or leased right-of-way.


(2) Not later than 18 months after the date of enactment of the Rail Safety Improvement Act of 2008, the Secretary, after consultation with State and local governments and railroad carriers, shall develop and make available to State and local governments model State legislation providing for civil or criminal penalties, or both, for violations of highway-rail grade crossing signs, signals, markings, or other warning devices.

(d) Definition.—In this section, the term "violation of highway-rail grade crossing signs, signals, markings, or other warning devices" includes any action by a motorist, unless directed by an authorized safety officer—

(1) to drive around a grade crossing gate in a position intended to block passage over railroad tracks;

(2) to drive through a flashing grade crossing signal;

(3) to drive through a grade crossing with passive warning signs without ensuring that the grade crossing could be safely crossed before any train arrived; and

(4) in the vicinity of a grade crossing, who creates a hazard of an accident involving injury or property damage at the grade crossing.

(Added Pub. L. 103–440, title II, §219(a), Nov. 2, 1994, 108 Stat. 4625; amended Pub. L. 104–287, §5(49), Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3393; Pub. L. 110–432, div. A, title II, §208(a), Oct. 16, 2008, 122 Stat. 4875.)

References in Text

The date of enactment of the Rail Safety Improvement Act of 2008, referred to in subsecs. (a) and (c)(2), is the date of enactment of div. A of Pub. L. 110–432, which was approved Oct. 16, 2008.

Amendments

2008Pub. L. 110–432, §208(a)(1), substituted "Railroad trespassing, vandalism, and highway-rail grade crossing warning sign violation prevention strategy" for "Railroad trespassing and vandalism prevention strategy" in section catchline.

Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 110–432, §208(a)(2), added subsec. (a) and struck out former subsec. (a). Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "In consultation with affected parties, the Secretary of Transportation shall evaluate and review current local, State, and Federal laws regarding trespassing on railroad property and vandalism affecting railroad safety, and develop model prevention strategies and enforcement laws to be used for the consideration of State and local legislatures and governmental entities. The first such evaluation and review shall be completed within 1 year after November 2, 1994. The Secretary shall revise such model prevention strategies and enforcement codes periodically."

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 110–432, §208(a)(3), inserted "for Trespassing and Vandalism Prevention" after "Outreach Program" in heading.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 110–432, §208(a)(4), designated existing provisions as par. (1), redesignated former pars. (1) and (2) as subpars. (A) and (B), respectively, of par. (1), and added par. (2).

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 110–432, §208(a)(5), added subsec. (d).

1996—Subsecs. (a), (c). Pub. L. 104–287 substituted "November 2, 1994" for "the date of enactment of the Federal Railroad Safety Authorization Act of 1994".

§20152. Notification of grade crossing problems

(a) In General.—Not later than 18 months after the date of enactment of the Rail Safety Improvement Act of 2008, the Secretary of Transportation shall require each railroad carrier to—

(1) establish and maintain a toll-free telephone service for rights-of-way over which it dispatches trains, to directly receive calls reporting—

(A) malfunctions of signals, crossing gates, and other devices to promote safety at the grade crossing of railroad tracks on those rights-of-way and public or private roads;

(B) disabled vehicles blocking railroad tracks at such grade crossings;

(C) obstructions to the view of a pedestrian or a vehicle operator for a reasonable distance in either direction of a train's approach; or

(D) other safety information involving such grade crossings;


(2) upon receiving a report pursuant to paragraph (1)(A) or (B), immediately contact trains operating near the grade crossing to warn them of the malfunction or disabled vehicle;

(3) upon receiving a report pursuant to paragraph (1)(A) or (B), and after contacting trains pursuant to paragraph (2), contact, as necessary, appropriate public safety officials having jurisdiction over the grade crossing to provide them with the information necessary for them to direct traffic, assist in the removal of the disabled vehicle, or carry out other activities as appropriate;

(4) upon receiving a report pursuant to paragraph (1)(C) or (D), timely investigate the report, remove the obstruction if possible, or correct the unsafe circumstance; and

(5) ensure the placement at each grade crossing on rights-of-way that it owns of appropriately located signs, on which shall appear, at a minimum—

(A) a toll-free telephone number to be used for placing calls described in paragraph (1) to the railroad carrier dispatching trains on that right-of-way;

(B) an explanation of the purpose of that toll-free telephone number; and

(C) the grade crossing number assigned for that crossing by the National Highway-Rail Crossing Inventory established by the Department of Transportation.


(b) Waiver.—The Secretary may waive the requirement that the telephone service be toll-free for Class II and Class III rail carriers if the Secretary determines that toll-free service would be cost prohibitive or unnecessary.

(Added Pub. L. 103–440, title III, §301(a), Nov. 2, 1994, 108 Stat. 4626; amended Pub. L. 104–287, §5(50), Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3393; Pub. L. 110–432, div. A, title II, §205(a), Oct. 16, 2008, 122 Stat. 4872.)

References in Text

The date of enactment of the Rail Safety Improvement Act of 2008, referred to in subsec. (a), is the date of enactment of div. A of Pub. L. 110–432, which was approved Oct. 16, 2008.

Amendments

2008Pub. L. 110–432 amended section catchline and text generally. Prior to amendment, section related to a pilot program to demonstrate a system to provide emergency notification of grade crossing problems.

1996—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 104–287 substituted "November 2, 1994" for "the date of enactment of this section" and "November 2, 1994, an evaluation" for "that date an evaluation".

§20153. Audible warnings at highway-rail grade crossings

(a) Definitions.—As used in this section—

(1) the term "highway-rail grade crossing" includes any street or highway crossing over a line of railroad at grade;

(2) the term "locomotive horn" refers to a train-borne audible warning device meeting standards specified by the Secretary of Transportation; and

(3) the term "supplementary safety measure" refers to a safety system or procedure, provided by the appropriate traffic control authority or law enforcement authority responsible for safety at the highway-rail grade crossing, that is determined by the Secretary to be an effective substitute for the locomotive horn in the prevention of highway-rail casualties. A traffic control arrangement that prevents careless movement over the crossing (e.g., as where adequate median barriers prevent movement around crossing gates extending over the full width of the lanes in the particular direction of travel), and that conforms to standards prescribed by the Secretary under this subsection, shall be deemed to constitute a supplementary safety measure. The following do not, individually or in combination, constitute supplementary safety measures within the meaning of this subsection: standard traffic control devices or arrangements such as reflectorized crossbucks, stop signs, flashing lights, flashing lights with gates that do not completely block travel over the line of railroad, or traffic signals.


(b) Requirement.—The Secretary of Transportation shall prescribe regulations requiring that a locomotive horn shall be sounded while each train is approaching and entering upon each public highway-rail grade crossing.

(c) Exception.—(1) In issuing such regulations, the Secretary may except from the requirement to sound the locomotive horn any categories of rail operations or categories of highway-rail grade crossings (by train speed or other factors specified by regulation)—

(A) that the Secretary determines not to present a significant risk with respect to loss of life or serious personal injury;

(B) for which use of the locomotive horn as a warning measure is impractical; or

(C) for which, in the judgment of the Secretary, supplementary safety measures fully compensate for the absence of the warning provided by the locomotive horn.


(2) In order to provide for safety and the quiet of communities affected by train operations, the Secretary may specify in such regulations that any supplementary safety measures must be applied to all highway-rail grade crossings within a specified distance along the railroad in order to be excepted from the requirement of this section.

(d) Application for Waiver or Exemption.—Notwithstanding any other provision of this subchapter, the Secretary may not entertain an application for waiver or exemption of the regulations issued under this section unless such application shall have been submitted jointly by the railroad carrier owning, or controlling operations over, the crossing and by the appropriate traffic control authority or law enforcement authority. The Secretary shall not grant any such application unless, in the judgment of the Secretary, the application demonstrates that the safety of highway users will not be diminished.

(e) Development of Supplementary Safety Measures.—(1) In order to promote the quiet of communities affected by rail operations and the development of innovative safety measures at highway-rail grade crossings, the Secretary may, in connection with demonstration of proposed new supplementary safety measures, order railroad carriers operating over one or more crossings to cease temporarily the sounding of locomotive horns at such crossings. Any such measures shall have been subject to testing and evaluation and deemed necessary by the Secretary prior to actual use in lieu of the locomotive horn.

(2) The Secretary may include in regulations issued under this subsection special procedures for approval of new supplementary safety measures meeting the requirements of subsection (c)(1) of this section following successful demonstration of those measures.

(f) Specific Rules.—The Secretary may, by regulation, provide that the following crossings over railroad lines shall be subject, in whole or in part, to the regulations required under this section:

(1) Private highway-rail grade crossings.

(2) Pedestrian crossings.

(3) Crossings utilized primarily by nonmotorized vehicles and other special vehicles.


Regulations issued under this subsection shall not apply to any location where persons are not authorized to cross the railroad.

(g) Issuance.—The Secretary shall issue regulations required by this section pertaining to categories of highway-rail grade crossings that in the judgment of the Secretary pose the greatest safety hazard to rail and highway users not later than 24 months following November 2, 1994. The Secretary shall issue regulations pertaining to any other categories of crossings not later than 48 months following November 2, 1994.

(h) Impact of Regulations.—The Secretary shall include in regulations prescribed under this section a concise statement of the impact of such regulations with respect to the operation of section 20106 of this title (national uniformity of regulation).

(i) Regulations.—In issuing regulations under this section, the Secretary—

(1) shall take into account the interest of communities that—

(A) have in effect restrictions on the sounding of a locomotive horn at highway-rail grade crossings; or

(B) have not been subject to the routine (as defined by the Secretary) sounding of a locomotive horn at highway-rail grade crossings;


(2) shall work in partnership with affected communities to provide technical assistance and shall provide a reasonable amount of time for local communities to install supplementary safety measures, taking into account local safety initiatives (such as public awareness initiatives and highway-rail grade crossing traffic law enforcement programs) subject to such terms and conditions as the Secretary deems necessary, to protect public safety; and

(3) may waive (in whole or in part) any requirement of this section (other than a requirement of this subsection or subsection (j)) that the Secretary determines is not likely to contribute significantly to public safety.


(j) Effective Date of Regulations.—Any regulations under this section shall not take effect before the 365th day following the date of publication of the final rule.

(Added Pub. L. 103–440, title III, §302(a), Nov. 2, 1994, 108 Stat. 4626; amended Pub. L. 104–264, title XII, §1218(a), Oct. 9, 1996, 110 Stat. 3285; Pub. L. 104–287, §5(51), Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3393.)

Amendments

1996—Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 104–287 substituted "November 2, 1994" for "the date of enactment of this section" in two places.

Subsecs. (i), (j). Pub. L. 104–264 added subsecs. (i) and (j).

Effective Date of 1996 Amendment

Except as otherwise specifically provided, amendment by Pub. L. 104–264 applicable only to fiscal years beginning after Sept. 30, 1996, and not to be construed as affecting funds made available for a fiscal year ending before Oct. 1, 1996, see section 3 of Pub. L. 104–264, set out as a note under section 106 of this title.

[§20154. Repealed. Pub. L. 114–94, div. A, title XI, §11301(c)(1), Dec. 4, 2015, 129 Stat. 1648]

Section, Pub. L. 109–59, title IX, §9002(a)(1), Aug. 10, 2005, 119 Stat. 1919, related to capital grants for rail line relocation projects.

Effective Date of Repeal

Repeal by Pub. L. 114–94 effective Oct. 1, 2015, see section 1003 of Pub. L. 114–94, set out as an Effective Date of 2015 Amendment note under section 5313 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

Regulations

Pub. L. 109–59, title IX, §9002(b), Aug. 10, 2005, 119 Stat. 1921, required Secretary of Transportation to issue temporary regulations to implement grant program under this section by April 1, 2006, and to issue final regulations by October 1, 2006.

§20155. Tank cars

(a) Standards.—The Federal Railroad Administration shall—

(1) validate a predictive model to quantify the relevant dynamic forces acting on railroad tank cars under accident conditions within 1 year after the date of enactment of this section; and

(2) initiate a rulemaking to develop and implement appropriate design standards for pressurized tank cars within 18 months after the date of enactment of this section.


(b) Older Tank Car Impact Resistance Analysis and Report.—Within 1 year after the date of enactment of this section the Federal Railroad Administration shall conduct a comprehensive analysis to determine the impact resistance of the steels in the shells of pressure tank cars constructed before 1989. Within 6 months after completing that analysis the Administration shall transmit a report, including recommendations for reducing any risk of catastrophic fracture and separation of such cars, to the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate and the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure of the House of Representatives.

(Added Pub. L. 109–59, title IX, §9005(b)(1), Aug. 10, 2005, 119 Stat. 1924.)

References in Text

The date of enactment of this section, referred to in text, is the date of enactment of Pub. L. 109–59, which was approved Aug. 10, 2005.

Phase-Out of All Tank Cars Used To Transport Class 3 Flammable Liquids

Pub. L. 114–94, div. A, title VII, §7304, Dec. 4, 2015, 129 Stat. 1596, provided that:

"(a) In General.—Except as provided for in subsection (b), beginning on the date of enactment of this Act [Dec. 4, 2015], all DOT–111 specification railroad tank cars used to transport Class 3 flammable liquids shall meet the DOT–117, DOT–117P, or DOT–117R specifications in part 179 of title 49, Code of Federal Regulations, regardless of train composition.

"(b) Phase-Out Schedule.—Certain tank cars not meeting DOT–117, DOT–117P, or DOT–117R specifications on the date of enactment of this Act may be used, regardless of train composition, until the following end-dates:

"(1) For transport of unrefined petroleum products in Class 3 flammable service, including crude oil—

"(A) January 1, 2018, for non-jacketed DOT–111 tank cars;

"(B) March 1, 2018, for jacketed DOT–111 tank cars;

"(C) April 1, 2020, for non-jacketed CPC–1232 tank cars; and

"(D) May 1, 2025, for jacketed CPC–1232 tank cars.

"(2) For transport of ethanol—

"(A) May 1, 2023, for non-jacketed and jacketed DOT–111 tank cars;

"(B) July 1, 2023, for non-jacketed CPC–1232 tank cars; and

"(C) May 1, 2025, for jacketed CPC–1232 tank cars.

"(3) For transport of Class 3 flammable liquids in Packing Group I, other than Class 3 flammable liquids specified in paragraphs (1) and (2), May 1, 2025.

"(4) For transport of Class 3 flammable liquids in Packing Groups II and III, other than Class 3 flammable liquids specified in paragraphs (1) and (2), May 1, 2029.

"(c) Retrofitting Shop Capacity.—The Secretary [of Transportation] may extend the deadlines established under paragraphs (3) and (4) of subsection (b) for a period not to exceed 2 years if the Secretary determines that insufficient retrofitting shop capacity will prevent the phase-out of tank cars not meeting the DOT–117, DOT–117P, or DOT–117R specifications by the deadlines set forth in such paragraphs.

"(d) Conforming Regulatory Amendments.—

"(1) In general.—Immediately after the date of enactment of this section [Dec. 4, 2015], the Secretary—

"(A) shall remove or revise the date-specific deadlines in any applicable regulations or orders to the extent necessary to conform with the requirements of this section; and

"(B) may not enforce any such date-specific deadlines or requirements that are inconsistent with the requirements of this section.

"(2) Implementation.—Nothing in this section shall be construed to require the Secretary to issue regulations, except as required under paragraph (1), to implement this section.

"(e) Savings Clause.—Nothing in this section shall be construed to prohibit the Secretary from implementing the final rule issued on May 08, 2015, entitled 'Enhanced Tank Car Standards and Operational Controls for High-Hazard Flammable Trains' (80 Fed. Reg. 26643), other than the provisions of the final rule that are inconsistent with this section.

"(f) Class 3 Flammable Liquid Defined.—In this section, the term 'Class 3 flammable liquid' has the meaning given the term flammable liquid in section 173.120(a) of title 49, Code of Federal Regulations."

Thermal Blankets

Pub. L. 114–94, div. A, title VII, §7305, Dec. 4, 2015, 129 Stat. 1597, provided that:

"(a) Requirements.—Not later than 180 days after the date of enactment of this Act [Dec. 4, 2015], the Secretary [of Transportation] shall issue such regulations as are necessary to require that each tank car built to meet the DOT–117 specification and each non-jacketed tank car modified to meet the DOT–117R specification be equipped with an insulating blanket with at least ½-inch-thick material that has been approved by the Secretary pursuant to section 179.18(c) of title 49, Code of Federal Regulations.

"(b) Savings Clause.—Nothing in this section shall prohibit the Secretary from approving new or alternative technologies or materials as they become available that provide a level of safety at least equivalent to the level of safety provided for under subsection (a)."

Modification Reporting

Pub. L. 114–94, div. A, title VII, §7308, Dec. 4, 2015, 129 Stat. 1599, as amended by Pub. L. 115–435, title III, §302(c)(5), Jan. 14, 2019, 132 Stat. 5553, provided that:

"(a) In General.—Not later than 1 year after the date of enactment of this Act [Dec. 4, 2015], the Secretary [of Transportation] shall implement a reporting requirement to monitor industry-wide progress toward modifying rail tank cars used to transport Class 3 flammable liquids by the applicable deadlines established in section 7304 [set out as a note above].

"(b) Tank Car Data.—The Secretary shall collect data from shippers and rail tank car owners on—

"(1) the total number of tank cars modified to meet the DOT–117R specification, or equivalent, specifying—

"(A) the type or specification of each tank car before it was modified, including non-jacketed DOT–111, jacketed DOT–111, non-jacketed DOT–111 meeting the CPC–1232 standard, or jacketed DOT–111 meeting the CPC–1232 standard; and

"(B) the identification number of each Class 3 flammable liquid carried by each tank car in the past year;

"(2) the total number of tank cars built to meet the DOT–117 specification, or equivalent; and

"(3) the total number of tank cars used or likely to be used to transport Class 3 flammable liquids that have not been modified, specifying—

"(A) the type or specification of each tank car not modified, including the non-jacketed DOT–111, jacketed DOT–111, non-jacketed DOT–111 meeting the CPC–1232 standard, or jacketed DOT–111 meeting the CPC–1232 standard; and

"(B) the identification number of each Class 3 flammable liquid carried by each tank car in the past year.

"(c) Tank Car Shop Data.—The Secretary shall conduct a survey of tank car facilities modifying tank cars to the DOT–117R specification, or equivalent, or building new tank cars to the DOT–117 specification, or equivalent, to generate statistically-valid estimates of the anticipated number of tank cars those facilities expect to modify to DOT–117R specification, or equivalent, or build to the DOT–117 specification, or equivalent.

"(d) Frequency.—The Secretary shall collect the data under subsection (b) and conduct the survey under subsection (c) annually until May 1, 2029.

"(e) Information Protections.—

"(1) In general.—The Secretary shall only report data in industry-wide totals and shall treat company-specific information as confidential business information.

"(2) Level of confidentiality.—The Secretary shall ensure the data collected under subsection (b) and the survey data under subsection (c) have the same level of confidentiality as required by section 3572 of title 44, United States Code, as administered by the Bureau of Transportation Statistics.

"(3) Designee.—The Secretary may—

"(A) designate the Director of the Bureau of Transportation Statistics to collect data under subsection (b) and the survey data under subsection (c); and

"(B) direct the Director to ensure the confidentially of company-specific information to the maximum extent permitted by law.

"(f) Report.—Each year, not later than 60 days after the date that both the collection of the data under subsection (b) and the survey under subsection (c) are complete, the Secretary shall submit a written report on the aggregate results, without company-specific information, to—

"(1) the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate; and

"(2) the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure of the House of Representatives.

"(g) Definition of Class 3 Flammable Liquid.—In this section, the term 'Class 3 flammable liquid' has the meaning given the term flammable liquid in section 173.120 of title 49, Code of Federal Regulations."

§20156. Railroad safety risk reduction program

(a) In General.—

(1) Program requirement.—Not later than 4 years after the date of enactment of the Rail Safety Improvement Act of 2008, the Secretary of Transportation, by regulation, shall require each railroad carrier that is a Class I railroad, a railroad carrier that has inadequate safety performance (as determined by the Secretary), or a railroad carrier that provides intercity rail passenger or commuter rail passenger transportation—

(A) to develop a railroad safety risk reduction program under subsection (d) that systematically evaluates railroad safety risks on its system and manages those risks in order to reduce the numbers and rates of railroad accidents, incidents, injuries, and fatalities;

(B) to submit its program, including any required plans, to the Secretary for review and approval; and

(C) to implement the program and plans approved by the Secretary.


(2) Reliance on pilot program.—The Secretary may conduct behavior-based safety and other research, including pilot programs, before promulgating regulations under this subsection and thereafter. The Secretary shall use any information and experience gathered through such research and pilot programs under this subsection in developing regulations under this section.

(3) Review and approval.—The Secretary shall review and approve or disapprove railroad safety risk reduction program plans within a reasonable period of time. If the proposed plan is not approved, the Secretary shall notify the affected railroad carrier as to the specific areas in which the proposed plan is deficient, and the railroad carrier shall correct all deficiencies within a reasonable period of time following receipt of written notice from the Secretary. The Secretary shall annually conduct a review to ensure that the railroad carriers are complying with their plans.

(4) Voluntary compliance.—A railroad carrier that is not required to submit a railroad safety risk reduction program under this section may voluntarily submit a program that meets the requirements of this section to the Secretary. The Secretary shall approve or disapprove any program submitted under this paragraph.


(b) Certification.—The chief official responsible for safety of each railroad carrier required to submit a railroad safety risk reduction program under subsection (a) shall certify that the contents of the program are accurate and that the railroad carrier will implement the contents of the program as approved by the Secretary.

(c) Risk Analysis.—In developing its railroad safety risk reduction program, each railroad carrier required to submit such a program pursuant to subsection (a) shall identify and analyze the aspects of its railroad, including operating rules and practices, infrastructure, equipment, employee levels and schedules, safety culture, management structure, employee training, and other matters, including those not covered by railroad safety regulations or other Federal regulations, that impact railroad safety.

(d) Program Elements.—

(1) In general.—Each railroad carrier required to submit a railroad safety risk reduction program under subsection (a) shall develop a comprehensive safety risk reduction program to improve safety by reducing the number and rates of accidents, incidents, injuries, and fatalities that is based on the risk analysis required by subsection (c) through—

(A) the mitigation of aspects that increase risks to railroad safety; and

(B) the enhancement of aspects that decrease risks to railroad safety.


(2) Required components.—Each railroad carrier's safety risk reduction program shall include a risk mitigation plan in accordance with this section, a technology implementation plan that meets the requirements of subsection (e), and a fatigue management plan that meets the requirements of subsection (f).


(e) Technology Implementation Plan.—

(1) In general.—As part of its railroad safety risk reduction program, a railroad carrier required to submit a railroad safety risk reduction program under subsection (a) shall develop, and periodically update as necessary, a 10-year technology implementation plan that describes the railroad carrier's plan for development, adoption, implementation, maintenance, and use of current, new, or novel technologies on its system over a 10-year period to reduce safety risks identified under the railroad safety risk reduction program. Any updates to the plan are subject to review and approval by the Secretary.

(2) Technology analysis.—A railroad carrier's technology implementation plan shall include an analysis of the safety impact, feasibility, and cost and benefits of implementing technologies, including processor-based technologies, positive train control systems (as defined in section 20157(i)), electronically controlled pneumatic brakes, rail integrity inspection systems, rail integrity warning systems, switch position monitors and indicators, trespasser prevention technology, highway-rail grade crossing technology, and other new or novel railroad safety technology, as appropriate, that may mitigate risks to railroad safety identified in the risk analysis required by subsection (c).

(3) Implementation schedule.—A railroad carrier's technology implementation plan shall contain a prioritized implementation schedule for the development, adoption, implementation, and use of current, new, or novel technologies on its system to reduce safety risks identified under the railroad safety risk reduction program.

(4) Positive train control.—Except as required by section 20157 (relating to the requirements for implementation of positive train control systems), the Secretary shall ensure that—

(A) each railroad carrier's technology implementation plan required under paragraph (1) that includes a schedule for implementation of a positive train control system complies with that schedule; and

(B) each railroad carrier required to submit such a plan implements a positive train control system pursuant to such plan by December 31, 2018.


(f) Fatigue Management Plan.—

(1) In general.—As part of its railroad safety risk reduction program, a railroad carrier required to submit a railroad safety risk reduction program under subsection (a) shall develop and update at least once every 2 years a fatigue management plan that is designed to reduce the fatigue experienced by safety-related railroad employees and to reduce the likelihood of accidents, incidents, injuries, and fatalities caused by fatigue. Any such update shall be subject to review and approval by the Secretary.

(2) Targeted fatigue countermeasures.—A railroad carrier's fatigue management plan shall take into account the varying circumstances of operations by the railroad on different parts of its system, and shall prescribe appropriate fatigue countermeasures to address those varying circumstances.

(3) Additional elements.—A railroad shall consider the need to include in its fatigue management plan elements addressing each of the following items, as applicable:

(A) Employee education and training on the physiological and human factors that affect fatigue, as well as strategies to reduce or mitigate the effects of fatigue, based on the most current scientific and medical research and literature.

(B) Opportunities for identification, diagnosis, and treatment of any medical condition that may affect alertness or fatigue, including sleep disorders.

(C) Effects on employee fatigue of an employee's short-term or sustained response to emergency situations, such as derailments and natural disasters, or engagement in other intensive working conditions.

(D) Scheduling practices for employees, including innovative scheduling practices, on-duty call practices, work and rest cycles, increased consecutive days off for employees, changes in shift patterns, appropriate scheduling practices for varying types of work, and other aspects of employee scheduling that would reduce employee fatigue and cumulative sleep loss.

(E) Methods to minimize accidents and incidents that occur as a result of working at times when scientific and medical research have shown increased fatigue disrupts employees' circadian rhythm.

(F) Alertness strategies, such as policies on napping, to address acute drowsiness and fatigue while an employee is on duty.

(G) Opportunities to obtain restful sleep at lodging facilities, including employee sleeping quarters provided by the railroad carrier.

(H) The increase of the number of consecutive hours of off-duty rest, during which an employee receives no communication from the employing railroad carrier or its managers, supervisors, officers, or agents.

(I) Avoidance of abrupt changes in rest cycles for employees.

(J) Additional elements that the Secretary considers appropriate.


(g) Consensus.—

(1) In general.—Each railroad carrier required to submit a railroad safety risk reduction program under subsection (a) shall consult with, employ good faith, and use its best efforts to reach agreement with, all of its directly affected employees, including any nonprofit employee labor organization representing a class or craft of directly affected employees of the railroad carrier, on the contents of the safety risk reduction program.

(2) Statement.—If the railroad carrier and its directly affected employees, including any nonprofit employee labor organization representing a class or craft of directly affected employees of the railroad carrier, cannot reach consensus on the proposed contents of the plan, then directly affected employees and such organization may file a statement with the Secretary explaining their views on the plan on which consensus was not reached. The Secretary shall consider such views during review and approval of the program.


(h) Enforcement.—The Secretary shall have the authority to assess civil penalties pursuant to chapter 213 for a violation of this section, including the failure to submit, certify, or comply with a safety risk reduction program, risk mitigation plan, technology implementation plan, or fatigue management plan.

(Added Pub. L. 110–432, div. A, title I, §103(a), Oct. 16, 2008, 122 Stat. 4853; amended Pub. L. 114–94, div. A, title XI, §11316(e), Dec. 4, 2015, 129 Stat. 1676.)

References in Text

The date of enactment of the Rail Safety Improvement Act of 2008, referred to in subsec. (a)(1), is the date of enactment of div. A of Pub. L. 110–432, which was approved Oct. 16, 2008.

Amendments

2015—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 114–94, §11316(e)(1), inserted comma after "In developing its railroad safety risk reduction program".

Subsec. (g)(1). Pub. L. 114–94, §11316(e)(2), inserted comma after "good faith" and substituted "nonprofit" for "non-profit".

Effective Date of 2015 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 114–94 effective Oct. 1, 2015, see section 1003 of Pub. L. 114–94, set out as a note under section 5313 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

§20157. Implementation of positive train control systems

(a) In General.—

(1) Plan required.—Not later than 90 days after the date of enactment of the Positive Train Control Enforcement and Implementation Act of 2015, each Class I railroad carrier and each entity providing regularly scheduled intercity or commuter rail passenger transportation shall submit to the Secretary of Transportation a revised plan for implementing a positive train control system by December 31, 2018, governing operations on—

(A) its main line over which intercity rail passenger transportation or commuter rail passenger transportation, as defined in section 24102, is regularly provided;

(B) its main line over which poison- or toxic-by-inhalation hazardous materials, as defined in sections 171.8, 173.115, and 173.132 of title 49, Code of Federal Regulations, are transported; and

(C) such other tracks as the Secretary may prescribe by regulation or order.


(2) Implementation.—

(A) Contents of revised plan.—A revised plan required under paragraph (1) shall—

(i) describe—

(I) how the positive train control system will provide for interoperability of the system with the movements of trains of other railroad carriers over its lines; and

(II) how, to the extent practical, the positive train control system will be implemented in a manner that addresses areas of greater risk before areas of lesser risk;


(ii) comply with the positive train control system implementation plan content requirements under section 236.1011 of title 49, Code of Federal Regulations; and

(iii) provide—

(I) the calendar year or years in which spectrum will be acquired and will be available for use in each area as needed for positive train control system implementation, if such spectrum is not already acquired and available for use;

(II) the total amount of positive train control system hardware that will be installed for implementation, with totals separated by each major hardware category;

(III) the total amount of positive train control system hardware that will be installed by the end of each calendar year until the positive train control system is implemented, with totals separated by each hardware category;

(IV) the total number of employees required to receive training under the applicable positive train control system regulations;

(V) the total number of employees that will receive the training, as required under the applicable positive train control system regulations, by the end of each calendar year until the positive train control system is implemented;

(VI) a summary of any remaining technical, programmatic, operational, or other challenges to the implementation of a positive train control system, including challenges with—

(aa) availability of public funding;

(bb) interoperability;

(cc) spectrum;

(dd) software;

(ee) permitting; and

(ff) testing, demonstration, and certification; and


(VII) a schedule and sequence for implementing a positive train control system by the deadline established under paragraph (1).


(B) Alternative schedule and sequence.—Notwithstanding the implementation deadline under paragraph (1) and in lieu of a schedule and sequence under paragraph (2)(A)(iii)(VII), a railroad carrier or other entity subject to paragraph (1) may include in its revised plan an alternative schedule and sequence for implementing a positive train control system, subject to review under paragraph (3). Such schedule and sequence shall provide for implementation of a positive train control system as soon as practicable, but not later than the date that is 24 months after the implementation deadline under paragraph (1).

(C) Amendments.—A railroad carrier or other entity subject to paragraph (1) may file a request to amend a revised plan, including any alternative schedule and sequence, as applicable, in accordance with section 236.1021 of title 49, Code of Federal Regulations.

(D) Compliance.—A railroad carrier or other entity subject to paragraph (1) shall implement a positive train control system in accordance with its revised plan, including any amendments or any alternative schedule and sequence approved by the Secretary under paragraph (3).


(3) Secretarial review.—

(A) Notification.—A railroad carrier or other entity that submits a revised plan under paragraph (1) and proposes an alternative schedule and sequence under paragraph (2)(B) shall submit to the Secretary a written notification when such railroad carrier or other entity is prepared for review under subparagraph (B).

(B) Criteria.—Not later than 90 days after a railroad carrier or other entity submits a notification under subparagraph (A), the Secretary shall review the alternative schedule and sequence submitted pursuant to paragraph (2)(B) and determine whether the railroad carrier or other entity has demonstrated, to the satisfaction of the Secretary, that such carrier or entity has—

(i) installed all positive train control system hardware consistent with the plan contents provided pursuant to paragraph (2)(A)(iii)(II) on or before the implementation deadline under paragraph (1);

(ii) acquired all spectrum necessary for implementation of a positive train control system, consistent with the plan contents provided pursuant to paragraph (2)(A)(iii)(I) on or before the implementation deadline under paragraph (1);

(iii) completed employee training required under the applicable positive train control system regulations;

(iv) included in its revised plan an alternative schedule and sequence for implementing a positive train control system as soon as practicable, pursuant to paragraph (2)(B);

(v) certified to the Secretary in writing that it will be in full compliance with the requirements of this section on or before the date provided in an alternative schedule and sequence, subject to approval by the Secretary;

(vi) in the case of a Class I railroad carrier and Amtrak, implemented a positive train control system or initiated revenue service demonstration on the majority of territories, such as subdivisions or districts, or route miles that are owned or controlled by such carrier and required to have operations governed by a positive train control system; and

(vii) in the case of any other railroad carrier or other entity not subject to clause (vi)—

(I) initiated revenue service demonstration on at least 1 territory that is required to have operations governed by a positive train control system; or

(II) met any other criteria established by the Secretary.


(C) Decision.—

(i) In general.—Not later than 90 days after the receipt of the notification from a railroad carrier or other entity under subparagraph (A), the Secretary shall—

(I) approve an alternative schedule and sequence submitted pursuant to paragraph (2)(B) if the railroad carrier or other entity meets the criteria in subparagraph (B); and

(II) notify in writing the railroad carrier or other entity of the decision.


(ii) Deficiencies.—Not later than 45 days after the receipt of the notification under subparagraph (A), the Secretary shall provide to the railroad carrier or other entity a written notification of any deficiencies that would prevent approval under clause (i) and provide the railroad carrier or other entity an opportunity to correct deficiencies before the date specified in such clause.


(D) Revised deadlines.—

(i) Pending reviews.—For a railroad carrier or other entity that submits a notification under subparagraph (A), the deadline for implementation of a positive train control system required under paragraph (1) shall be extended until the date on which the Secretary approves or disapproves the alternative schedule and sequence, if such date is later than the implementation date under paragraph (1).

(ii) Alternative schedule and sequence deadline.—If the Secretary approves a railroad carrier or other entity's alternative schedule and sequence under subparagraph (C)(i), the railroad carrier or other entity's deadline for implementation of a positive train control system required under paragraph (1) shall be the date specified in that railroad carrier or other entity's alternative schedule and sequence. The Secretary may not approve a date for implementation that is later than 24 months from the deadline in paragraph (1).


(b) Technical Assistance.—The Secretary may provide technical assistance and guidance to railroad carriers in developing the plans required under subsection (a).

(c) Progress Reports and Review.—

(1) Progress reports.—Each railroad carrier or other entity subject to subsection (a) shall, not later than March 31, 2016, and annually thereafter until such carrier or entity has completed implementation of a positive train control system, submit to the Secretary a report on the progress toward implementing such systems, including—

(A) the information on spectrum acquisition provided pursuant to subsection (a)(2)(A)(iii)(I);

(B) the totals provided pursuant to subclauses (III) and (V) of subsection (a)(2)(A)(iii), by territory, if applicable;

(C) the extent to which the railroad carrier or other entity is complying with the implementation schedule under subsection (a)(2)(A)(iii)(VII) or subsection (a)(2)(B);

(D) any update to the information provided under subsection (a)(2)(A)(iii)(VI);

(E) for each entity providing regularly scheduled intercity or commuter rail passenger transportation, a description of the resources identified and allocated to implement a positive train control system;

(F) for each railroad carrier or other entity subject to subsection (a), the total number of route miles on which a positive train control system has been initiated for revenue service demonstration or implemented, as compared to the total number of route miles required to have a positive train control system under subsection (a); and

(G) any other information requested by the Secretary.


(2) Plan review.—The Secretary shall at least annually conduct reviews to ensure that railroad carriers or other entities are complying with the revised plan submitted under subsection (a), including any amendments or any alternative schedule and sequence approved by the Secretary. Such railroad carriers or other entities shall provide such information as the Secretary determines necessary to adequately conduct such reviews.

(3) Public availability.—Not later than 60 days after receipt, the Secretary shall make available to the public on the Internet Web site of the Department of Transportation any report submitted pursuant to paragraph (1) or subsection (d), but may exclude, as the Secretary determines appropriate—

(A) proprietary information; and

(B) security-sensitive information, including information described in section 1520.5(a) of title 49, Code of Federal Regulations.


(d) Report to Congress.—Not later than July 1, 2018, the Secretary shall transmit to the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate a report on the progress of each railroad carrier or other entity subject to subsection (a) in implementing a positive train control system.

(e) Enforcement.—The Secretary is authorized to assess civil penalties pursuant to chapter 213 for—

(1) a violation of this section;

(2) the failure to submit or comply with the revised plan required under subsection (a), including the failure to comply with the totals provided pursuant to subclauses (III) and (V) of subsection (a)(2)(A)(iii) and the spectrum acquisition dates provided pursuant to subsection (a)(2)(A)(iii)(I);

(3) failure to comply with any amendments to such revised plan pursuant to subsection (a)(2)(C); and

(4) the failure to comply with an alternative schedule and sequence submitted under subsection (a)(2)(B) and approved by the Secretary under subsection (a)(3)(C).

(f) Other Railroad Carriers.—Nothing in this section restricts the discretion of the Secretary to require railroad carriers other than those specified in subsection (a) to implement a positive train control system pursuant to this section or section 20156, or to specify the period by which implementation shall occur that does not exceed the time limits established in this section or section 20156. In exercising such discretion, the Secretary shall, at a minimum, consider the risk to railroad employees and the public associated with the operations of the railroad carrier.

(g) Regulations.—

(1) In general.—The Secretary shall prescribe regulations or issue orders necessary to implement this section, including regulations specifying in appropriate technical detail the essential functionalities of positive train control systems, and the means by which those systems will be qualified.

(2) Conforming regulatory amendments.—Immediately after the date of the enactment of the Positive Train Control Enforcement and Implementation Act of 2015, the Secretary—

(A) shall remove or revise the date-specific deadlines in the regulations or orders implementing this section to the extent necessary to conform with the amendments made by such Act; and

(B) may not enforce any such date-specific deadlines or requirements that are inconsistent with the amendments made by such Act.


(3) Review.—Nothing in the Positive Train Control Enforcement and Implementation Act of 2015, or the amendments made by such Act, shall be construed to require the Secretary to issue regulations to implement such Act or amendments other than the regulatory amendments required to conform with this section.

(4) Clarification.—

(A) Prohibitions.—The Secretary is prohibited from—

(i) approving or disapproving a revised plan submitted under subsection (a)(1);

(ii) considering a revised plan under subsection (a)(1) as a request for amendment under section 236.1021 of title 49, Code of Federal Regulations; or

(iii) requiring the submission, as part of the revised plan under subsection (a)(1), of—

(I) only a schedule and sequence under subsection (a)(2)(A)(iii)(VII); or

(II) both a schedule and sequence under subsection (a)(2)(A)(iii)(VII) and an alternative schedule and sequence under subsection (a)(2)(B).


(B) Civil penalty authority.—Except as provided in paragraph (2) and this paragraph, nothing in this subsection shall be construed to limit the Secretary's authority to assess civil penalties pursuant to subsection (e), consistent with the requirements of this section.

(C) Retained review authority.—The Secretary retains the authority to review revised plans submitted under subsection (a)(1) and is authorized to require modifications of those plans to the extent necessary to ensure that such plans include the descriptions under subsection (a)(2)(A)(i), the contents under subsection (a)(2)(A)(ii), and the year or years, totals, and summary under subsection (a)(2)(A)(iii)(I) through (VI).


(h) Certification.—

(1) In general.—The Secretary shall not permit the installation of any positive train control system or component in revenue service unless the Secretary has certified that any such system or component has been approved through the approval process set forth in part 236 of title 49, Code of Federal Regulations, and complies with the requirements of that part.

(2) Provisional operation.—Notwithstanding the requirements of paragraph (1), the Secretary may authorize a railroad carrier or other entity to commence operation in revenue service of a positive train control system or component to the extent necessary to enable the safe implementation and operation of a positive train control system in phases.


(i) Definitions.—In this section:

(1) Equivalent or greater level of safety.—The term "equivalent or greater level of safety" means the compliance of a railroad carrier with—

(A) appropriate operating rules in place immediately prior to the use or implementation of such carrier's positive train control system, except that such rules may be changed by such carrier to improve safe operations; and

(B) all applicable safety regulations, except as specified in subsection (j).


(2) Hardware.—The term "hardware" means a locomotive apparatus, a wayside interface unit (including any associated legacy signal system replacements), switch position monitors needed for a positive train control system, physical back office system equipment, a base station radio, a wayside radio, a locomotive radio, or a communication tower or pole.

(3) Interoperability.—The term "interoperability" means the ability to control locomotives of the host railroad and tenant railroad to communicate with and respond to the positive train control system, including uninterrupted movements over property boundaries.

(4) Main line.—The term "main line" means a segment or route of railroad tracks over which 5,000,000 or more gross tons of railroad traffic is transported annually, except that—

(A) the Secretary may, through regulations under subsection (g), designate additional tracks as main line as appropriate for this section; and

(B) for intercity rail passenger transportation or commuter rail passenger transportation routes or segments over which limited or no freight railroad operations occur, the Secretary shall define the term "main line" by regulation.


(5) Positive train control system.—The term "positive train control system" means a system designed to prevent train-to-train collisions, over-speed derailments, incursions into established work zone limits, and the movement of a train through a switch left in the wrong position.


(j) Early Adoption.—

(1) Operations.—From the date of enactment of the Positive Train Control Enforcement and Implementation Act of 2015 through the 1-year period beginning on the date on which the last Class I railroad carrier's positive train control system subject to subsection (a) is certified by the Secretary under subsection (h)(1) of this section and is implemented on all of that railroad carrier's lines required to have operations governed by a positive train control system, any railroad carrier, including any railroad carrier that has its positive train control system certified by the Secretary, shall not be subject to the operational restrictions set forth in sections 236.567 and 236.1029 of title 49, Code of Federal Regulations, that would apply where a controlling locomotive that is operating in, or is to be operated in, a positive train control-equipped track segment experiences a positive train control system failure, a positive train control operated consist is not provided by another railroad carrier when provided in interchange, or a positive train control system otherwise fails to initialize, cuts out, or malfunctions, provided that such carrier operates at an equivalent or greater level of safety than the level achieved immediately prior to the use or implementation of its positive train control system.

(2) Safety assurance.—During the period described in paragraph (1), if a positive train control system that has been certified and implemented fails to initialize, cuts out, or malfunctions, the affected railroad carrier or other entity shall make reasonable efforts to determine the cause of the failure and adjust, repair, or replace any faulty component causing the system failure in a timely manner.

(3) Plans.—The positive train control safety plan for each railroad carrier or other entity shall describe the safety measures, such as operating rules and actions to comply with applicable safety regulations, that will be put in place during any system failure.

(4) Notification.—During the period described in paragraph (1), if a positive train control system that has been certified and implemented fails to initialize, cuts out, or malfunctions, the affected railroad carrier or other entity shall submit a notification to the appropriate regional office of the Federal Railroad Administration within 7 days of the system failure, or under alternative location and deadline requirements set by the Secretary, and include in the notification a description of the safety measures the affected railroad carrier or other entity has in place.


(k) Small Railroads.—Not later than 120 days after the date of the enactment of this Act,1 the Secretary shall amend section 236.1006(b)(4)(iii)(B) of title 49, Code of Federal Regulations (relating to equipping locomotives for applicable Class II and Class III railroads operating in positive train control territory) to extend each deadline under such section by 3 years.

(l) Revenue Service Demonstration.—When a railroad carrier or other entity subject to (a)(1) 2 notifies the Secretary it is prepared to initiate revenue service demonstration, it shall also notify any applicable tenant railroad carrier or other entity subject to subsection (a)(1).

(Added Pub. L. 110–432, div. A, title I, §104(a), Oct. 16, 2008, 122 Stat. 4856; amended Pub. L. 114–73, title I, §1302(b), (c), Oct. 29, 2015, 129 Stat. 576, 582; Pub. L. 114–94, div. A, title XI, §11315(d), Dec. 4, 2015, 129 Stat. 1675.)

References in Text

The date of enactment of the Positive Train Control Enforcement and Implementation Act of 2015, referred to in subsecs. (a)(1), (g)(2), and (j)(1), is the date of enactment of section 1302 of Pub. L. 114–73, which was approved Oct. 29, 2015.

The Positive Train Control Enforcement and Implementation Act of 2015, referred to in subsec. (g)(2), (3), is Pub. L. 114–73, title I, §1302, Oct. 29, 2015, 129 Stat. 576, which amended this section and enacted provisions set out as a note under section 20101 of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title of 2015 Amendment note set out under section 20101 of this title and Tables.

The date of the enactment of this Act, referred to in subsec. (k), probably means the date of enactment of section 1302 of Pub. L. 114–73, known as the Positive Train Control Enforcement and Implementation Act of 2015, which enacted subsec. (k) and was approved Oct. 29, 2015.

Amendments

2015—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 114–73, §1302(b)(1)(A)–(D), in introductory provisions, substituted "90 days after the date of enactment of the Positive Train Control Enforcement and Implementation Act of 2015" for "18 months after the date of enactment of the Rail Safety Improvement Act of 2008", "a revised plan for implementing" for "a plan for implementing", and "December 31, 2018" for "December 31, 2015" and struck out "develop and" before "submit to the Secretary of Transportation".

Subsec. (a)(1)(B). Pub. L. 114–73, §1302(b)(1)(E), substituted "defined in sections" for "defined in parts".

Subsec. (a)(2), (3). Pub. L. 114–73, §1302(b)(2), added pars. (2) and (3) and struck out former par. (2). Prior to amendment, text of par. (2) read as follows: "The plan shall describe how it will provide for interoperability of the system with movements of trains of other railroad carriers over its lines and shall, to the extent practical, implement the system in a manner that addresses areas of greater risk before areas of lesser risk. The railroad carrier shall implement a positive train control system in accordance with the plan."

Subsecs. (c) to (e). Pub. L. 114–73, §1302(b)(3), added subsecs. (c) to (e) and struck out former subsecs. (c) to (e) which related, respectively, to review and approval of plans, progress report on implementation of positive train control systems, and enforcement of section.

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 114–73, §1302(c), designated existing provisions as par. (1), inserted heading, and added pars. (2) and (3).

Subsec. (g)(3). Pub. L. 114–94, §11315(d)(2), substituted "to conform with this section" for "by paragraph (2) and subsection (k)".

Subsec. (g)(4). Pub. L. 114–94, §11315(d)(1), added par. (4).

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 114–73, §1302(b)(4), designated existing provisions as par. (1), inserted heading, and added par. (2).

Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 114–73, §1302(b)(5), added pars. (1) and (2) and redesignated former pars. (1) to (3) as (3) to (5), respectively.

Subsecs. (j) to (l). Pub. L. 114–73, §1302(b)(6), added subsecs. (j) to (l).

Effective Date of 2015 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 114–94 effective Oct. 1, 2015, see section 1003 of Pub. L. 114–94, set out as a note under section 5313 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

1 See References in Text note below.

2 So in original. Probably should be preceded by "subsection".

§20158. Railroad safety technology grants

(a) Grant Program.—The Secretary of Transportation shall establish a grant program for the deployment of train control technologies, train control component technologies, processor-based technologies, electronically controlled pneumatic brakes, rail integrity inspection systems, rail integrity warning systems, switch position indicators and monitors, remote control power switch technologies, track integrity circuit technologies, and other new or novel railroad safety technology.

(b) Grant Criteria.—

(1) Eligibility.—Grants shall be made under this section to eligible passenger and freight railroad carriers, railroad suppliers, and State and local governments for projects described in subsection (a) that have a public benefit of improved safety and network efficiency.

(2) Considerations.—Priority shall be given to projects that—

(A) focus on making technologies interoperable between railroad systems, such as train control technologies;

(B) accelerate train control technology deployment on high-risk corridors, such as those that have high volumes of hazardous materials shipments or over which commuter or passenger trains operate; or

(C) benefit both passenger and freight safety and efficiency.


(3) Implementation plans.—Grants may not be awarded under this section to entities that fail to develop and submit to the Secretary the plans required by sections 20156(e)(2) and 20157.

(4) Matching requirements.—Federal funds for any eligible project under this section shall not exceed 80 percent of the total cost of such project.


(c) Authorization of Appropriations.—There are authorized to be appropriated to the Secretary of Transportation $50,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2009 through 2013 to carry out this section. Amounts appropriated pursuant to this section shall remain available until expended.

(Added Pub. L. 110–432, div. A, title I, §105(a), Oct. 16, 2008, 122 Stat. 4858.)

§20159. Roadway user sight distance at highway-rail grade crossings

Not later than 18 months after the date of enactment of the Rail Safety Improvement Act of 2008, the Secretary of Transportation, after consultation with the Federal Railroad Administration, the Federal Highway Administration, and States, shall develop and make available to States model legislation providing for improving safety by addressing sight obstructions, including vegetation growth, topographic features, structures, and standing railroad equipment, at highway-rail grade crossings that are equipped solely with passive warnings, as recommended by the Inspector General of the Department of Transportation in Report No. MH–2007–044.

(Added Pub. L. 110–432, div. A, title II, §203(a), Oct. 16, 2008, 122 Stat. 4869; amended Pub. L. 114–94, div. A, title XI, §11316(f), Dec. 4, 2015, 129 Stat. 1676.)

References in Text

The date of enactment of the Rail Safety Improvement Act of 2008, referred to in text, is the date of enactment of div. A of Pub. L. 110–432, which was approved Oct. 16, 2008.

Amendments

2015Pub. L. 114–94 substituted "the Secretary of Transportation" for "the Secretary".

Effective Date of 2015 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 114–94 effective Oct. 1, 2015, see section 1003 of Pub. L. 114–94, set out as a note under section 5313 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

§20160. National crossing inventory

(a) Initial Reporting of Information About Previously Unreported Crossings.—Not later than 1 year after the date of enactment of the Rail Safety Improvement Act of 2008 or 6 months after a new crossing becomes operational, whichever occurs later, each railroad carrier shall—

(1) report to the Secretary of Transportation current information, including information about warning devices and signage, as specified by the Secretary, concerning each previously unreported crossing through which it operates with respect to the trackage over which it operates; or

(2) ensure that the information has been reported to the Secretary by another railroad carrier that operates through the crossing.


(b) Updating of Crossing Information.—

(1) On a periodic basis beginning not later than 2 years after the date of enactment of the Rail Safety Improvement Act of 2008 and on or before September 30 of every year thereafter, or as otherwise specified by the Secretary, each railroad carrier shall—

(A) report to the Secretary current information, including information about warning devices and signage, as specified by the Secretary, concerning each crossing through which it operates with respect to the trackage over which it operates; or

(B) ensure that the information has been reported to the Secretary by another railroad carrier that operates through the crossing.


(2) A railroad carrier that sells a crossing or any part of a crossing on or after the date of enactment of the Rail Safety Improvement Act of 2008 shall, not later than the date that is 18 months after the date of enactment of that Act or 3 months after the sale, whichever occurs later, or as otherwise specified by the Secretary, report to the Secretary current information, as specified by the Secretary, concerning the change in ownership of the crossing or part of the crossing.


(c) Rulemaking Authority.—The Secretary shall prescribe the regulations necessary to implement this section. The Secretary may enforce each provision of the Department of Transportation's statement of the national highway-rail crossing inventory policy, procedures, and instruction for States and railroads that is in effect on the date of enactment of the Rail Safety Improvement Act of 2008, until such provision is superseded by a regulation issued under this section.

(d) Definitions.—In this section:

(1) Crossing.—The term "crossing" means a location within a State, other than a location where one or more railroad tracks cross one or more railroad tracks either at grade or grade-separated, where—

(A) a public highway, road, or street, or a private roadway, including associated sidewalks and pathways, crosses one or more railroad tracks either at grade or grade-separated; or

(B) a pathway explicitly authorized by a public authority or a railroad carrier that is dedicated for the use of nonvehicular traffic, including pedestrians, bicyclists, and others, that is not associated with a public highway, road, or street, or a private roadway, crosses one or more railroad tracks either at grade or grade-separated.


(2) State.—The term "State" means a State of the United States, the District of Columbia, or the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico.

(Added Pub. L. 110–432, div. A, title II, §204(a), Oct. 16, 2008, 122 Stat. 4869; amended Pub. L. 114–94, div. A, title XI, §11316(g), Dec. 4, 2015, 129 Stat. 1676.)

References in Text

The date of enactment of the Rail Safety Improvement Act of 2008, referred to in subsecs. (a) to (c), is the date of enactment of div. A of Pub. L. 110–432, which was approved Oct. 16, 2008.

Amendments

2015—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 114–94, §11316(g)(1), substituted "concerning each previously unreported crossing through which it operates with respect to the trackage over which it operates" for "concerning each previously unreported crossing through which it operates or with respect to the trackage over which it operates".

Subsec. (b)(1)(A). Pub. L. 114–94, §11316(g)(2), substituted "concerning each crossing through which it operates with respect to the trackage over which it operates" for "concerning each crossing through which it operates or with respect to the trackage over which it operates".

Effective Date of 2015 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 114–94 effective Oct. 1, 2015, see section 1003 of Pub. L. 114–94, set out as a note under section 5313 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

§20161. Fostering introduction of new technology to improve safety at highway-rail grade crossings

(a) Findings.—

(1) Collisions between highway users and trains at highway-rail grade crossings continue to cause an unacceptable loss of life, serious personal injury, and property damage.

(2) While elimination of at-grade crossings through consolidation of crossings and grade separations offers the greatest long-term promise for optimizing the safety and efficiency of the two modes of transportation, over 140,000 public grade crossings remain on the general rail system—approximately one for each route mile on the general rail system.

(3) Conventional highway traffic control devices such as flashing lights and gates are often effective in warning motorists of a train's approach to an equipped crossing.

(4) Since enactment of the Highway Safety Act of 1973, over $4,200,000,000 of Federal funding has been invested in safety improvements at highway-rail grade crossings, yet a majority of public highway-rail grade crossings are not yet equipped with active warning systems.

(5) The emergence of new technologies presents opportunities for more effective and affordable warnings and safer passage of highway users and trains at remaining highway-rail grade crossings.

(6) Implementation of new crossing safety technology will require extensive cooperation between highway authorities and railroad carriers.

(7) Federal Railroad Administration regulations establishing performance standards for processor-based signal and train control systems provide a suitable framework for qualification of new or novel technology at highway-rail grade crossings, and the Federal Highway Administration's Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices provides an appropriate means of determining highway user interface with such new technology.


(b) Policy.—It is the policy of the United States to encourage the development of new technology that can prevent loss of life and injuries at highway-rail grade crossings. The Secretary of Transportation is designated to carry out this policy in consultation with States and necessary public and private entities.

(c) Submission of New Technology Proposals.—Railroad carriers and railroad suppliers may submit for review and approval to the Secretary such new technology designed to improve safety at highway-rail grade crossings. The Secretary shall approve by order the new technology designed to improve safety at highway-rail grade crossings in accordance with Federal Railroad Administration standards for the development and use of processor-based signal and train control systems and shall consider the effects on safety of highway-user interface with the new technology.

(d) Effect of Secretarial Approval.—If the Secretary approves by order new technology to provide warning to highway users at a highway-rail grade crossing and such technology is installed at a highway-rail grade crossing in accordance with the conditions of the approval, this determination preempts any State statute or regulation concerning the adequacy of the technology in providing warning at the crossing.

(Added Pub. L. 110–432, div. A, title II, §210(a), Oct. 16, 2008, 122 Stat. 4876.)

References in Text

The Highway Safety Act of 1973, referred to in subsec. (a)(4), is title II of Pub. L. 93–87, Aug. 13, 1973, 87 Stat. 282. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title of 1973 Amendment note set out under section 401 of Title 23, Highways, and Tables.

§20162. Minimum training standards and plans

(a) In General.—The Secretary of Transportation shall, not later than 1 year after the date of enactment of the Rail Safety Improvement Act of 2008, establish—

(1) minimum training standards for each class and craft of safety-related railroad employee (as defined in section 20102) and equivalent railroad carrier contractor and subcontractor employees, which shall require railroad carriers, contractors, and subcontractors to qualify or otherwise document the proficiency of such employees in each such class and craft regarding their knowledge of, and ability to comply with, Federal railroad safety laws and regulations and railroad carrier rules and procedures promulgated to implement those Federal railroad safety laws and regulations;

(2) a requirement that railroad carriers, contractors, and subcontractors develop and submit training and qualification plans to the Secretary for approval, including training programs and information deemed necessary by the Secretary to ensure that all safety-related railroad employees receive appropriate training in a timely manner; and

(3) a minimum training curriculum, and ongoing training criteria, testing, and skills evaluation measures to ensure that safety-related railroad employees, and contractor and subcontractor employees, charged with the inspection of track or railroad equipment are qualified to assess railroad carrier compliance with Federal standards to identify defective conditions and initiate immediate remedial action to correct critical safety defects that are known to contribute to derailments, accidents, incidents, or injuries, and, in implementing the requirements of this paragraph, take into consideration existing training programs of railroad carriers.


(b) Approval.—The Secretary shall review and approve the plans required under subsection (a)(2) utilizing an approval process required for programs to certify the qualification of locomotive engineers pursuant to part 240 of title 49, Code of Federal Regulations.

(c) Exemption.—The Secretary may exempt railroad carriers and railroad carrier contractors and subcontractors from submitting training plans for which the Secretary has issued training regulations before the date of enactment of the Rail Safety Improvement Act of 2008.

(Added Pub. L. 110–432, div. A, title IV, §401(a), Oct. 16, 2008, 122 Stat. 4883; amended Pub. L. 114–94, div. A, title XI, §11316(h), Dec. 4, 2015, 129 Stat. 1677.)

References in Text

The date of enactment of the Rail Safety Improvement Act of 2008, referred to in subsecs. (a) and (c), is the date of enactment of div. A of Pub. L. 110–432, which was approved Oct. 16, 2008.

Amendments

2015—Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 114–94 substituted "railroad carrier compliance with Federal standards" for "railroad compliance with Federal standards".

Effective Date of 2015 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 114–94 effective Oct. 1, 2015, see section 1003 of Pub. L. 114–94, set out as a note under section 5313 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

Report and Regulations on Certification of Certain Crafts or Classes of Employees

Pub. L. 110–432, div. A, title IV, §402(b)–(d), Oct. 16, 2008, 122 Stat. 4884, provided that:

"(b) Report.—Not later than 6 months after promulgating regulations under section 20162 of title 49, United States Code, the Secretary shall issue a report to the Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation and the House of Representatives Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure about whether the certification of certain crafts or classes of railroad carrier or railroad carrier contractor or subcontractor employees is necessary to reduce the number and rate of accidents and incidents or to improve railroad safety.

"(c) Crafts and Classes to Be Considered.—As part of the report, the Secretary shall consider—

"(1) car repair and maintenance employees;

"(2) onboard service workers;

"(3) rail welders;

"(4) dispatchers;

"(5) signal repair and maintenance employees; and

"(6) any other craft or class of employees that the Secretary determines appropriate.

"(d) Regulations.—The Secretary may prescribe regulations requiring the certification of certain crafts or classes of employees that the Secretary determines pursuant to the report required by paragraph (1) are necessary to reduce the number and rate of accidents and incidents or to improve railroad safety."

[For definitions of "Secretary", "railroad carrier", and "railroad", as used in section 402(b)–(d) of Pub. L. 110–432, set out above, see section 2(a) of Pub. L. 110–432, set out as a note under section 20102 of this title.]

§20163. Certification of train conductors

(a) Regulations.—Not later than 18 months after the date of enactment of the Rail Safety Improvement Act of 2008, the Secretary of Transportation shall prescribe regulations to establish a program requiring the certification of train conductors. In prescribing such regulations, the Secretary shall require that train conductors be trained, in accordance with the training standards developed pursuant to section 20162.

(b) Program Requirements.—In developing the regulations required by subsection (a), the Secretary may consider the requirements of section 20135(b) through (e).

(Added Pub. L. 110–432, div. A, title IV, §402(a), Oct. 16, 2008, 122 Stat. 4884.)

References in Text

The date of enactment of the Rail Safety Improvement Act of 2008, referred to in subsec. (a), is the date of enactment of div. A of Pub. L. 110–432, which was approved Oct. 16, 2008.

§20164. Development and use of rail safety technology

(a) In General.—Not later than 1 year after the date of enactment of the Rail Safety Improvement Act of 2008, the Secretary of Transportation shall prescribe standards, guidance, regulations, or orders governing the development, use, and implementation of rail safety technology in dark territory, in arrangements not defined in section 20501 or otherwise not covered by Federal standards, guidance, regulations, or orders that ensure the safe operation of such technology, such as—

(1) switch position monitoring devices or indicators;

(2) radio, remote control, or other power-assisted switches;

(3) hot box, high water, or earthquake detectors;

(4) remote control locomotive zone limiting devices;

(5) slide fences;

(6) grade crossing video monitors;

(7) track integrity warning systems; or

(8) other similar rail safety technologies, as determined by the Secretary.


(b) Dark Territory Defined.—In this section, the term "dark territory" means any territory in a railroad system that does not have a signal or train control system installed or operational.

(Added Pub. L. 110–432, div. A, title IV, §406(a), Oct. 16, 2008, 122 Stat. 4886; amended Pub. L. 114–94, div. A, title XI, §11316(i), Dec. 4, 2015, 129 Stat. 1677.)

References in Text

The date of enactment of the Rail Safety Improvement Act of 2008, referred to in subsec. (a), is the date of enactment of div. A of Pub. L. 110–432, which was approved Oct. 16, 2008.

Amendments

2015—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 114–94 substituted "after the date of enactment of the Rail Safety Improvement Act of 2008" for "after enactment of the Railroad Safety Enhancement Act of 2008" in introductory provisions.

Effective Date of 2015 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 114–94 effective Oct. 1, 2015, see section 1003 of Pub. L. 114–94, set out as a note under section 5313 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

§20165. Limitations on non-Federal alcohol and drug testing

(a) Testing Requirements.—Any non-Federal alcohol and drug testing program of a railroad carrier must provide that all post-employment tests of the specimens of employees who are subject to both the program and chapter 211 of this title be conducted using a scientifically recognized method of testing capable of determining the presence of the specific analyte at a level above the cut-off level established by the carrier.

(b) Redress Process.—Each railroad carrier that has a non-Federal alcohol and drug testing program must provide a redress process to its employees who are subject to both the alcohol and drug testing program and chapter 211 of this title for such an employee to petition for and receive a carrier hearing to review his or her specimen test results that were determined to be in violation of the program. A dispute or grievance raised by a railroad carrier or its employee, except a probationary employee, in connection with the carrier's alcohol and drug testing program and the application of this section is subject to resolution under section 3 of the Railway Labor Act (45 U.S.C. 153).

(Added Pub. L. 110–432, div. A, title IV, §409(a), Oct. 16, 2008, 122 Stat. 4887.)

§20166. Emergency escape breathing apparatus

Not later than 18 months after the date of enactment of the Rail Safety Improvement Act of 2008, the Secretary of Transportation shall prescribe regulations that require railroad carriers—

(1) to provide emergency escape breathing apparatus suitable to provide head and neck coverage with respiratory protection for all crewmembers in locomotive cabs on freight trains carrying hazardous materials that would pose an inhalation hazard in the event of release;

(2) to provide convenient storage in each freight train locomotive to enable crewmembers to access such apparatus quickly;

(3) to maintain such equipment in proper working condition; and

(4) to provide their crewmembers with appropriate training for using the breathing apparatus.

(Added Pub. L. 110–432, div. A, title IV, §413(a), Oct. 16, 2008, 122 Stat. 4889.)

References in Text

The date of enactment of the Rail Safety Improvement Act of 2008, referred to in text, is the date of enactment of div. A. of Pub. L. 110–432, which was approved Oct. 16, 2008.

[§20167. Repealed. Pub. L. 114–94, div. A, title XI, §11301(c)(1), Dec. 4, 2015, 129 Stat. 1648]

Section, Pub. L. 110–432, div. A, title IV, §418(a), Oct. 16, 2008, 122 Stat. 4891, related to railroad safety infrastructure improvement grants.

Effective Date of Repeal

Repeal by Pub. L. 114–94 effective Oct. 1, 2015, see section 1003 of Pub. L. 114–94, set out as an Effective Date of 2015 Amendment note under section 5313 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

§20168. Installation of audio and image recording devices

(a) In General.—Not later than 2 years after the date of enactment of the Passenger Rail Reform and Investment Act of 2015, the Secretary of Transportation shall promulgate regulations to require each railroad carrier that provides regularly scheduled intercity rail passenger or commuter rail passenger transportation to the public to install inward- and outward-facing image recording devices in all controlling locomotive cabs and cab car operating compartments in such passenger trains.

(b) Device Standards.—Each inward- and outward-facing image recording device shall—

(1) have a minimum 12-hour continuous recording capability;

(2) have crash and fire protections for any in-cab image recordings that are stored only within a controlling locomotive cab or cab car operating compartment; and

(3) have recordings accessible for review during an accident or incident investigation.


(c) Review.—The Secretary shall establish a process to review and approve or disapprove an inward- or outward-facing image recording device for compliance with the standards described in subsection (b).

(d) Uses.—A railroad carrier subject to the requirements of subsection (a) that has installed an inward- or outward-facing image recording device approved under subsection (c) may use recordings from that inward- or outward-facing image recording device for the following purposes:

(1) Verifying that train crew actions are in accordance with applicable safety laws and the railroad carrier's operating rules and procedures, including a system-wide program for such verification.

(2) Assisting in an investigation into the causation of a reportable accident or incident.

(3) Documenting a criminal act or monitoring unauthorized occupancy of the controlling locomotive cab or car operating compartment.

(4) Other purposes that the Secretary considers appropriate.


(e) Discretion.—

(1) In general.—The Secretary may—

(A) require in-cab audio recording devices for the purposes described in subsection (d); and

(B) define in appropriate technical detail the essential features of the devices required under subparagraph (A).


(2) Exemptions.—The Secretary may exempt any railroad carrier subject to the requirements of subsection (a) or any part of the carrier's operations from the requirements under subsection (a) if the Secretary determines that the carrier has implemented an alternative technology or practice that provides an equivalent or greater safety benefit or that is better suited to the risks of the operation.


(f) Tampering.—A railroad carrier subject to the requirements of subsection (a) may take appropriate enforcement or administrative action against any employee that tampers with or disables an audio or inward- or outward-facing image recording device installed by the railroad carrier.

(g) Preservation of Data.—Each railroad carrier subject to the requirements of subsection (a) shall preserve recording device data for 1 year after the date of a reportable accident or incident.

(h) Information Protections.—The Secretary may not disclose publicly any part of an in-cab audio or image recording or transcript of oral communications by or among train employees or other operating employees responsible for the movement and direction of the train, or between such operating employees and company communication centers, related to an accident or incident investigated by the Secretary. The Secretary may make public any part of a transcript or any written depiction of visual information that the Secretary determines is relevant to the accident at the time a majority of the other factual reports on the accident or incident are released to the public.

(i) Prohibited Use.—An in-cab audio or image recording obtained by a railroad carrier under this section may not be used to retaliate against an employee.

(j) Savings Clause.—Nothing in this section may be construed as requiring a railroad carrier to cease or restrict operations upon a technical failure of an inward- or outward-facing image recording device or in-cab audio device. Such railroad carrier shall repair or replace the failed inward- or outward-facing image recording device as soon as practicable.

(Added Pub. L. 114–94, div. A, title XI, §11411(a), Dec. 4, 2015, 129 Stat. 1686.)

References in Text

The date of enactment of the Passenger Rail Reform and Investment Act of 2015, referred to in subsec. (a), is the date of enactment of title XI of div. A of Pub. L. 114–94, which was approved Dec. 4, 2015.

Effective Date

Section effective Oct. 1, 2015, see section 1003 of Pub. L. 114–94, set out as an Effective Date of 2015 Amendment note under section 5313 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.