[USC05] 7 USC Ch. 64: AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH, EXTENSION, AND TEACHING
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TEXT OF PART V OF SUBTITLE A (3001 ET SEQ.), EFFECTIVE JANUARY 1, 2022, CURRENTLY SET OUT AS A PREVIEW

7 USC Ch. 64: AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH, EXTENSION, AND TEACHING
From Title 7—AGRICULTURE

CHAPTER 64—AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH, EXTENSION, AND TEACHING

SUBCHAPTER I—FINDINGS, PURPOSES, AND DEFINITIONS

Sec.
3101.
Purposes of agricultural research, extension, and education.
3102.
Additional purposes of agricultural research and extension.
3103.
Definitions.
3104.
Agriculture research; declaration of policy; duties of Secretary of Agriculture; use of existing facilities.
3105.
Agricultural research; authorization of additional appropriations; administrative expenses; availability of special research fund.

        

SUBCHAPTER II—COORDINATION AND PLANNING OF AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH, EXTENSION, AND TEACHING

3121.
Responsibilities of Secretary and Department of Agriculture.
3122.
Repealed.
3123.
National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board.
3123a.
Specialty crop committee.
3123b.
Repealed.
3124.
Existing research programs.
3124a.
Federal-State partnership and coordination.
3125.
Annual report of Secretary of Agriculture to President and Congress.
3125a.
National Agricultural Library.
3125a–1.
Agricultural and food law research, legal tools, and information.
3125b.
National Rural Information Center Clearinghouse.
3125c.
Repealed.
3126.
Libraries and information network.
3127.
Support for Advisory Board.
3128.
General provisions.
3129.
Accountability.
3129a.
Federal Advisory Committee Act exemption for competitive research, extension, and education programs.
3130.
Repealed.

        

SUBCHAPTER III—AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH AND EDUCATION GRANTS AND FELLOWSHIPS

3151.
Grants to enhance research capacity in schools of veterinary medicine.
3151a.
Veterinary medicine loan repayment.
3151b.
Veterinary services grant program.
3152.
Grants and fellowships for food and agricultural sciences education.
3153.
National Agricultural Science Award.
3154.
Repealed.
3155.
Agricultural and food policy research centers.
3156.
Education grants to Alaska Native serving institutions and Native Hawaiian serving institutions.
3157.
Competitive, special, and facilities research grants.
3158.
Next generation agriculture technology challenge.
3159.
Land-grant designation.

        

SUBCHAPTER IV—NATIONAL FOOD AND HUMAN NUTRITION RESEARCH AND EXTENSION PROGRAM

3171.
Congressional findings and declaration of policy.
3172.
Duties of Secretary of Agriculture.
3173.
Research by Department of Agriculture.
3174, 3174a. Repealed.
3175.
Nutrition education program.
3175a.
Nutrition and consumer education; Congressional findings.
3175b.
Expansion of effective food, nutrition, and consumer education services.
3175c.
Program of food, nutrition, and consumer education by State cooperative extension services.
3175d.
Administration of program of food, nutrition, and consumer education by State cooperative extension services.
3175e.
Authorization of appropriations.
3176, 3177. Repealed.
3178.
Nutritional status monitoring.
3178a.
Nutrition monitoring.
3179.
Research on strategies to promote the selection and consumption of healthy foods.

        

SUBCHAPTER V—ANIMAL HEALTH AND DISEASE RESEARCH

3191.
Purposes and findings relating to animal health and disease research.
3192.
Definitions.
3193.
Authorization to Secretary of Agriculture.
3194.
Repealed.
3195.
Continuing animal health and disease, food security, and stewardship research, education, and extension programs.
3196.
Research on national and regional animal health or disease problems.
3197.
Availability of appropriated funds.
3198.
Withholding of appropriated funds.
3199.
Requirements for use of funds.
3200.
Matching funds.
3201.
Funds appropriated or otherwise made available pursuant to other provisions of law.
3202.
Research and education grants for the study of antibiotic-resistant bacteria.

        

SUBCHAPTER VI—1890 LAND-GRANT COLLEGE FUNDING

3221.
Extension at 1890 land-grant colleges, including Tuskegee University.
3222.
Agricultural research at 1890 land-grant colleges, including Tuskegee University.
3222a.
Scholarships for students at 1890 Institutions.
3222b.
Grants to upgrade agricultural and food sciences facilities at 1890 land-grant colleges, including Tuskegee University.
3222b–1.
Grants to upgrade agriculture and food sciences facilities at the District of Columbia land-grant university.
3222b–2.
Grants to upgrade agriculture and food sciences facilities and equipment and support tropical and subtropical agricultural research at insular area land-grant colleges and universities.
3222c.
Repealed.
3222d.
Matching funds requirement for research and extension activities at eligible institutions.
3222e.
New beginning for tribal students.
3223.
Grants for acquisition and improvement of research facilities and equipment.
3224.
Repealed.

        

SUBCHAPTER VII—PROGRAMS FOR HISPANIC, ALASKA NATIVE, AND NATIVE HAWAIIAN SERVING INSTITUTIONS

3241.
Education grants programs for Hispanic-serving institutions.
3242.
Transferred.
3243.
Hispanic-serving agricultural colleges and universities.

        

SUBCHAPTER VIII—INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH, EXTENSION, AND TEACHING

3291.
International agricultural research, extension, and teaching.
3292.
Partnerships to build capacity in international agricultural research, extension, and teaching.
3292a.
United States-Mexico joint agricultural research.
3292b.
Competitive grants for international agricultural science and education programs.
3293.
Agricultural fellowship program for middle income countries, emerging democracies, and emerging markets.
3294.
Center For North American Studies.
3295.
International Agricultural Education Fellowship Program.

        

SUBCHAPTER IX—STUDIES

3301 to 3304. Repealed.

        

SUBCHAPTER X—FUNDING AND MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS

3310.
Limitation on indirect costs for agricultural research, education, and extension programs.
3310a.
Research equipment grants.
3311.
Authorization of appropriations.
3312.
Authorization of appropriations for extension education.
3313.
Payment of funds.
3314.
Repealed.
3315.
Auditing, reporting, bookkeeping, and administrative requirements.
3315a.
Availability of competitive grant funds.
3316.
Rules and regulations.
3317.
Program evaluation studies.
3318.
Contract, grant, and cooperative agreement authorities.
3318a.
Cooperative research projects; agreements with and receipt of funds from State and other agencies.
3319.
Restriction on treatment of indirect costs and tuition remission.
3319a.
Cost-reimbursable agreements.
3319b.
Joint requests for proposals.
3319c.
Repealed.
3319d.
Supplemental and alternative crops.
3319e.
New Era Rural Technology Program.
3319f.
Repealed.
3319g.
Fees.
3319h.
Funds for research facilities.
3319i.
Capacity building grants for NLGCA Institutions.
3319j.
Borlaug International Agricultural Science and Technology Fellowship Program.
3319k.
Agriculture Advanced Research and Development Authority pilot.

        

SUBCHAPTER XI—AQUACULTURE

3321.
Statement of purpose.
3322.
Assistance programs.
3323.
Repealed.
3324.
Authorization of appropriations.

        

SUBCHAPTER XII—RANGELAND RESEARCH

3331.
Congressional statement of purpose.
3332.
Program; development, purposes, scope, etc.
3333.
Rangeland research grants.
3334, 3335. Repealed.
3336.
Authorization of appropriations; allocation of funds.

        

SUBCHAPTER XIII—BIOSECURITY

3351.
Special authorization for biosecurity planning and response.
3352.
Agriculture research facility expansion and security upgrades.
3353.
Agricultural biosecurity.
3354.
Agricultural bioterrorism research and development.

        

SUBCHAPTER XIV—INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION IN INSULAR AREAS

3361.
Definition.
3362.
Distance education grants for insular areas.
3363.
Resident instruction grants for insular areas.

        

SUBCHAPTER XV—GENERAL PROVISIONS

3371.
Repealed.

        

SUBCHAPTER I—FINDINGS, PURPOSES, AND DEFINITIONS

§3101. Purposes of agricultural research, extension, and education

The purposes of federally supported agricultural research, extension, and education are to—

(1) enhance the competitiveness of the United States agriculture and food industry in an increasingly competitive world environment;

(2) increase the long-term productivity of the United States agriculture and food industry while maintaining and enhancing the natural resource base on which rural America and the United States agricultural economy depend;

(3) develop new uses and new products for agricultural commodities, such as alternative fuels, and develop new crops;

(4) support agricultural research and extension to promote economic opportunity in rural communities and to meet the increasing demand for information and technology transfer throughout the United States agriculture industry;

(5) improve risk management in the United States agriculture industry;

(6) improve the safe production and processing of, and adding of value to, United States food and fiber resources using methods that maintain the balance between yield and environmental soundness;

(7) support higher education in agriculture to give the next generation of Americans the knowledge, technology, and applications necessary to enhance the competitiveness of United States agriculture;

(8) maintain an adequate, nutritious, and safe supply of food to meet human nutritional needs and requirements; and

(9) support international collaboration that leverages resources and advances priority food and agricultural interests of the United States, such as—

(A) addressing emerging plant and animal diseases;

(B) improving crop varieties and animal breeds; and

(C) developing safe, efficient, and nutritious food systems.

(Pub. L. 95–113, title XIV, §1402, as added Pub. L. 101–624, title XVI, §1602(a), Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 3705; amended Pub. L. 104–127, title VIII, §801, Apr. 4, 1996, 110 Stat. 1156; Pub. L. 115–334, title VII, §7101, Dec. 20, 2018, 132 Stat. 4779.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 3101, Pub. L. 95–113, title XIV, §1402, Sept. 29, 1977, 91 Stat. 981; Pub. L. 97–98, title XIV, §1402, Dec. 22, 1981, 95 Stat. 1294; Pub. L. 99–198, title XIV, §1402, Dec. 23, 1985, 99 Stat. 1542, stated Congressional findings, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 101–624, title XVI, §1601(f)(1)(A), Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 3704.

Amendments

2018—Par. (9). Pub. L. 115–334 added par. (9).

1996Pub. L. 104–127 amended section generally, substituting present provisions for provisions which set out six purposes of federally funded agricultural research and extension programs.

Short Title of 2004 Amendment

Pub. L. 108–465, §1, Dec. 21, 2004, 118 Stat. 3882, provided that: "This Act [enacting sections 3123a, 7712a, and 8321 of this title, amending section 5925 of this title, and enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 1621 and 5925 of this title] may be cited as the 'Specialty Crops Competitiveness Act of 2004'."

Short Title of 2003 Amendment

Pub. L. 108–161, §1, Dec. 6, 2003, 117 Stat. 2014, provided that: "This Act [enacting section 3151a of this title] may be cited as the 'National Veterinary Medical Service Act'."

Short Title of 1985 Amendment

Pub. L. 99–198, title XIV, §1401, Dec. 23, 1985, 99 Stat. 1542, provided that: "This title [enacting sections 1632, 3224, 3292, 3319a to 3319d, and 4701 to 4710 of this title, amending this section and sections 178c, 342, 343, 390 to 390d, 390f, 390h, 390i, 390j, 2266, 2662, 2663, 3103, 3121 to 3123, 3124a, 3125, 3151, 3152, 3157, 3194 to 3196, 3221 to 3223, 3291, 3311, 3312, 3318, 3319, 3322, 3324, 3335, and 3336 of this title, repealing sections 390e, 390g, 3174, 3177, 3301 to 3304, and 3323 of this title, enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 343, 390, 390c, 3157, 3173, 3292, 3311, 3312, and 4701 of this title, amending provisions set out as a note under section 3222 of this title, and repealing provisions set out as a note under section 2281 of this title] may be cited as the 'National Agricultural Research, Extension, and Teaching Policy Act Amendments of 1985'."

Short Title of 1981 Amendment

Pub. L. 97–98, title XIV, §1401, Dec. 22, 1981, 95 Stat. 1294, provided that: "This title [enacting sections 2271, 2661 to 2667, 3124a, 3223, 3317 to 3319, 3321 to 3324, and 3331 to 3336 of this title, amending this section and sections 322, 361c, 390c, 3102, 3103, 3121 to 3124, 3125 to 3128, 3151 to 3154, 3157, 3175, 3177, 3191, 3192, 3194 to 3196, 3221, 3222, 3263, 3282, 3291, 3311, and 3312 of this title, section 5315 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees, sections 582a, 582a–1, and 582a–3 to 582a–5 of Title 16, Conservation, section 483 of former Title 40, Public Buildings, Property, and Works, and sections 6651 and 8852 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, repealing sections 2670 and 3176 of this title, omitting section 2668 of this title, and enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 2281 and 3176 of this title] may be cited as the 'National Agricultural Research, Extension, and Teaching Policy Act Amendments of 1981'."

Short Title of 1935 Amendment

Act June 29, 1935, ch. 338, 49 Stat. 436 (see Tables for classification), is popularly known as the "Agricultural Research Act" and also as the "Bankhead-Jones Act".

Short Title

Pub. L. 95–113, title XIV, §1401, Sept. 29, 1977, 91 Stat. 981, provided that: "This title [enacting this chapter and sections 2669 and 2670 of this title, amending sections 341, 342, 343, 361c, 390 to 390j, 1923, 1942, 2662, 2663, 2667, 3104, and 3157 of this title and section 6651 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, and repealing section 390k of this title] may be cited as the 'National Agricultural Research, Extension, and Teaching Policy Act of 1977'."

Review of Agricultural Research Service

Pub. L. 107–171, title VII, §7404, May 13, 2002, 116 Stat. 457, as amended by Pub. L. 108–11, title II, §2101(b), Apr. 16, 2003, 117 Stat. 589; Pub. L. 110–234, title VII, §7511(c)(7), May 22, 2008, 122 Stat. 1267; Pub. L. 110–246, §4(a), title VII, §7511(c)(7), June 18, 2008, 122 Stat. 1664, 2029, which provided for the establishment of a task force to review the Agricultural Research Service and to evaluate the merits of establishing one or more National Institutes related to food and agricultural science, was repealed by Pub. L. 115–334, title VII, §7506, Dec. 20, 2018, 132 Stat. 4823.

§3102. Additional purposes of agricultural research and extension

The purposes of this chapter are to—

(1) establish firmly the Department of Agriculture as the lead agency in the Federal Government for the food and agricultural sciences, and to emphasize that agricultural research, extension, and teaching are distinct missions of the Department of Agriculture;

(2) undertake the special measures set forth in this chapter to improve the coordination and planning of agricultural research, extension, and teaching programs, identify needs and establish priorities for these programs, assure that national agricultural research, extension, and teaching objectives are fully achieved, and assure that the results of agricultural research are effectively communicated and demonstrated to farmers, processors, handlers, consumers, and all other users who can benefit therefrom;

(3) increase cooperation and coordination in the performance of agricultural research by Federal departments and agencies, the States, State agricultural experiment stations, colleges and universities, and user groups;

(4) enable the Federal Government, the States, colleges and universities, and others to implement needed agricultural research, extension, and teaching programs, through the establishment of new programs and the improvement of existing programs, as provided for in this chapter;

(5) establish a new program of grants for high-priority agricultural research to be awarded on the basis of competition among research workers and all colleges and universities;

(6) establish a new program of grants for facilities and instrumentation used in agricultural research; and

(7) establish a new program of education grants and fellowships to strengthen research, extension, and teaching programs in the food and agricultural sciences, to be awarded on the basis of competition.

(Pub. L. 95–113, title XIV, §1403, Sept. 29, 1977, 91 Stat. 983; Pub. L. 97–98, title XIV, §1403, Dec. 22, 1981, 95 Stat. 1296; Pub. L. 101–624, title XVI, §1602(b), Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 3705.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in text, was in the original this "title", meaning title XIV of Pub. L. 95–113, Sept. 29, 1977, 91 Stat. 981, as amended, which enacted this chapter and sections 2669 and 2670 of this title, amended sections 341, 342, 343, 361c, 390 to 390j, 1923, 1942, 2662, 2663, 2667, 3104, and 3157 of this title and section 6651 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, and repealed section 390k of this title. For complete classification of such title to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 3101 of this title and Tables.

Amendments

1990Pub. L. 101–624 amended section catchline generally.

1981—Par. (2). Pub. L. 97–98, §1403(1), inserted "extension, and teaching programs," and substituted "these programs" for "such research, assure that high priority research is given adequate funding".

Par. (4). Pub. L. 97–98, §1403(2), substituted "programs through" for "programs, including the initiatives specified in section 3101(8) of this title, through".

Par. (5). Pub. L. 97–98, §1403(3), substituted "among research workers" for "among scientific research workers".

Par. (7). Pub. L. 97–98, §1403(4), substituted "research, extension, and teaching" for "training and research".

Effective Date of 1981 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 97–98 effective Dec. 22, 1981, see section 1801 of Pub. L. 97–98, set out as an Effective Date note under section 4301 of this title.

Effective Date

Section effective Oct. 1, 1977, see section 1901 of Pub. L. 95–113, set out as an Effective Date of 1977 Amendment note under section 1307 of this title.

§3103. Definitions

When used in this chapter:

(1) The term "Advisory Board" means the National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board.

(2) The term "agricultural research" means research in the food and agricultural sciences.

(3) The term "aquaculture" means the propagation and rearing of aquacultural species, including, but not limited to, any species of finfish, mollusk, or crustacean (or other aquatic invertebrate), amphibian, reptile, ornamental fish, or aquatic plant, in controlled or selected environments.

(4) College and university.—

(A) In general.—The terms "college" and "university" mean an educational institution in any State which (i) admits as regular students only persons having a certificate of graduation from a school providing secondary education, or the recognized equivalent of such a certificate, (ii) is legally authorized within such State to provide a program of education beyond secondary education, (iii) provides an educational program for which a bachelor's degree or any other higher degree is awarded, (iv) is a public or other nonprofit institution, and (v) is accredited by a nationally recognized accrediting agency or association.

(B) Inclusions.—The terms "college" and "university" include a research foundation maintained by a college or university described in subparagraph (A).


(5) Cooperating forestry school.—

(A) In general.—The term "cooperating forestry school" means an institution—

(i) that is eligible to receive funds under Public Law 87–788 (commonly known as the McIntire-Stennis Cooperative Forestry Act; 16 U.S.C. 582a et seq.); and

(ii) with respect to which the Secretary has not received a declaration of the intent of that institution to not be considered a cooperating forestry school.


(B) Termination of declaration.—A declaration of the intent of an institution to not be considered a cooperating forestry school submitted to the Secretary shall be in effect until September 30, 2018.


(6) The term "cooperative extension services" means the organizations established at the land-grant colleges and universities under the Smith-Lever Act of May 8, 1914 (38 Stat. 372–374, as amended; 7 U.S.C. 341–349), and section 209(b) of the Act of October 26, 1974 (88 Stat. 1428, as amended; D.C. Code, sec. 31–1719(b)).

(7) The term "Department of Agriculture" means the United States Department of Agriculture.

(8) The term "extension" means the informal education programs conducted in the States in cooperation with the Department of Agriculture.

(9) Food and agricultural sciences.—The term "food and agricultural sciences" means basic, applied, and developmental research, extension, and teaching activities in food and fiber, agricultural, renewable energy and natural resources, forestry, and physical and social sciences, including activities relating to the following:

(A) Animal health, production, and well-being.

(B) Plant health and production.

(C) Animal and plant germ plasm collection and preservation.

(D) Aquaculture.

(E) Food safety.

(F) Soil, water, and related resource conservation and improvement.

(G) Forestry, horticulture, and range management.

(H) Nutritional sciences and promotion.

(I) Farm enhancement, including financial management, input efficiency, and profitability.

(J) Home economics.

(K) Rural human ecology.

(L) Youth development and agricultural education, including 4–H clubs.

(M) Expansion of domestic and international markets for agricultural commodities and products, including agricultural trade barrier identification and analysis.

(N) Information management and technology transfer related to agriculture.

(O) Biotechnology related to agriculture.

(P) The processing, distributing, marketing, and utilization of food and agricultural products.


(10) Hispanic-serving agricultural colleges and universities.—

(A) In general.—The term "Hispanic-serving agricultural colleges and universities" means colleges or universities—

(i) that qualify as Hispanic-serving institutions;

(ii) that offer associate, bachelors, or other accredited degree programs in agriculture-related fields; and

(iii) with respect to which the Secretary has not received a declaration of the intent of a college or university to not be considered a Hispanic-serving agricultural college or university.


(B) Exception.—The term "Hispanic-serving agricultural colleges and universities" does not include 1862 institutions (as defined in section 7601 of this title).

(C) Termination of declaration of intent.—A declaration of the intent of a college or university to not be considered a Hispanic-serving agricultural college or university submitted to the Secretary shall be in effect until September 30, 2018.


(11) Hispanic-serving institution.—The term "Hispanic-serving institution" has the meaning given the term in section 1101a of title 20.

(12) Insular area.—The term "insular area" means—

(A) the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico;

(B) Guam;

(C) American Samoa;

(D) the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands;

(E) the Federated States of Micronesia;

(F) the Republic of the Marshall Islands;

(G) the Republic of Palau; and

(H) the Virgin Islands of the United States.


(13) The term "land-grant colleges and universities" means those institutions eligible to receive funds under the Act of July 2, 1862 (12 Stat. 503–505, as amended; 7 U.S.C. 301–305, 307 and 308), or the Act of August 30, 1890 (26 Stat. 417–419, as amended; 7 U.S.C. 321–326 and 328), including Tuskegee University.

(14) NLGCA institution; non-land-grant college of agriculture.—

(A) In general.—

(i) Definition.—The terms "NLGCA Institution" and "non-land-grant college of agriculture" mean a public college or university offering a baccalaureate or higher degree in the study of agricultural sciences, forestry, or both in any area of study specified in clause (ii).

(ii) Clarification.—For purposes of clause (i), an area of study specified in this clause is any of the following:

(I) Agriculture.

(II) Agricultural business and management.

(III) Agricultural economics.

(IV) Agricultural mechanization.

(V) Agricultural production operations.

(VI) Aquaculture.

(VII) Agricultural and food products processing.

(VIII) Agricultural and domestic animal services.

(IX) Equestrian or equine studies.

(X) Applied horticulture or horticulture operations.

(XI) Ornamental horticulture.

(XII) Greenhouse operations and management.

(XIII) Turf and turfgrass management.

(XIV) Plant nursery operations and management.

(XV) Floriculture or floristry operations and management.

(XVI) International agriculture.

(XVII) Agricultural public services.

(XVIII) Agricultural and extension education services.

(XIX) Agricultural communication or agricultural journalism.

(XX) Animal sciences.

(XXI) Food science.

(XXII) Plant sciences.

(XXIII) Soil sciences.

(XXIV) Forestry.

(XXV) Forest sciences and biology.

(XXVI) Natural resources or conservation.

(XXVII) Natural resources management and policy.

(XXVIII) Natural resource economics.

(XXIX) Urban forestry.

(XXX) Wood science and wood products or pulp or paper technology.

(XXXI) Range science and management.

(XXXII) Agricultural engineering.

(XXXIII) Any other area, as determined appropriate by the Secretary.


(B) Designation.—Not later than 90 days after Feb. 7, 2014, the Secretary shall establish an ongoing process through which public colleges or universities may apply for designation as an NLGCA Institution.

(C) Exclusions.—The terms "NLGCA Institution" and "non-land-grant college of agriculture" do not include any institution designated under—

(i) the Act of July 2, 1862 (commonly known as the "First Morrill Act"; 7 U.S.C. 301 et seq.);

(ii) the Act of August 30, 1890 (commonly known as the "Second Morrill Act") (7 U.S.C. 321 et seq.); or

(iii) the Equity in Educational Land-Grant Status Act of 1994 (Public Law 103–382; 7 U.S.C. 301 note).


(15) The term "Secretary" means the Secretary of Agriculture of the United States.

(16) State.—The term "State" means—

(A) a State;

(B) the District of Columbia; and

(C) any insular area.


(17) The term "State agricultural experiment stations" means those institutions eligible to receive funds under the Act of March 2, 1887 (24 Stat. 440–442, as amended; 7 U.S.C. 361a–361i).

(18) The term "State cooperative institutions" or "State cooperative agents" means institutions or agents designated by—

(A) the Act of July 2, 1862 (7 U.S.C. 301 et seq.), commonly known as the First Morrill Act;

(B) the Act of August 30, 1890 (7 U.S.C. 321 et seq.), commonly known as the Second Morrill Act, including Tuskegee University;

(C) the Act of March 2, 1887 (7 U.S.C. 361a et seq.), commonly known as the Hatch Act of 1887;

(D) the Act of May 8, 1914 (7 U.S.C. 341 et seq.), commonly known as the Smith-Lever Act;

(E) the Act of October 10, 1962 (16 U.S.C. 582a et seq.), commonly known as the McIntire-Stennis Act of 1962;

(F) section 3192 of this title; and

(G) subchapters VI, XI, and XII of this chapter.


(19) The term "sustainable agriculture" means an integrated system of plant and animal production practices having a site-specific application that will, over the long-term—

(A) satisfy human food and fiber needs;

(B) enhance environmental quality and the natural resource base upon which the agriculture economy depends;

(C) make the most efficient use of nonrenewable resources and on-farm resources and integrate, where appropriate, natural biological cycles and controls;

(D) sustain the economic viability of farm operations; and

(E) enhance the quality of life for farmers and society as a whole.


(20) Teaching and education.—The terms "teaching" and "education" mean formal classroom instruction, laboratory instruction, and practicum experience in the food and agricultural sciences and matters relating thereto (such as faculty development, student recruitment and services, curriculum development, instructional materials and equipment, and innovative teaching methodologies) conducted by colleges and universities offering baccalaureate or higher degrees.

(Pub. L. 95–113, title XIV, §1404, Sept. 29, 1977, 91 Stat. 983; Pub. L. 97–98, title XIV, §1404, Dec. 22, 1981, 95 Stat. 1297; Pub. L. 99–198, title XIV, §1403, Dec. 23, 1985, 99 Stat. 1544; Pub. L. 101–624, title XVI, §1603, Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 3705; Pub. L. 102–237, title IV, §402(3), Dec. 13, 1991, 105 Stat. 1863; Pub. L. 104–127, title VIII, §§802(b)(1), 815(b), 820(a), 853(b)(1), Apr. 4, 1996, 110 Stat. 1159, 1167, 1168, 1172; Pub. L. 105–185, title II, §§221, 226(c)(1), June 23, 1998, 112 Stat. 537, 543; Pub. L. 107–171, title VII, §7502(a), May 13, 2002, 116 Stat. 463; Pub. L. 110–234, title VII, §7101(a), May 22, 2008, 122 Stat. 1212; Pub. L. 110–246, §4(a), title VII, §7101(a), June 18, 2008, 122 Stat. 1664, 1973; Pub. L. 113–79, title VII, §§7101, 7111(b)(1), Feb. 7, 2014, 128 Stat. 862, 873; Pub. L. 115–334, title VII, §7102(a), Dec. 20, 2018, 132 Stat. 4779.)

References in Text

For definition of "this chapter", referred to in text, see note set out under section 3102 of this title.

Public Law 87–788 or Act of October 10, 1962, referred to in pars. (5)(A)(i) and (18)(E), is Pub. L. 87–788, Oct. 10, 1962, 76 Stat. 806, popularly known as the "McIntire-Stennis Act of 1962" and also as the "McIntire-Stennis Cooperative Forestry Act", which is classified generally to subchapter III (§582a et seq.) of chapter 3 of Title 16, Conservation. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 582a of Title 16 and Tables.

The Smith-Lever Act of May 8, 1914, referred to in pars. (6) and (18)(D), is act May 8, 1914, ch. 79, 38 Stat. 372, which is classified generally to subchapter IV (§341 et seq.) of chapter 13 of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 341 of this title and Tables.

Act of July 2, 1862, 12 Stat. 503, referred to in pars. (13), (14)(C)(ii)(I), and (18)(A), is popularly known as the "Morrill Act" and also as the "First Morrill Act", which is classified generally to subchapter I (§301 et seq.) of chapter 13 of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 301 of this title and Tables.

Act of August 30, 1890, 26 Stat. 417, referred to in pars. (13), (14)(C)(ii)(II), and (18)(B), is popularly known as the "Agricultural College Act of 1890" and also as the "Second Morrill Act", which is classified generally to subchapter II (§321 et seq.) of chapter 13 of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 321 of this title and Tables.

The Equity in Educational Land-Grant Status Act of 1994, referred to in par. (14)(C)(ii)(III), is Pub. L. 103–382, title V, part C, Oct. 20, 1994, 108 Stat. 4048, which is set out as a note under section 301 of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Tables.

Act of March 2, 1887, referred to in pars. (17) and (18)(C), is act Mar. 2, 1887, ch. 314, 24 Stat. 440, popularly known as the Hatch Act of 1887, which is classified generally to sections 361a to 361i of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 361a of this title and Tables.

Codification

Pub. L. 110–234 and Pub. L. 110–246 made identical amendments to this section. The amendments by Pub. L. 110–234 were repealed by section 4(a) of Pub. L. 110–246.

Amendments

2018—Par. (14)(A). Pub. L. 115–334, §7102(a)(1), amended subpar. (A) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "The terms 'NLGCA Institution' and 'non-land-grant college of agriculture' mean a public college or university offering a baccalaureate or higher degree in the study of food and agricultural sciences."

Par. (14)(C). Pub. L. 115–334, §7102(a)(2), inserted "any institution designated under" after "include" in introductory provisions, redesignated subcls. (I) to (III) of cl. (ii) as cls. (i) to (iii), respectively, and struck out former cl. (i), which read "Hispanic-serving agricultural colleges and universities; or", introductory provisions of former cl. (ii) which read "any institution designated under—", and subcl. (IV) of former cl. (ii) which read "Public Law 87–788 (commonly known as the 'McIntire-Stennis Cooperative Forestry Act') (16 U.S.C. 582a et seq.)."

2014—Par. (5). Pub. L. 113–79, §7101(1), added par. (5) and struck out former par. (5) which read as follows: "The term 'cooperating forestry schools' means those institutions eligible to receive funds under the Act of October 10, 1962 (16 U.S.C. 582a et seq.), commonly known as the McIntire-Stennis Act of 1962."

Par. (10)(A). Pub. L. 113–79, §7101(2)(A), struck out "that" after "colleges or universities" in introductory provisions, inserted "that" before "qualify" in cl. (i) and before "offer" in cl. (ii), and added cl. (iii).

Par. (10)(C). Pub. L. 113–79, §7101(2)(B), added subpar. (C).

Par. (14)(A). Pub. L. 113–79, §7101(3)(A), substituted "food and agricultural sciences" for "agriculture or forestry".

Par. (14)(B), (C). Pub. L. 113–79, §7101(3)(B), (C), added subpar. (B) and redesignated former subpar. (B) as (C).

Par. (18)(F). Pub. L. 113–79, §7111(b)(1)(A), (D), added subpar. (F). Former subpar. (F) redesignated (G).

Pub. L. 113–79, §7111(b)(1)(B), substituted "subchapters VI," for "subchapters V, VI,".

Par. (18)(G). Pub. L. 113–79, §7111(b)(1)(C), redesignated subpar. (F) as (G).

2008—Par. (4). Pub. L. 110–246, §7101(a)(1), inserted par. heading, designated existing provisions as subpar. (A), inserted subpar. heading, redesignated former subpars. (A) to (E) as cls. (i) to (v), respectively, of subpar. (A), and added subpar. (B).

Pars. (5) to (8). Pub. L. 110–246, §7101(a)(2), designated pars. (16) and (5) to (7) as (5) to (8), respectively. Former par. (8) redesignated (9).

Par. (9). Pub. L. 110–246, §7101(a)(2), (3), redesignated par. (8) as (9), substituted "renewable energy and natural resources" for "renewable natural resources" in introductory provisions, added subpar. (F), and struck out former subpar. (F) which read as follows: "Soil and water conservation and improvement." Former par. (9) redesignated (11).

Par. (10). Pub. L. 110–246, §7101(a)(4), added par. (10). Former par. (10) redesignated (12).

Par. (11). Pub. L. 110–246, §7101(a)(5), added par. (11) and struck out former par. (11) which read as follows: "The term 'Hispanic-serving institution' has the meaning given the term by section 1059c(b)(1) of title 20."

Pub. L. 110–246, §7101(a)(2), redesignated par. (9) as (11). Former par. (11) redesignated (13).

Pars. (12), (13). Pub. L. 110–246, §7101(a)(2), redesignated pars. (10) and (11) as (12) and (13), respectively. Former pars. (12) and (13) redesignated (15) and (16), respectively.

Par. (14). Pub. L. 110–246, §7101(a)(6), added par. (14). Former par. (14) redesignated (17).

Pars. (15) to (20). Pub. L. 110–246, §7101(a)(2), redesignated pars. (12) to (14), (17), (18), and (15) as (15) to (20), respectively. Former par. (16) redesignated (5).

2002—Pars. (10) to (12). Pub. L. 107–171, §7502(a)(1), (2), redesignated pars. (10) and (11) as (11) and (12), respectively, and added par. (10). Former par. (12) redesignated (13).

Par. (13). Pub. L. 107–171, §7502(a)(3), added par. (13) and struck out former par. (13) which read as follows: "The term 'State' means any one of the fifty States, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, Guam, American Samoa, the Commonwealth of the Northern Marianas, the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, the Virgin Islands of the United States, and the District of Columbia."

Pub. L. 107–171, §7502(a)(1), redesignated par. (12) as (13). Former par. (13) redesignated (14).

Pars. (14) to (18). Pub. L. 107–171, §7502(a)(1), redesignated pars. (13) to (17) as (14) to (18), respectively.

1998Pub. L. 105–185, §221(c)(1), substituted "chapter:" for "chapter—" in introductory provisions.

Pars. (1) to (3). Pub. L. 105–185, §221(c)(2), (5), substituted "The term" for "the term" and period for semicolon at end.

Par. (4). Pub. L. 105–185, §221(c)(3), (5), substituted "The terms" for "the terms" and period for semicolon at end.

Pars. (5) to (7). Pub. L. 105–185, §221(c)(2), (5), substituted "The term" for "the term" and period for semicolon at end.

Par. (8). Pub. L. 105–185, §221(a), added par. (8) and struck out former par. (8) which defined term "food and agricultural sciences" in broadest sense of terms, including but not limited to activities relating to agriculture, food processing, forestry, acquaculture, home economics, rural community welfare, youth development, market expansion, improvement of productivity, and international food and agricultural issues.

Par. (9). Pub. L. 105–185, §221(c)(4), (5), substituted "The term" for "the term" after "(9)" and substituted period for semicolon at end.

Par. (10). Pub. L. 105–185, §§221(c)(2), (5), 226(c)(1), substituted "The term" for "the term", "Tuskegee University" for "the Tuskegee Institute", and period for semicolon at end.

Pars. (11) to (13). Pub. L. 105–185, §221(c)(2), (5), substituted "The term" for "the term" and period for semicolon at end.

Par. (14). Pub. L. 105–185, §221(b), (c)(5), inserted par. heading, substituted "The terms 'teaching' and 'education' mean" for "the term 'teaching' means", and substituted period for semicolon at end.

Par. (15). Pub. L. 105–185, §221(c)(2), (5), substituted "The term" for "the term" and period for semicolon at end.

Par. (16). Pub. L. 105–185, §221(c)(2), substituted "The term" for "the term" in introductory provisions.

Par. (16)(B). Pub. L. 105–185, §226(c)(1), substituted "Tuskegee University" for "the Tuskegee Institute".

Par. (16)(F). Pub. L. 105–185, §221(c)(6), substituted period for "; and" at end.

Par. (17). Pub. L. 105–185, §221(c)(2), substituted "The term" for "the term".

1996—Par. (1). Pub. L. 104–127, §802(b)(1), substituted "National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board" for "National Agricultural Research and Extension Users Advisory Board".

Par. (3). Pub. L. 104–127, §820(a), inserted "ornamental fish," after "reptile,".

Par. (9). Pub. L. 104–127, §815(b), amended par. (9) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (9) read as follows: "the term 'Joint Council' means the Joint Council on Food and Agricultural Sciences;".

Pars. (16) to (18). Pub. L. 104–127, §853(b)(1), inserted "and" at end of par. (16), substituted a period for "; and" at end of par. (17), and struck out par. (18) which read as follows: "the term 'Technology Board' means the Agricultural Science and Technology Review Board established in section 3123a of this title."

1991—Par. (18). Pub. L. 102–237 inserted "and" after "Science".

1990—Par. (16)(F). Pub. L. 101–624, §1603(2), inserted reference to subchapter VI of this chapter.

Pars. (17), (18). Pub. L. 101–624, §1603(1), (3), added pars. (17) and (18).

1985—Par. (8)(J). Pub. L. 99–198 added subpar. (J).

1981—Par. (8). Pub. L. 97–98, §1404(1), substituted in provision preceding subpar. (A) "basic, applied, and developmental research, extension, and teaching activities in the food, agricultural, renewable natural resources, forestry, and physical and social sciences, in the broadest sense of these terms, including but not limited to, activities relating to" for "sciences relating to food and agriculture in the broadest sense, including the social, economic, and political considerations of", in subpar. (E) "including consumer affairs, food and nutrition, clothing and textiles, housing, and family well-being and financial management;" for "human nutrition, and family life; and", and in subpar. (F) "community welfare and development" for "and community development", and added subpars. (G) to (I).

Par. (12). Pub. L. 97–98, §1404(2), struck out "except as provided in subchapter VII of this chapter," before "the term" and included within term "State" American Samoa, the Commonwealth of the Northern Marianas, and the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands.

Par. (14). Pub. L. 97–98, §1404(4), struck out reference to laboratory training, inserted reference to practicum experience and matters relating to formal classroom instruction, laboratory instruction, and practicum experience, and substituted provision that the teaching be conducted at colleges or universities offering baccalaureate or higher degrees for provision that the teaching be conducted at colleges and universities leading to a baccalaureate and other recognized degrees.

Pars. (15), (16). Pub. L. 97–98, §1404(5), added pars. (15) and (16).

Effective Date of 2008 Amendment

Amendment of this section and repeal of Pub. L. 110–234 by Pub. L. 110–246 effective May 22, 2008, the date of enactment of Pub. L. 110–234, see section 4 of Pub. L. 110–246, set out as an Effective Date note under section 8701 of this title.

Effective Date of 1981 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 97–98 effective Dec. 22, 1981, see section 1801 of Pub. L. 97–98, set out as an Effective Date note under section 4301 of this title.

Effective Date

Section effective Oct. 1, 1977, see section 1901 of Pub. L. 95–113, set out as an Effective Date of 1977 Amendment note under section 1307 of this title.

Termination of Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands

For termination of Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, see note set out preceding section 1681 of Title 48, Territories and Insular Possessions.

Construction of 2002 Amendment

Pub. L. 107–171, title VII, §7502(b), May 13, 2002, 116 Stat. 463, provided that: "The amendments made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall not affect any basis for distribution of funds by formula (in effect on the date of enactment of this Act [May 13, 2002]) to—

"(1) the Federated States of Micronesia;

"(2) the Republic of the Marshall Islands; or

"(3) the Republic of Palau."

Designation Review

Pub. L. 115–334, title VII, §7102(b), Dec. 20, 2018, 132 Stat. 4781, provided that:

"(1) In general.—Not later than 90 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 20, 2018], the Secretary [of Agriculture] shall establish a process to review each designated NLGCA Institution (as defined in section 1404(14)(A) of the National Agricultural Research, Extension, and Teaching Policy Act of 1977 (7 U.S.C. 3103(14)(A))) to ensure compliance with such section, as amended by this subsection [probably means "as amended by this section"].

"(2) Revocation.—An NLGCA Institution that the Secretary determines under subparagraph (A) to be not in compliance shall have the designation of such institution revoked."

§3104. Agriculture research; declaration of policy; duties of Secretary of Agriculture; use of existing facilities

It is declared to be the policy of the Congress to promote the efficient production and utilization of products of the soil as essential to the health and welfare of our people and to promote a sound and prosperous agriculture and rural life as indispensable to the maintenance of maximum employment and national prosperity. It is also the intent of Congress to assure agriculture a position in research equal to that of industry which will aid in maintaining an equitable balance between agriculture and other sections of our economy. For the attainment of these objectives, the Secretary of Agriculture is authorized and directed to conduct and to stimulate research into the laws and principles underlying the basic problems of agriculture in its broadest aspects, including but not limited to: Research relating to the improvement of the quality of, and the development of new and improved methods of the production, marketing, distribution, processing, and utilization of plant and animal commodities at all stages from the original producer through to the ultimate consumer; research into the problems of human nutrition and the nutritive value of agricultural commodities, with particular reference to their content of vitamins, minerals, amino and fatty acids, and all other constituents that may be found necessary for the health of the consumer and to the gains or losses in nutritive value that may take place at any stage in their production, distribution, processing, and preparation for use by the consumer; research relating to the development of present, new, and extended uses and markets for agricultural commodities and byproducts as food or in commerce, manufacture, or trade, both at home and abroad, with particular reference to those foods and fibers for which our capacity to produce exceeds or may exceed existing economic demand; research to encourage the discovery, introduction, and breeding of new and useful agricultural crops, plants, and animals, both foreign and native, particularly for those crops and plants which may be adapted to utilization in chemical and manufacturing industries; research relating to new and more profitable uses for our resources of agricultural manpower, soils, plants, animals, and equipment than those to which they are now, or may hereafter be, devoted; research relating to the conservation, development, and use of land, forest, and water resources for agricultural purposes; research relating to the design, development, and the more efficient and satisfactory use of farm buildings, farm homes, farm machinery, including the application of electricity and other forms of power; research and development relating to uses of solar energy with respect to farm buildings, farm homes, and farm machinery (including equipment used to dry and cure crops and provide irrigation); applied research to develop agricultural, forestry, and rural energy conservation and biomass energy production and use; research relating to the diversification of farm enterprises, both as to the type of commodities produced, and as to the types of operations performed, on the individual farm; research relating to any other laws and principles that may contribute to the establishment and maintenance of a permanent and effective agricultural industry including such investigations as have for their purpose the development and improvement of the rural home and rural life, and the maximum contribution by agriculture to the welfare of the consumer and the maintenance of maximum employment and national prosperity; and such other researches or experiments bearing on the agricultural industry or on rural homes of the United States as may in each case be deemd 1 advisable, having due regard to the varying conditions and needs of Puerto Rico, the respective States, and Territories. In effectuating the purposes of this section, maximum use shall be made of existing research facilities owned or controlled by the Federal Government or by State agricultural experiment stations and of the facilities of the Federal and State extension services. Research authorized under this section shall be in addition to research provided for under existing law (but both activities shall be coordinated so far as practicable). For purposes of this title,2 the term "solar energy" means energy derived from sources (other than fossil fuels) and technologies included in the Federal Non-Nuclear 3 Energy Research and Development Act of 1974, as amended [42 U.S.C. 5901 et seq.].

(June 29, 1935, ch. 338, title I, §1, 49 Stat. 436; Aug. 14, 1946, ch. 966, title I, §101(1), 60 Stat. 1082; Pub. L. 95–113, title XIV, §1446, Sept. 29, 1977, 91 Stat. 1011; Pub. L. 96–294, title II, §253, June 30, 1980, 94 Stat. 707.)

References in Text

This title, referred to in text, means title I of act June 29, 1935, ch. 338, 49 Stat. 436. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title of 1935 Amendment note set out under section 3101 of this title and Tables.

The Federal Nonnuclear Energy Research and Development Act of 1974, as amended, referred to in text, is Pub. L. 93–577, Dec. 31, 1974, 88 Stat. 1878, as amended, which is classified generally to chapter 74 (§5901 et seq.) of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 5901 of Title 42 and Tables.

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 427 of this title prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

Section was enacted as part of act June 29, 1935, ch. 338, popularly known as the "Agricultural Research Act" and also as the "Bankhead-Jones Act", and not as part of the National Agricultural Research, Extension, and Teaching Policy Act of 1977 which comprises this chapter.

Another section 1446 of Pub. L. 95–113 is classified to section 3222a of this title.

Amendments

1980Pub. L. 96–294 inserted provisions relating to applied research to develop agricultural, forestry, and rural energy conservation and biomass energy production and use.

1977Pub. L. 95–113 inserted reference to research and development relating to uses of solar energy with respect to farm buildings, farm homes, and farm machinery (including equipment used to dry and cure crops and provide irrigation) and inserted definition of "solar energy".

1946—Act Aug. 14, 1946, amended section generally to provide for a greatly augmented research program in order to enable agriculture to attain a position in research comparable to that of other industries.

Effective Date of 1977 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–113 effective Oct. 1, 1977, see section 1901 of Pub. L. 95–113, set out as a note under section 1307 of this title.

Transfer of Functions

Functions of all officers, agencies, and employees of Department of Agriculture transferred, with certain exceptions, to Secretary of Agriculture by 1953 Reorg. Plan No. 2, §1, eff. June 4, 1953, 18 F.R. 3219, 67 Stat. 633, set out as a note under section 2201 of this title.

Ex. Ord. No. 9310. Transferring Nutrition Functions of Office of Defense Health and Welfare Services to Department of Agriculture

Ex. Ord. No. 9310, Mar. 6, 1943, 8 F.R. 2913, provided:

By virtue of the authority vested in me by Title I of the First War Powers Act, 1941 [former sections 601 to 605 of the former Appendix to Title 50], as President of the United States, and in order to enable the Secretary of Agriculture more effectively to carry out his responsibilities with respect to the Nation's food program, it is hereby ordered:

1. The functions, powers, and duties, with respect to nutrition, (a) of the Office of Defense Health and Welfare Services in the Office for Emergency Management of the Executive Office of the President (including all functions, powers, and duties of the Nutrition Division of the Office of Defense Health and Welfare Services), and (b) of the Director of the Office of Defense Health and Welfare Services, are transferred to the Department of Agriculture and shall be administered under the supervision and direction of the Secretary of Agriculture through such agency or agencies in the Department as the Secretary shall designate.

2. The personnel, property, and records used primarily in the administration of the functions, powers, and duties transferred by this Order are transferred to the Department of Agriculture. So much of the unexpended balances of appropriations, allocations, and other funds available for the use of the Office of Defense Health and Welfare Services in discharging the functions, powers, and duties transferred by this Order, as the Director of the Bureau of the Budget shall determine, shall be transferred to the Department of Agriculture for use in connection with the exercise of the functions, powers, and duties so transferred. In determining the amounts to be transferred hereunder, allowance shall be made for the liquidation of obligations previously incurred against such appropriations, allocations, or other funds.

Franklin D. Roosevelt.      

1 So in original. Probably should be "deemed".

2 See References in Text note below.

3 So in original. Probably should be "Nonnuclear".

§3105. Agricultural research; authorization of additional appropriations; administrative expenses; availability of special research fund

(a) In order to carry out further research on utilization and associated problems in connection with the development and application of present, new, and extended uses of agricultural commodities and products thereof authorized by section 3104 of this title, and to disseminate information relative thereto, and in addition to all other appropriations authorized by this title,1 there is authorized to be appropriated the following sums:

(1) $3,000,000 for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1947, and each subsequent fiscal year.

(2) An additional $3,000,000 for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1948, and each subsequent fiscal year.

(3) An additional $3,000,000 for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1949, and each subsequent fiscal year.

(4) An additional $3,000,000 for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1950, and each subsequent fiscal year.

(5) An additional $3,000,000 for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1951, and each subsequent fiscal year.

(6) In addition to the foregoing, such additional funds beginning with the fiscal year ending June 30, 1952, and thereafter, as the Congress may deem necessary.


The Secretary of Agriculture, in accordance with such regulations as he deems necessary, and when in his judgment the work to be performed will be carried out more effectively, more rapidly, or at less cost than if performed by the Department of Agriculture, may enter into contracts with such public or private organizations or individuals as he may find qualified to carry on work under this section without regard to the provisions of section 6101 of title 41, and with respect to such contracts he may make advance progress or other payments without regard to the provisions of section 3324(a) and (b) of title 31. Contracts under this section may be made for work to continue not more than four years from the date of any such contract. Notwithstanding the provisions of section 5 of the Act of June 20, 1874, as amended (31 U.S.C. 713),1 any unexpended balances of appropriations properly obligated by contracting with an organization as provided in this subsection may remain upon the books of the Treasury for not more than five fiscal years before being carried to the surplus fund and covered into the Treasury. Research authorized under this subsection shall be conducted so far as practicable at laboratories of the Department of Agriculture. Projects conducted under contract with public and private agencies shall be supplemental to and coordinated with research of these laboratories. Any contracts made pursuant to this authority shall contain requirements making the results of research and investigations available to the public through dedication, assignment to the Government, or such other means as the Secretary shall determine.

(b) In order to carry out further the purposes of section 3104 of this title, other than research on utilization of agricultural commodities and the products thereof, and in addition to all other appropriations authorized by this title,1 there is authorized to be appropriated for cooperative research with the State agricultural experiment stations and such other appropriate agencies as may be mutually agreeable to the Department of Agriculture and the experiment stations concerned, the following sums:

(1) $1,500,000 for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1947, and each subsequent fiscal year.

(2) An additional $1,500,000 for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1948, and each subsequent fiscal year.

(3) An additional $1,500,000 for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1949, and each subsequent fiscal year.

(4) An additional $1,500,000 for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1950, and each subsequent fiscal year.

(5) In addition to the foregoing such additional funds beginning with the fiscal year ending June 30, 1951, and thereafter, as the Congress may deem necessary.


(c) The Secretary may incur necessary administrative expenses not to exceed 3 per centum of the amount appropriated in any fiscal year in carrying out this section, including the specific objects of expense enumerated in section 427b 1 of this title.

(d) The "Special research fund, Department of Agriculture," provided by section 427c 1 of this title, shall continue to be available solely for research into laws and principles underlying basic problems of agriculture in its broadest aspects; research relating to the improvement of the quality of, and the development of, new and improved methods of production of, distribution of, and new and extended uses and markets for, agricultural commodities and byproducts and manufactures thereof; and research relating to the conservation, development, and use of land and water resources for agricultural purposes. Such research shall be in addition to research provided for under other law (but both activities shall be coordinated so far as practicable) and shall be conducted by such agencies of the Department of Agriculture as the Secretary of Agriculture may designate or establish.

(e) Appropriations for research work in the Department of Agriculture shall be available for accomplishing such purposes by contract through the means provided in subsection (a) of this section.

(June 29, 1935, ch. 338, title I, §10, as added Aug. 14, 1946, ch. 966, title I, §101(2), 60 Stat. 1085; amended July 28, 1954, ch. 591, 68 Stat. 574.)

References in Text

This title, referred to in subsecs. (a) and (b), means title I of act June 29, 1935, ch. 338, 49 Stat. 436. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title of 1935 Amendment note set out under section 3101 of this title and Tables.

Section 5 of the Act of June 20, 1874, as amended (31 U.S.C. 713), referred to in subsec. (a), was repealed by act July 6, 1949, ch. 299, §3, 63 Stat. 407.

Section 427b of this title, referred to in subsec. (c), was repealed by act Aug. 11, 1955, ch. 790, §2, 69 Stat. 674.

Section 427c of this title, referred to in subsec. (d), was repealed by act Aug. 11, 1955, ch. 790, §2, 69 Stat. 674.

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 427i of this title prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

Section was enacted as part of act June 29, 1935, ch. 338, popularly known as the "Agricultural Research Act" and also as the "Bankhead-Jones Act", and not as part of the National Agricultural Research, Extension, and Teaching Policy Act of 1977 which comprises this chapter.

In subsec. (a), "section 6101 of title 41" substituted for "section 3709, Revised Statutes" on authority of Pub. L. 111–350, §6(c), Jan. 4, 2011, 124 Stat. 3854, which Act enacted Title 41, Public Contracts.

In subsec. (a), "section 3324(a) and (b) of title 31" substituted for "section 3648, Revised Statutes [31 U.S.C. 529]" on authority of Pub. L. 97–258, §4(b), Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 1067, the first section of which enacted Title 31, Money and Finance.

Amendments

1954—Subsec. (e). Act July 23, 1954, added subsec. (e).

Transfer of Functions

Functions of all officers, agencies, and employees of Department of Agriculture transferred, with certain exceptions, to Secretary of Agriculture by 1953 Reorg. Plan No. 2, §1, eff. June 4, 1953, 18 F.R. 3219, 67 Stat. 633, set out as a note under section 2201 of this title.

1 See References in Text note below.

SUBCHAPTER II—COORDINATION AND PLANNING OF AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH, EXTENSION, AND TEACHING

§3121. Responsibilities of Secretary and Department of Agriculture

The Department of Agriculture is designated as the lead agency of the Federal Government for agricultural research (except with respect to the biomedical aspects of human nutrition concerned with diagnosis or treatment of disease), extension, and teaching in the food and agricultural sciences, and the Secretary, in carrying out the Secretary's responsibilities, shall—

(1) establish jointly with the Secretary of Health and Human Services procedures for coordination with respect to nutrition research in areas of mutual interest;

(2) keep informed of developments in, and the Nation's need for, research, extension, teaching, and manpower development in the food and agricultural sciences and represent such need in deliberations within the Department of Agriculture, elsewhere within the executive branch of the United States Government, and with the several States and their designated land-grant colleges and universities, other colleges and universities, agricultural and related industries, and other interested institutions and groups;

(3) coordinate all agricultural research, extension, and teaching activity conducted or financed by the Department of Agriculture and, to the maximum extent practicable, by other agencies of the executive branch of the United States Government;

(4) take the initiative in establishing coordination of State-Federal cooperative agricultural research, extension, and teaching programs, funded in whole or in part by the Department of Agriculture in each State, through the administrative heads of land-grant colleges and universities and the State directors of agricultural experiment stations and cooperative extension services, and other appropriate program administrators;

(5) consult the Advisory Board and appropriate advisory committees of the Department of Agriculture in the formulation of basic policies, goals, strategies, and priorities for programs of agricultural research, extension, and teaching;

(6) report (as a part of the Department of Agriculture's annual budget submissions) to the House Committee on Agriculture, the House Committee on Appropriations, the Senate Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry, and the Senate Committee on Appropriations actions taken or proposed to support the recommendations of the Advisory Board;

(7) establish appropriate review procedures to assure that agricultural research projects are timely and properly reported and published and that there is no unnecessary duplication of effort or overlapping between agricultural research units;

(8) establish Federal or cooperative multidisciplinary research teams on major agricultural research problems with clearly defined leadership, budget responsibility, and research programs;

(9) in order to promote the coordination of agricultural research of the Department of Agriculture, conduct a continuing inventory of ongoing and completed research projects being conducted within or funded by the Department;

(10) coordinate all agricultural research, extension, and teaching activities conducted or financed by the Department of Agriculture with the periodic renewable resource assessment and program provided for in sections 1601 and 1602 of title 16 and the appraisal and program provided for in sections 2004 and 2005 of title 16;

(11) coordinate the efforts of States, State cooperative institutions, State extension services, the Advisory Board, and other appropriate institutions in assessing the current status of, and developing a plan for, the effective transfer of new technologies, including biotechnology, to the farming community, with particular emphasis on addressing the unique problems of small- and medium-sized farms in gaining information about those technologies; and

(12) establish appropriate controls with respect to the development and use of the application of biotechnology to agriculture.

(Pub. L. 95–113, title XIV, §1405, Sept. 29, 1977, 91 Stat. 985; Pub. L. 97–98, title XIV, §1405, Dec. 22, 1981, 95 Stat. 1298; Pub. L. 99–198, title XIV, §1404, Dec. 23, 1985, 99 Stat. 1544; Pub. L. 101–624, title XVI, §1605(b)(3), Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 3714; Pub. L. 104–127, title VIII, §§852(b)(1), 853(b)(2), Apr. 4, 1996, 110 Stat. 1171, 1172.)

Amendments

1996—Par. (5). Pub. L. 104–127, §852(b)(1)(A), substituted "Advisory Board" for "Joint Council, Advisory Board,".

Par. (11). Pub. L. 104–127, §852(b)(1)(B), struck out "the Joint Council," before "the Advisory Board".

Par. (12). Pub. L. 104–127, §853(b)(2), struck out ", after coordination with the Technology Board," after "establish".

1990—Par. (12). Pub. L. 101–624 inserted ", after coordination with the Technology Board," after "establish".

1985—Pars. (11), (12). Pub. L. 99–198 added pars. (11) and (12) and struck out former par. (11) which required the Secretary to "take the initiative in overcoming barriers to long-range planning by developing, in conjunction with the States, State cooperative institutions, the Joint Council, the Advisory Board, and other appropriate institutions, a long-term needs assessment for food, fiber, and forest products, and by determining the research requirements necessary to meet the identified needs."

1981—Par. (1). Pub. L. 97–98, §1405(1), substituted "Secretary of Health and Human Services" for "Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare".

Par. (5). Pub. L. 97–98, §1405(2), substituted "and appropriate advisory" for "and other appropriate advisory".

Par. (6). Pub. L. 97–98, §1405(3), inserted "or proposed".

Pars. (10), (11). Pub. L. 97–98, §1405(4)–(6), added pars. (10) and (11).

Effective Date of 1981 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 97–98 effective Dec. 22, 1981, see section 1801 of Pub. L. 97–98, set out as an Effective Date note under section 4301 of this title.

Effective Date

Section effective Oct. 1, 1977, see section 1901 of Pub. L. 95–113, set out as an Effective Date of 1977 Amendment note under section 1307 of this title.

Ex. Ord. No. 13874. Modernizing the Regulatory Framework for Agricultural Biotechnology Products

Ex. Ord. No. 13874, June 11, 2019, 84 F.R. 27899, provided:

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, and in order to conduct Federal oversight of agricultural biotechnology products that is science-based, timely, efficient, and transparent, it is hereby ordered as follows:

Section 1. Purpose. Recent advances in biotechnology have the potential to revolutionize agriculture and thereby enhance rural prosperity and improve the quality of American lives. Biotechnology can help the Nation meet its food production needs, raise the productivity of the American farmer, improve crop and animal characteristics, increase the nutritional value of crop and animal products, and enhance food safety. In order to realize these potential benefits, however, the United States must employ a science-based regulatory system that evaluates products based on human health and safety and potential benefits and risks to the environment. Such a system must both foster public confidence in biotechnology and avoid undue regulatory burdens.

The September 2016 National Strategy for Modernizing the Regulatory System for Biotechnology Products (National Strategy) and the January 2017 Update to the Coordinated Framework for the Regulation of Biotechnology (Coordinated Framework) were important steps in clarifying Federal regulatory roles and responsibilities with respect to agricultural biotechnology. The Agriculture and Rural Prosperity Task Force established in April 2017 recommended additional steps to further modernize the regulatory framework for agricultural biotechnology products so as to facilitate innovation, ensure coordination across regulatory agencies, and safely enable billions of people across America and the world to reap the benefits of such products. The directives below are intended to implement those recommendations.

Sec. 2. Definition. For the purposes of this order, the term "product of agricultural biotechnology" refers to a plant or animal, or a product of such a plant or animal, developed through genetic engineering or through the targeted in vivo or in vitro manipulation of genetic information, with the exception of plants or animals, or the products thereof, developed for non-agricultural purposes, such as to produce pharmaceutical or industrial compounds.

Sec. 3. Policy. It is the policy of the Federal Government to protect public health and the environment by adopting regulatory approaches for the products of agricultural biotechnology that are proportionate responses to the risks such products pose, and that avoid arbitrary or unjustifiable distinctions across like products developed through different technologies. Any regulatory regime for products of agricultural biotechnology should ensure public confidence in the oversight of such products and also promote future innovation and competitiveness. To support these goals, the Federal Government shall:

(a) base regulatory decisions on scientific and technical evidence, and take into account, as appropriate and consistent with applicable law, economic factors;

(b) review regulatory applications for products of agricultural biotechnology in a timely and efficient manner;

(c) ensure the transparency, predictability, and consistency of the regulation of products of agricultural biotechnology, to the extent permitted by law;

(d) as appropriate and consistent with applicable law, develop regulations and guidance through processes that provide fair notice to the public and allow for its participation;

(e) make regulatory determinations based on risks associated with the product and its intended end use; and

(f) promote trade in products of agricultural biotechnology by urging trading partners to adopt science- and risk-based regulatory approaches.

Sec. 4. Regulatory Streamlining. The Secretary of Agriculture (Secretary), the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency (Administrator), and the Commissioner of Food and Drugs (Commissioner), to the extent consistent with law and the principles set forth in section 3 of this order, shall:

(a) within 180 days of the date of this order [June 11, 2019], identify relevant regulations and guidance documents within their respective jurisdictions that can be streamlined to ensure that products of agricultural biotechnology are regulated in accordance with the policy set forth in section 3 of this order and take the steps appropriate and necessary to accomplish such streamlining; and

(b) use existing statutory authority, as appropriate, to exempt low-risk products of agricultural biotechnology from undue regulation.

Sec. 5. Unified Biotechnology Web-based Platform. To ensure that innovators can easily navigate the regulatory system for products of agricultural biotechnology, the Department of Agriculture, the Environmental Protection Agency, and the Food and Drug Administration (collectively, the "agencies") shall, within 180 days of the date of this order, work together to design a plan to establish a web-based platform that contains and provides links to relevant United States Government regulatory information. This web-based platform shall allow developers of products of agricultural biotechnology to submit inquiries about a particular product and promptly receive from the agencies a single, coordinated response that provides, to the extent practicable, information and, when appropriate, informal guidance regarding the process that the developers must follow for Federal regulatory review. The web-based platform shall be funded by the Department of Agriculture, with the other agencies providing support, to the extent consistent with applicable law and within existing appropriations, through appropriate interagency agreements, including agreements under the Economy Act [act June 30, 1932, ch. 314, part II, 47 Stat. 399, see 31 U.S.C. 1535].

Sec. 6. Review of Current Authorities, Regulations, and Guidance. (a) Each of the agencies shall, as appropriate, conduct a review of its regulations and guidance that may apply to genome-edited-specialty-crop-plant products designed to have significant health, agricultural, or environmental benefits, in particular those that are likely to benefit rural communities significantly. Based on the findings of its review, each of the agencies shall take steps to update its regulations and guidance, as necessary and appropriate, to remove undue barriers that impede small, private United States developers, the United States Government, and academic institutions from bringing innovative and safe genome-edited-specialty-crop-plant products to the marketplace.

(b) Every 90 days after the date of this order, for a period of 2 years, each of the agencies shall provide an update regarding its progress in implementing section 6 of this order to the Director of the Office of Management and Budget, the Director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy, the Assistant to the President for Economic Policy, and the Assistant to the President for Domestic Policy.

Sec. 7. Domestic Engagement Strategy. (a) Within 180 days of the date of this order, the Secretary, in coordination with the Administrator, the Commissioner, and any other Administration officials that the Secretary deems appropriate, shall develop an action plan to facilitate engagement with consumers in order to build public confidence in, and acceptance of, the use of safe biotechnology in agriculture and the food system.

(b) In developing the plan described in subsection (a) of this section, the following shall be considered: supporting research and education on effective science communication; developing educational materials that integrate agricultural biotechnology into science education; creating consumer-facing web content; and developing other outreach materials that clearly communicate the demonstrated benefits of agricultural biotechnology, the safety record of the regulatory system, and how biotechnology can address agricultural challenges. The strategy shall take into account the ongoing work of the Agricultural Biotechnology Education and Outreach Initiative, which calls on the Food and Drug Administration to work with the Department of Agriculture to conduct public education and outreach on agricultural biotechnology and food and animal-feed ingredients derived from such technology. The Secretary shall coordinate with State leaders in the fields of public health and agriculture as part of this strategy.

Sec. 8. International Outreach. Within 120 days of the date of this order, the Secretary and the Secretary of State (collectively, the "Secretaries"), in consultation with the United States Trade Representative, the Administrator, the Commissioner, and any other Administration officials that the Secretaries deem appropriate, shall develop an international communications and outreach strategy to facilitate engagement abroad with policymakers, consumers, industry, and other stakeholders. The goal of the strategy shall be to increase international acceptance of products of agricultural biotechnology in order to open and maintain markets for United States agricultural exports abroad.

Sec. 9. International Trade Strategy. Within 120 days of the date of this order, the United States Trade Representative, in consultation with the Secretaries and the Trade Policy Staff Committee, shall develop an international strategy to remove unjustified trade barriers and expand markets for products of agricultural biotechnology.

Sec. 10. General Provisions. (a) Nothing in this order shall be construed to impair or otherwise affect:

(i) the authority granted by law to an executive department, agency, or the head thereof; or

(ii) the functions of the Director of the Office of Management and Budget relating to budgetary, administrative, or legislative proposals.

(b) This order shall be implemented consistent with applicable law and subject to the availability of appropriations.

(c) This order is not intended to, and does not, create any right or benefit, substantive or procedural, enforceable at law or in equity by any party against the United States, its departments, agencies, or entities, its officers, employees, or agents, or any other person.

Donald J. Trump.      

§3122. Repealed. Pub. L. 104–127, title VIII, §852(a), Apr. 4, 1996, 110 Stat. 1171

Section, Pub. L. 95–113, title XIV, §1407, Sept. 29, 1977, 91 Stat. 986; Pub. L. 97–98, title XIV, §1407, Dec. 22, 1981, 95 Stat. 1299; Pub. L. 99–198, title XIV, §1405, Dec. 23, 1985, 99 Stat. 1545; Pub. L. 101–624, title XVI, §1604(a), Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 3706; Pub. L. 102–237, title IV, §§402(1), 407(1), Dec. 13, 1991, 105 Stat. 1863, 1864; Pub. L. 104–66, title I, §1012(d), (e), Dec. 21, 1995, 109 Stat. 712, related to establishment of Joint Council on Food and Agricultural Sciences.

§3123. National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board

(a) Establishment

The Secretary shall establish within the Department of Agriculture a board to be known as the "National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board".

(b) Membership

(1) In general

The Advisory Board shall consist of 15 members, appointed by the Secretary.

(2) Selection of members

The Secretary shall appoint members of the Advisory Board from nominations submitted by organizations, associations, societies, councils, federations, groups, and companies fitting the criteria specified in paragraph (3).

(3) Membership categories

The Advisory Board shall consist of members from each of the following categories:

(A) 3 members representing national farm or producer organizations, which may include members—

(i) representing farm cooperatives;

(ii) who are producers actively engaged in the production of a food animal commodity and who are recommended by a coalition of national livestock organizations;

(iii) who are producers actively engaged in the production of a plant commodity and who are recommended by a coalition of national crop organizations; or

(iv) who are producers actively engaged in aquaculture and who are recommended by a coalition of national aquacultural organizations.


(B) 2 members representing academic or research societies, which may include members representing—

(i) a national food animal science society;

(ii) a national crop, soil, agronomy, horticulture, plant pathology, or weed science society;

(iii) a national food science organization;

(iv) a national human health association; or

(v) a national nutritional science society.


(C) 5 members representing agricultural research, extension, and education, which shall include each of the following:

(i) 1 member representing the land-grant colleges and universities eligible to receive funds under the Act of July 2, 1862 (7 U.S.C. 301 et seq.).

(ii) 1 member representing the land-grant colleges and universities eligible to receive funds under the Act of August 30, 1890 (7 U.S.C. 321 et seq.), including Tuskegee University.

(iii) 1 member representing the 1994 Institutions (as defined in section 532 of the Equity in Educational Land-Grant Status Act of 1994 (7 U.S.C. 301 note; Public Law 103–382)).

(iv) 1 member representing NLGCA Institutions or Hispanic-serving institutions.

(v) 1 member representing American colleges of veterinary medicine.


(D) 5 members representing industry, consumer, or rural interests, including members representing—

(i) entities engaged in transportation of food and agricultural products to domestic and foreign markets;

(ii) food retailing and marketing interests;

(iii) food and fiber processors;

(iv) rural economic development interests;

(v) a national consumer interest group;

(vi) a national forestry group;

(vii) a national conservation or natural resource group;

(viii) a national social science association;

(ix) private sector organizations involved in international development; or

(x) a national association of agricultural economists.

(4) Ex officio members

The Secretary, the Under Secretary of Agriculture for Research, Education, and Economics, the Administrator of the Agricultural Research Service, the Director of the National Institute of Food and Agriculture, the Administrator of the Economic Research Service, and the Administrator of the National Agricultural Statistics Service shall serve as ex officio members of the Advisory Board.

(5) Officers

At the first meeting of the Advisory Board each year, the members shall elect from among the members of the Advisory Board a chairperson, vice chairperson, and 7 additional members to serve on the executive committee established under paragraph (6).

(6) Executive committee

The Advisory Board shall establish an executive committee charged with the responsibility of working with the Secretary and officers and employees of the Department of Agriculture to summarize and disseminate the recommendations of the Advisory Board.

(7) Equal representation of public and private sector members

In appointing members to serve on the Advisory Board, the Secretary shall ensure, to the maximum extent practicable, equal representation of public and private sector members.

(c) Duties

The Advisory Board shall—

(1) make recommendations, review, and provide consultation to the Secretary, land-grant colleges and universities, and the Committee on Agriculture of the House of Representatives, the Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry of the Senate, the Subcommittee on Agriculture, Rural Development, Food and Drug Administration and Related Agencies of the Committee on Appropriations of the House of Representatives, and the Subcommittee on Agriculture, Rural Development and Related Agencies of the Committee on Appropriations of the Senate on—

(A) long-term and short-term national policies and priorities consistent with the—

(i) purposes specified in section 3101 of this title for agricultural research, extension, education, and economics; and

(ii) priority areas of the Agriculture and Food Research Initiative specified in subsection (b)(2) of section 3157 of this title;


(B) the annual establishment of national priorities that are in accordance with the priority areas of the Agriculture and Food Research Initiative specified in subsection (b)(2) of section 3157 of this title.


(2) evaluate the results and effectiveness of agricultural research, extension, education, and economics with respect to the policies and priorities and make recommendations to the Secretary based on such evaluation;

(3) review and make recommendations to the Under Secretary of Agriculture for Research, Education, and Economics on the research, extension, education, and economics portion of the draft strategic plan required under section 306 of title 5;

(4) review and make recommendations on the mechanisms of the Department of Agriculture for technology assessment (which should be conducted by qualified professionals) for the purposes of—

(A) performance measurement and evaluation of the implementation by the Secretary of the strategic plan required under section 306 of title 5;

(B) implementation of national research policies and priorities that are consistent with the purposes specified in section 3101 of this title; and

(C) the development of mechanisms for the assessment of emerging public and private agricultural research and technology transfer initiatives; and


(5) consult with industry groups on agricultural research, extension, education, and economics, and make recommendations to the Secretary based on that consultation.

(d) Consultation

(1) Duties of Advisory Board

In carrying out this section, the Advisory Board shall consult with any appropriate agencies of the Department of Agriculture and solicit opinions and recommendations from persons who will benefit from and use federally funded agricultural research, extension, education, and economics.

(2) Duties of Secretary

To comply with a provision of this chapter or any other law that requires the Secretary to consult or cooperate with the Advisory Board or that authorizes the Advisory Board to submit recommendations to the Secretary, the Secretary shall—

(A) solicit the written opinions and recommendations of the Advisory Board; and

(B) provide a written response to the Advisory Board regarding the manner and extent to which the Secretary will implement recommendations submitted by the Advisory Board.

(e) Appointment

A member of the Advisory Board shall be appointed by the Secretary for a term of up to 3 years. The members of the Advisory Board shall be appointed to serve staggered terms.

(f) Federal Advisory Committee Act

The Advisory Board shall be deemed to have filed a charter for the purpose of section 9(c) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (5 U.S.C. App.).

(g) Annual limitation on Advisory Board expenses

(1) Maximum amount

Not more than $500,000 may be used to cover the necessary expenses of the Advisory Board for each fiscal year.

(2) General limitation

The expenses of the Advisory Board shall not be counted toward any general limitation on the expenses of advisory committees, panels, commissions, and task forces of the Department of Agriculture contained in any Act making appropriations for the Department of Agriculture, whether enacted before, on, or after June 23, 1998, unless the appropriation Act specifically refers to this subsection and specifically includes this Advisory Board within the general limitation.

(h) Termination

The Advisory Board shall remain in existence until September 30, 2023.

(Pub. L. 95–113, title XIV, §1408, Sept. 29, 1977, 91 Stat. 988; Pub. L. 97–98, title XIV, §1408, Dec. 22, 1981, 95 Stat. 1300; Pub. L. 99–198, title XIV, §1406, Dec. 23, 1985, 99 Stat. 1545; Pub. L. 101–624, title XVI, §1604(b), Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 3709; Pub. L. 102–237, title IV, §402(2), Dec. 13, 1991, 105 Stat. 1863; Pub. L. 104–66, title I, §§1011(t), 1012(f), Dec. 21, 1995, 109 Stat. 710, 712; Pub. L. 104–127, title VIII, §802(a), Apr. 4, 1996, 110 Stat. 1156; Pub. L. 105–185, title II, §222, June 23, 1998, 112 Stat. 538; Pub. L. 107–171, title VII, §§7133, 7209(a), May 13, 2002, 116 Stat. 435, 444; Pub. L. 110–234, title VII, §§7102(a), 7511(c)(8), May 22, 2008, 122 Stat. 1214, 1268; Pub. L. 110–246, §4(a), title VII, §§7102(a), 7511(c)(8), June 18, 2008, 122 Stat. 1664, 1975, 2029; Pub. L. 113–79, title VII, §7102, Feb. 7, 2014, 128 Stat. 863; Pub. L. 115–334, title VII, §7103, Dec. 20, 2018, 132 Stat. 4781.)

References in Text

Act of July 2, 1862, referred to in subsec. (b)(3)(C)(i), is act July 2, 1862, ch. 130, 12 Stat. 503, popularly known as the "Morrill Act" and also as the "First Morrill Act", which is classified generally to subchapter I (§301 et seq.) of chapter 13 of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 301 of this title and Tables.

Act of August 30, 1890, referred to in subsec. (b)(3)(C)(ii), is act Aug. 30, 1890, ch. 841, 26 Stat. 417, popularly known as the Agricultural College Act of 1890 and also as the Second Morrill Act, which is classified generally to subchapter II (§321 et seq.) of chapter 13 of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 321 of this title and Tables.

For definition of "this chapter", referred to in subsec. (d)(2), see note set out under section 3102 of this title.

Section 9 of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, referred to in subsec. (f), is section 9 of Pub. L. 92–463, which is set out in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

Codification

The authorities provided by each provision of, and each amendment made by, Pub. L. 110–246, as in effect on Sept. 30, 2012, to continue, and the Secretary of Agriculture to carry out the authorities, until the later of Sept. 30, 2013, or the date specified in the provision of, or amendment made by, Pub. L. 110–246, see section 701(a) of Pub. L. 112–240, set out in a 1-Year Extension of Agricultural Programs note under section 8701 of this title.

Pub. L. 110–234 and Pub. L. 110–246 made identical amendments to this section. The amendments by Pub. L. 110–234 were repealed by section 4(a) of Pub. L. 110–246.

Amendments

2018—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 115–334, §7103(1)(A), substituted "15" for "25".

Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 115–334, §7103(1)(B), amended par. (3) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (3) provided 25 membership categories of the Advisory Board.

Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 115–334, §7103(2)(A)(i), substituted "make recommendations, review, and" for "review and" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (c)(1)(A). Pub. L. 115–334, §7103(2)(A)(ii), added subpar. (A) and struck out former subpar. (A) which read as follows: "long-term and short-term national policies and priorities consistent with the purposes specified in section 3101 of this title for agricultural research, extension, education, and economics; and".

Subsec. (c)(1)(B). Pub. L. 115–334, §7103(2)(A)(iii), amended subpar. (B) generally. Prior to amendment, subpar. (B) read as follows: "the annual establishment of priorities that—

"(i) are in accordance with the purposes specified in a provision of a covered law (as defined in subsection (d) of section 3371 of this title) under which competitive grants (described in subsection (c) of such section) are awarded; and

"(ii) the Board determines are national priorities."

Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 115–334, §7103(2)(B), inserted "and make recommendations to the Secretary based on such evaluation" after "priorities".

Subsec. (c)(4). Pub. L. 115–334, §7103(2)(C), inserted "and make recommendations on" after "review" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 115–334, §7103(3), substituted "2023" for "2018".

2014—Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 113–79, §7102(b)(1), substituted "Committee on Appropriations of the Senate on—" for "Committee on Appropriations of the Senate on long-term and short-term national policies and priorities, as set forth in section 3101 of this title, relating to agricultural research, extension, education, and economics;" and added subpars. (A) and (B).

Subsec. (c)(4)(B). Pub. L. 113–79, §7102(b)(3)(A), substituted "national research policies and priorities that are consistent with the purposes specified in" for "the national research policies and priorities set forth in".

Subsec. (c)(5). Pub. L. 113–79, §7102(b)(2), (3)(B), (4), added par. (5).

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 113–79, §7102(a), substituted "2018" for "2012".

2008—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 110–246, §7102(a)(1)(A), substituted "25" for "31".

Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 110–246, §7102(a)(1)(B), added par. (3) and struck out former par. (3) which related to membership categories and directed that the Advisory Board consist of members from each of the categories listed in former subpars. (A) to (EE).

Subsec. (b)(4). Pub. L. 110–246, §7511(c)(8), substituted "the Director of the National Institute of Food and Agriculture" for "the Administrator of the Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service".

Subsec. (g)(1). Pub. L. 110–246, §7102(a)(2), substituted "$500,000" for "$350,000".

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 110–246, §7102(a)(3), substituted "2012" for "2007".

2002—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 107–171, §7209(a)(1), substituted "31 members" for "30 members".

Subsec. (b)(3)(R) to (EE). Pub. L. 107–171, §7209(a)(2), added subpar. (R) and redesignated former subpars. (R) to (DD) as (S) to (EE), respectively.

Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 107–171, §7209(a)(3), substituted "Secretary, land-grant colleges and universities, and the Committee on Agriculture of the House of Representatives, the Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry of the Senate, the Subcommittee on Agriculture, Rural Development, Food and Drug Administration and Related Agencies of the Committee on Appropriations of the House of Representatives, and the Subcommittee on Agriculture, Rural Development and Related Agencies of the Committee on Appropriations of the Senate" for "Secretary and land-grant colleges and universities".

Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 107–171, §7209(a)(4), inserted "consult with any appropriate agencies of the Department of Agriculture and" after "The Advisory Board shall".

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 107–171, §7133, substituted "2007" for "2002".

1998—Subsec. (b)(7). Pub. L. 105–185, §222(a), added par. (7).

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 105–185, §222(b), designated existing provisions as par. (1), inserted heading, and added par. (2).

Subsecs. (g), (h). Pub. L. 105–185, §222(c), added subsec. (g) and redesignated former subsec. (g) as (h).

1996Pub. L. 104–127 amended section generally, substituting present provisions for provisions which established National Agricultural Research and Extension Users Advisory Board and provided for membership, chairperson and vice-chairperson, meetings, panels of the Board, responsibilities of the Board, reports by the Board, and a report by the Secretary of Agriculture on manner in which recommendations of Board had been incorporated into programs of Department of Agriculture.

1995—Subsec. (g)(1). Pub. L. 104–66, §1012(f), inserted "may provide" before "a written report" in first sentence.

Subsec. (g)(2), (3). Pub. L. 104–66, §1011(t), redesignated par. (3) as (2) and struck out former par. (2) which required Advisory Board to submit to the President and congressional committees a report containing appraisal by Board of President's proposed budget for food and agricultural sciences and recommendations of Secretary.

1991—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 102–237, §402(2)(A), substituted "Government" for "government".

Subsec. (g)(1). Pub. L. 102–237, §402(2)(B), substituted "federally" for "Federally".

1990Pub. L. 101–624 amended section generally, substituting present provisions for provisions which established National Agricultural Research and Extension Users Advisory Board to expire on Sept. 30, 1990, authorized membership of Board at 25 representatives, provided for selection of chairman and vice-chairman, provided for meetings at least once during each three month period, authorized establishment of panels to assist Board in meeting its responsibilities, and outlined general and specific responsibilities of Board, including the submission of reports.

1985—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 99–198, §1406(a), substituted "1990" for "1985".

Subsec. (f)(2)(G). Pub. L. 99–198, §1406(b), added subpar. (G).

1981—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 97–98, §1408(a), substituted "that expires September 30, 1985" for "of five years".

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 97–98, §1408(b), in provision preceding par. (1) substituted "twenty-five" for "twenty-one" and inserted "to serve staggered terms" and in par. (1) substituted "eight" for "four" and "agricultural, forestry, and aquacultural products, from various geographical regions" for "agricultural commodities, forest products, and aquacultural products".

Subsec. (f)(2)(E). Pub. L. 97–98, §1408(c)(1), substituted "July 1" for "October 1".

Subsec. (f)(2)(F). Pub. L. 97–98, §1408(c)(2), substituted "February 20 of" for "March 1 of".

Change of Name

Subcommittee on Agriculture, Rural Development, and Related Agencies of the Committee on Appropriations of the Senate changed to Subcommittee on Agriculture, Rural Development, Food and Drug Administration, and Related Agencies of the Committee on Appropriations of the Senate.

Effective Date of 2008 Amendment

Amendment of this section and repeal of Pub. L. 110–234 by Pub. L. 110–246 effective May 22, 2008, the date of enactment of Pub. L. 110–234, except as otherwise provided, see section 4 of Pub. L. 110–246, set out as an Effective Date note under section 8701 of this title.

Amendment by section 7511(c)(8) of Pub. L. 110–246 effective Oct. 1, 2009, see section 7511(c) of Pub. L. 110–246, set out as a note under section 1522 of this title.

Effective Date of 1981 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 97–98 effective Dec. 22, 1981, see section 1801 of Pub. L. 97–98, set out as an Effective Date note under section 4301 of this title.

Effective Date

Section effective Oct. 1, 1977, see section 1901 of Pub. L. 95–113, set out as an Effective Date of 1977 Amendment note under section 1307 of this title.

Effect of 2008 Amendment on Terms

Pub. L. 110–234, title VII, §7102(b), May 22, 2008, 122 Stat. 1215, and Pub. L. 110–246, §4(a), title VII, §7102(b), June 18, 2008, 122 Stat. 1664, 1976, provided that: "Nothing in this section [amending this section] or any amendment made by this section affects the term of any member of the National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board serving as of the date of enactment of this Act [June 18, 2008]."

[Pub. L. 110–234 and Pub. L. 110–246 enacted identical provisions. Pub. L. 110–234 was repealed by section 4(a) of Pub. L. 110–246, set out as a note under section 8701 of this title.]

§3123a. Specialty crop committee

(a) Establishment

(1) In general

Not later than 90 days after December 21, 2004, the executive committee of the Advisory Board shall establish, and appoint the initial members of, a permanent specialty crops committee that will be responsible for studying the scope and effectiveness of research, extension, and economics programs affecting the specialty crop industry.

(2) Citrus disease subcommittee

(A) In general

Not later than 45 days after February 7, 2014, the Secretary shall establish within the specialty crops committee, and appoint the initial members of, a citrus disease subcommittee to carry out the responsibilities of the subcommittee described in subsection (g) in accordance with subsection (j)(3) of section 7632 of this title.

(B) Composition

The citrus disease subcommittee shall be composed of 11 members, each of whom is a domestic producer of citrus in a State, represented as follows:

(i) Five of such members shall represent Arizona or California.

(ii) Five of such members shall represent Florida.

(iii) One of such members shall represent Texas.

(C) Membership

The Secretary may appoint individuals who are not members of the specialty crops committee or the Advisory Board established under section 3123 of this title as members of the citrus disease subcommittee 1

(D) Termination

The subcommittee established under subparagraph (A) shall terminate on September 30, 2023.

(E) Federal Advisory Committee Act

The subcommittee established under subparagraph (A) shall be covered by the exemption to section 9(c) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (5 U.S.C. App.) applicable to the Advisory Board under section 3123(f) of this title.

(b) Members

(1) Eligibility

Individuals who are not members of the Advisory Board may be appointed as members of the specialty crops committee.

(2) Service

Members of the specialty crops committee shall serve at the discretion of the executive committee.

(3) Diversity

Membership of the specialty crops committee shall reflect diversity in the specialty crops represented.

(c) Annual committee report

Not later than 180 days after the establishment of the specialty crops committee, and annually thereafter, the specialty crops committee shall submit to the Advisory Board a report containing the findings of its study under subsection (a). The specialty crops committee shall include in each report recommendations regarding the following:

(1) Programs designed to improve the efficiency, productivity, and profitability of specialty crop production in the United States.

(2) Research, extension, and teaching programs designed to improve competitiveness in the specialty crop industry, including programs that would—

(A) enhance the quality and shelf-life of fresh fruits and vegetables, including their taste and appearance;

(B) develop new crop protection tools and expand the applicability and cost-effectiveness of integrated pest management;

(C) prevent the introduction of foreign invasive pests and diseases;

(D) develop new products and new uses of specialty crops, including improving the quality and taste of processed specialty crops;

(E) develop new and improved marketing tools for specialty crops;

(F) enhance food safety regarding specialty crops;

(G) improve the remote sensing and the mechanization of production practices; and

(H) enhance irrigation techniques used in specialty crop production.


(3) Analyses of changes in macroeconomic conditions, technologies, and policies on specialty crop production and consumption, with particular focus on the effect of those changes on the financial stability of producers.

(4) Development of data that provide applied information useful to specialty crop growers, their associations, and other interested beneficiaries in evaluating that industry from a regional and national perspective.

(5) Analysis of the alignment of specialty crops committee recommendations with grants awarded through the specialty crop research initiative established under section 7632 of this title.

(d) Consultation with specialty crop industry

In studying the scope and effectiveness of programs under subsection (a), the specialty crops committee shall consult on an ongoing basis with diverse sectors of the specialty crop industry.

(e) Consideration by Secretary

In preparing the annual budget recommendations for the Department of Agriculture, the Secretary shall take into consideration those findings and recommendations contained in the most-recent report of the specialty crops committee that are adopted by the Advisory Board.

(f) Annual report by Secretary

In the budget material submitted to Congress by the Secretary in connection with the budget submitted pursuant to section 1105 of title 31 for a fiscal year, the Secretary shall include a report describing how the Secretary addressed each recommendation of the specialty crops committee described in subsection (e).

(g) Citrus disease subcommittee duties

For the purposes of subsection (j) of section 7632 of this title, the citrus disease subcommittee shall—

(1) advise the Secretary on citrus research, extension, and development needs;

(2) propose, by a favorable vote of two-thirds of the members of the subcommittee, a research and extension agenda and annual budgets for the funds made available to carry out such subsection;

(3) evaluate and review ongoing research and extension funded under the emergency citrus disease research and extension program (as defined in such subsection);

(4) establish, by a favorable vote of two-thirds of the members of the subcommittee, annual priorities for the award of grants under such subsection;

(5) provide the Secretary any comments on grants awarded under such subsection during the previous fiscal year; and

(6) engage in regular consultation and collaboration with the Department and other institutional, governmental, and private persons conducting scientific research on, and extension activities related to, the causes or treatments of citrus diseases and pests, both domestic and invasive, for purposes of—

(A) maximizing the effectiveness of research and extension projects funded under the citrus disease research and extension program;

(B) hastening the development of useful treatments;

(C) avoiding duplicative and wasteful expenditures; and

(D) providing the Secretary with such information and advice as the Secretary may request.

(Pub. L. 95–113, title XIV, §1408A, as added Pub. L. 108–465, title III, §303, Dec. 21, 2004, 118 Stat. 3885; amended Pub. L. 110–234, title VII, §7103, May 22, 2008, 122 Stat. 1215; Pub. L. 110–246, §4(a), title VII, §7103, June 18, 2008, 122 Stat. 1664, 1976; Pub. L. 113–79, title VII, §7103, Feb. 7, 2014, 128 Stat. 864; Pub. L. 115–334, title VII, §7104, Dec. 20, 2018, 132 Stat. 4783.)

References in Text

Section 9 of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, referred to in subsec. (a)(2)(E), is section 9 of Pub. L. 92–463, which is set out in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

Codification

Pub. L. 110–234 and Pub. L. 110–246 made identical amendments to this section. The amendments by Pub. L. 110–234 were repealed by section 4(a) of Pub. L. 110–246.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 3123a, Pub. L. 95–113, title XIV, §1408A, as added Pub. L. 101–624, title XVI, §1605(a), Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 3711; amended Pub. L. 102–237, title IV, §402(3), (4), Dec. 13, 1991, 105 Stat. 1863, related to establishment of Agricultural Science and Technology Review Board, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 104–127, title VIII, §853(a), Apr. 4, 1996, 110 Stat. 1172.

Amendments

2018—Subsec. (a)(2)(A). Pub. L. 115–334, §7104(1), substituted "specialty" for "speciality".

Subsec. (a)(2)(B). Pub. L. 115–334, §7104(2)(A), substituted "11" for "9" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (a)(2)(B)(i). Pub. L. 115–334, §7104(2)(B), substituted "Five" for "Three".

Subsec. (a)(2)(D). Pub. L. 115–334, §7104(3), substituted "2023" for "2018".

2014—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 113–79, §7103(a), designated existing provisions as par. (1), inserted heading, and added par. (2).

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 113–79, §7103(b), designated first sentence of existing provisions as par. (1) and second sentence as par. (2), inserted headings, and added par. (3).

Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 113–79, §7103(c)(1), substituted "Programs" for "Measures".

Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 113–79, §7103(c)(4)(A), substituted "Research, extension, and teaching programs designed to improve competitiveness in the specialty crop industry, including programs that would" for "Programs that would" in introductory provisions.

Pub. L. 113–79, §7103(c)(2), (3), redesignated par. (3) as (2) and struck out former par. (2) which read as follows: "Measures designed to improve competitiveness in research, extension, and economics programs affecting the specialty crop industry."

Subsec. (c)(2)(D). Pub. L. 113–79, §7103(c)(4)(B), inserted ", including improving the quality and taste of processed specialty crops" before semicolon at end.

Subsec. (c)(2)(G). Pub. L. 113–79, §7103(c)(4)(C), inserted "the remote sensing and the" before "mechanization".

Subsec. (c)(3), (4). Pub. L. 113–79, §7103(c)(3), redesignated pars. (4) and (5) as (3) and (4), respectively.

Subsec. (c)(5). Pub. L. 113–79, §7103(c)(5), added par. (5). Former par. (5) redesignated (4).

Subsecs. (d), (e). Pub. L. 113–79, §7103(d)(1), (2), added subsec. (d) and redesignated former subsec. (d) as (e).

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 113–79, §7103(d)(1), (3), redesignated subsec. (e) as (f) and substituted "subsection (e)" for "subsection (d)".

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 113–79, §7103(e), added subsec. (g).

2008—Subsec. (c)(4), (5). Pub. L. 110–246, §7103, added pars. (4) and (5).

Effective Date of 2008 Amendment

Amendment of this section and repeal of Pub. L. 110–234 by Pub. L. 110–246 effective May 22, 2008, the date of enactment of Pub. L. 110–234, see section 4 of Pub. L. 110–246, set out as an Effective Date note under section 8701 of this title.

1 So in original. Probably should be followed by a period.

§3123b. Repealed. Pub. L. 115–334, title VII, §7105, Dec. 20, 2018, 132 Stat. 4783

Section, Pub. L. 95–113, title XIV, §1408B, as added Pub. L. 110–234, title VII, §7104, May 22, 2008, 122 Stat. 1216, and Pub. L. 110–246, §4(a), title VII, §7104, June 18, 2008, 122 Stat. 1664, 1977, related to the establishment of a renewable energy committee.

§3124. Existing research programs

It is the intent of Congress in enacting this chapter to augment, coordinate, and supplement the planning, initiation, and conduct of agricultural research programs existing prior to September 29, 1977, except that it is not the intent of Congress in enacting this title to limit the authority of the Secretary of Health and Human Services under any Act which the Secretary of Health and Human Services administers.

(Pub. L. 95–113, title XIV, §1409, Sept. 29, 1977, 91 Stat. 989; Pub. L. 97–98, title XIV, §1409, Dec. 22, 1981, 95 Stat. 1301.)

References in Text

For definition of "this chapter", referred to in text, see note set out under section 3102 of this title.

Amendments

1981Pub. L. 97–98 substituted "Secretary of Health and Human Services" for "Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare" in two places.

Effective Date of 1981 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 97–98 effective Dec. 22, 1981, see section 1801 of Pub. L. 97–98, set out as an Effective Date note under section 4301 of this title.

Effective Date

Section effective Oct. 1, 1977, see section 1901 of Pub. L. 95–113, set out as an Effective Date of 1977 Amendment note under section 1307 of this title.

§3124a. Federal-State partnership and coordination

(a) Covered programs; statement of purposes

A unique partnership arrangement exists in food and agricultural research, extension, and teaching between the Federal Government and the governments of the several States whereby the States have accepted and have supported, through legislation and appropriations—

(1) research programs under—

(A) the Act of March 2, 1887 (7 U.S.C. 361a et seq.), commonly known as the Hatch Act of 1887;

(B) the Act of October 10, 1962 (16 U.S.C. 582a et seq.), commonly known as the McIntire-Stennis Act of 1962;

(C) subchapter V of this chapter; and

(D) subchapter VI of this chapter;


(2) extension programs under subchapter VI of this chapter and the Act of May 8, 1914 (7 U.S.C. 341 et seq.), commonly known as the Smith-Lever Act;

(3) teaching programs under—

(A) the Act of July 2, 1862 (7 U.S.C. 301 et seq.), commonly known as the First Morrill Act;

(B) the Act of August 30, 1890 (7 U.S.C. 321 et seq.), commonly known as the Second Morrill Act; and

(C) the Act of June 29, 1935 (7 U.S.C. 329), commonly known as the Bankhead-Jones Act; and


(4) international agricultural programs under title XII of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 (22 U.S.C. 2220a et seq.).


This partnership in publicly supported agricultural research, extension, and teaching involving the programs of Federal agencies and the programs of the States has played a major role in the outstanding successes achieved in meeting the varied, dispersed, and in many cases, site-specific needs of American agriculture. This partnership must be preserved and enhanced.

(b) Establishment, etc., of cooperative centers

In order to promote research and education in food and human nutrition, the Secretary may establish cooperative human nutrition centers to focus resources, facilities, and scientific expertise on particular high priority nutrition problems identified by the Department. Such centers shall be established at State cooperative institutions; and at other colleges and universities, having a demonstrable capacity to carry out human nutrition research and education.

(c) Designation of State cooperative institutions; reports; research grants

(1) To promote research for purposes of developing agricultural policy alternatives, the Secretary is encouraged—

(A) to designate at least one State cooperative institution to conduct research in an interdisciplinary fashion; and

(B) to report on a regular basis with respect to the effect of emerging technological, economic, sociological, and environmental developments on the structure of agriculture.


(2) Support for this effort should include grants to examine the role of various food production, processing, and distribution systems that may primarily benefit small- and medium-sized family farms, such as diversified farm plans, energy, water, and soil conservation technologies, direct and cooperative marketing, production and processing cooperatives, and rural community resource management.

(d) Designation of State agricultural experiment stations and Agricultural Research Service facilities; pilot projects; additional research

To address more effectively the critical need for reducing farm input costs, improving soil, water, and energy conservation on farms and in rural areas, using sustainable agricultural methods, adopting alternative processing and marketing systems, and encouraging rural resources management, the Secretary is encouraged to designate at least one State agricultural experiment station and one Agricultural Research Service facility to examine these issues in an integrated and comprehensive manner, while conducting ongoing pilot projects contributing additional research through the Federal-State partnership.

(e) Applicability of Federal Advisory Committee Act

(1) Public meetings

All meetings of any entity described in paragraph (3) shall be publicly announced in advance and shall be open to the public. Detailed minutes of meetings and other appropriate records of the activities of such an entity shall be kept and made available to the public on request.

(2) Exemption

The Federal Advisory Committee Act (5 U.S.C. App.) and title XVIII of this Act [7 U.S.C. 2281 et seq.] shall not apply to any entity described in paragraph (3).

(3) Entities described

This subsection shall apply to any committee, board, commission, panel, or task force, or similar entity that—

(A) is created for the purpose of cooperative efforts in agricultural research, extension, or teaching; and

(B) consists entirely of—

(i) full-time Federal employees; and

(ii) one or more individuals who are employed by, or are officials of—

(I) a State cooperative institution or State cooperative agency; or

(II) a public college or university or other postsecondary institution.

(Pub. L. 95–113, title XIV, §1409A, as added Pub. L. 97–98, title XIV, §1410(a), Dec. 22, 1981, 95 Stat. 1301; amended Pub. L. 99–198, title XIV, §1407, Dec. 23, 1985, 99 Stat. 1545; Pub. L. 101–624, title XVI, §1601(f)(1)(B), Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 3704; Pub. L. 104–127, title VIII, §803, Apr. 4, 1996, 110 Stat. 1159.)

References in Text

Act of March 2, 1887, referred to in subsec. (a)(1)(A), is act Mar. 2, 1887, ch. 314, 24 Stat. 440, as amended, popularly known as the Hatch Act of 1887, which is classified generally to sections 361a to 361i of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 361a of this title and Tables.

Act of October 10, 1962, referred to in subsec. (a)(1)(B), is Pub. L. 87–788, Oct. 10, 1962, 76 Stat. 806, popularly known as the "McIntire-Stennis Act of 1962" and also as the "McIntire-Stennis Cooperative Forestry Act", which is classified generally to subchapter III (§582a et seq.) of chapter 3 of Title 16, Conservation. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 582a of Title 16 and Tables.

Act of May 8, 1914, referred to in subsec. (a)(2), is act May 8, 1914, ch. 79, 38 Stat. 372, as amended, popularly known as the Smith-Lever Act, which is classified generally to subchapter IV (§341 et seq.) of chapter 13 of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 341 of this title and Tables.

Act of July 2, 1862, referred to in subsec. (a)(3)(A), is act July 2, 1862, ch. 130, 12 Stat. 503, popularly known as the "Morrill Act" and also as the "First Morrill Act", which is classified generally to subchapter I (§301 et seq.) of chapter 13 of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 301 of this title and Tables.

Act of August 30, 1890, referred to in subsec. (a)(3)(B), is act Aug. 30, 1890, ch. 841, 26 Stat. 417, as amended, popularly known as the Agricultural College Act of 1890 and also as the Second Morrill Act, which is classified generally to subchapter II (§321 et seq.) of chapter 13 of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 321 of this title and Tables.

Act of June 29, 1935, referred to in subsec. (a)(3)(C), is act June 29, 1935, ch. 338, 49 Stat. 436, popularly known as the Bankhead-Jones Act and as the Agricultural Research Act. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title of 1935 Amendment note under section 3101 of this title and Tables.

The Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, referred to in subsec. (a)(4), is Pub. L. 87–195, Sept. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 424, as amended. Title XII of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 probably means title XII of chapter 2 of part I of the Act, which is classified generally to subpart XII (§2220a et seq.) of part II of subchapter I of chapter 32 of Title 22, Foreign Relations and Intercourse. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2151 of Title 22 and Tables.

The Federal Advisory Committee Act, referred to in subsec. (e)(2), is Pub. L. 92–463, Oct. 6, 1972, 86 Stat. 770, as amended, which is set out in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

Title XVIII of this Act, referred to in subsec. (e)(2), is title XVIII of the Food and Agriculture Act of 1977, Pub. L. 95–113, Sept. 29, 1977, 91 Stat. 1041, as amended, which is classified generally to chapter 55A (§2281 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title of 1977 Amendment note set out under section 1281 of this title and Tables.

Amendments

1996—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 104–127 added subsec. (e).

1990—Subsecs. (c) to (e). Pub. L. 101–624 redesignated subsecs. (d) and (e) as (c) and (d), respectively, and struck out former subsec. (c) which read as follows: "In order to meet the increasing needs of consumers and to promote the health and welfare of people, the Secretary shall ensure that the cooperative research, extension, and teaching programs of the various States adequately address the challenges described in paragraph (10) of section 3101 of this title. The Secretary may implement new cooperative initiatives in home economics and related disciplines to address such challenges."

1985—Subsec. (a)(4). Pub. L. 99–198, §1407(a), added par. (4).

Subsecs. (d), (e). Pub. L. 99–198, §1407(b), added subsecs. (d) and (e).

Effective Date

Section effective Dec. 22, 1981, see section 1801 of Pub. L. 97–98, set out as a note under section 4301 of this title.

§3125. Annual report of Secretary of Agriculture to President and Congress

The Secretary shall submit to the President and Congress by January 1 of each year a report on the Nation's agricultural research, extension, and teaching activities, and such report shall include—

(1) a review covering the following three categories of activities of the Department of Agriculture with respect to agricultural research, extension, and teaching activities and the relationship of these activities to similar activities of other departments and agencies of the Federal Government, the States, colleges and universities, and the private sector—

(A) a current inventory of such activities organized by statutory authorization and budget outlay;

(B) a current inventory of such activities organized by field of basic and applied science; and

(C) a current inventory of such activities organized by commodity and product category;


(2) any recommendations of the Advisory Board; and

(3) in the second and succeeding years, a five-year projection of national priorities with respect to agricultural research, extension, and teaching, taking into account both domestic and international needs.

(Pub. L. 95–113, title XIV, §1410, Sept. 29, 1977, 91 Stat. 989; Pub. L. 97–98, title XIV, §1411, Dec. 22, 1981, 95 Stat. 1302; Pub. L. 99–198, title XIV, §1408, Dec. 23, 1985, 99 Stat. 1546; Pub. L. 101–624, title XVI, §1605(b)(4), Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 3714; Pub. L. 104–127, title VIII, §§802(b)(2), 852(b)(2), 853(b)(3), Apr. 4, 1996, 110 Stat. 1159, 1171, 1172.)

Amendments

1996—Par. (2). Pub. L. 104–127 substituted "any recommendations of the Advisory Board" for "the recommendations of the Joint Council developed under section 3122(f) of this title, the recommendations of the Advisory Board developed under section 3123(g) of this title, and the recommendations of the Technology Board developed under section 3123a(d) of this title".

1990—Par. (2). Pub. L. 101–624 amended par. (2) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (2) read as follows: "the statements of recommendations of the Joint Council developed pursuant to the provisions of section 3122(d)(2)(G) of this title and the statement of recommendations of the Advisory Board developed pursuant to the provisions of section 3123(f)(2)(E) of this title; and".

1985—Par. (4). Pub. L. 99–198 struck out par. (4) which provided for inclusion "in the report of January 1, 1984, the Secretary's needs assessment developed pursuant to the provisions of section 3121(11) of this title".

1981Pub. L. 97–98 substituted in provision preceding par. (1) "January 1" for "February 1" and added par. (4).

Effective Date of 1981 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 97–98 effective Dec. 22, 1981, see section 1801 of Pub. L. 97–98, set out as an Effective Date note under section 4301 of this title.

Effective Date

Section effective Oct. 1, 1977, see section 1901 of Pub. L. 95–113, set out as an Effective Date of 1977 Amendment note under section 1307 of this title.

Termination of Reporting Requirements

For termination, effective May 15, 2000, of provisions of this section relating to submittal to Congress of annual report on agricultural research, extension, and teaching activities, see section 3003 of Pub. L. 104–66, as amended, set out as a note under section 1113 of Title 31, Money and Finance, and page 44 of House Document No. 103–7.

§3125a. National Agricultural Library

(a) Purpose

The purpose of this section is to consolidate and expand the statutory authority for the operation of the library of the Department of Agriculture established pursuant to section 2201 of this title as the primary agricultural information resource of the United States.

(b) Establishment

There is established in the Department of Agriculture the National Agricultural Library to serve as the primary agricultural information resource of the United States.

(c) Director

The Secretary shall appoint a Director for the National Agricultural Library who shall be subject to the direction of the Secretary.

(d) Functions of Director

The Director may—

(1) acquire, preserve, and manage information and information products and services in all phases of agriculture and allied sciences;

(2) organize agricultural information and information products and services by cataloging, indexing, bibliographical listing, and other appropriate techniques;

(3) provide agricultural information and information products and services to agencies of the Department of Agriculture and the Federal Government, public and private organizations, and individuals, within the United States and internationally;

(4) plan for, coordinate, and evaluate information and library needs related to agricultural research and education;

(5) cooperate with and coordinate efforts among agricultural college and university libraries, in conjunction with private industry and other agricultural library and information centers, toward the development of a comprehensive agricultural library and information network; and

(6) coordinate the development of specialized subject information services among the agricultural and library information communities.

(e) Library products and services

The Director may—

(1) make copies of the bibliographies prepared by the National Agricultural Library;

(2) make microforms and other reproductions of books and other library materials in the Department;

(3) provide any other library and information products and services; and

(4) sell those products and services at such prices (not less than the estimated total cost of disseminating the products and services) as the Secretary may determine appropriate.

(f) Receipts

Funds received from sales under subsection (e) shall be deposited in the Treasury of the United States to the credit of the applicable appropriation and shall remain available until expended.

(g) Agreements

(1) In general

The Director may enter into agreement with, and receive funds from any State, and other political subdivision, organization, business, or individual for the purpose of conducting activities to carry out this section.

(2) Funds

Funds received under this subsection for payments for library products and services or other activities shall be deposited to the miscellaneous contributed fund account, and shall remain available until expended.

(h) Authorization of appropriations

There are authorized to be appropriated for each fiscal year such sums as may be necessary to carry out this section.

(Pub. L. 95–113, title XIV, §1410A, as added Pub. L. 101–624, title XVI, §1606(a), Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 3714.)

Enhanced Use Lease Authority Program

Pub. L. 103–354, title III, §308, as added by Pub. L. 110–234, title VII, §7409, May 22, 2008, 122 Stat. 1252, and Pub. L. 110–246, §4(a), title VII, §7409, June 18, 2008, 122 Stat. 1664, 2014; Pub. L. 113–79, title VII, §§7511, 7605, Feb. 7, 2014, 128 Stat. 901, 912; Pub. L. 115–334, title VII, §7601, Dec. 20, 2018, 132 Stat. 4825, provided that:

"(a) Establishment.—To enhance the use of real property administered by agencies of the Department, the Secretary may establish a program, in accordance with this section, at the Beltsville Agricultural Research Center of the Agricultural Research Service and the National Agricultural Library to lease nonexcess property of the Center or the Library to any individual or entity, including agencies or instrumentalities of State or local governments.

"(b) Requirements.—

"(1) In general.—Notwithstanding chapter 5 of subtitle I of title 40, United States Code, the Secretary may lease real property at the Beltsville Agricultural Research Center or the National Agricultural Library in accordance with such terms and conditions as the Secretary may prescribe, if the Secretary determines that the lease—

"(A) is consistent with, and will not adversely affect, the mission of the Department agency administering the property;

"(B) will enhance the use of the property;

"(C) will not permit any portion of Department agency property or any facility of the Department to be used for the public retail or wholesale sale of merchandise or residential development;

"(D) will not permit the construction or modification of facilities financed by non-Federal sources to be used by an agency, except for incidental use; and

"(E) will not include any property or facility required for any Department agency purpose without prior consideration of the needs of the agency.

"(2) Term.—The term of a lease under this section shall not exceed 30 years.

"(3) Consideration.—

"(A) In general.—Consideration provided for a lease under this section shall be—

"(i) in an amount equal to fair market value, as determined by the Secretary; and

"(ii) in the form of cash.

"(B) Use of funds.—

"(i) In general.—Consideration provided for a lease under this section shall be—

     "(I) deposited in a capital asset account to be established by the Secretary; and

     "(II) available until expended, without further appropriation, for maintenance, capital revitalization, and improvements of the Department properties and facilities at the Beltsville Agricultural Research Center and National Agricultural Library.

"(ii) Budgetary treatment.—For purposes of the budget, the amounts described in clause (i) shall not be treated as a receipt of any Department agency or any other agency leasing property under this section.

"(4) Costs.—The lessee shall cover all costs associated with a lease under this section, including the cost of—

"(A) the project to be carried out on property or at a facility covered by the lease;

"(B) provision and administration of the lease;

"(C) construction of any needed facilities;

"(D) provision of applicable utilities; and

"(E) any other facility cost normally associated with the operation of a leased facility.

"(5) Prohibition of use of appropriations.—The Secretary shall not use any funds made available to the Secretary in an appropriations Act for the construction or operating costs of any space covered by a lease under this section.

"(6) Termination of authority.—This section and the authority provided by this section terminate—

"(A) on September 30, 2023; or

"(B) with respect to any particular leased property, on the date of termination of the lease.

"(c) Effect of Other Laws.—

"(1) Utilization.—Property that is leased pursuant to this section shall not be considered to be unutilized or underutilized for purposes of section 501 of the Stewart B. McKinney Homeless Assistance Act [now the McKinney-Vento Homeless Assistance Act] (42 U.S.C. 11411).

"(2) Disposal.—Property at the Beltsville Agricultural Research Center or the National Agricultural Library that is leased pursuant to this section shall not be considered to be disposed of by sale, lease, rental, excessing, or surplusing for purposes of section 523 of Public Law 100–202 (101 Stat. 1329–417).

"(d) Administration.—

"(1) In general.—Not later than 90 days after the date of enactment of this section [June 18, 2008], the Secretary shall submit to the Committee on Agriculture of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry of the Senate a report that describes detailed management objectives and performance measurements by which the Secretary intends to evaluate the success of the program under this section.

"(2) Reports.—Not later than September 30, 2021, the Secretary shall submit to the Committee on Agriculture of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry of the Senate a report describing the implementation of the program under this section, including—

"(A) a copy of each lease entered into pursuant to this section; and

"(B) an assessment by the Secretary of the success of the program using the management objectives and performance measurements developed by the Secretary."

[Pub. L. 110–234 and Pub. L. 110–246 enacted identical provisions. Pub. L. 110–234 was repealed by section 4(a) of Pub. L. 110–246, set out as a note under section 8701 of this title.]

§3125a–1. Agricultural and food law research, legal tools, and information

(a) Partnerships

The Secretary of Agriculture, acting through the National Agricultural Library, shall support the dissemination of objective, scholarly, and authoritative agricultural and food law research, legal tools, and information by entering into cooperative agreements with institutions of higher education (as defined in section 1001 of title 20) that on February 7, 2014, are carrying out objective programs for research, legal tools, and information in agricultural and food law.

(b) Authorization of appropriations

There are authorized to be appropriated to carry out this section $5,000,000 for fiscal year 2014 and each fiscal year thereafter.

(Pub. L. 113–79, title VII, §7603, Feb. 7, 2014, 128 Stat. 911.)

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the Agricultural Act of 2014, and not as part of the National Agricultural Research, Extension, and Teaching Policy Act of 1977 which comprises this chapter.

§3125b. National Rural Information Center Clearinghouse

(a) Establishment

The Secretary shall establish, within the National Agricultural Library, in coordination with the National Institute of Food and Agriculture, a National Rural Information Center Clearinghouse (in this section referred to as the "Clearinghouse") to perform the functions specified in subsection (b).

(b) Functions

The Clearinghouse shall provide and distribute information and data to any industry, organization, or Federal, State, or local government entity, on request, about programs and services provided by Federal, State, and local agencies and private nonprofit organizations and institutions under which individuals residing in, or organizations and State and local government entities operating in, a rural area may be eligible for any kind of assistance, including job training, education, health care, and economic development assistance, and emotional and financial counseling. To the extent possible, the National Agricultural Library shall use telecommunications technology to disseminate information to rural areas.

(c) Federal agencies

On request of the Secretary, the head of a Federal agency shall provide to the Clearinghouse such information as the Secretary may request to enable the Clearinghouse to carry out subsection (b).

(d) State and local agencies and nonprofit organizations

The Secretary shall request State and local governments and private nonprofit organizations and institutions to provide to the Clearinghouse such information as such agencies and organizations may have about any program or service of such agencies, organizations, and institutions under which individuals residing in a rural area may be eligible for any kind of assistance, including job training, educational, health care, and economic development assistance, and emotional and financial counseling.

(e) Limitation on authorization of appropriations

To carry out this section, there are authorized to be appropriated $500,000 for each of the fiscal years 1991 through 2023.

(Pub. L. 101–624, title XXIII, §2381, Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 4049; Pub. L. 104–127, title VIII, §842, Apr. 4, 1996, 110 Stat. 1170; Pub. L. 105–185, title III, §301(b)(3), June 23, 1998, 112 Stat. 563; Pub. L. 107–171, title VII, §7101, May 13, 2002, 116 Stat. 431; Pub. L. 110–234, title VII, §§7212, 7511(c)(9), May 22, 2008, 122 Stat. 1242, 1268; Pub. L. 110–246, §4(a), title VII, §§7212, 7511(c)(9), June 18, 2008, 122 Stat. 1664, 2003, 2029; Pub. L. 113–79, title VII, §7217, Feb. 7, 2014, 128 Stat. 887; Pub. L. 115–334, title VII, §7215, Dec. 20, 2018, 132 Stat. 4814.)

Codification

Pub. L. 110–234 and Pub. L. 110–246 made identical amendments to this section. The amendments by Pub. L. 110–234 were repealed by section 4(a) of Pub. L. 110–246.

Section was enacted as part of the Rural Economic Development Act of 1990, and also as part of the Food, Agriculture, Conservation, and Trade Act of 1990, and not as part of the National Agricultural Research, Extension, and Teaching Policy Act of 1977 which comprises this chapter.

Amendments

2018—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 115–334 substituted "2023" for "2018".

2014—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 113–79 substituted "2018" for "2012".

2008—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 110–246, §7511(c)(9), substituted "National Institute of Food and Agriculture" for "Extension Service".

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 110–246, §7212, substituted "2012" for "2007".

2002—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 107–171 substituted "2007" for "2002".

1998—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 105–185 substituted "2002" for "1997".

1996—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 104–127 substituted "1997" for "1995".

Effective Date of 2008 Amendment

Amendment of this section and repeal of Pub. L. 110–234 by Pub. L. 110–246 effective May 22, 2008, the date of enactment of Pub. L. 110–234, except as otherwise provided, see section 4 of Pub. L. 110–246, set out as an Effective Date note under section 8701 of this title.

Amendment by section 7511(c)(9) of Pub. L. 110–246 effective Oct. 1, 2009, see section 7511(c) of Pub. L. 110–246, set out as a note under section 1522 of this title.

§3125c. Repealed. Pub. L. 104–127, title VIII, §859(a), Apr. 4, 1996, 110 Stat. 1173

Section, Pub. L. 101–624, title XIV, §1499A, as added Pub. L. 102–237, title II, §201(h)(1), Dec. 13, 1991, 105 Stat. 1847, related to education program regarding handling of agricultural chemicals and agricultural chemical containers.

§3126. Libraries and information network

(a) Congressional declaration of policy

It is declared to be the policy of Congress that—

(1) cooperation and coordination among, and the more effective utilization of, disparate agricultural libraries and information units be facilitated;

(2) information and library needs related to agricultural research and education be effectively planned for, coordinated, and evaluated;

(3) a structure for the coordination of the agricultural libraries of colleges and universities, Department of Agriculture libraries, and their closely allied information gathering and disseminating units be established in close conjunction with private industry and other research libraries;

(4) effective access by all colleges and universities and Department of Agriculture personnel to literature and information regarding the food and agricultural sciences be provided;

(5) programs for training in information utilization with respect to the food and agricultural sciences, including research grants for librarians, information scientists, and agricultural scientists be established or strengthened; and

(6) the Department of Agriculture establish mutually valuable working relationships with international and foreign information and data programs.

(b) Food and Nutrition and Education Resources Center

There is established within the National Agricultural Library of the Department of Agriculture a Food and Nutrition Information and Education Resources Center. Such Center shall be responsible for—

(1) assembling and collecting food and nutrition education materials, including the results of nutrition research, training methods, procedures, and other materials related to the purpose of this chapter;

(2) maintaining such information and materials in a library; and

(3) providing notification about these collections on a regular basis to the State cooperative extension services, State educational agencies, and other interested persons.

(c) Authorization of appropriations

Funds are authorized to be appropriated annually in such amounts as Congress may determine necessary to support the purposes of this section. The Secretary is authorized to carry out this section with existing facilities through the use of grants, contracts, or such other means as the Secretary deems appropriate and to require matching of funds. No funds appropriated to support the purposes of this section shall be used to purchase additional equipment unless specifically authorized by law subsequent to September 29, 1977.

(Pub. L. 95–113, title XIV, §1411, Sept. 29, 1977, 91 Stat. 990; Pub. L. 97–98, title XIV, §1412, Dec. 22, 1981, 95 Stat. 1302.)

References in Text

For definition of "this chapter", referred to in subsec. (b)(1), see note set out under section 3102 of this title.

Amendments

1981—Subsec. (a)(6). Pub. L. 97–98, §1412(1)–(3), added par. (6).

Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 97–98, §1412(4), substituted "notification about these collections on a regular basis to the State cooperative extension services, State educational agencies, and other interested persons" for "for the dissemination of such information and materials on a regular basis to State educational agencies and other interested persons".

Effective Date of 1981 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 97–98 effective Dec. 22, 1981, see section 1801 of Pub. L. 97–98, set out as an Effective Date note under section 4301 of this title.

Effective Date

Section effective Oct. 1, 1977, see section 1901 of Pub. L. 95–113, set out as an Effective Date of 1977 Amendment note under section 1307 of this title.

§3127. Support for Advisory Board

(a) Appointment of staff

To assist the Advisory Board in the performance of its duties, the Secretary may appoint, after consultation with the chairperson of the Advisory Board—

(1) a full-time executive director who shall perform such duties as the chairperson of the Advisory Board may direct and who shall receive compensation at a rate not to exceed the rate payable for GS–18 of the General Schedule established in section 5332 of title 5; and

(2) a professional staff of not more than five full-time employees qualified in the food and agricultural sciences, of which one shall serve as the executive secretary to the Advisory Board.

(b) Additional clerical assistance and staff personnel

The Secretary shall provide such additional clerical assistance and staff personnel as may be required to assist the Advisory Board in carrying out its duties.

(c) Assistance of outside personnel

In formulating its recommendations to the Secretary, the Advisory Board may obtain the assistance of Department of Agriculture employees, and, to the maximum extent practicable, the assistance of employees of other Federal departments and agencies conducting related programs of agricultural research, extension, and teaching and of appropriate representatives of colleges and universities, including State agricultural experiment stations, cooperative extension services, and other non-Federal organizations conducting significant programs in the food and agricultural sciences.

(Pub. L. 95–113, title XIV, §1412, Sept. 29, 1977, 91 Stat. 991; Pub. L. 97–98, title XIV, §1413, Dec. 22, 1981, 95 Stat. 1302; Pub. L. 101–624, title XVI, §1605(b)(1), Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 3713; Pub. L. 102–237, title IV, §402(5), Dec. 13, 1991, 105 Stat. 1863; Pub. L. 104–127, title VIII, §§852(b)(3), 853(b)(4), Apr. 4, 1996, 110 Stat. 1171, 1172; Pub. L. 105–185, title VI, §606(c)(1), June 23, 1998, 112 Stat. 603.)

Amendments

1998—Subsecs. (a), (b). Pub. L. 105–185, §606(c)(1)(A), substituted "its duties" for "their duties".

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 105–185, §606(c)(1)(B), substituted "its recommendations" for "their recommendations".

1996Pub. L. 104–127, §§852(b)(3)(A), 853(b)(4)(A), in section catchline, substituted "Advisory Board" for "Joint Council, Advisory Board, and Technology Board".

Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 104–127, §§852(b)(3)(B)(i), (ii), 853(b)(4)(B)(i), in introductory provisions, substituted "To assist the Advisory Board in" for "To assist the Joint Council, the Advisory Board, and the Technology Board in" and "with the chairperson of the Advisory Board" for "with the cochairpersons of the Joint Council and the chairperson of the Advisory Board and the Technology Board".

Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 104–127, §§852(b)(3)(B)(ii), 853(b)(4)(B)(i), substituted "the chairperson of the Advisory Board" for "the cochairpersons of the Joint Council and the chairperson of the Advisory Board and the Technology Board".

Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 104–127, §§852(b)(3)(B)(iii), 853(b)(4)(B)(ii), substituted "one shall serve as the executive secretary to the Advisory Board" for "one shall serve as the executive secretary to the Joint Council, one shall serve as the executive secretary to the Advisory Board, and one shall serve as the executive secretary to the Technology Board".

Subsecs. (b), (c). Pub. L. 104–127, §§852(b)(3)(C), 853(b)(4)(C), substituted "Advisory Board" for "Joint Council, Advisory Board, and Technology Board".

1991—Subsecs. (b), (c). Pub. L. 102–237 substituted ", Advisory Board, and Technology Board" for "and Advisory Board".

1990Pub. L. 101–624, §1605(b)(1)(A), amended section catchline generally.

Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 101–624, §1605(b)(1)(B), in introductory provision, substituted ", the Advisory Board, and the Technology Board" for "and the Advisory Board" and inserted "and the Technology Board" before the dash, in par. (1), inserted "and the Technology Board" before "may direct", and in par. (2), substituted "Council," for "Council and" and inserted before period at end ", and one shall serve as the executive secretary to the Technology Board".

Subsecs. (b), (c). Pub. L. 101–624, §1605(b)(1)(C), (D), which directed the substitution of ", the Advisory Board, and the Technology Board" for "and the Advisory Board", could not be executed because the phrase "and the Advisory Board" did not appear in text.

1981—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 97–98 inserted in provision preceding par. (1) provision requiring consultation with the cochairpersons of the Joint Council and the chairperson of the Advisory Board, redesignated former par. (2) as (1) and substituted provision that a full-time executive director perform such duties as the cochairpersons of the Joint Council and chairperson of the Advisory Board direct for provision that an executive director perform such duties as the chairman of the Joint Council and the chairman of the Advisory Board direct, and redesignated former par. (1) as (2) and inserted provision that one of the full-time staff serve as the executive secretary to the Joint Council and one serve as executive secretary to the Advisory Board.

Effective Date of 1981 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 97–98 effective Dec. 22, 1981, see section 1801 of Pub. L. 97–98, set out as an Effective Date note under section 4301 of this title.

Effective Date

Section effective Oct. 1, 1977, see section 1901 of Pub. L. 95–113, set out as an Effective Date of 1977 Amendment note under section 1307 of this title.

References in Other Laws to GS–16, 17, or 18 Pay Rates

References in laws to the rates of pay for GS–16, 17, or 18, or to maximum rates of pay under the General Schedule, to be considered references to rates payable under specified sections of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees, see section 529 [title I, §101(c)(1)] of Pub. L. 101–509, set out in a note under section 5376 of Title 5.

§3128. General provisions

(a) Vacancies in Advisory Board

Any vacancy in the Advisory Board shall not affect its duties under this title and shall be filled in the same manner as the original position.

(b) Compensation and expenses of members of Advisory Board

Members of the Advisory Board shall serve without compensation, if not otherwise officers or employees of the United States, except that they shall, while away from their homes or regular places of business in the performance of services under this chapter, be allowed travel expenses, including per diem in lieu of subsistence, in the same manner as persons employed intermittently in the Government service are allowed expenses under sections 5701 through 5707 of title 5.

(c) Authorization of appropriations

There are authorized to be appropriated annually such sums as Congress may determine necessary to carry out the provisions of section 3127 of this title and subsection (b) of this section.

(Pub. L. 95–113, title XIV, §1413, Sept. 29, 1977, 91 Stat. 991; Pub. L. 97–98, title XIV, §1414(a), Dec. 22, 1981, 95 Stat. 1303; Pub. L. 101–624, title XVI, §1605(b)(2), Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 3713; Pub. L. 103–354, title II, §218(e)(7), Oct. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 3213; Pub. L. 104–127, title VIII, §§852(b)(4), 853(b)(5), Apr. 4, 1996, 110 Stat. 1171, 1172; Pub. L. 105–185, title VI, §606(b), (c)(2), June 23, 1998, 112 Stat. 603, 604.)

References in Text

For definition of "this chapter", referred to in subsec. (b), see note set out under section 3102 of this title.

Amendments

1998—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 105–185, §606(c)(2), substituted "its duties" for "their powers".

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 105–185, §606(b), substituted "Advisory Board" for "Joint Council, the Advisory Board,".

1996—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 104–127, §§852(b)(4)(A), 853(b)(5)(A), substituted "the Advisory Board" for "the Joint Council, the Advisory Board, or the Technology Board".

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 104–127, §853(b)(5)(B), struck out "and the Technology Board" before "shall serve without".

Pub. L. 104–127, §852(b)(4)(B), which directed substitution of "Advisory Board" for "Joint Council, Advisory Board," could not be executed because those words did not appear in text.

1994—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 103–354 struck out subsec. (d) which read as follows: "The President shall appoint, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, an Assistant Secretary of Agriculture who shall perform such duties as are necessary to carry out this chapter and who shall receive compensation at the rate now or hereafter prescribed by law for Assistant Secretaries of Agriculture."

1990—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 101–624, §1605(b)(2)(A), substituted ", the Advisory Board, or the Technology Board" for "or the Advisory Board".

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 101–624, §1605(b)(2)(B), substituted ", the Advisory Board, and the Technology Board" for "and Advisory Board".

Subsecs. (d), (e). Pub. L. 101–624, §1605(b)(2)(C), redesignated subsec. (e) as (d) and struck out former subsec. (d) which read as follows: "The Subcommittee on Food, Agricultural, and Forestry Research, the Joint Council, and the Advisory Board shall improve communication and interaction among themselves and with others in the agricultural science and education system through such mechanisms as the exchange of reports, joint meetings, and the use of liaison representatives."

1981—Subsecs. (c) to (e). Pub. L. 97–98 added subsecs. (c) to (e).

Effective Date of 1981 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 97–98 effective Dec. 22, 1981, see section 1801 of Pub. L. 97–98, set out as an Effective Date note under section 4301 of this title.

Effective Date

Section effective Oct. 1, 1977, see section 1901 of Pub. L. 95–113, set out as an Effective Date of 1977 Amendment note under section 1307 of this title.

§3129. Accountability

(a) Review of information technology systems

The Secretary shall conduct a comprehensive review of state-of-the-art information technology systems that are available for use in developing the system required by subsection (b).

(b) Monitoring and evaluation system

The Secretary shall develop and carry out a system to monitor and evaluate agricultural research and extension activities conducted or supported by the Department of Agriculture that will enable the Secretary to measure the impact and effectiveness of research, extension, and education programs according to priorities, goals, and mandates established by law. In developing the system, the Secretary shall incorporate information transfer technologies to optimize public access to research information.

(c) Consistency with other requirements

The Secretary shall develop and implement the system in a manner consistent with the Government Performance and Results Act of 1993 (Public Law 103–62; 107 Stat. 285) and amendments made by the Act.

(d) Authorization of appropriations

There are authorized to be appropriated such sums as are necessary to carry out this section.

(Pub. L. 95–113, title XIV, §1413A, as added Pub. L. 104–127, title VIII, §804, Apr. 4, 1996, 110 Stat. 1160.)

References in Text

The Government Performance and Results Act of 1993, referred to in subsec. (c), is Pub. L. 103–62, Aug. 3, 1993, 107 Stat. 285, which enacted section 306 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees, sections 1115 to 1119, 9703, and 9704 of Title 31, Money and Finance, and sections 2801 to 2805 of Title 39, Postal Service, amended section 1105 of Title 31, and enacted provisions set out as notes under sections 1101 and 1115 of Title 31. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title of 1993 Amendment note set out under section 1101 of Title 31 and Tables.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 3129, Pub. L. 95–113, title XIV, §1413A, as added Pub. L. 96–294, title II, §255(a), June 30, 1980, 94 Stat. 707, provided for biomass energy educational and technical assistance programs, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 101–624, title XVI, §1601(f)(1)(C), Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 3704.

§3129a. Federal Advisory Committee Act exemption for competitive research, extension, and education programs

The Federal Advisory Committee Act (5 U.S.C. App.) and title XVIII of this Act [7 U.S.C. 2281 et seq.] shall not apply to any committee, board, commission, panel, or task force, or similar entity, created solely for the purpose of reviewing applications or proposals requesting funding under any competitive research, extension, or education program carried out by the Secretary.

(Pub. L. 95–113, title XIV, §1413B, as added Pub. L. 104–127, title VIII, §804, Apr. 4, 1996, 110 Stat. 1160.)

References in Text

The Federal Advisory Committee Act, referred to in text, is Pub. L. 92–463, Oct. 6, 1972, 86 Stat. 770, as amended, which is set out in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

Title XVIII of this Act, referred to in text, is title XVIII of the Food and Agriculture Act of 1977, Pub. L. 95–113, Sept. 29, 1977, 91 Stat. 1041, as amended, which is classified generally to chapter 55A (§2281 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title of 1977 Amendment note set out under section 1281 of this title and Tables.

§3130. Repealed. Pub. L. 104–127, title VIII, §858, Apr. 4, 1996, 110 Stat. 1173

Section, Pub. L. 101–624, title XIV, §1456, Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 3614, related to composting research and extension program.

SUBCHAPTER III—AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH AND EDUCATION GRANTS AND FELLOWSHIPS

§3151. Grants to enhance research capacity in schools of veterinary medicine

(a) Competitive grant program

(1) In general

The Secretary shall conduct a program of competitive grants to States for the purpose of meeting the costs of renovation, improving compliance with Federal regulations, employing faculty, acquiring equipment, and taking other action related to the improvement of schools of veterinary medicine to ensure agricultural competitiveness on a worldwide basis.

(2) Matching requirement

A State receiving a grant under paragraph (1) shall provide State matching funds equal to not less than the amount of the grant.

(b) Preference

Except with respect to the States of Alaska and Hawaii, the Secretary shall give preference in awarding grants to States which file, with their application for funds under this section, assurances satisfactory to the Secretary that—

(1) the State has established a veterinary medical training program with one or more States without colleges of veterinary medicine which consists of appropriate cooperative agreements providing for a sharing of curriculum and costs by the individual States;

(2) the clinical training of the school to be improved shall emphasize care and preventive medical programs for food animals and companion animals (including horses) which support industries of major economic importance; and

(3) the Secretary may set aside a portion of funds appropriated for the award of grants under this section and make such amounts available only for grants to eligible colleges and universities that the Secretary determines have unique capabilities for achieving the objective of full participation of minority groups in research in the Nation's schools of veterinary medicine.


Notwithstanding clause (1) of this subsection, no State which the Secretary determines has made a reasonable effort to establish appropriate cooperative agreements shall be denied a grant or otherwise prejudiced because of its failure to establish such cooperative agreements.

(c) Apportionment and distribution of funds

Funds appropriated to carry out this section for any fiscal year shall be apportioned and distributed as follows:

(1) Five per centum shall be retained by the Department of Agriculture for administration, program assistance to eligible States, and program coordination.

(2) The remainder shall be apportioned and distributed by the Secretary to those States which have applied for funds under this section on such basis as the Secretary may deem appropriate.

(Pub. L. 95–113, title XIV, §1415, Sept. 29, 1977, 91 Stat. 993; Pub. L. 97–98, title XIV, §1417, Dec. 22, 1981, 95 Stat. 1305; Pub. L. 99–198, title XIV, §1410, Dec. 23, 1985, 99 Stat. 1547; Pub. L. 101–624, title XVI, §1607(a), (b), Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 3716; Pub. L. 113–79, title VII, §7128(b)(1)(A), Feb. 7, 2014, 128 Stat. 878; Pub. L. 115–334, title VII, §7614(b)(1)(A), Dec. 20, 2018, 132 Stat. 4833.)

Amendments

2018—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 115–334 designated existing provisions as par. (1), inserted heading, and added par. (2).

2014—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 113–79 struck out "This grant program shall be based on a matching formula of 50 per centum Federal and 50 per centum State funding." at end.

1990Pub. L. 101–624, §1607(b)(1), amended section catchline generally.

Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 101–624, §1607(b)(1), inserted heading.

Pub. L. 101–624, §1607(a)(1), amended first sentence generally. Prior to amendment, first sentence read as follows: "The Secretary shall conduct a program of grants to States for the purpose of meeting the costs of construction, employing faculty, acquiring equipment, and taking other action relating to the initial establishment and initial operation of schools of veterinary medicine, or the expansion of existing schools of veterinary medicine, as determned [sic] by the Secretary by regulations."

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 101–624, §1607(b)(2), inserted heading.

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 101–624, §1607(a)(2), struck out ", or has made a reasonable effort to establish," after "established", and "and" after "States;".

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 101–624, §1607(a)(3), amended par. (2) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (2) read as follows: "the clinical training of the school to be established or expanded shall emphasize care and preventive medical programs for food-producing animals."

Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 101–624, §1607(a)(3), added par. (3).

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 101–624, §1607(b)(3), inserted heading.

1985—Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 99–198 substituted "Five" for "Four".

1981—Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 97–98 struck out proviso that not less than 50 per centum of such funds shall be made available to States which have accredited schools of veterinary medicine.

Effective Date of 2018 Amendment

Pub. L. 115–334, title VII, §7614(c), Dec. 20, 2018, 132 Stat. 4837, provided that:

"(1) Awards made after date of enactment.—The amendments made by subsections (a) [repealing section 3371 of this title] and (b) [amending this section and sections 3157, 3322, 3333, 5813, 5924, 5925, 5925b, 7626, 7632, and 8114 of this title] shall apply with respect to grants, cooperative agreements, or other awards described in subsection (b) that are made after the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 20, 2018].

"(2) Awards made on or before date of enactment.—Notwithstanding the amendments made by subsections (a) and (b), a matching funds requirement in effect on the day before the date of enactment of this Act under a provision of law amended by subsection (a) or (b) shall continue to apply to a grant, cooperative agreement, or other award described in subsection (b) that is made on or before the date of the enactment of this Act."

Effective Date of 2014 Amendment

Pub. L. 113–79, title VII, §7128(c)(2), Feb. 7, 2014, 128 Stat. 879, provided that: "Notwithstanding the amendments made by subsection (b) [amending this section and sections 3157, 3322, 3333, 5813, 5924, 5925, 5925b, 7626, 7632, and 8114 of this title], a matching funds requirement in effect on or before the date of the enactment of this section [Feb. 7, 2014] under a provision of a covered law shall continue to apply to a grant awarded under such provision on or before October 1, 2014."

Effective Date of 1981 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 97–98 effective Dec. 22, 1981, see section 1801 of Pub. L. 97–98, set out as an Effective Date note under section 4301 of this title.

Effective Date

Section effective Oct. 1, 1977, see section 1901 of Pub. L. 95–113, set out as an Effective Date of 1977 Amendment note under section 1307 of this title.

§3151a. Veterinary medicine loan repayment

(a) Program

(1) Service in shortage situations

The Secretary shall carry out a program of entering into agreements with veterinarians under which the veterinarians agree to provide, for a period of time as determined by the Secretary and specified in the agreement, veterinary services in veterinarian shortage situations. For each year of such service under an agreement under this paragraph, the Secretary shall pay an amount, as determined by the Secretary and specified in the agreement, of the principal and interest of qualifying educational loans of the veterinarians.

(2) Service to Federal Government in emergency situations

(A) In general

The Secretary may enter into agreements of 1 year duration with veterinarians who have agreements pursuant to paragraph (1) for such veterinarians to provide services to the Federal Government in emergency situations, as determined by the Secretary, under terms and conditions specified in the agreement. Pursuant to an agreement under this paragraph, the Secretary shall pay an amount, in addition to the amount paid pursuant to the agreement in paragraph (1), as determined by the Secretary and specified in the agreement, of the principal and interest of qualifying educational loans of the veterinarians.

(B) Requirements

Agreements entered into under this paragraph shall include the following:

(i) A veterinarian shall not be required to serve more than 60 working days per year of the agreement.

(ii) A veterinarian who provides service pursuant to the agreement shall receive a salary commensurate with the duties and shall be reimbursed for travel and per diem expenses as appropriate for the duration of the service.

(b) Determination of veterinarian shortage situations

In determining "veterinarian shortage situations", the Secretary may consider—

(1) geographical areas that the Secretary determines have a shortage of veterinarians; and

(2) areas of veterinary practice that the Secretary determines have a shortage of veterinarians, such as food animal medicine, public health, epidemiology, and food safety.

(c) Administration

(1) Authority

The Secretary may carry out this program directly or enter into agreements with another Federal agency or other service provider to assist in the administration of this program.

(2) Breach remedies

(A) In general

Agreements with program participants shall provide remedies for any breach of an agreement by a participant, including repayment or partial repayment of financial assistance received, with interest.

(B) Amounts recovered

Funds recovered under this subsection shall be credited to the account available to carry out this section and shall remain available until expended.

(3) Waiver

The Secretary may grant a waiver of the repayment obligation for breach of contract in the event of extreme hardship or extreme need, as determined by the Secretary.

(4) Amount

The Secretary shall develop regulations to determine the amount of loan repayment for a year of service by a veterinarian. In making the determination, the Secretary shall consider the extent to which such determination—

(A) affects the ability of the Secretary to maximize the number of agreements that can be provided under the Veterinary Medicine Loan Repayment Program from the amounts appropriated for such agreements; and

(B) provides an incentive to serve in veterinary service shortage areas with the greatest need.

(5) Qualifying educational loans

Loan repayments provided under this section may consist of payments on behalf of participating individuals of the principal and interest on government and commercial loans received by the individual for attendance of the individual at an accredited college of veterinary medicine resulting in a degree of Doctor of Veterinary Medicine or the equivalent, which loans were made for—

(A) tuition expenses;

(B) all other reasonable educational expenses, including fees, books, and laboratory expenses, incurred by the individual; or

(C) reasonable living expenses as determined by the Secretary.

(6) Repayment schedule

The Secretary may enter into an agreement with the holder of any loan for which payments are made under this section to establish a schedule for the making of such payments.

(7) Tax liability

In addition to educational loan repayments, the Secretary shall make such additional payments to participants as the Secretary determines to be appropriate for the purpose of providing reimbursements to participants for individual tax liability resulting from participation in this program.

(8) Priority

In administering the program, the Secretary shall give priority to agreements with veterinarians for the practice of food animal medicine in veterinarian shortage situations.

(d) Use of funds

None of the funds appropriated to the Secretary under subsection (f) may be used to carry out section 5379 of title 5.

(e) Regulations

Notwithstanding subchapter II of chapter 5 of title 5, not later than 270 days after the date of enactment of this subsection, the Secretary shall promulgate regulations to carry out this section.

(f) Authorization of appropriations

There are authorized to be appropriated for carrying out this section such sums as may be necessary and such sums shall remain available to the Secretary for the purposes of this section until expended.

(Pub. L. 95–113, title XIV, §1415A, as added Pub. L. 108–161, §2, Dec. 6, 2003, 117 Stat. 2014; amended Pub. L. 110–234, title VII, §7105(a), May 22, 2008, 122 Stat. 1216; Pub. L. 110–246, §4(a), title VII, §7105(a), June 18, 2008, 122 Stat. 1664, 1977.)

References in Text

The date of enactment of this subsection, referred to in subsec. (e), is the date of enactment of Pub. L. 110–246, which was approved June 18, 2008.

Codification

Pub. L. 110–234 and Pub. L. 110–246 made identical amendments to this section. The amendments by Pub. L. 110–234 were repealed by section 4(a) of Pub. L. 110–246.

Amendments

2008—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 110–246, §7105(a)(1), added subsec. (b) and struck out former subsec. (b) which authorized the Secretary to consider certain factors in determining "veterinarian shortage situations".

Subsec. (c)(8). Pub. L. 110–246, §7105(a)(2), added par. (8).

Subsecs. (d) to (f). Pub. L. 110–246, §7105(a)(3), (4), added subsecs. (d) and (e) and redesignated former subsec. (d) as (f).

Effective Date of 2008 Amendment

Amendment of this section and repeal of Pub. L. 110–234 by Pub. L. 110–246 effective May 22, 2008, the date of enactment of Pub. L. 110–234, see section 4 of Pub. L. 110–246, set out as an Effective Date note under section 8701 of this title.

§3151b. Veterinary services grant program

(a) Definitions

In this section:

(1) Qualified entity

The term "qualified entity" means—

(A) a for-profit or nonprofit entity located in the United States that, or an individual who, operates a veterinary clinic providing veterinary services—

(i) in a rural area, as defined in section 1991(a) of this title; and

(ii) in a veterinarian shortage situation;


(B) a State, national, allied, or regional veterinary organization or specialty board recognized by the American Veterinary Medical Association;

(C) a college or school of veterinary medicine accredited by the American Veterinary Medical Association;

(D) a university research foundation or veterinary medical foundation;

(E) a department of veterinary science or department of comparative medicine accredited by the Department of Education;

(F) a State agricultural experiment station; or

(G) a State, local, or tribal government agency.

(2) Veterinarian shortage situation

The term "veterinarian shortage situation" means a veterinarian shortage situation as determined by the Secretary under section 3151a of this title.

(b) Establishment

(1) Competitive grants

The Secretary shall carry out a program to make competitive grants to qualified entities that carry out programs or activities described in paragraph (2) for the purpose of developing, implementing, and sustaining veterinary services.

(2) Eligibility requirements

A qualified entity shall be eligible to receive a grant described in paragraph (1) if the entity carries out programs or activities that the Secretary determines will—

(A) substantially relieve veterinarian shortage situations;

(B) support or facilitate private veterinary practices engaged in public health activities; or

(C) support or facilitate the practices of veterinarians who are providing or have completed providing services under an agreement entered into with the Secretary under section 3151a(a)(2) of this title.

(c) Award processes and preferences

(1) Application, evaluation, and input processes

In administering the grant program established under this section, the Secretary shall—

(A) use an appropriate application and evaluation process, as determined by the Secretary; and

(B) seek the input of interested persons.

(2) Coordination preference

In selecting recipients of grants to be used for any of the purposes described in subsection (d)(1), the Secretary shall give a preference to qualified entities that provide documentation of coordination with other qualified entities, with respect to any such purpose.

(3) Consideration of available funds

In selecting recipients of grants to be used for any of the purposes described in subsection (d), the Secretary shall take into consideration the amount of funds available for grants and the purposes for which the grant funds will be used.

(4) Nature of grants

A grant awarded under this section shall be considered to be a competitive research, extension, or education grant.

(d) Use of grants to relieve veterinarian shortage situations and support veterinary services

(1) In general

Except as provided in paragraph (2), a qualified entity may use funds provided by a grant awarded under this section to relieve veterinarian shortage situations and support veterinary services for any of the following purposes:

(A) To promote recruitment (including for programs in secondary schools), placement, and retention of veterinarians, veterinary technicians, students of veterinary medicine, and students of veterinary technology.

(B) To allow veterinary students, veterinary interns, externs, fellows, and residents, and veterinary technician students to cover expenses (other than the types of expenses described in section 3151a(c)(5) of this title) to attend training programs in food safety or food animal medicine.

(C) To establish or expand accredited veterinary education programs (including faculty recruitment and retention), veterinary residency and fellowship programs, or veterinary internship and externship programs carried out in coordination with accredited colleges of veterinary medicine.

(D) To provide continuing education and extension, including veterinary telemedicine and other distance-based education, for veterinarians, veterinary technicians, and other health professionals needed to strengthen veterinary programs and enhance food safety.

(E) To provide technical assistance for the preparation of applications submitted to the Secretary for designation as a veterinarian shortage situation under this section or section 3151a of this title.

(F) To expose students in grades 11 and 12 to education and career opportunities in food animal medicine.

(2) Qualified entities operating veterinary clinics

A qualified entity described in subsection (a)(1)(A) may only use funds provided by a grant awarded under this section to establish or expand veterinary practices, including—

(A) equipping veterinary offices;

(B) sharing in the reasonable overhead costs of such veterinary practices, as determined by the Secretary; or

(C) establishing mobile veterinary facilities in which a portion of the facilities will address education or extension needs.

(e) Special requirements for certain grants

(1) Terms of service requirements

(A) In general

Funds provided through a grant made under this section to a qualified entity described in subsection (a)(1)(A) and used by such entity under subsection (d)(2) shall be subject to an agreement between the Secretary and such entity that includes a required term of service for such entity (including a qualified entity operating as an individual), as established by the Secretary.

(B) Considerations

In establishing a term of service under subparagraph (A), the Secretary shall consider only—

(i) the amount of the grant awarded; and

(ii) the specific purpose of the grant.

(2) Breach remedies

(A) In general

An agreement under paragraph (1) shall provide remedies for any breach of the agreement by the qualified entity referred to in paragraph (1)(A), including repayment or partial repayment of the grant funds, with interest.

(B) Waiver

The Secretary may grant a waiver of the repayment obligation for breach of contract if the Secretary determines that such qualified entity demonstrates extreme hardship or extreme need.

(C) Treatment of amounts recovered

Funds recovered under this paragraph shall—

(i) be credited to the account available to carry out this section; and

(ii) remain available until expended without further appropriation.

(f) Prohibition on use of grant funds for construction

Except as provided in subsection (d)(2), funds made available for grants under this section may not be used—

(1) to construct a new building or facility; or

(2) to acquire, expand, remodel, or alter an existing building or facility, including site grading and improvement and architect fees.

(g) Regulations

Not later than 1 year after February 7, 2014, the Secretary shall promulgate regulations to carry out this section.

(h) Authorization of appropriations

(1) In general

There are authorized to be appropriated to the Secretary to carry out this section $10,000,000 for fiscal year 2014 and each fiscal year thereafter, to remain available until expended.

(2) Priority

From amounts made available for grants under this section, the Secretary shall prioritize grant awards for programs or activities with a focus on the practice of food animal medicine.

(Pub. L. 95–113, title XIV, §1415B, as added Pub. L. 113–79, title VII, §7104, Feb. 7, 2014, 128 Stat. 866; amended Pub. L. 115–334, title VII, §7106, Dec. 20, 2018, 132 Stat. 4783.)

Amendments

2018—Subsec. (d)(1)(F). Pub. L. 115–334, §7106(1), added subpar. (F).

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 115–334, §7106(2), designated existing provisions as par. (1), inserted heading, and added par. (2).

§3152. Grants and fellowships for food and agricultural sciences education

(a) Higher education teaching programs

The Secretary shall promote and strengthen higher education in the food and agricultural sciences by formulating and administering programs to enhance college and university teaching programs in agriculture, natural resources, forestry, veterinary medicine, home economics, disciplines closely allied to the food and agricultural system, and rural economic, community, and business development.

(b) Grants

The Secretary may make competitive grants (or grants without regard to any requirement for competition) to land-grant colleges and universities (including the University of the District of Columbia), to colleges and universities having significant minority enrollments and a demonstrable capacity to carry out the teaching of food and agricultural sciences, and to other colleges and universities having a demonstrable capacity to carry out the teaching of food and agricultural sciences, for a period not to exceed 5 years—

(1) to strengthen institutional capacities, including curriculum, faculty, scientific instrumentation, instruction delivery systems, and student recruitment and retention, to respond to identified State, regional, national, or international educational needs in the food and agricultural sciences, or in rural economic, community, and business development;

(2) to attract and support undergraduate and graduate students in order to educate the students in national need areas of the food and agricultural sciences, or in rural economic, community, and business development;

(3) to facilitate cooperative initiatives between two or more eligible institutions, or between eligible institutions and units of State government or organizations in the private sector, to maximize the development and use of resources such as faculty, facilities, and equipment to improve food and agricultural sciences teaching programs, or teaching programs emphasizing rural economic, community, and business development;

(4) to design and implement food and agricultural programs, or programs emphasizing rural economic, community, and business development, to build teaching, research, and extension capacity at colleges and universities having significant minority enrollments;

(5) to conduct undergraduate scholarship programs to meet national and international needs for training food and agricultural scientists and professionals, or professionals in rural economic, community, and business development; and

(6) to conduct graduate and postdoctoral fellowship programs to attract highly promising individuals to research or teaching careers in the food and agricultural sciences.

(c) Priorities

In awarding grants under subsection (b), the Secretary shall give priority to—

(1) applications for teaching enhancement projects that demonstrate enhanced coordination among all types of institutions eligible for funding under this section; and

(2) applications for teaching enhancement projects that focus on innovative, multidisciplinary education programs, material, and curricula.

(d) Eligibility for grants

(1) In general

To be eligible for a grant under subsection (b), a recipient institution must have a significant demonstrable commitment to higher education teaching programs in the food and agricultural sciences, or in rural economic, community, and business development, and to each specific subject area for which the grant is to be used.

(2) Minority groups

The Secretary may set aside a portion of the funds appropriated for the awarding of grants under subsection (b), and make such amounts available only for grants to eligible colleges and universities (including the University of the District of Columbia) that the Secretary determines have unique capabilities for achieving the objective of full representation of minority groups in the food and agricultural sciences workforce, or in the rural economic, community, and business development workforce, of the United States.

(3) Research foundations

An eligible college or university under subsection (b) includes a research foundation maintained by the college or university.

(e) Food and agricultural education information system

From amounts made available for grants under this section, the Secretary may maintain a national food and agricultural education information system that contains—

(1) information on enrollment, degrees awarded, faculty, and employment placement in the food and agricultural sciences; and

(2) such other similar information as the Secretary considers appropriate.

(f) Evaluation of teaching programs

The Secretary shall conduct programs to develop, analyze, and provide to colleges and universities data and information that are essential to the evaluation of the quality of teaching programs and to facilitate the design of more effective programs comprising the food and agricultural sciences higher education system of the United States.

(g) Continuing education

The Secretary shall conduct special programs with colleges and universities, and with organizations in the private sector, to support educational initiatives to enable food and agricultural scientists and professionals to maintain their knowledge of changing technology, the expanding knowledge base, societal issues, and other factors that impact the skills and competencies needed to maintain the expertise base available to the agricultural system of the United States. The special programs shall include grants and technical assistance.

(h) Transfers of funds and functions

Funds authorized in section 22 of the Act of June 29, 1935 (49 Stat. 439, chapter 338; 7 U.S.C. 329) are transferred to and shall be administered by the Secretary of Agriculture. There are transferred to the Secretary all the functions and duties of the Secretary of Education under such Act applicable to the activities and programs for which funds are made available under section 22 of such Act.

(i) National Food and Agricultural Sciences Teaching, Extension, and Research Awards

(1) Establishment

(A) In general

The Secretary shall establish a National Food and Agricultural Sciences Teaching, Extension, and Research Awards program to recognize and promote excellence in teaching, extension, and research in the food and agricultural sciences at a college or university.

(B) Minimum requirement

The Secretary shall make at least 1 cash award in each fiscal year to a nominee selected by the Secretary for excellence in each of the areas of teaching, extension, and research of food and agricultural science at a college or university.

(2) Funding

The Secretary may transfer funds from amounts appropriated for the conduct of any agricultural research, extension, or teaching program to an account established pursuant to this section for the purpose of making the awards. The Secretary may accept gifts in accordance with section 2269 of this title for the purpose of making the awards.

(j) Secondary education, 2-year postsecondary education, and agriculture in the K–12 classroom

(1) Definitions

In this subsection:

(A) Institution of higher education

The term "institution of higher education" has the meaning given the term in section 1001 of title 20.

(B) Secondary school

The term "secondary school" has the meaning given the term in section 7801 of title 20.

(2) Agriscience and agribusiness education

The Secretary shall—

(A) promote and strengthen secondary education and 2-year postsecondary education in agriscience and agribusiness in order to help ensure the existence in the United States of a qualified workforce to serve the food and agricultural sciences system; and

(B) promote complementary and synergistic linkages among secondary, 2-year postsecondary, and higher education programs in the food and agricultural sciences in order to promote excellence in education and encourage more young Americans to pursue and complete a baccalaureate or higher degree in the food and agricultural sciences.

(3) Grants

The Secretary may make competitive or noncompetitive grants, for grant periods not to exceed 5 years, to public secondary schools, institutions of higher education that award an associate's degree, other institutions of higher education, and nonprofit organizations, that the Secretary determines have made a commitment to teaching agriscience and agribusiness—

(A) to enhance curricula in agricultural education;

(B) to increase faculty teaching competencies;

(C) to interest young people in pursuing higher education in order to prepare for scientific and professional careers in the food and agricultural sciences;

(D) to promote the incorporation of agriscience and agribusiness subject matter into other instructional programs, particularly classes in science, business, and consumer education;

(E) to facilitate joint initiatives by the grant recipient with other secondary schools, institutions of higher education that award an associate's degree, and institutions of higher education that award a bachelor's degree to maximize the development and use of resources, such as faculty, facilities, and equipment, to improve agriscience and agribusiness education;

(F) to support other initiatives designed to meet local, State, regional, or national needs related to promoting excellence in agriscience and agribusiness education; and

(G) to support current agriculture in the classroom programs for grades K–12.

(k) Administration

The Federal Advisory Committee Act and title XVIII of the Food and Agriculture Act of 1977 (7 U.S.C. 2281 et seq.) shall not apply to a panel or board created for the purpose of reviewing applications and proposals for grants or nominations for awards submitted under this section.

(l) Report

The Secretary shall submit to the Committee on Agriculture of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry of the Senate a biennial report detailing the distribution of funds used to implement the teaching programs under subsection (j).

(m) Authorization of appropriations

There are authorized to be appropriated for carrying out this section—

(1) $60,000,000 for each of fiscal years 1990 through 2013; and

(2) $40,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2014 through 2023.

(Pub. L. 95–113, title XIV, §1417, Sept. 29, 1977, 91 Stat. 996; Pub. L. 97–98, title XIV, §1418, Dec. 22, 1981, 95 Stat. 1305; Pub. L. 99–198, title XIV, §1412, Dec. 23, 1985, 99 Stat. 1548; Pub. L. 101–624, title XVI, §1608, Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 3716; Pub. L. 102–237, title IV, §402(6), Dec. 13, 1991, 105 Stat. 1863; Pub. L. 104–127, title VIII, §805, Apr. 4, 1996, 110 Stat. 1160; Pub. L. 105–185, title II, §223, title III, §301(a)(1), June 23, 1998, 112 Stat. 539, 562; Pub. L. 105–244, title I, §102(a)(1)(B), Oct. 7, 1998, 112 Stat. 1617; Pub. L. 107–110, title X, §1076(c), Jan. 8, 2002, 115 Stat. 2091; Pub. L. 107–171, title VII, §7102, May 13, 2002, 116 Stat. 431; Pub. L. 110–234, title VII, §§7106–7109(c), May 22, 2008, 122 Stat. 1217, 1218; Pub. L. 110–246, §4(a), title VII, §§7106–7109(c), June 18, 2008, 122 Stat. 1664, 1978, 1979; Pub. L. 113–79, title VII, §7105, Feb. 7, 2014, 128 Stat. 869; Pub. L. 114–95, title IX, §9215(ll), Dec. 10, 2015, 129 Stat. 2175; Pub. L. 115–334, title VII, §7107, Dec. 20, 2018, 132 Stat. 4783.)

References in Text

The Act of June 29, 1935, referred to in subsec. (h), is act June 29, 1935, ch. 338, 49 Stat. 436, popularly known as the Bankhead-Jones Act and also as the Agricultural Research Act. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title of 1935 Amendment note under section 3101 of this title and Tables.

The Federal Advisory Committee Act, referred to in subsec. (k), is Pub. L. 92–463, Oct. 6, 1972, 86 Stat. 770, as amended, which is set out in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

The Food and Agriculture Act of 1977, referred to in subsec. (k), is Pub. L. 95–113, Sept. 29, 1977, 91 Stat. 913, as amended. Title XVIII of the Act is classified generally to chapter 55A (§2281 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title of 1977 Amendment note set out under section 1281 of this title and Tables.

Codification

Pub. L. 110–234 and Pub. L. 110–246 made identical amendments to this section. The amendments by Pub. L. 110–234 were repealed by section 4(a) of Pub. L. 110–246.

Amendments

2018—Subsec. (m)(2). Pub. L. 115–334 substituted "2023" for "2018".

2015—Subsec. (j)(1)(B). Pub. L. 114–95 made technical amendment to reference in original act which appears in text as reference to section 7801 of title 20.

2014—Subsec. (m). Pub. L. 113–79 substituted "section—" for "section $60,000,000 for each of the fiscal years 1990 through 2012." and added pars. (1) and (2).

2008—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 110–246, §7106(1), inserted "(including the University of the District of Columbia)" after "land-grant colleges and universities" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (b)(4). Pub. L. 110–246, §7107, substituted "teaching, research, and extension" for "teaching and research".

Subsec. (d)(2). Pub. L. 110–246, §7106(2), inserted "(including the University of the District of Columbia)" after "universities".

Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 110–246, §7108(1), substituted "Teaching, Extension, and Research Awards" for "Teaching Awards" in heading.

Subsec. (i)(1). Pub. L. 110–246, §7108(2), added par. (1) and struck out former par. (1). Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "The Secretary shall establish a National Food and Agricultural Sciences Teaching Awards program to recognize and promote excellence in teaching food and agricultural sciences at a college or university. The Secretary shall make at least one cash award in each fiscal year to a nominee selected by the Secretary for excellence in teaching a food and agricultural science at a college or university."

Subsec. (j). Pub. L. 110–246, §7109(a)(1), substituted "Secondary education, 2-year postsecondary education, and agriculture in the K–12 classroom" for "Secondary education and 2-year postsecondary education teaching programs" in heading.

Subsec. (j)(3). Pub. L. 110–246, §7109(a)(2)(A), substituted "secondary schools, institutions of higher education that award an associate's degree, other institutions of higher education, and nonprofit organizations" for "secondary schools, and institutions of higher education that award an associate's degree" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (j)(3)(G). Pub. L. 110–246, §7109(a)(2)(B)–(D), added subpar. (G).

Subsec. (l). Pub. L. 110–246, §7109(b)(2), added subsec. (l). Former subsec. (l) redesignated (m).

Subsec. (m). Pub. L. 110–246, §7109(b)(1), (c), redesignated subsec. (l) as (m) and substituted "2012" for "2007".

2002—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 107–171, §7102(1), struck out "and" after "home economics," and inserted ", and rural economic, community, and business development" before period at end.

Subsec. (b)(1), (2). Pub. L. 107–171, §7102(2)(A), (B), inserted ", or in rural economic, community, and business development" before semicolon.

Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 107–171, §7102(2)(C), inserted ", or teaching programs emphasizing rural economic, community, and business development" before semicolon.

Subsec. (b)(4). Pub. L. 107–171, §7102(2)(D), inserted ", or programs emphasizing rural economic, community, and business development," after "agricultural programs".

Subsec. (b)(5). Pub. L. 107–171, §7102(2)(E), inserted ", or professionals in rural economic, community, and business development" before semicolon.

Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 107–171, §7102(3)(A), inserted ", or in rural economic, community, and business development," after "food and agricultural sciences".

Subsec. (d)(2). Pub. L. 107–171, §7102(3)(B), inserted ", or in the rural economic, community, and business development workforce," after "food and agricultural sciences workforce".

Subsec. (j)(1)(B). Pub. L. 107–110 substituted "7801" for "8801(25)".

Subsec. (l). Pub. L. 107–171, §7102(4), substituted "2007" for "2002".

1998—Subsecs. (c), (d). Pub. L. 105–185, §223(1), (2), added subsec. (c) and redesignated former subsec. (c) as (d). Former subsec. (d) redesignated (f).

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 105–185, §223(3), added subsec. (e). Former subsec. (e) redesignated (g).

Subsecs. (f) to (i). Pub. L. 105–185, §223(1), redesignated subsecs. (d) to (g) as (f) to (i), respectively. Former subsecs. (h) and (i) redesignated (j) and (k), respectively.

Subsec. (j). Pub. L. 105–185, §223(1), redesignated subsec. (h) as (j). Former subsec. (j) redesignated (l).

Subsec. (j)(1)(A). Pub. L. 105–244 substituted "section 1001 of title 20" for "section 1141(a) of title 20".

Subsec. (k). Pub. L. 105–185, §223(1), redesignated subsec. (i) as (k).

Subsec. (l). Pub. L. 105–185, §301(a)(1), substituted "2002" for "1997".

Pub. L. 105–185, §223(1), redesignated subsec. (j) as (l).

1996—Subsec. (b)(4). Pub. L. 104–127, §805(a), added par. (4) and struck out former par. (4) which read as follows: "to design and implement innovative food and agricultural educational programs;".

Subsec. (c)(3). Pub. L. 104–127, §805(b), added par. (3).

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 104–127, §805(d)(2), added subsec. (h). Former subsec. (h) redesignated (i).

Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 104–127, §805(d)(1), redesignated subsec. (h) as (i). Former subsec. (i) redesignated (j).

Pub. L. 104–127, §805(c), substituted "1997" for "1995".

Subsec. (j). Pub. L. 104–127, §805(d)(1), redesignated subsec. (i) as (j).

1991—Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 102–237 struck out at end "Of amounts appropriated to carry out this section for a fiscal year, not less than $10,000,000 shall be used for the national needs graduate fellowship program referred to in subsection (b)(6) of this section."

1990Pub. L. 101–624 amended section generally, substituting present provisions for provisions which established grant categories for promotion and development of higher education in food and agricultural sciences, provided for program of predoctoral and postdoctoral fellowships in food and agricultural sciences, provided for transfer of funds, functions and duties to Secretary of Agriculture, authorized appropriations to carry out the section, and provided for nonapplicability of certain Federal laws to any panel or board created to review applications submitted under the section.

1985—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 99–198, §1412(a)(1), substituted "Each" for "Such grants shall be made without regard to matching funds, but each".

Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 99–198, §1412(a)(2), substituted "Each recipient institution shall have a significant ongoing commitment to the food and agricultural sciences generally and to the specific subject area for which such grant is to be used." for "Such grants shall be made without regard to matching funds provided by recipients."

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 99–198, §1412(b), amended subsec. (d) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (d) read as follows: "There are hereby authorized to be appropriated for the purposes of carrying out the provisions of this section $25,000,000 for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1978, $30,000,000 for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1979, $35,000,000 for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1980, $40,000,000 for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1981, and $50,000,000 for each of the fiscal years ending September 30, 1982, September 30, 1983, September 30, 1984, and September 30, 1985, and not in excess of such sums as may after the date of enactment of this title be authorized by law for any subsequent fiscal year."

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 99–198, §1412(c), added subsec. (e).

1981—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 97–98, §1418(a), substituted provisions authorizing the Secretary to promote and develop higher education in the food and agricultural science by formulating and administering higher education programs, to make grants to land-grant colleges and universities and other institutions capable of teaching food and agricultural education for specified purposes for a period not to exceed five years without regard to matching funds and to make competitive grants to colleges and universities to develop or administer programs to meet unique food and agricultural educational problems, and to administer and conduct specialized programs and graduate fellowship programs for a period not to exceed five years without regard to matching funds for provisions relating to competitive grants to all colleges and universities for the purpose of furthering education in the food and agricultural sciences in two specified categories.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 97–98 inserted provisions relating to the transfer to the Secretary of all the functions and duties of the Secretary of Education under the act of June 29, 1935, applicable to the activities and programs for which funds are made available under section 329 of this title.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 97–98, §1418(c), inserted provisions relating to the authorization of appropriations for fiscal years ending Sept. 30, 1983, Sept. 30, 1984, and Sept. 30, 1985.

Effective Date of 2015 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 114–95 effective Dec. 10, 2015, except with respect to certain noncompetitive programs and competitive programs, see section 5 of Pub. L. 114–95, set out as a note under section 6301 of Title 20, Education.

Effective Date of 2008 Amendment

Amendment of this section and repeal of Pub. L. 110–234 by Pub. L. 110–246 effective May 22, 2008, the date of enactment of Pub. L. 110–234, except as otherwise provided, see section 4 of Pub. L. 110–246, set out as an Effective Date note under section 8701 of this title.

Pub. L. 110–234, title VII, §7109(d), May 22, 2008, 122 Stat. 1218, and Pub. L. 110–246, §4(a), title VII, §7109(d), June 18, 2008, 122 Stat. 1664, 1979, provided that: "The amendments made by subsection (a) [amending this section] take effect on October 1, 2008."

[Pub. L. 110–234 and Pub. L. 110–246 enacted identical provisions. Pub. L. 110–234 was repealed by section 4(a) of Pub. L. 110–246, set out as a note under section 8701 of this title.]

Effective Date of 2002 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 107–110 effective Jan. 8, 2002, except with respect to certain noncompetitive programs and competitive programs, see section 5 of Pub. L. 107–110, set out as an Effective Date note under section 6301 of Title 20, Education.

Effective Date of 1998 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 105–244 effective Oct. 1, 1998, except as otherwise provided in Pub. L. 105–244, see section 3 of Pub. L. 105–244, set out as a note under section 1001 of Title 20, Education.

Effective Date of 1981 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 97–98 effective Dec. 22, 1981, see section 1801 of Pub. L. 97–98, set out as an Effective Date note under section 4301 of this title.

Effective Date

Section effective Oct. 1, 1977, see section 1901 of Pub. L. 95–113, set out as an Effective Date of 1977 Amendment note under section 1307 of this title.

§3153. National Agricultural Science Award

(a) Establishment

The Secretary shall establish the National Agricultural Science Award for research or advanced studies in the food and agricultural sciences, including the social sciences. Two such awards, one for each of the categories described in subsection (d) of this section, shall be made in each fiscal year.

(b) Amount and term

The awards shall not exceed $50,000 per year for a period of not to exceed three years to support research or study by the recipient.

(c) Eligibility

The awards shall be open to persons in agricultural research, extension, teaching, or any combination thereof.

(d) Categories

Awards under this section shall be made in each fiscal year in two categories as follows:

(1) to a scientist in recognition of outstanding contributions to the advancement of the food and agricultural sciences; and

(2) to a research scientist in early career development or a graduate student, in recognition of demonstrated capability and promise of significant future achievement in the food and agricultural sciences.

(e) Nominating and selection committees

The Secretary may establish such nominating and selection committees, to consist of scientists and others, to receive nominations and make recommendations for awards under this section, as the Secretary deems appropriate.

(Pub. L. 95–113, title XIV, §1418, Sept. 29, 1977, 91 Stat. 997; Pub. L. 97–98, title XIV, §1420(a), Dec. 22, 1981, 95 Stat. 1306.)

Amendments

1981—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 97–98, §1420(a)(2), substituted "Science Award" for "Research Award", and "subsection (d)" for "subsection (c)".

Subsecs. (c) to (e). Pub. L. 97–98, §1420(a)(3), (4), added subsec. (c) and redesignated former subsecs. (c) and (d) as (d) and (e), respectively.

Effective Date of 1981 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 97–98 effective Dec. 22, 1981, see section 1801 of Pub. L. 97–98, set out as an Effective Date note under section 4301 of this title.

Effective Date

Section effective Oct. 1, 1977, see section 1901 of Pub. L. 95–113, set out as an Effective Date of 1977 Amendment note under section 1307 of this title.

§3154. Repealed. Pub. L. 110–234, title VII, §7110(a), May 22, 2008, 122 Stat. 1218, and Pub. L. 110–246, §4(a), title VII, §7110(a), June 18, 2008, 122 Stat. 1664, 1980

Section, Pub. L. 95–113, title XIV, §1419, Sept. 29, 1977, 91 Stat. 997; Pub. L. 96–294, title II, §252, June 30, 1980, 94 Stat. 705; Pub. L. 97–98, title XIV, §1422, Dec. 22, 1981, 95 Stat. 1306; Pub. L. 101–624, title XVI, §1609(a), Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 3718; Pub. L. 102–237, title IV, §402(7), Dec. 13, 1991, 105 Stat. 1863; Pub. L. 104–127, title VIII, §806, Apr. 4, 1996, 110 Stat. 1162; Pub. L. 105–185, title III, §301(a)(2), June 23, 1998, 112 Stat. 562; Pub. L. 107–171, title VII, §§7134, 7209(b), May 13, 2002, 116 Stat. 436, 445, related to grants for research on production and marketing of alcohols and industrial hydrocarbons from agricultural commodities and forest products.

Codification

Pub. L. 110–234 and Pub. L. 110–246 repealed this section. Pub. L. 110–234 was repealed by section 4(a) of Pub. L. 110–246.

Effective Date of Repeal

Repeal of this section and repeal of Pub. L. 110–234 by Pub. L. 110–246 effective May 22, 2008, the date of enactment of Pub. L. 110–234, see section 4 of Pub. L. 110–246, set out as an Effective Date note under section 8701 of this title.

§3155. Agricultural and food policy research centers

(a) In general

Consistent with this section, the Secretary shall, acting through the Office of the Chief Economist, make competitive grants to, or enter into cooperative agreements with, policy research centers described in subsection (b) to conduct research and education programs that are objective, operationally independent, and external to the Federal Government and that concern the effect of public policies and trade agreements on—

(1) the farm and agricultural sectors (including commodities, livestock, dairy, and specialty crops);

(2) the environment;

(3) rural families, households, and economies; and

(4) consumers, food, and nutrition.

(b) Eligible recipients

An entity eligible to apply for funding under subsection (a) is a State agricultural experiment station, college or university, or other public research institution or organization that has a history of providing—

(1) unbiased, nonpartisan economic analysis to Congress on the areas specified in paragraphs (1) through (4) of subsection (a); or

(2) objective, scientific information to Federal agencies and the public to support and enhance efficient, accurate implementation of Federal drought preparedness and drought response programs, including interagency thresholds used to determine eligibility for mitigation or emergency assistance.

(c) Preference

In making awards under this section, the Secretary shall give a preference to policy research centers that have—

(1) extensive databases, models, and demonstrated experience in providing Congress with agricultural market projections, rural development analysis, agricultural policy analysis, and baseline projections at the farm, multiregional, national, and international levels; or

(2) information, analysis, and research relating to drought mitigation.

(d) Activities

Under this section, funding may be provided for disciplinary and interdisciplinary research and education concerning policy research activities consistent with this section, including activities that—

(1) quantify the implications of public policies and regulations;

(2) develop theoretical and applied research methods;

(3) collect, analyze, and disseminate data for policymakers, analysts, and individuals; and

(4) develop programs to train analysts.

(e) Authorization of appropriations

There are authorized to be appropriated to carry out this section $10,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2014 through 2023.

(Pub. L. 95–113, title XIV, §1419A, as added Pub. L. 104–127, title VIII, §807, Apr. 4, 1996, 110 Stat. 1162; amended Pub. L. 105–185, title II, §224, title III, §301(a)(3), June 23, 1998, 112 Stat. 540, 562; Pub. L. 107–171, title VII, §§7103, 7216, May 13, 2002, 116 Stat. 432, 449; Pub. L. 110–234, title VII, §7111, May 22, 2008, 122 Stat. 1219; Pub. L. 110–246, §4(a), title VII, §7111, June 18, 2008, 122 Stat. 1664, 1980; Pub. L. 113–79, title VII, §7106, Feb. 7, 2014, 128 Stat. 869; Pub. L. 115–334, title VII, §7108, Dec. 20, 2018, 132 Stat. 4783.)

Codification

Pub. L. 110–234 and Pub. L. 110–246 made identical amendments to this section. The amendments by Pub. L. 110–234 were repealed by section 4(a) of Pub. L. 110–246.

Amendments

2018—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 115–334 substituted "2023" for "2018".

2014Pub. L. 113–79, §7106(1), substituted "Agricultural and food policy" for "Policy" in section catchline.

Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 113–79, §7106(2), substituted "Secretary shall, acting through the Office of the Chief Economist, make competitive grants to, or enter into cooperative agreements with," for "Secretary may make grants, competitive grants, and special research grants to, and enter into cooperative agreements and other contracting instruments with," in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 113–79, §7106(3), added subsec. (b) and struck out former subsec. (b). Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "State agricultural experiment stations, colleges and universities, other research institutions and organizations (including the Food Agricultural Policy Research Institute, the Agricultural and Food Policy Center, the Rural Policy Research Institute, and the National Drought Mitigation Center), private organizations, corporations, and individuals shall be eligible to apply for funding under subsection (a) of this section."

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 113–79, §7106(5), added subsec. (c). Former subsec. (c) redesignated (d).

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 113–79, §7106(4), redesignated subsec. (c) as (d). Former subsec. (d) redesignated (e).

Subsec. (d)(2). Pub. L. 113–79, §7106(6), inserted "applied" after "theoretical and".

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 113–79, §7106(7), added subsec. (e) and struck out former subsec. (e). Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "There are authorized to be appropriated such sums as are necessary to carry out this section for each of fiscal years 1996 through 2012."

Pub. L. 113–79, §7106(4), redesignated subsec. (d) as (e).

2008—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 110–246, §7111(1), inserted "(including commodities, livestock, dairy, and specialty crops)" after "agricultural sectors".

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 110–246, §7111(2), inserted "(including the Food Agricultural Policy Research Institute, the Agricultural and Food Policy Center, the Rural Policy Research Institute, and the National Drought Mitigation Center)" after "research institutions and organizations".

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 110–246, §7111(3), substituted "2012" for "2007".

2002—Subsec. (c)(3). Pub. L. 107–171, §7216, substituted "collect, analyze, and disseminate data" for "collect and analyze data".

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 107–171, §7103, substituted "2007" for "2002".

1998—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 105–185, §224, inserted "and trade agreements" after "public policies" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 105–185, §301(a)(3), substituted "each of fiscal years 1996 through 2002" for "fiscal years 1996 and 1997".

Effective Date of 2008 Amendment

Amendment of this section and repeal of Pub. L. 110–234 by Pub. L. 110–246 effective May 22, 2008, the date of enactment of Pub. L. 110–234, see section 4 of Pub. L. 110–246, set out as an Effective Date note under section 8701 of this title.

§3156. Education grants to Alaska Native serving institutions and Native Hawaiian serving institutions

(a) Education grants program for Alaska Native serving institutions

(1) Grant authority

The Secretary of Agriculture may make competitive grants to Alaska Native serving institutions for the purpose of promoting and strengthening the ability of Alaska Native serving institutions to carry out education, applied research, and related community development programs.

(2) Use of grant funds

Grants made under this section shall be used—

(A) to support the activities of consortia of Alaska Native serving institutions to enhance educational equity for under represented students;

(B) to strengthen institutional educational capacities, including libraries, curriculum, faculty, scientific instrumentation, instruction delivery systems, and student recruitment and retention, in order to respond to identified State, regional, national, or international educational needs in the food and agriculture sciences;

(C) to attract and support undergraduate and graduate students from under represented groups in order to prepare them for careers related to the food, agricultural, and natural resource systems of the United States, beginning with the mentoring of students at the high school level including by village elders and continuing with the provision of financial support for students through their attainment of a doctoral degree; and

(D) to facilitate cooperative initiatives between two or more Alaska Native serving institutions, or between Alaska Native serving institutions and units of State government or the private sector, to maximize the development and use of resources, such as faculty, facilities, and equipment, to improve food and agricultural sciences teaching programs.

(3) Authorization of appropriations

There are authorized to be appropriated to make grants under this subsection $10,000,000 in fiscal years 2001 through 2023.

(b) Education grants program for Native Hawaiian serving institutions

(1) Grant authority

The Secretary of Agriculture may make competitive grants to Native Hawaiian serving institutions for the purpose of promoting and strengthening the ability of Native Hawaiian serving institutions to carry out education, applied research, and related community development programs.

(2) Use of grant funds

Grants made under this section shall be used—

(A) to support the activities of consortia of Native Hawaiian serving institutions to enhance educational equity for under represented students, including permitting consortia to designate fiscal agents for the members of the consortia and to allocate among the members funds made available under this section;

(B) to strengthen institutional educational capacities, including libraries, curriculum, faculty, scientific instrumentation, instruction delivery systems, and student recruitment and retention, in order to respond to identified State, regional, national, or international educational needs in the food and agriculture sciences;

(C) to attract and support undergraduate and graduate students from under represented groups in order to prepare them for careers related to the food, agricultural, and natural resource systems of the United States, beginning with the mentoring of students at the high school level and continuing with the provision of financial support for students through their attainment of a doctoral degree; and

(D) to facilitate cooperative initiatives between two or more Native Hawaiian serving institutions, or between Native Hawaiian serving institutions and units of State government or the private sector, to maximize the development and use of resources, such as faculty, facilities, and equipment, to improve food and agricultural sciences teaching programs.

(3) Authorization of appropriations

There are authorized to be appropriated to make grants under this subsection $10,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2001 through 2023.

(Pub. L. 95–113, title XIV, §1419B, formerly Pub. L. 106–78, title VII, §759, Oct. 22, 1999, 113 Stat. 1172; renumbered Pub. L. 95–113, §1419B, and amended Pub. L. 110–234, title VII, §7112, May 22, 2008, 122 Stat. 1219, and Pub. L. 110–246, §4(a), title VII, §7112, June 18, 2008, 122 Stat. 1664, 1980; Pub. L. 113–79, title VII, §7107, Feb. 7, 2014, 128 Stat. 870; Pub. L. 115–334, title VII, §7109, Dec. 20, 2018, 132 Stat. 4783.)

Codification

Pub. L. 110–234 and Pub. L. 110–246 both renumbered this section as section 1419B of Pub. L. 95–113 and made identical amendments to this section. Pub. L. 110–234 was repealed by section 4(a) of Pub. L. 110–246.

Section was formerly classified to section 3242 of this title.

Amendments

2018—Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 115–334, §7109(1), substituted "2023" for "2018".

Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 115–334, §7109(2), substituted "2023" for "2018".

2014—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 113–79, §7107(1)(A), struck out "(or grants without regard to any requirement for competition)" after "competitive grants".

Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 113–79, §7107(1)(B), substituted "2018" for "2012".

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 113–79, §7107(2)(A), struck out "(or grants without regard to any requirement for competition)" after "competitive grants".

Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 113–79, §7107(2)(B), substituted "2018" for "2012".

2008—Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 110–246, §7112(1)(A), substituted "2012" for "2006".

Subsec. (b)(2)(A). Pub. L. 110–246, §7112(1)(B)(i), inserted ", including permitting consortia to designate fiscal agents for the members of the consortia and to allocate among the members funds made available under this section" before semicolon at end.

Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 110–246, §7112(1)(B)(ii), substituted "2012" for "2006".

Effective Date of 2008 Amendment

Amendment of this section and repeal of Pub. L. 110–234 by Pub. L. 110–246 effective May 22, 2008, the date of enactment of Pub. L. 110–234, see section 4 of Pub. L. 110–246, set out as an Effective Date note under section 8701 of this title.

§3157. Competitive, special, and facilities research grants

(a) Establishment of grant program

(1) In order to promote research in food, agriculture, and related areas, a research grants program is hereby established in the Department of Agriculture.

(2) Short Title.—This section may be cited as the "Competitive, Special, and Facilities Research Grant Act".

(b) Agriculture and food research initiative

(1) Establishment

There is established in the Department of Agriculture an Agriculture and Food Research Initiative under which the Secretary of Agriculture (referred to in this subsection as "the Secretary") may make competitive grants for fundamental and applied research, extension, and education to address food and agricultural sciences (as defined under section 3103 of this title).

(2) Priority areas

The competitive grants program established under this subsection shall address the following areas:

(A) Plant health and production and plant products

Plant systems, including—

(i) plant genome structure and function;

(ii) molecular and cellular genetics and plant biotechnology;

(iii) conventional breeding, including cultivar and breed development, selection theory, applied quantitative genetics, breeding for improved food quality, breeding for improved local adaptation to biotic stress and abiotic stress, and participatory breeding;

(iv) plant-pest interactions and biocontrol systems;

(v) crop plant response to environmental stresses;

(vi) unproved nutrient qualities of plant products; and

(vii) new food and industrial uses of plant products.

(B) Animal health and production and animal products

Animal systems, including—

(i) aquaculture;

(ii) cellular and molecular basis of animal reproduction, growth, disease, and health;

(iii) animal biotechnology;

(iv) conventional breeding, including breed development, selection theory, applied quantitative genetics, breeding for improved food quality, breeding for improved local adaptation to biotic stress and abiotic stress, and participatory breeding;

(v) identification of genes responsible for improved production traits and resistance to disease;

(vi) improved nutritional performance of animals;

(vii) improved nutrient qualities of animal products and uses;

(viii) the development of new and improved animal husbandry and production systems that take into account production efficiency, animal well-being, and animal systems applicable to aquaculture;

(ix) the research and development of surveillance methods, vaccines, vaccination delivery systems, or diagnostic tests for pests and diseases, including—

(I) epizootic diseases in domestic livestock (including deer, elk, bison, and other animals of the family Cervidae); and

(II) zoonotic diseases (including bovine brucellosis and bovine tuberculosis) in domestic livestock or wildlife reservoirs that present a potential concern to public health; and


(x) the identification of animal drug needs and the generation and dissemination of data for safe and effective therapeutic applications of animal drugs for minor species and minor uses of such drugs in major species.

(C) Food safety, nutrition, and health

Nutrition, food safety and quality, and health, including—

(i) microbial contaminants and pesticides residue relating to human health;

(ii) links between diet and health;

(iii) bioavailability of nutrients;

(iv) postharvest physiology and practices; and

(v) improved processing technologies.

(D) Bioenergy, natural resources, and environment

Natural resources and the environment, including—

(i) fundamental structures and functions of ecosystems;

(ii) biological and physical bases of sustainable production systems;

(iii) soil health;

(iv) minimizing soil and water losses and sustaining surface water and ground water quality;

(v) the effectiveness of conservation practices and technologies designed to address nutrient losses and improve water quality;

(vi) global climate effects on agriculture;

(vii) forestry; and

(viii) biological diversity.

(E) Agriculture systems and technology

Engineering, products, and processes, including—

(i) new uses and new products from traditional and nontraditional crops, animals, byproducts, and natural resources;

(ii) robotics, energy efficiency, computing, and expert systems;

(iii) new hazard and risk assessment and mitigation measures;

(iv) water quality and management; and

(v) tools that accelerate the use of automation or mechanization for labor-intensive tasks in the production and distribution of crops.

(F) Agriculture economics and rural communities

Markets, trade, economics, and policy, including—

(i) strategies for entering into and being competitive in domestic and overseas markets;

(ii) farm efficiency and profitability, including the viability and competitiveness of small and medium-sized dairy, livestock, crop and other commodity operations;

(iii) new decision tools for farm and market systems;

(iv) choices and applications of technology;

(v) the economic costs, benefits, and viability of producers adopting conservation practices and technologies designed to improve water quality;

(vi) technology assessment;

(vii) new approaches to rural development, including rural entrepreneurship; and

(viii) barriers and bridges to entry and farm viability for young, beginning, socially disadvantaged, veteran, and immigrant farmers and ranchers, including farm succession, transition, transfer, entry, and profitability issues.

(3) Term

The term of a competitive grant made under this subsection may not exceed 10 years.

(4) General administration

In making grants under this subsection, the Secretary shall—

(A) seek and accept proposals for grants;

(B) determine the relevance and merit of proposals through a system of peer and merit review in accordance with section 7613 of this title;

(C) award grants on the basis of merit, quality, and relevance;

(D) solicit and consider input from persons who conduct or use agricultural research, extension, or education in accordance with section 7612(b) of this title;

(E) in seeking proposals for grants under this subsection and in performing peer review evaluations of such proposals, seek the widest participation of qualified individuals in the Federal Government, colleges and universities, State agricultural experiment stations, and the private sector; and

(F) establish procedures, including timelines, under which an entity established under a commodity promotion law (as such term is defined under section 7401(a) of this title) or a State commodity board (or other equivalent State entity) may directly submit to the Secretary for consideration proposals for requests for applications that specifically address particular issues related to the priority areas specified in paragraph (2).

(5) Allocation of funds

In making grants under this subsection, the Secretary shall allocate funds to the Agriculture and Food Research Initiative to ensure that, of funds allocated for research activities—

(A) not less than 60 percent is made available to make grants for fundamental research (as defined in subsection (f)(1) of section 6971 of this title), of which—

(i) not less than 30 percent is made available to make grants for research to be conducted by multidisciplinary teams; and

(ii) not more than 2 percent is used for equipment grants under paragraph (6)(A); and


(B) not less than 40 percent is made available to make grants for applied research (as defined in subsection (f)(1) of section 6971 of this title).

(6) Special considerations

In making grants under this subsection, the Secretary may assist in the development of capabilities in the agricultural, food, and environmental sciences by providing grants—

(A) to an institution to allow for the improvement of the research, development, technology transfer, and education capacity of the institution through the acquisition of special research equipment and the improvement of agricultural education and teaching, except that the Secretary shall use not less than 25 percent of the funds made available for grants under this subparagraph to provide fellowships to outstanding pre- and post-doctoral students for research in the agricultural sciences;

(B) to a single investigator or coinvestigators who are beginning research careers and do not have an extensive research publication record, except that, to be eligible for a grant under this subparagraph, an individual shall be within 5 years of the beginning of the initial career track position of the individual;

(C) to ensure that the faculty of small, mid-sized, and minority-serving institutions who have not previously been successful in obtaining competitive grants under this subsection receive a portion of the grants;

(D) to improve research, extension, and education capabilities in States (as defined in section 3103 of this title) in which institutions have been less successful in receiving funding under this subsection, based on a 3-year rolling average of funding levels;

(E) to eligible entities to carry out the specific proposals submitted under procedures established under paragraph (4)(F) only if such specific proposals are consistent with a priority area specified in paragraph (2); and

(F) to an institution to carry out collaboration in biomedical and agricultural research using existing research models.

(7) Eligible entities

The Secretary may make grants to carry out research, extension, and education under this subsection to—

(A) State agricultural experiment stations;

(B) colleges and universities;

(C) university research foundations;

(D) other research institutions and organizations;

(E) Federal agencies;

(F) national laboratories;

(G) private organizations, foundations, or corporations;

(H) individuals; or

(I) any group consisting of 2 or more of the entities described in subparagraphs (A) through (H).

(8) Construction prohibited

Funds made available for grants under this subsection shall not be used for the construction of a new building or facility or the acquisition, expansion, remodeling, or alteration of an existing building or facility (including site grading and improvement, and architect fees).

(9) Matching funds

(A) Equipment grants

(i) In general

Except as provided in clause (ii), in the case of a grant made under paragraph (6)(A), the amount provided under this subsection may not exceed 50 percent of the cost of the special research equipment or other equipment acquired using funds from the grant.

(ii) Waiver

The Secretary may waive all or part of the matching requirement under clause (i) in the case of a college, university, or research foundation maintained by a college or university that ranks in the lowest 1/3 of such colleges, universities, and research foundations on the basis of Federal research funds received, if the equipment to be acquired using funds from the grant costs not more than $25,000 and has multiple uses within a single research project or is usable in more than 1 research project.

(B) Contribution requirement for commodity promotion grants

(i) In general

Subject to clause (ii), as a condition of funding a grant under paragraph (6)(E), the Secretary shall require that the grant be matched with an equal contribution of funds from the entities described in paragraph (4)(F) submitting proposals under procedures established under such paragraph.

(ii) Availability of funds

(I) In general

Contributions required by clause (i) shall be available to the Secretary for obligation and remain available until expended for the purpose of making grants under paragraph (6)(E).

(II) Administration

Of amounts contributed to the Secretary under clause (i), not more than 4 percent may be retained by the Secretary to pay administrative costs incurred by the Secretary in carrying out this subsection.

(III) Restriction

Funds contributed to the Secretary by an entity under clause (i) in connection with a proposal submitted by that entity under procedures established under paragraph (4)(F) may only be used to fund grants in connection with that proposal.

(IV) Remaining funds

Funds contributed to the Secretary by an entity under clause (i) that remain unobligated at the time of grant closeout shall be returned to that entity.

(V) Indirect costs

The indirect cost rate applicable to appropriated funds for a grant funded under paragraph (6)(E) shall apply to amounts contributed by an entity under clause (i).

(C) Applied research

An entity receiving a grant under paragraph (5)(B) for applied research that is commodity-specific and not of national scope shall provide non-Federal matching funds equal to not less than the amount of the grant.

(10) Program administration

To the maximum extent practicable, the Director of the National Institute of Food and Agriculture, in coordination with the Under Secretary for Research, Education, and Economics, shall allocate grants under this subsection to high-priority research, taking into consideration, when available, the determinations made by the National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board (as established under section 3123 of this title).

(11) Authorization of appropriations

(A) In general

There is authorized to be appropriated to carry out this subsection $700,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2008 through 2023, of which—

(i) not less than 30 percent shall be made available for integrated research pursuant to section 7626 of this title; and

(ii) not more than 5 percent may be retained by the Secretary to pay administrative costs incurred by the Secretary in carrying out this subsection.

(B) Availability

Funds made available under this paragraph shall—

(i) be available for obligation for a 2-year period beginning on October 1 of the fiscal year for which the funds are first made available; and

(ii) remain available until expended to pay for obligations incurred during that 2-year period.

(c) Special grants

(1) The Secretary of Agriculture may make grants, for periods not to exceed 3 years—

(A) to State agricultural experiment stations, all colleges and universities, other research institutions and organizations, Federal agencies, private organizations or corporations, and individuals for the purpose of conducting research, extension, or education activities to facilitate or expand promising breakthroughs in areas of the food and agricultural sciences of importance to the United States; and

(B) to State agricultural experiment stations, land-grant colleges and universities, research foundations established by land-grant colleges and universities, colleges and universities receiving funds under the Act of October 10, 1962 (16 U.S.C. 582a et seq.), and accredited schools or colleges of veterinary medicine for the purpose of facilitating or expanding ongoing State-Federal food and agricultural research, extension, or education programs that—

(i) promote excellence in research, extension, or education on a regional and national level;

(ii) promote the development of regional research centers;

(iii) promote the research partnership between the Department of Agriculture, colleges and universities, research foundations, and State agricultural experiment stations for regional research efforts; and

(iv) facilitate coordination and cooperation of research, extension, or education among States through regional grants.


(2) Limitations.—The Secretary may not make a grant under this subsection for the planning, repair, rehabilitation, acquisition, or construction of a building or facility.

(3) Matching Funds.—Grants made under this subsection shall be made without regard to matching funds.

(4) Set Asides.—Of amounts appropriated for a fiscal year to carry out this subsection—

(A) ninety percent of such amounts shall be used for grants for regional research projects; and

(B) four percent of such amounts may be retained by the Secretary to pay administrative costs incurred by the Secretary to carry out this subsection.


(5) Review requirements.—

(A) Research activities.—The Secretary shall make a grant under this subsection for a research activity only if the activity has undergone scientific peer review arranged by the grantee in accordance with regulations promulgated by the Secretary.

(B) Extension and education activities.—The Secretary shall make a grant under this subsection for an extension or education activity only if the activity has undergone merit review arranged by the grantee in accordance with regulations promulgated by the Secretary.


(6) Reports.—

(A) In general.—A recipient of a grant under this subsection shall submit to the Secretary on an annual basis a report describing the results of the research, extension, or education activity and the merit of the results.

(B) Public availability.—

(i) In general.—Except as provided in clause (ii), on request, the Secretary shall make the report available to the public.

(ii) Exceptions.—Clause (i) shall not apply to the extent that making the report, or a part of the report, available to the public is not authorized or permitted by section 552 of title 5 or section 1905 of title 18.

(d) Extension design and demonstration initiative

(1) Purpose

The purpose of this subsection is to encourage the design of adaptive prototype systems for improving extension and education that seek to advance the application, translation, and demonstration of scientific discoveries and other agricultural research for the adoption and understanding of food, agricultural, and natural resources practices, techniques, methods, and technologies using digital or other novel platforms.

(2) Grants

The Secretary shall award grants each fiscal year on a competitive basis—

(A) for the design of 1 or more extension and education prototype systems—

(i) that leverage digital platforms or other novel means of translating, delivering, or demonstrating agricultural research; and

(ii) to adapt, apply, translate, or demonstrate scientific findings, data, technology, and other research outcomes to producers, the agricultural industry, and other interested persons or organizations; and


(B) to demonstrate, by incorporating analytics and specific metrics, the value, impact, and return on the Federal investment of a prototype system designed under subparagraph (A) as a model for use by other eligible entities described in paragraph (3) for improving, modernizing, and adapting applied research, demonstration, and extension services.

(3) Eligible entities

An entity that is eligible to receive a grant under paragraph (2) is—

(A) a State agricultural experiment station (as defined in section 3103 of this title);

(B) a cooperative extension service (as defined in such section); and

(C) a land-grant college or university (as defined in such section).

(4) Requirement

The Secretary shall award grants under paragraph (2) to not fewer than 2 and not more than 5 eligible entities described in paragraph (3) that represent a diversity of regions, commodities, and agricultural or food production issues.

(5) Term

The term of a grant awarded under paragraph (2) shall be not longer than 5 years.

(6) Authorization of appropriations

There is authorized to be appropriated to carry out this subsection $5,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2019 through 2023, to remain available until expended.

(e) Inter-Regional Research Project Number 4

(1) The Secretary of Agriculture shall establish an Inter-Regional Research Project Number 4 (hereinafter referred to in this subsection as the "IR–4 Program") to assist in the collection of residue and efficacy data in support of—

(A) the registration or reregistration of pesticides for minor agricultural use and for use on specialty crops (as defined in section 3 of the Specialty Crops Competitiveness Act of 2004 (7 U.S.C. 1621 note)), under the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (7 U.S.C. 136 et seq.); and

(B) tolerances for residues of minor use chemicals in or on raw agricultural commodities under sections 346a and 348 of title 21.


(2) The Secretary shall carry out the IR–4 Program in cooperation with the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency, State agricultural experiment stations, colleges and universities, extension services, private industry, and other interested parties.

(3) In carrying out the IR–4 Program, the Secretary shall give priority to registrations, reregistrations, and tolerances for pesticide uses related to the production of agricultural crops for food use.

(4) As part of carrying out the IR–4 Program, the Secretary shall—

(A) participate in research activities aimed at reducing residues of pesticides registered for minor agricultural use and for use on specialty crops;

(B) develop analytical techniques applicable to residues of pesticides registered for minor agricultural use, including automation techniques and validation of analytical methods;

(C) prioritize potential pest management technology for minor agricultural use and for use on specialty crops;

(D) conduct research to develop the data necessary to facilitate pesticide registrations, reregistrations, and associated tolerances;

(E) assist in removing trade barriers caused by residues of pesticides registered for minor agricultural use and for use on domestically grown specialty crops;

(F) assist in the registration and reregistration of pest management technologies for minor agricultural use and for use on specialty crops; and

(G) coordinate with other programs within the Department of Agriculture and the Environmental Protection Agency designed to develop and promote biological and other alternative control measures.


(5) The Secretary shall prepare and submit, to appropriate Committees of Congress, a report on an annual basis that contains—

(A) a listing of all registrations, reregistrations, and tolerances for which data has been collected in the preceding year;

(B) a listing of all registrations, reregistrations, and tolerances for which data collection is scheduled to occur in the following year, with an explanation of the priority system used to develop this list; and

(C) a listing of all activities the IR–4 Program has carried out pursuant to paragraph (4).


(6) The Secretary shall submit to Congress not later than November 28, 1991, a report detailing the feasibility of requiring recoupment of the costs of developing residue data for registrations, reregistrations, or tolerances under this program. Such recoupment shall only apply to those registrants which make a profit on such registration, reregistration, or tolerance subsequent to residue data development under this program. Such report shall include:

(A) an analysis of possible benefits to the IR–4 Program of such a recoupment;

(B) an analysis of the impact of such a payment on the availability of registrants to pursue registrations or reregistrations of minor use pesticides; and

(C) recommendations for implementation of such a recoupment policy.


(7) There are authorized to be appropriated $25,000,000 for fiscal year 1991, and such sums as are necessary for subsequent fiscal years to carry out this subsection.

(f) Record keeping

Each recipient of assistance under this section shall keep such records as the Secretary of Agriculture shall, by regulation, prescribe, including records which fully disclose the amount and disposition by such recipient of the proceeds of such grants, the total cost of the project or undertaking in connection with which such funds are given or used, and the amount of that portion of the costs of the project or undertaking supplied by other sources, and such other records as will facilitate an effective audit. The Secretary of Agriculture and the Comptroller General of the United States or any of their duly authorized representatives shall have access for the purpose of audit and examination to any books, documents, papers, and records of the recipients that are pertinent to the grants received under this section.

(g) Limits on overhead costs

The Secretary of Agriculture shall limit allowable overhead costs, with respect to grants awarded under this section, to those necessary to carry out the purposes of the grants.

(h) Authorization of appropriations

Except as otherwise provided in subsections (b), (d), and (e), there are hereby authorized to be appropriated such sums as are necessary to carry out this section.

(i) Rules

The Secretary of Agriculture may issue such rules and regulations as the Secretary deems necessary to carry out this section.

(j) Application of other laws

The Federal Advisory Committee Act and title XVIII of the Food and Agriculture Act of 1977 (7 U.S.C. 2281 et seq.) shall not apply to a panel or board created for the purpose of reviewing applications or proposals submitted under this section.

(k) Emphasis on sustainable agriculture

The Secretary of Agriculture shall ensure that grants made under subsections (b) and (c) are, where appropriate, consistent with the development of systems of sustainable agriculture. For purposes of this section, the term "sustainable agriculture" has the meaning given that term in section 3103 of this title.

(Pub. L. 89–106, §2, Aug. 4, 1965, 79 Stat. 431; Pub. L. 95–113, title XIV, §1414, Sept. 29, 1977, 91 Stat. 991; Pub. L. 97–98, title XIV, §1415, Dec. 22, 1981, 95 Stat. 1303; Pub. L. 99–198, title XIV, §1409, Dec. 23, 1985, 99 Stat. 1546; Pub. L. 101–624, title XIV, §1497, title XVI, §§1615, 1616, Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 3630, 3729, 3732; Pub. L. 102–237, title IV, §401, Dec. 13, 1991, 105 Stat. 1862;