[USC02] 49 USC SUBTITLE VII, PART A, subpart ii: economic regulation
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49 USC SUBTITLE VII, PART A, subpart ii: economic regulation
From Title 49—TRANSPORTATIONSUBTITLE VII—AVIATION PROGRAMSPART A—AIR COMMERCE AND SAFETY

subpart ii—economic regulation

CHAPTER 411—AIR CARRIER CERTIFICATES

Sec.
41101.
Requirement for a certificate.
41102.
General, temporary, and charter air transportation certificates of air carriers.
41103.
All-cargo air transportation certificates of air carriers.
41104.
Additional limitations and requirements of charter air carriers.
41105.
Transfers of certificates.
41106.
Airlift service.
41107.
Transportation of mail.
41108.
Applications for certificates.
41109.
Terms of certificates.
41110.
Effective periods and amendments, modifications, suspensions, and revocations of certificates.
41111.
Simplified procedure to apply for, amend, modify, suspend, and transfer certificates.
41112.
Liability insurance and financial responsibility.
41113.
Plans to address needs of families of passengers involved in aircraft accidents.

        

Amendments

1996Pub. L. 104–264, title VII, §703(b), Oct. 9, 1996, 110 Stat. 3268, added item 41113.

§41101. Requirement for a certificate

(a) General.—Except as provided in this chapter or another law—

(1) an air carrier may provide air transportation only if the air carrier holds a certificate issued under this chapter authorizing the air transportation;

(2) a charter air carrier may provide charter air transportation only if the charter air carrier holds a certificate issued under this chapter authorizing the charter air transportation; and

(3) an air carrier may provide all-cargo air transportation only if the air carrier holds a certificate issued under this chapter authorizing the all-cargo air transportation.


(b) Through Service and Joint Transportation.—A citizen of the United States providing transportation in a State of passengers or property as a common carrier for compensation with aircraft capable of carrying at least 30 passengers, under authority granted by the appropriate State authority—

(1) may provide transportation for passengers and property that includes through service by the citizen over its routes in the State and in air transportation by an air carrier or foreign air carrier; and

(2) subject to sections 41309 and 42111 of this title, may make an agreement with an air carrier or foreign air carrier to provide the joint transportation.


(c) Proprietary or Exclusive Right Not Conferred.—A certificate issued under this chapter does not confer a proprietary or exclusive right to use airspace, an airway of the United States, or an air navigation facility.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1118.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
41101(a)(1) 49 App.:1371(a). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, §401(a), (i), 72 Stat. 754, 756.
41101(a)(2) 49 App.:1301(14) (related to certificate). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, 72 Stat. 731, §101(14) (related to certificate); added Oct. 24, 1978, Pub. L. 95–504, §2(a)(1), 92 Stat. 1705.
41101(a)(3) (no source).
41101(b) 49 App.:1371(d) (4)(A)(i), (ii) (related to joint services). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, 72 Stat. 731, §401(d) (4)(A)(i), (ii) (related to joint services); added Nov. 9, 1977, Pub. L. 95–163, §9, 91 Stat. 1281; restated Oct. 24, 1978, Pub. L. 95–504, §9, 92 Stat. 1713.
41101(c) 49 App.:1371(i).

In subsections (a)(2) and (c), the words "issued under this chapter" are added for clarity.

In subsection (a), the word "provide" is substituted for "engage in" for consistency in the revised title. The words before clause (1) are added to inform the reader that other provisions of the chapter and other laws qualify the requirement of being licensed by the Secretary of Transportation. In clause (1), the word "holds" is substituted for "there is in force" to eliminate unnecessary words. The words "under this chapter" are substituted for "by the Board" for clarity. In clause (2), the words "of public convenience and necessity" are omitted as surplus. Clause (3) is included to inform the reader at the beginning of this chapter about all of the types of certificates and permits that the Secretary may issue under this subchapter.

In subsection (b), the word "passengers" is substituted for "persons" for consistency in the revised title. Before clause (1), the words "Notwithstanding any other provision of this chapter" are omitted as surplus. The words "providing transportation" are substituted for "undertakes . . . the carriage of" for consistency in the revised title. The words "or hire" are omitted as surplus and for consistency. The words "for such carriage within such State" are omitted as surplus. In clause (1), the words "through service" are substituted for "transportation" the first time it appears for clarity. In clause (2), the words "the requirements of" and "for such through services" are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (c), the word "property" is omitted as surplus. The words "landing area" are omitted because they are included in the definition of "air navigation facility" in section 40102(a) of the revised title.

§41102. General, temporary, and charter air transportation certificates of air carriers

(a) Issuance.—The Secretary of Transportation may issue a certificate of public convenience and necessity to a citizen of the United States authorizing the citizen to provide any part of the following air transportation the citizen has applied for under section 41108 of this title:

(1) air transportation as an air carrier.

(2) temporary air transportation as an air carrier for a limited period.

(3) charter air transportation as a charter air carrier.


(b) Findings Required for Issuance.—(1) Before issuing a certificate under subsection (a) of this section, the Secretary must find that the citizen is fit, willing, and able to provide the transportation to be authorized by the certificate and to comply with this part and regulations of the Secretary.

(2) In addition to the findings under paragraph (1) of this subsection, the Secretary, before issuing a certificate under subsection (a) of this section for foreign air transportation, must find that the transportation is consistent with the public convenience and necessity.

(c) Temporary Certificates.—The Secretary may issue a certificate under subsection (a) of this section for interstate air transportation (except the transportation of passengers) or foreign air transportation for a temporary period of time (whether the application is for permanent or temporary authority) when the Secretary decides that a test period is desirable—

(1) to decide if the projected services, efficiencies, methods, and prices and the projected results will materialize and remain for a sustained period of time; or

(2) to evaluate the new transportation.


(d) Foreign Air Transportation.—The Secretary shall submit each decision authorizing the provision of foreign air transportation to the President under section 41307 of this title.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1119.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
41102(a) 49 App.:1371(d)(1) (words before 1st comma and after semicolon), (2) (1st–32d words). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, §401(d)(1), (2), 72 Stat. 755; Oct. 24, 1978, Pub. L. 95–504, §8, 92 Stat. 1712; restated Feb. 15, 1980, Pub. L. 96–192, §4, 94 Stat. 37.
  49 App.:1371(d)(3) (words before 6th comma). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, 72 Stat. 731, §401(d)(3); added July 10, 1962, Pub. L. 87–528, §2, 76 Stat. 143; Oct. 24, 1978, Pub. L. 95–504, §8, 92 Stat. 1712; restated Feb. 15, 1980, Pub. L. 96–192, §4, 94 Stat. 37.
  49 App.:1551(b)(1)(E). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, 72 Stat. 731, §1601(b) (1)(E); added Oct. 4, 1984, Pub. L. 98–443, §3(e), 98 Stat. 1704.
41102(b)(1) 49 App.:1371(d)(1) (words between 1st and last commas), (2) (42d–last words), (3) (words after 7th comma).
  49 App.:1551(b)(1)(E).
41102(b)(2) 49 App.:1371(d)(1) (words between last comma and semicolon), (2) (33d–41st words), (3) (words between 6th and 7th commas).
  49 App.:1551(a)(1)(A). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, 72 Stat. 731, §1601(a) (1)(A), (B); added Oct. 24, 1978, Pub. L. 95–504, §40(a), 92 Stat. 1744.
  49 App.:1551(b)(1)(E).
41102(c) 49 App.:1371(d)(8) (1st sentence). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, 72 Stat. 731, §401(d)(8) (1st sentence); added Oct. 24, 1978, Pub. L. 95–504, §13, 92 Stat. 1718.
  49 App.:1551(a)(1)(B), (b)(1)(E).
41102(d) (no source).

In this section, the words "citizen of the United States" and "citizen" are substituted for "applicant" for clarity and consistency because only a citizen of the United States may be an "air carrier" as defined in section 40102(a) of the revised title, and only an air carrier may be a "charter air carrier" as defined in section 40102(a). The word "provide" is substituted for "perform" for consistency in the revised title.

In subsection (a), before clause (1), the words "of public convenience and necessity" are added for clarity. The words "any part of" are substituted for "the whole or any part of" to eliminate unnecessary words. In clauses (2) and (3), the words "In the case of" are omitted as surplus. In clause (3), the words "for such periods" are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (b)(1), the word "comply" is substituted for "conform" for consistency in the revised title. The words "properly" and "requirements" are omitted as surplus. The word "rules" is omitted as being synonymous with "regulations".

In subsection (b)(2), the words "foreign air transportation" are added because 49 App.:1551(a)(1)(A) provides that 49 App.:1371(d)(1)–(3) no longer applies to interstate or overseas transportation of persons. After January 1, 1985, other interstate and overseas air transportation and the domestic air transportation of mail do not require a certificate of public convenience and necessity. See H. Rept. 98–793, 98th Cong., 2d Sess., p.10 (1984).

In subsection (c), before clause (1), the words "issue a certificate" are substituted for "grant an application" for consistency in this chapter. The words "for interstate air transportation (except the transportation of passengers) or foreign air transportation" are added for clarity and consistency. The word "only" is omitted as surplus. In clause (1), the word "prices" is substituted for "rates, fares, charges" because of the definition of "price" in section 40102(a) of the revised title. The words "in fact" are omitted as surplus. In clause (2), the words "to assess the impact of the new services on the national air route structure, or otherwise" are omitted as surplus.

Subsection (d) is added for clarity.

§41103. All-cargo air transportation certificates of air carriers

(a) Applications.—A citizen of the United States may apply to the Secretary of Transportation for a certificate authorizing the citizen to provide all-cargo air transportation. The application must contain information and be in the form the Secretary by regulation requires.

(b) Issuance.—Not later than 180 days after an application for a certificate is filed under this section, the Secretary shall issue the certificate to a citizen of the United States authorizing the citizen, as an air carrier, to provide any part of the all-cargo air transportation applied for unless the Secretary finds that the citizen is not fit, willing, and able to provide the all-cargo air transportation to be authorized by the certificate and to comply with regulations of the Secretary.

(c) Terms.—The Secretary may impose terms the Secretary considers necessary when issuing a certificate under this section. However, the Secretary may not impose terms that restrict the places served or prices charged by the holder of the certificate.

(d) Exemptions and Status.—A citizen issued a certificate under this section—

(1) is exempt in providing the transportation under the certificate from the requirements of—

(A) section 41101(a)(1) of this title and regulations or procedures prescribed under section 41101(a)(1); and

(B) other provisions of this part and regulations or procedures prescribed under those provisions when the Secretary finds under regulations of the Secretary that the exemption is appropriate; and


(2) is an air carrier under this part except to the extent the carrier is exempt under this section from a requirement of this part.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1119; Pub. L. 103–429, §6(49), Oct. 31, 1994, 108 Stat. 4384.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Pub. L. 103–272
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
41103(a) 49 App.:1388(a)(4). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, 72 Stat. 731, §418(a)(4); added Nov. 9, 1977, Pub. L. 95–163, §17(a), 91 Stat. 1285; Mar. 14, 1978, Pub. L. 95–245, §1, 92 Stat. 156.
  49 App.:1551(b)(1)(E). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, 72 Stat. 731, §1601(b) (1)(E); added Oct. 4, 1984, Pub. L. 98–443, §3(e), 98 Stat. 1704.
41103(b) 49 App.:1388(b)(1)(B). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, 72 Stat. 731, §418(b)(1)(B); added Nov. 9, 1977, Pub. L. 95–163, §17(a), 91 Stat. 1285; Mar. 14, 1978, Pub. L. 95–245, §3, 92 Stat. 156.
  49 App.:1551(b)(1)(E).
41103(c) 49 App.:1388(b)(2). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, 72 Stat. 731, §418(b)(2), (c), (d); added Nov. 9, 1977, Pub. L. 95–163, §17(a), 91 Stat. 1285.
  49 App.:1551(b)(1)(E).
41103(d)(1) 49 App.:1388(c).
  49 App.:1551(b)(1)(E).
41103(d)(2) 49 App.:1388(d).

In subsection (a), the words "After the three hundred and sixty-fifth day which begins after November 9, 1977" are omitted as executed. The words "under this section" are omitted as surplus. The words "authorizing the citizen" are added for clarity and consistency in this chapter.

In subsection (b), the words "pursuant to paragraph (4) of subsection (a) of this section" are omitted as surplus. The word "citizen" is substituted for "applicant" for clarity and consistency because only a citizen of the United States may be an "air carrier" as defined in section 40102(a) of the revised title and only an air carrier can provide all–cargo air transportation. The words "to provide" are added for clarity and consistency in this subchapter. The word "rules" is omitted as being synonymous with "regulations". The word "promulgated" is omitted as surplus.

In subsection (c), the words "reasonable", "and limitations", and "and conditions" are omitted as surplus. The word "places" is substituted for "points" for consistency in the revised title.

Pub. L. 103–429

This amends 49:41103(a) to make the term consistent throughout subtitle VII of title 49.

Amendments

1994—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 103–429 substituted "all-cargo" for "all-property".

Effective Date of 1994 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 103–429 effective July 5, 1994, see section 9 of Pub. L. 103–429, set out as a note under section 321 of this title.

§41104. Additional limitations and requirements of charter air carriers

(a) Restrictions.—The Secretary of Transportation may prescribe a regulation or issue an order restricting the marketability, flexibility, accessibility, or variety of charter air transportation provided under a certificate issued under section 41102 of this title only to the extent required by the public interest. A regulation prescribed or order issued under this subsection may not be more restrictive than a regulation related to charter air transportation that was in effect on October 1, 1978.

(b) Scheduled Operations.—

(1) In general.—Except as provided in paragraphs (3) and (4), an air carrier, including an indirect air carrier, may not provide, in aircraft designed for more than 9 passenger seats, regularly scheduled charter air transportation, for which the public is provided in advance a schedule containing the departure location, departure time, and arrival location of the flight, to or from an airport that—

(A) does not have an airport operating certificate issued under part 139 of title 14, Code of Federal Regulations (or any subsequent similar regulation); or

(B) has an airport operating certificate issued under part 139 of title 14, Code of Federal Regulations (or any subsequent similar regulation) if the airport—

(i) is a reliever airport (as defined in section 47102) and is designated as such in the national plan of integrated airports maintained under section 47103; and

(ii) is located within 20 nautical miles (22 statute miles) of 3 or more airports that each annually account for at least 1 percent of the total United States passenger enplanements and at least 2 of which are operated by the sponsor of the reliever airport.


(2) Definition.—In this paragraph, the term "regularly scheduled charter air transportation" does not include operations for which the departure time, departure location, and arrival location are specifically negotiated with the customer or the customer's representative.

(3) Exception.—This subsection does not apply to any airport in the State of Alaska or to any airport outside the United States.

(4) Waivers.—The Secretary may waive the application of paragraph (1)(B) in cases in which the Secretary determines that the public interest so requires.


(c) Alaska.—An air carrier holding a certificate issued under section 41102 of this title may provide charter air transportation between places in Alaska only to the extent the Secretary decides the transportation is required by public convenience and necessity. The Secretary may make that decision when issuing, amending, or modifying the certificate. This subsection does not apply to a certificate issued under section 41102 to a citizen of the United States who, before July 1, 1977—

(1) maintained a principal place of business in Alaska; and

(2) conducted air transport operations between places in Alaska with aircraft with a certificate for gross takeoff weight of more than 40,000 pounds.


(d) Suspensions.—(1) The Secretary shall suspend for not more than 30 days any part of the certificate of a charter air carrier if the Secretary decides that the failure of the carrier to comply with the requirements described in sections 41110(e) and 41112 of this title, or a regulation or order of the Secretary under section 41110(e) or 41112, requires immediate suspension in the interest of the rights, welfare, or safety of the public. The Secretary may act under this paragraph without notice or a hearing.

(2) The Secretary shall begin immediately a hearing to decide if the certificate referred to in paragraph (1) of this subsection should be amended, modified, suspended, or revoked. Until the hearing is completed, the Secretary may suspend the certificate for additional periods totaling not more than 60 days. If the Secretary decides that the carrier is complying with the requirements described in sections 41110(e) and 41112 of this title and regulations and orders under sections 41110(e) and 41112, the Secretary immediately may end the suspension period and proceeding begun under this subsection. However, the Secretary is not prevented from imposing a civil penalty on the carrier for violating the requirements described in section 41110(e) or 41112 or a regulation or order under section 41110(e) or 41112.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1120; Pub. L. 106–181, title VII, §723, Apr. 5, 2000, 114 Stat. 165; Pub. L. 106–528, §8(c), Nov. 22, 2000, 114 Stat. 2522; Pub. L. 108–176, title VIII, §822, Dec. 12, 2003, 117 Stat. 2594.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
41104(a) 49 App.:1371(n)(2), (4). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, 72 Stat. 731, §401(n)(2)–(4); added July 10, 1962, Pub. L. 87–528, §4, 76 Stat. 144; restated Oct. 24, 1978, Pub. L. 95–504, §20(b), 92 Stat. 1721.
  49 App.:1551(a)(1)(E) (related to 49 App.:1371(n)(4)). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, 72 Stat. 731, §1601(a)(1)(E) (related to §401(n)(4)); added Oct. 24, 1978, Pub. L. 95–504, §40(a), 92 Stat. 1744.
  49 App.:1551(b)(1)(E). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, 72 Stat. 731, §1601(b) (1)(E); added Oct. 4, 1984, Pub. L. 98–443, §3(e), 98 Stat. 1704.
41104(b) 49 App.:1371(n)(3).
  49 App.:1551(b)(1)(E).
41104(c) 49 App.:1371(n)(5). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, 72 Stat. 731, §401(n)(5); added July 10, 1962, Pub. L. 87–528, §4, 76 Stat. 145; Oct. 24, 1978, Pub. L. 95–504, §20(c), 92 Stat. 1722.
  49 App.:1371(n)(6). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, 72 Stat. 731, §401(n)(6); added July 10, 1962, Pub. L. 87–528, §4, 76 Stat. 145.
  49 App.:1551(b)(1)(E).

In subsection (a), the word "rule" is omitted as being synonymous with "regulation". The words "charter air transportation" are substituted for "charter trips" for consistency in this part. The text of 49 App.:1371(n)(4) and 1551(n)(1)(E) (related to 49 App.:1371(n)(4)) is omitted because inclusive tour charters have been abolished and charter air carriers have received authority to sell public charter flights directly to the public.

In subsection (b), before clause (1), the words "Notwithstanding any other provision of this subchapter" are omitted as surplus. The words "An air carrier holding" are added for clarity. The words "State of" are omitted as surplus. The word "modifying" is added for consistency in the revised title. The words "citizen of the United States" are substituted for "person" for clarity and consistency because only a citizen of the United States may be an "air carrier" as defined in section 40102(a) of the revised title.

In subsection (c), the words "the requirements described in" are added for clarity.

In subsection (c)(1), the text of 49 App.:1371(n)(6) is omitted as surplus because of 49:322(a).

In subsection (c)(2), the word "amended" is added for consistency in the revised title.

Amendments

2003—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 108–176, §822(a), inserted a comma after "regularly scheduled charter air transportation", substituted "paragraphs (3) and (4)" for "paragraph (3)" and "flight, to or from an airport that—" for "flight unless such air transportation is to and from an airport that has an airport operating certificate issued under part 139 of title 14, Code of Federal Regulations (or any subsequent similar regulation).", and added subpars. (A) and (B).

Subsec. (b)(4). Pub. L. 108–176, §822(b), added par. (4).

2000—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 106–181, §723(2), added subsec. (b). Former subsec. (b) redesignated (c).

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 106–528, §8(c)(1), added par. (1) and struck out heading and text of former par. (1). Text read as follows: "An air carrier, including an indirect air carrier, which operates aircraft designed for more than nine passenger seats, may not provide regularly scheduled charter air transportation for which the general public is provided in advance a schedule containing the departure location, departure time, and arrival location of the flights to or from an airport that is not located in Alaska and that does not have an operating certificate issued under part 139 of title 14, Code of Federal Regulations (or any subsequent similar regulations)."

Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 106–528, §8(c)(2), added par. (3).

Subsecs. (c), (d). Pub. L. 106–181, §723(1), redesignated subsecs. (b) and (c) as (c) and (d), respectively.

Effective Date of 2003 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 108–176 applicable only to fiscal years beginning after Sept. 30, 2003, except as otherwise specifically provided, see section 3 of Pub. L. 108–176, set out as a note under section 106 of this title.

Effective Date of 2000 Amendments

Amendment by Pub. L. 106–528 effective 30 days after Nov. 22, 2000, see section 9 of Pub. L. 106–528, set out as a note under section 106 of this title.

Amendment by Pub. L. 106–181 applicable only to fiscal years beginning after Sept. 30, 1999, see section 3 of Pub. L. 106–181, set out as a note under section 106 of this title.

§41105. Transfers of certificates

(a) General.—A certificate issued under section 41102 of this title may be transferred only when the Secretary of Transportation approves the transfer as being consistent with the public interest.

(b) Certification to Congress.—When a certificate is transferred, the Secretary shall certify to the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate and the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure of the House of Representatives that the transfer is consistent with the public interest. The Secretary shall include with the certification a report analyzing the effects of the transfer on—

(1) the viability of each carrier involved in the transfer;

(2) competition in the domestic airline industry; and

(3) the trade position of the United States in the international air transportation market.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1121; Pub. L. 104–287, §5(9), Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3389.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
41105(a) 49 App.:1371(h)(1). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, §401(h)(1), 72 Stat. 756; Nov. 5, 1990, Pub. L. 101–508, §9127(1), 104 Stat. 1388–371.
  49 App.:1551(b)(1)(E). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, 72 Stat. 731, §1601(b)(1)(E); added Oct. 4, 1984, Pub. L. 98–443, §3(e), 98 Stat. 1704.
41105(b) 49 App.:1371(h)(2), (3). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, 72 Stat. 731, §401(h)(2), (3); added Nov. 5, 1990, Pub. L. 101–508, §9127(2), 104 Stat. 1388–371.

Amendments

1996—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 104–287 substituted "Transportation and Infrastructure" for "Public Works and Transportation".

§41106. Airlift service

(a) Interstate Transportation.—(1) Except as provided in subsection (d) of this section, the transportation of passengers or property by CRAF-eligible aircraft in interstate air transportation obtained by the Secretary of Defense or the Secretary of a military department through a contract for airlift service in the United States may be provided only by an air carrier that—

(A) has aircraft in the civil reserve air fleet or offers to place the aircraft in that fleet; and

(B) holds a certificate issued under section 41102 of this title.


(2) The Secretary of Transportation shall act as expeditiously as possible on an application for a certificate under section 41102 of this title to provide airlift service.

(b) Transportation Between the United States and Foreign Locations.—Except as provided in subsection (d), the transportation of passengers or property by CRAF-eligible aircraft between a place in the United States and a place outside the United States obtained by the Secretary of Defense or the Secretary of a military department through a contract for airlift service shall be provided by an air carrier referred to in subsection (a).

(c) Transportation Between Foreign Locations.—The transportation of passengers or property by CRAF-eligible aircraft between two places outside the United States obtained by the Secretary of Defense or the Secretary of a military department through a contract for airlift service shall be provided by an air carrier referred to in subsection (a) whenever transportation by such an air carrier is reasonably available.

(d) Exception.—When the Secretary of Defense decides that no air carrier holding a certificate under section 41102 is capable of providing, and willing to provide, the airlift service, the Secretary of Defense may make a contract to provide the service with an air carrier not having a certificate.

(e) CRAF-eligible Aircraft Defined.—In this section, "CRAF-eligible aircraft" means aircraft of a type the Secretary of Defense has determined to be eligible to participate in the civil reserve air fleet.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1121; Pub. L. 106–398, §1 [[div. A], title III, §385(a), (b)], Oct. 30, 2000, 114 Stat. 1654, 1654A-87; Pub. L. 112–81, div. A, title III, §365, Dec. 31, 2011, 125 Stat. 1380.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
41106 49 App.:1371(o). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, 72 Stat. 731, §401(o); added July 12, 1976, Pub. L. 94–353, §18(a), 90 Stat. 883.
  49 App.:1551(b)(1)(E). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, 72 Stat. 731, §1601(b)(1)(E); added Oct. 4, 1984, Pub. L. 98–443, §3(e), 98 Stat. 1704.

In subsection (a), before clause (1), the word "passengers" is substituted for "persons" for consistency in the revised title. The words "Secretary of Defense" are substituted for "Department of Defense" because of 10:113(a). The words "an air carrier" are substituted for "carriers" for clarity.

In subsection (b), the words "to provide the service" are added for clarity.

Amendments

2011—Subsecs. (a)(1), (b). Pub. L. 112–81, §365(a)(1), substituted "CRAF-eligible aircraft" for "transport category aircraft".

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 112–81, §365(a), substituted "CRAF-eligible aircraft" for "transport category aircraft" and "referred to in subsection (a)" for "that has aircraft in the civil reserve air fleet".

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 112–81, §365(b), added subsec. (e).

2000—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 106–398, §1 [[div. A], title III, §385(a)(1), (b)], in heading substituted "Interstate Transportation" for "General" and in introductory provisions of par. (1), substituted "Except as provided in subsection (d) of this section," for "Except as provided in subsection (b) of this section," and struck out "of at least 31 days" after "through a contract".

Subsecs. (b) to (d). Pub. L. 106–398, §1 [[div. A], title III, §385(a)(2), (3)], added subsecs. (b) and (c) and redesignated former subsec. (b) as (d).

Effective Date of 2000 Amendment

Pub. L. 106–398, §1 [[div. A], title III, §385(c)], Oct. 30, 2000, 114 Stat. 1654, 1654A-87, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall take effect on October 1, 2000."

§41107. Transportation of mail

When the United States Postal Service finds that the needs of the Postal Service require the transportation of mail by aircraft in foreign air transportation or between places in Alaska, in addition to the transportation of mail authorized under certificates in effect, the Postal Service shall certify that finding to the Secretary of Transportation with a statement about the additional transportation and facilities necessary to provide the additional transportation. A copy of each certification and statement shall be posted for at least 20 days in the office of the Secretary. After notice and an opportunity for a hearing, the Secretary shall issue a new certificate under section 41102 of this title, or amend or modify an existing certificate under section 41110(a)(2)(A) of this title, to provide the additional transportation and facilities if the Secretary finds the additional transportation is required by the public convenience and necessity.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §§1(e), 4(k)(1), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1121, 1370; Pub. L. 106–31, title VI, §6003, May 21, 1999, 113 Stat. 113.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e)
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
41107 49 App.:1371(m). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, §401(m), 72 Stat. 757.
  49 App.:1551(a)(4)(A) (related to 49 App.:1371(m)), (b)(1)(E). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, 72 Stat. 731, §1601(a)(4)(A) (related to §401(m)), (b)(1)(E); added Oct. 4, 1984, Pub. L. 98–443, §3(c), (e), 98 Stat. 1703, 1704.

The words "from time to time" are omitted as surplus. The words "United States Postal Service" and "Postal Service" are substituted for "Postmaster General" in section 401(m) of the Federal Aviation Act of 1958 (Public Law 85–726, 72 Stat. 757) because of sections 4(a) and 6(o) of the Postal Reorganization Act (Public Law 91–375, 84 Stat. 773, 783). The words "in foreign air transportation or between places in Alaska" are substituted for "between any points within the United States or between the United States and foreign countries" for consistency in the revised title and because 49 App.:1551(a)(4)(A) provides that 49 App.:1371(m) no longer applies to interstate or overseas air transportation (except transportation of mail between 2 places in Alaska). In addition, Congress did not intend to maintain the regulation of domestic air transportation of mail. See section 40102(a) of the revised title defining "air transportation" to mean interstate or foreign air transportation or the transportation of mail by aircraft. The word "currently" is omitted as surplus. The words "opportunity for a" are added for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the United States Code. The words "or certificates" are omitted as surplus because of 1:1. The word "modify" is added for consistency in the revised title.

Pub. L. 103–272, §4(k)
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
41107 49 App.:1551(a)(8). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, 72 Stat. 731, §1601(a)(8); added Oct. 4, 1984, Pub. L. 98–443, §3(c), 98 Stat. 1704; Sept. 30, 1988, Pub. L. 100–457, §346 (related to §1601(a)(8) of Federal Aviation Act of 1958), 102 Stat. 2155.
  49 App.:1551(b)(3). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, 72 Stat. 731, §1601(b)(3); added Oct. 4, 1984, Pub. L. 98–443, §3(f), 98 Stat. 1704; Sept. 30, 1988, Pub. L. 100–457, §346 (related to §1601(b)(3) of Federal Aviation Act of 1958), 102 Stat. 2155.

Section 4(k) reflects amendments to the restatement required by section 1601(a)(8) of the Federal Aviation Act of 1958 (Public Law 85–726, 72 Stat. 731), as added by section 3(c) of the Civil Aeronautics Board Sunset Act of 1984 (Public Law 98–443, 98 Stat. 1704), and section 1601(b)(3) of the Federal Aviation Act of 1958 (Public Law 85–726, 72 Stat. 731), as added by section 3(f) of the Civil Aeronautics Board Sunset Act of 1984 (Public Law 98–443, 98 Stat. 1704). Section 1601(a)(8) provides that the authority under 49 App.:1371(l) and (m) and 1375(b)–(d) as those sections relate to transportation of mail by aircraft between places in Alaska (restated in sections 41107 and 41901–41903 of the revised title) ceases on January 1, 1999. Section 1601(b)(3) transfers the authority for prescribing rates for transportation of mail between places in Alaska from the Secretary of Transportation to the Postal Service effective January 1, 1999.

Amendments

1999Pub. L. 106–31 repealed Pub. L. 103–272, §4(k). See 1994 Amendment note below.

1994Pub. L. 103–272, §4(k)(1), which directed the amendment of this section by substituting "foreign air transportation," for "foreign air transportation or between places in Alaska,", effective Jan. 1, 1999, was repealed by Pub. L. 106–31, §6003, effective Dec. 31, 1998.

Effective Date of 1999 Amendment

Pub. L. 106–31, title VI, §6003, May 21, 1999, 113 Stat. 113, provided that the amendment made by section 6003 is effective Dec. 31, 1998.

Effective Date of 1994 Amendment

Pub. L. 103–272, §4(k), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1370, which provided that the amendments made by that section (amending this section and sections 41901, 41902, and 41903 of this title) were effective Jan. 1, 1999, was repealed by Pub. L. 106–31, title VI, §6003, May 21, 1999, 113 Stat. 113, effective Dec. 31, 1998.

§41108. Applications for certificates

(a) Form, Contents, and Proof of Service.—To be issued a certificate of public convenience and necessity under section 41102 of this title, a citizen of the United States must apply to the Secretary of Transportation. The application must—

(1) be in the form and contain information required by regulations of the Secretary; and

(2) be accompanied by proof of service on interested persons as required by regulations of the Secretary and on each community that may be affected by the issuance of the certificate.


(b) Notice, Response, and Actions on Applications.—(1) When an application is filed, the Secretary shall post a notice of the application in the office of the Secretary and give notice of the application to other persons as required by regulations of the Secretary. An interested person may file a response with the Secretary opposing or supporting the issuance of the certificate. Not later than 90 days after the application is filed, the Secretary shall—

(A) provide an opportunity for a public hearing on the application;

(B) begin the procedure under section 41111 of this title; or

(C) dismiss the application on its merits.


(2) An order of dismissal issued by the Secretary under paragraph (1)(C) of this subsection is a final order and may be reviewed judicially under section 46110 of this title.

(3) If the Secretary provides an opportunity for a hearing under paragraph (1)(A) of this subsection, an initial or recommended decision shall be issued not later than 150 days after the date the Secretary provides the opportunity. The Secretary shall issue a final order on the application not later than 90 days after the decision is issued. However, if the Secretary does not act within the 90-day period, the initial or recommended decision on an application to provide—

(A) interstate air transportation is a final order and may be reviewed judicially under section 46110 of this title; and

(B) foreign air transportation shall be submitted to the President under section 41307 of this title.


(4) If the Secretary acts under paragraph (1)(B) of this subsection, the Secretary shall issue a final order on the application not later than 180 days after beginning the procedure on the application.

(5) If a citizen applying for a certificate does not meet the procedural schedule adopted by the Secretary in a proceeding, the Secretary may extend the period for acting under paragraphs (3) and (4) of this subsection by a period equal to the period of delay caused by the citizen. In addition to an extension under this paragraph, an initial or recommended decision under paragraph (3) of this subsection may be delayed for not more than 30 days in extraordinary circumstances.

(c) Proof Requirements.—(1) A citizen applying for a certificate must prove that the citizen is fit, willing, and able to provide the transportation referred to in section 41102 of this title and to comply with this part.

(2) A person opposing a citizen applying for a certificate must prove that the transportation referred to in section 41102(b)(2) of this title is not consistent with the public convenience and necessity. The transportation is deemed to be consistent with the public convenience and necessity unless the Secretary finds, by a preponderance of the evidence, that the transportation is not consistent with the public convenience and necessity.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1121.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
41108(a) 49 App.:1371(b). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, §401(b), 72 Stat. 754; Oct. 24, 1978, Pub. L. 95–504, §6, 92 Stat. 1710.
  49 App.:1551(b)(1)(E). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, 72 Stat. 731, §1601(b)(1)(E); added Oct. 4, 1984, Pub. L. 98–443, §3(e), 98 Stat. 1704.
41108(b) 49 App.:1371(c). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, 401(c), 72 Stat. 754; restated Oct. 24, 1978, Pub. L. 95–504, §7(a), 92 Stat. 1711.
  49 App.:1551(b)(1)(E).
41108(c) 49 App.:1371(d)(9). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, 72 Stat. 731, §401(d)(9); added Oct. 24, 1978, Pub. L. 95–504, §14, 92 Stat. 1719.
  49 App.:1551(b)(1)(E).

In subsection (a), the words "of public convenience and necessity under section 41102 of this title" are added for clarity.

In subsection (b)(1), before clause (A), the words "give due notice thereof to the public by" are omitted as surplus. The word "response" is substituted for "protest or memorandum" to eliminate unnecessary words. The words "requested by such application" are omitted as surplus. Clause (A) is substituted for 49 App.:1371(c)(1)(A) for clarity and consistency. Clause (B) is substituted for 49 App.:1371(c)(1)(B) to eliminate unnecessary words.

In subsection (b)(2), the words "An order of dismissal issued by the Secretary under paragraph (1)(C) of this subsection" are substituted for "Any order of dismissal of an application issued by the Board without setting such application for a hearing or beginning to make a determination with respect to such application under such simplified procedures" to eliminate unnecessary words.

In subsection (b)(3), before clause (A), the words "If the Secretary provides an opportunity for a hearing under paragraph (1)(A) of this subsection" are substituted for "If the Board determines that any application should be set for a public hearing under clause (A) of the second sentence of paragraph (1) of this subsection" to eliminate unnecessary words. The words "provides the opportunity" are substituted for "of such determination" for clarity. The words "for a certificate" are omitted as surplus. The words "to provide" are substituted for "to engage in" for consistency in the revised title.

In subsection (b)(4), the words "If the Secretary acts under paragraph (1)(B) of this subsection" are added for clarity. The words "after beginning the procedure on the application" are substituted for "after the Board begins to make a determination with respect to an application under the simplified procedures established by the Board in regulations pursuant to subsection (p) of this section" to eliminate unnecessary words.

In subsection (b)(5), the word "particular" is omitted as surplus. The words "by order" are omitted as surplus because of 5:ch. 5, subch. II.

In subsection (c)(1), the words "In any determination as to whether or not" are omitted as surplus. The word "provide" is substituted for "perform" for consistency in the revised title. The word "properly" is omitted as surplus. The word "comply" is substituted for "conform" for consistency in the revised title.

In subsection (c)(2), the words "In any determination as to whether" are omitted as surplus. The reference is to section 41102(b)(2), rather than 41102(a), of the revised title to reflect the termination of authority under 49 App.:1551(a)(1)(A).

§41109. Terms of certificates

(a) General.—(1) Each certificate issued under section 41102 of this title shall specify the type of transportation to be provided.

(2) The Secretary of Transportation—

(A) may prescribe terms for providing air transportation under the certificate that the Secretary finds may be required in the public interest; but

(B) may not prescribe a term preventing an air carrier from adding or changing schedules, equipment, accommodations, and facilities for providing the authorized transportation to satisfy business development and public demand.


(3) A certificate issued under section 41102 of this title to provide foreign air transportation shall specify the places between which the air carrier is authorized to provide the transportation only to the extent the Secretary considers practicable and otherwise only shall specify each general route to be followed. The Secretary shall authorize an air carrier holding a certificate to provide foreign air transportation to handle and transport mail of countries other than the United States.

(4) A certificate issued under section 41102 of this title to provide foreign charter air transportation shall specify the places between which the air carrier is authorized to provide the transportation only to the extent the Secretary considers practicable and otherwise only shall specify each geographical area in which, or between which, the transportation may be provided.

(5) As prescribed by regulation by the Secretary, an air carrier other than a charter air carrier may provide charter trips or other special services without regard to the places named or type of transportation specified in its certificate.

(b) Modifying Terms.—(1) An air carrier may file with the Secretary an application to modify any term of its certificate issued under section 41102 of this title to provide interstate or foreign air transportation. Not later than 60 days after an application is filed, the Secretary shall—

(A) provide the carrier an opportunity for an oral evidentiary hearing on the record; or

(B) begin to consider the application under section 41111 of this title.


(2) The Secretary shall modify each term the Secretary finds to be inconsistent with the criteria under section 40101(a) and (b) of this title.

(3) An application under this subsection may not be dismissed under section 41108(b)(1)(C) of this title.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1123; Pub. L. 104–287, §5(70), Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3396.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Pub. L. 103–272
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
41109(a)(1) 49 App.:1371(e)(1) (words before semicolon). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, §401(e)(1), 72 Stat. 755; restated July 10, 1962, Pub. L. 87–528, §3, 76 Stat. 143.
  49 App.:1551(a)(1)(C). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, 72 Stat. 731, §1601(a)(1)(C); added Oct. 24, 1978, Pub. L. 95–504, §40(a), 92 Stat. 1744.
41109(a)(2) 49 App.:1371(e)(1) (words after semicolon).
  49 App.:1371(e)(4). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, §401(e)(3), (4), 72 Stat. 755; restated July 10, 1962, Pub. L. 87–528, §3, 76 Stat. 143; Oct. 24, 1978, Pub. L. 95–504, §15(a), (b), 92 Stat. 1719.
  49 App.:1551(b)(1)(E). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, 72 Stat. 731, §1601(b)(1)(E); added Oct. 4, 1984, Pub. L. 98–443, §3(e), 98 Stat. 1704.
41109(a)(3) 49 App.:1371(e)(2). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, §401(e)(2), 72 Stat. 755; restated July 10, 1962, Pub. L. 87–528, §3, 76 Stat. 143; Feb. 15, 1980, Pub. L. 96–192, §5, 94 Stat. 37.
  49 App.:1551(b)(1)(E).
41109(a)(4) 49 App.:1371(e)(3).
  49 App.:1551(b)(1)(E).
41109(b) 49 App.:1371(e)(7)(B). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, 72 Stat. 731, §401(e)(7)(B); added Oct. 24, 1978, Pub. L. 95–504, §16, 92 Stat. 1720.
  49 App.:1551(b)(1)(E).

In subsection (a)(1), the text of 49 App.:1371(e)(1) (words before semicolon related to terminal and intermediate points) is omitted as obsolete because of 49 App.:1551(a)(1)(C) and because interstate and overseas air transportation is no longer regulated. The words "type of" are added for clarity. The word "provided" is substituted for "rendered" for consistency in the revised title.

In subsection (a)(2), the words before clause (A) are added for clarity. Clause (A) is substituted for 49 App.:1371(e)(1) (words after semicolon) for clarity and consistency and to eliminate unnecessary words. In clause (B), the words "may not prescribe a term preventing" are substituted for "No term, condition, or limitation of a certificate shall restrict the right" for clarity and consistency. The word "providing" is substituted for "performing" for consistency in the revised title.

In subsection (a)(3) and (4), the word "places" is substituted for "points", and the word "provide" is substituted for "engage in", for consistency in the revised title. The words "terminal and intermediate" are omitted as surplus. The words "between which the air carrier is authorized to provide the transportation" are added for clarity and consistency.

In subsection (a)(3), the words "or routes" are omitted because of 1:1. The words "The Secretary" are added for clarity.

In subsection (a)(4), the words "or areas" are omitted because of 1:1.

In subsection (b), the words "condition, or limitation" are omitted as being included in "term".

In subsection (b)(1), before clause (A), the word "modify" is substituted for "removal or modification" to eliminate unnecessary words. The word "provide" is substituted for "engage in" for consistency in the revised title. In clause (A), the words "provide the carrier an opportunity" are substituted for "set such application" for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the United States Code. In clause (B), the words "the simplified procedures established by the Board in regulations pursuant to" are omitted as surplus.

Pub. L. 104–287

This amends 49:41109(a) to clarify the restatement of 49 App.:1371(e) by section 1 of the Act of July 5, 1994 (Public Law 103–272, 108 Stat. 1123).

Amendments

1996—Subsec. (a)(5). Pub. L. 104–287 added par. (5).

Effective Date of 1996 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 104–287 effective July 5, 1994, see section 8(1) of Pub. L. 104–287, set out as a note under section 5303 of this title.

§41110. Effective periods and amendments, modifications, suspensions, and revocations of certificates

(a) General.—(1) Each certificate issued under section 41102 of this title is effective from the date specified in it and remains in effect until—

(A) the Secretary of Transportation suspends or revokes the certificate under this section;

(B) the end of the period the Secretary specifies for an air carrier having a certificate of temporary authority issued under section 41102(a)(2) of this title; or

(C) the Secretary certifies that transportation is no longer being provided under a certificate.


(2) On application or on the initiative of the Secretary and after notice and an opportunity for a hearing or, except as provided in paragraph (4) of this subsection, under section 41111 of this title, the Secretary may—

(A) amend, modify, or suspend any part of a certificate if the Secretary finds the public convenience and necessity require amendment, modification, or suspension; and

(B) revoke any part of a certificate if the Secretary finds that the holder of the certificate intentionally does not comply with this chapter, sections 41308–41310(a), 41501, 41503, 41504, 41506, 41510, 41511, 41701, 41702, 41705–41709, 41711, 41712, and 41731–41742, chapter 419, subchapter II of chapter 421, and section 46301(b) of this title, a regulation or order of the Secretary under any of those provisions, or a term of its certificate.


(3) The Secretary may revoke a certificate under paragraph (2)(B) of this subsection only if the holder of the certificate does not comply, within a reasonable time the Secretary specifies, with an order to the holder requiring compliance.

(4) A certificate to provide foreign air transportation may not be amended, modified, suspended, or revoked under section 41111 of this title if the holder of the certificate requests an oral evidentiary hearing or the Secretary finds, under all the facts and circumstances, that the hearing is required in the public interest.

(b) All-Cargo Air Transportation.—The Secretary may order that a certificate issued under section 41103 of this title authorizing all-cargo air transportation is ineffective if, after notice and an opportunity for a hearing, the Secretary finds that the transportation is not provided to the minimum extent specified by the Secretary.

(c) Foreign Air Transportation.—(1) Notwithstanding subsection (a)(2)–(4) of this section, after notice and a reasonable opportunity for the affected air carrier to present its views, but without a hearing, the Secretary may suspend or revoke the authority of an air carrier to provide foreign air transportation to a place under a certificate issued under section 41102 of this title if the carrier—

(A) notifies the Secretary, under section 41734(a) of this title or a regulation of the Secretary, that it intends to suspend all transportation to that place; or

(B) does not provide regularly scheduled transportation to the place for 90 days immediately before the date the Secretary notifies the carrier of the action the Secretary proposes.


(2) Paragraph (1)(B) of this subsection does not apply to a place provided seasonal transportation comparable to the transportation provided during the prior year.

(d) Temporary Certificates.—On application or on the initiative of the Secretary, the Secretary may—

(1) review the performance of an air carrier issued a certificate under section 41102(c) of this title on the basis that the air carrier will provide innovative or low-priced air transportation under the certificate; and

(2) amend, modify, suspend, or revoke the certificate or authority under subsection (a)(2) or (c) of this section if the air carrier has not provided, or is not providing, the transportation.


(e) Continuing Requirements.—(1) To hold a certificate issued under section 41102 of this title, an air carrier must continue to be fit, willing, and able to provide the transportation authorized by the certificate and to comply with this part and regulations of the Secretary.

(2) After notice and an opportunity for a hearing, the Secretary shall amend, modify, suspend, or revoke any part of a certificate issued under section 41102 of this title if the Secretary finds that the air carrier—

(A) is not fit, willing, and able to provide the transportation authorized by the certificate and to comply with this part and regulations of the Secretary; or

(B) does not file reports necessary for the Secretary to decide if the carrier is complying with the requirements of clause (A) of this paragraph.


(f) Illegal Importation of Controlled Substances.—The Secretary—

(1) in consultation with appropriate departments, agencies, and instrumentalities of the United States Government, shall reexamine immediately the fitness of an air carrier that—

(A) violates the laws and regulations of the United States related to the illegal importation of a controlled substance; or

(B) does not adopt available measures to prevent the illegal importation of a controlled substance into the United States on its aircraft; and


(2) when appropriate, shall amend, modify, suspend, or revoke the certificate of the carrier issued under this chapter.


(g) Responses.—An interested person may file a response with the Secretary opposing or supporting the amendment, modification, suspension, or revocation of a certificate under subsection (a) of this section.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1123; Pub. L. 103–429, §6(50), Oct. 31, 1994, 108 Stat. 4384.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Pub. L. 103–272
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
41110(a)(1) 49 App.:1371(f). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, §401(f), 72 Stat. 755; Oct. 24, 1978, Pub. L. 95–504, §§10(b), 17, 92 Stat. 1716, 1720.
  49 App.:1551(b)(1)(E). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, 72 Stat. 731, §1601(b)(1)(E); added Oct. 4, 1984, Pub. L. 98–443, §3(e), 98 Stat. 1704.
41110(a) (2)–(4) 49 App.:1371(g)(1). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, §401(g), 72 Stat. 756; Oct. 24, 1978, Pub. L. 95–504, §18, 92 Stat. 1720; restated Feb. 15, 1980, Pub. L. 96–192, §6, 94 Stat 37.
  49 App.:1551(b)(1)(E).
41110(b) 49 App.:1388(b)(4). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, 72 Stat. 731, §418(b)(4); added Nov. 9, 1977, Pub. L. 95–163, §17(a), 91 Stat. 1285.
  49 App.:1551(b)(1)(E).
41110(c) 49 App.:1371(g)(3).
  49 App.:1551(b)(1)(E).
41110(d) 49 App.:1371(d)(8) (last sentence). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, 72 Stat. 731, §401(d)(8) (last sentence); added Oct. 24, 1978, Pub. L. 95–504, §13, 92 Stat. 1719.
  49 App.:1551(a)(1)(B). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, 72 Stat. 731, §1601(a)(1)(B); added Oct. 24, 1978, Pub. L. 95–504, §40(a), 92 Stat. 1744.
  49 App.:1551(b)(1)(E).
41110(e) 49 App.:1371(r) (related to certificate). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, 72 Stat. 731, §401(r) (related to certificate); added Oct. 24, 1978, Pub. L. 95–504, §20(d)(1), 92 Stat. 1722.
  49 App.:1551(b)(1)(E).
41110(f) 49 App.:1371a (related to certificate). Aug. 15, 1985, Pub. L. 99–88, §100 (1st complete par. related to certificate on p. 352), 99 Stat. 352.
41110(g) 49 App.:1371(g)(2).
  49 App.:1551(b)(1)(E).

In subsection (a)(1)(C), the words "transportation is no longer being provided under a certificate" are substituted for "operation thereunder has ceased" and "operations thereunder have ceased" for clarity and consistency.

In subsections (a)(2) and (e), the words "opportunity for a" are added for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the United States Code.

In subsection (a)(2), before clause (A), the word "application" is substituted for "petition or complaint" for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the Code and to eliminate unnecessary words. The words "except as provided in paragraph (4) of this subsection" are added for clarity. The words "the simplified procedures under" are omitted as surplus. In clause (A), the word "alter" is omitted as surplus. In clause (B), the reference to 49 App.:1372 is omitted from the cross-references of "this subchapter" because 49 App.:1372 is concerned with foreign air carrier permits and not relevant to air carrier certificate revocation. The word "rule" is omitted as being synonymous with "regulation". The words "condition, or limitation" are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (a)(3), the words "to the provision, or to the order (other than an order issued in accordance with this sentence), rule, regulation, term, condition, or limitation found by the Board to have been violated" are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (a)(4), the word "provide" is substituted for "engage in" for consistency in the revised title. The words "altered" and "the simplified procedures of" are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (b), the words "to the extent of such service" are omitted as surplus. The word "provided" is substituted for "performed" for consistency in the revised title.

In subsection (c)(1), the word "place" is substituted for "point" for consistency in the revised title. In clause (A), the cross-reference is to section 41734(a) of the revised title for clarity because 49 App.:1371(j) is obsolete. The comparable provision is 49 App.:1389(b)(2), restated as section 41734(a). The words "provided by that carrier" are omitted as surplus. In clause (B), the word "immediately" is added for clarity.

In subsection (d)(2), the words "alter" and "the procedures prescribed in" are omitted as surplus.

In subsections (e) and (f)(2), the word "amend" is added for consistency.

In subsection (e), before clause (1), the words "The requirement that each applicant for a certificate or any other authority . . . shall be a continuing requirement applicable to each such air carrier with respect to the transportation authorized by the Board" are omitted as surplus. The words "by order" are omitted as unnecessary because of 5:ch. 5, subch. II. In clause (1), the word "provide" is substituted for "perform" for consistency in the revised title. The word "properly" is omitted as surplus. The word "comply" is substituted for "conform to" for consistency in the revised title. The word "rules" is omitted as being synonymous with "regulations". The word "requirements" is omitted as surplus.

In subsection (f), before clause (1), the words "Notwithstanding any other provision of law" are omitted as surplus. The words "on and after August 15, 1985" are omitted as executed. In clause (1), before subclause (A), the words "law enforcement and other" are omitted as surplus. The words "departments, agencies, and instrumentalities of the United States Government" are substituted for "agencies" for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the Code. The words "an air carrier" are substituted for "any carrier" for clarity. In clause (2), the words "of public convenience and necessity" are omitted as surplus. The words "issued under this chapter" are added for clarity.

In subsection (g), the word "response" is substituted for "protest or memorandum" to eliminate unnecessary words. The word "alteration" is omitted as surplus.

Pub. L. 103–429

This amends 49:41110(e) to clarify the restatement of 49 App.:1371(r) (related to certificate) by section 1 of the Act of July 5, 1994 (Public Law 103–272, 108 Stat. 1124).

Amendments

1994—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 103–429 reenacted heading without change and amended text generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "After notice and an opportunity for a hearing, the Secretary shall amend, modify, suspend, or revoke any part of a certificate issued under section 41102 of this title if the Secretary finds that the air carrier—

"(1) is not fit, willing, and able to continue to provide the transportation authorized by the certificate and to comply with this part and regulations of the Secretary; or

"(2) does not file reports necessary for the Secretary to decide if the carrier is complying with the requirements of clause (1) of this subsection."

Effective Date of 1994 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 103–429 effective July 5, 1994, see section 9 of Pub. L. 103–429, set out as a note under section 321 of this title.

§41111. Simplified procedure to apply for, amend, modify, suspend, and transfer certificates

(a) General Requirements.—(1) The Secretary of Transportation shall prescribe regulations that simplify the procedure for—

(A) acting on an application for a certificate to provide air transportation under section 41102 of this title; and

(B) amending, modifying, suspending, or transferring any part of that certificate under section 41105 or 41110(a) or (c) of this title.


(2) Regulations under this section shall provide for notice and an opportunity for each interested person to file appropriate written evidence and argument. An oral evidentiary hearing is not required to be provided under this section.

(b) When Simplified Procedure Used.—The Secretary may use the simplified procedure to act on an application for a certificate to provide air transportation under section 41102 of this title, or to amend, modify, suspend, or transfer any part of that certificate under section 41105 or 41110(a) or (c) of this title, when the Secretary decides the use of the procedure is in the public interest.

(c) Contents.—(1) To the extent the Secretary finds practicable, regulations under this section shall include each standard the Secretary will apply when—

(A) deciding whether to use the simplified procedure; and

(B) making a decision on an action in which the procedure is used.


(2) The regulations may provide that written evidence and argument may be filed under section 41108(b) of this title as a part of a response opposing or supporting the issuance of a certificate.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1125.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
41111(a) 49 App.:1371(p)(1) (1st, 2d sentences). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, 72 Stat. 731, §401(p); added Oct. 24, 1978, Pub. L. 95–504, §21(a)(1), 92 Stat. 1723.
  49 App.:1551(b)(1)(E). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, 72 Stat. 731, §1601(b)(1)(E); added Oct. 4, 1984, Pub. L. 98–443, §3(e), 98 Stat. 1704.
41111(b) 49 App.:1371(p)(2) (1st sentence).
  49 App.:1551(b)(1)(E).
41111(c) 49 App.:1371(p)(1) (last sentence), (2) (last sentence).
  49 App.:1551(b)(1)(E).

In this section, the words "acting on" and "act on" are substituted for "disposition of" for consistency.

In subsection (a)(1)(A), the word "provide" is substituted for "engage in" for consistency in the revised title.

In subsection (a)(1)(B), the word "alteration" is omitted as surplus.

In subsection (a)(2), the word "adequate" is omitted as surplus.

In subsection (b), the words "to act on an application for a certificate to provide air transportation under section 41102 of this title, or to amend, modify, suspend, or transfer any part of that certificate under section 41105 or 41110(a) or (c) of this title" are added for clarity.

In subsection (c)(2), the words "by such person" are omitted as surplus. The words "a response opposing or supporting the issuance of a certificate" are substituted for "a protest or memorandum filed with respect to such application" for consistency.

§41112. Liability insurance and financial responsibility

(a) Liability Insurance.—The Secretary of Transportation may issue a certificate to a citizen of the United States to provide air transportation as an air carrier under section 41102 of this title only if the citizen complies with regulations and orders of the Secretary governing the filing of an insurance policy or self-insurance plan approved by the Secretary. The policy or plan must be sufficient to pay, not more than the amount of the insurance, for bodily injury to, or death of, an individual or for loss of, or damage to, property of others, resulting from the operation or maintenance of the aircraft under the certificate. A certificate does not remain in effect unless the carrier complies with this subsection.

(b) Financial Responsibility.—To protect passengers and shippers using an aircraft operated by an air carrier issued a certificate under section 41102 of this title, the Secretary may require the carrier to file a performance bond or equivalent security in the amount and on terms the Secretary prescribes. The bond or security must be sufficient to ensure the carrier adequately will pay the passengers and shippers when the transportation the carrier agrees to provide is not provided. The Secretary shall prescribe the amounts to be paid under this subsection.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1126.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
41112 49 App.:1371(q). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, 72 Stat. 731, §401(q); added Oct. 24, 1978, Pub. L. 95–504, §20(d)(1), 92 Stat. 1722.
  49 App.:1551(b)(1)(E). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, 72 Stat. 731, §1601(b)(1)(E); added Oct. 4, 1984, Pub. L. 98–443, §3(e), 98 Stat. 1704.

In subsection (a), the words "citizen of the United States" and "citizen" are substituted for "applicant for such certificate or the air carrier" for clarity and consistency because only a citizen of the United States may be an "air carrier" as defined in section 40102(a) of the revised title and receive a certificate. The words "as the case may be" are omitted as surplus. The words "to provide air transportation as an air carrier under section 41102 of this title" are added for clarity. The words "approved by the Secretary" are substituted for "governing the filing and approval . . . in the amount prescribed by the Board" to eliminate unnecessary words. The words "The policy or plan must be sufficient to pay" are substituted for "which are conditioned to pay . . . amounts" for clarity. The words "for which such applicant or such air carrier may become liable for" are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (b), the word "passengers" is substituted for "travelers" for consistency in this chapter. The words "issued . . . under section 41102 of this title" are added for clarity. The word "arrangement" is omitted as surplus. The word "provide" is substituted for "perform" for consistency in the revised title.

§41113. Plans to address needs of families of passengers involved in aircraft accidents

(a) Submission of Plans.—Each air carrier holding a certificate of public convenience and necessity under section 41102 of this title shall submit to the Secretary and the Chairman of the National Transportation Safety Board a plan for addressing the needs of the families of passengers involved in any aircraft accident involving an aircraft of the air carrier and resulting in any loss of life.

(b) Contents of Plans.—A plan to be submitted by an air carrier under subsection (a) shall include, at a minimum, the following:

(1) A plan for publicizing a reliable, toll-free telephone number, and for providing staff, to handle calls from the families of the passengers.

(2) A process for notifying the families of the passengers, before providing any public notice of the names of the passengers, either by utilizing the services of the organization designated for the accident under section 1136(a)(2) of this title or the services of other suitably trained individuals.

(3) An assurance that the notice described in paragraph (2) will be provided to the family of a passenger as soon as the air carrier has verified that the passenger was aboard the aircraft (whether or not the names of all of the passengers have been verified) and, to the extent practicable, in person.

(4) An assurance that the air carrier will provide to the director of family support services designated for the accident under section 1136(a)(1) of this title, and to the organization designated for the accident under section 1136(a)(2) of this title, immediately upon request, a list (which is based on the best available information at the time of the request) of the names of the passengers aboard the aircraft (whether or not such names have been verified), and will periodically update the list.

(5) An assurance that the family of each passenger will be consulted about the disposition of all remains and personal effects of the passenger within the control of the air carrier.

(6) An assurance that if requested by the family of a passenger, any possession of the passenger within the control of the air carrier (regardless of its condition) will be returned to the family unless the possession is needed for the accident investigation or any criminal investigation.

(7) An assurance that any unclaimed possession of a passenger within the control of the air carrier will be retained by the air carrier for at least 18 months.

(8) An assurance that the family of each passenger will be consulted about construction by the air carrier of any monument to the passengers, including any inscription on the monument.

(9) An assurance that the treatment of the families of nonrevenue passengers (and any other victim of the accident, including any victim on the ground) will be the same as the treatment of the families of revenue passengers.

(10) An assurance that the air carrier will work with any organization designated under section 1136(a)(2) of this title on an ongoing basis to ensure that families of passengers receive an appropriate level of services and assistance following each accident.

(11) An assurance that the air carrier will provide reasonable compensation to any organization designated under section 1136(a)(2) of this title for services provided by the organization.

(12) An assurance that the air carrier will assist the family of a passenger in traveling to the location of the accident and provide for the physical care of the family while the family is staying at such location.

(13) An assurance that the air carrier will commit sufficient resources to carry out the plan.

(14) An assurance that, upon request of the family of a passenger, the air carrier will inform the family of whether the passenger's name appeared on a preliminary passenger manifest for the flight involved in the accident.

(15) An assurance that the air carrier will provide adequate training to the employees and agents of the carrier to meet the needs of survivors and family members following an accident.

(16) An assurance that the air carrier, in the event that the air carrier volunteers assistance to United States citizens within the United States with respect to an aircraft accident outside the United States involving any loss of life, will consult with the Board and the Department of State on the provision of the assistance.

(17)(A) An assurance that, in the case of an accident that results in any damage to a manmade structure or other property on the ground that is not government-owned, the air carrier will promptly provide notice, in writing, to the extent practicable, directly to the owner of the structure or other property about liability for any property damage and means for obtaining compensation.

(B) At a minimum, the written notice shall advise an owner (i) to contact the insurer of the property as the authoritative source for information about coverage and compensation; (ii) to not rely on unofficial information offered by air carrier representatives about compensation by the air carrier for accident-site property damage; and (iii) to obtain photographic or other detailed evidence of property damage as soon as possible after the accident, consistent with restrictions on access to the accident site.

(18) An assurance that, in the case of an accident in which the National Transportation Safety Board conducts a public hearing or comparable proceeding at a location greater than 80 miles from the accident site, the air carrier will ensure that the proceeding is made available simultaneously by electronic means at a location open to the public at both the origin city and destination city of the air carrier's flight if that city is located in the United States.


(c) Certificate Requirement.—The Secretary may not approve an application for a certificate of public convenience and necessity under section 41102 of this title unless the applicant has included as part of such application a plan that meets the requirements of subsection (b).

(d) Limitation on Liability.—An air carrier shall not be liable for damages in any action brought in a Federal or State court arising out of the performance of the air carrier in preparing or providing a passenger list, or in providing information concerning a preliminary passenger manifest, pursuant to a plan submitted by the air carrier under subsection (b), unless such liability was caused by conduct of the air carrier which was grossly negligent or which constituted intentional misconduct.

(e) Aircraft Accident and Passenger Defined.—In this section, the terms "aircraft accident" and "passenger" have the meanings such terms have in section 1136 of this title.

(f) Statutory Construction.—Nothing in this section may be construed as limiting the actions that an air carrier may take, or the obligations that an air carrier may have, in providing assistance to the families of passengers involved in an aircraft accident.

(Added Pub. L. 104–264, title VII, §703(a), Oct. 9, 1996, 110 Stat. 3267; amended Pub. L. 106–181, title IV, §402(a)(1)–(3), (5)–(c), Apr. 5, 2000, 114 Stat. 129, 130; Pub. L. 108–176, title VIII, §809(a), Dec. 12, 2003, 117 Stat. 2588; Pub. L. 115–254, div. C, §1109(a), Oct. 5, 2018, 132 Stat. 3434.)

Amendments

2018—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 115–254, §1109(a)(1), substituted "any loss of life" for "a major loss of life".

Subsec. (b)(9). Pub. L. 115–254, §1109(a)(2)(A), substituted "(and any other victim of the accident, including any victim on the ground)" for "(and any other victim of the accident)".

Subsec. (b)(16). Pub. L. 115–254, §1109(a)(2)(B), substituted "any loss of life" for "major loss of life".

Subsec. (b)(17)(A). Pub. L. 115–254, §1109(a)(2)(C), substituted "any damage" for "significant damage".

2003—Subsec. (b)(16). Pub. L. 108–176, §809(a)(1), struck out "the air carrier" after "major loss of life,".

Subsec. (b)(17), (18). Pub. L. 108–176, §809(a)(2), added pars. (17) and (18).

2000—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 106–181, §402(a)(5)(A), substituted "Each air carrier" for "Not later than 6 months after the date of the enactment of this section, each air carrier".

Subsec. (b)(14) to (16). Pub. L. 106–181, §402(a)(1)–(3), added pars. (14) to (16).

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 106–181, §402(a)(5)(B), substituted "The Secretary" for "After the date that is 6 months after the date of the enactment of this section, the Secretary".

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 106–181, §402(b), inserted ", or in providing information concerning a preliminary passenger manifest," before "pursuant to a plan".

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 106–181, §402(c), added subsec. (f).

Effective Date of 2003 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 108–176 applicable only to fiscal years beginning after Sept. 30, 2003, except as otherwise specifically provided, see section 3 of Pub. L. 108–176, set out as a note under section 106 of this title.

Effective Date of 2000 Amendment

Amendment by section 402(a)(5)(B) to (c) of Pub. L. 106–181 applicable only to fiscal years beginning after Sept. 30, 1999, see section 3 of Pub. L. 106–181, set out as a note under section 106 of this title.

Pub. L. 106–181, title IV, §402(a)(4), Apr. 5, 2000, 114 Stat. 130, provided that: "The amendments made by paragraphs (1), (2), and (3) [amending this section] shall take effect on the 180th day following the date of the enactment of this Act [Apr. 5, 2000]. On or before such 180th day, each air carrier holding a certificate of public convenience and necessity under section 41102 of title 49, United States Code, shall submit to the Secretary [of Transportation] and the Chairman of the National Transportation Safety Board an updated plan under section 41113 of such title that meets the requirements of the amendments made by paragraphs (1), (2), and (3)."

Effective Date

Except as otherwise specifically provided, section applicable only to fiscal years beginning after Sept. 30, 1996, and not to be construed as affecting funds made available for a fiscal year ending before Oct. 1, 1996, see section 3 of Pub. L. 104–264, set out as an Effective Date of 1996 Amendment note under section 106 of this title.

Update Plans

Pub. L. 108–176, title VIII, §809(c), Dec. 12, 2003, 117 Stat. 2589, provided that: "Air carriers and foreign air carriers shall update their plans under sections 41113 and 41313 of title 49, United States Code, respectively, to reflect the amendments made by subsections (a) and (b) of this section [amending this section and section 41313 of this title] not later than 90 days after the date of enactment of this Act [Dec. 12, 2003]."

Establishment of Task Force

Pub. L. 104–264, title VII, §704, Oct. 9, 1996, 110 Stat. 3268, provided that:

"(a) Establishment.—The Secretary of Transportation, in cooperation with the National Transportation Safety Board, the Federal Emergency Management Agency, the American Red Cross, air carriers, and families which have been involved in aircraft accidents shall establish a task force consisting of representatives of such entities and families, representatives of air carrier employees, and representatives of such other entities as the Secretary considers appropriate.

"(b) Guidelines and Recommendations.—The task force established pursuant to subsection (a) shall develop—

"(1) guidelines to assist air carriers in responding to aircraft accidents;

"(2) recommendations on methods to ensure that attorneys and representatives of media organizations do not intrude on the privacy of families of passengers involved in an aircraft accident;

"(3) recommendations on methods to ensure that the families of passengers involved in an aircraft accident who are not citizens of the United States receive appropriate assistance;

"(4) recommendations on methods to ensure that State mental health licensing laws do not act to prevent out-of-state mental health workers from working at the site of an aircraft accident or other related sites;

"(5) recommendations on the extent to which military experts and facilities can be used to aid in the identification of the remains of passengers involved in an aircraft accident; and

"(6) recommendations on methods to improve the timeliness of the notification provided by air carriers to the families of passengers involved in an aircraft accident, including—

"(A) an analysis of the steps that air carriers would have to take to ensure that an accurate list of passengers on board the aircraft would be available within 1 hour of the accident and an analysis of such steps to ensure that such list would be available within 3 hours of the accident;

"(B) an analysis of the added costs to air carriers and travel agents that would result if air carriers were required to take the steps described in subparagraph (A);

"(C) an analysis of any inconvenience to passengers, including flight delays, that would result if air carriers were required to take the steps described in subparagraph (A); and

"(D) an analysis of the implications for personal privacy that would result if air carriers were required to take the steps described in subparagraph (A).

"(c) Report.—Not later than 1 year after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 9, 1996], the Secretary shall transmit to Congress a report containing the model plan and recommendations developed by the task force under subsection (b)."

Limitation on Statutory Construction

Pub. L. 104–264, title VII, §705, Oct. 9, 1996, 110 Stat. 3269, provided that: "Nothing in this title [enacting this section and section 1136 of this title, amending section 1155 of this title, and enacting provisions set out as notes under this section and section 40101 of this title] or any amendment made by this title may be construed as limiting the actions that an air carrier may take, or the obligations that an air carrier may have, in providing assistance to the families of passengers involved in an aircraft accident."

CHAPTER 413—FOREIGN AIR TRANSPORTATION

Sec.
41301.
Requirement for a permit.
41302.
Permits of foreign air carriers.
41303.
Transfers of permits.
41304.
Effective periods and amendments, modifications, suspensions, and revocations of permits.
41305.
Applications for permits.
41306.
Simplified procedure to apply for, amend, modify, and suspend permits.
41307.
Presidential review of actions about foreign air transportation.
41308.
Exemption from the antitrust laws.
41309.
Cooperative agreements and requests.
41310.
Discriminatory practices.
41311.
Gambling restrictions.
41312.
Ending or suspending foreign air transportation.
41313.
Plans to address needs of families of passengers involved in foreign air carrier accidents.

        

Amendments

1997Pub. L. 105–148, §1(b), Dec. 16, 1997, 111 Stat. 2683, added item 41313.

1994Pub. L. 103–429, §6(51)(B), Oct. 31, 1994, 108 Stat. 4385, added item 41312.

Pub. L. 103–305, title II, §205(a)(2), Aug. 23, 1994, 108 Stat. 1583, added item 41311.

§41301. Requirement for a permit

A foreign air carrier may provide foreign air transportation only if the foreign air carrier holds a permit issued under this chapter authorizing the foreign air transportation.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1126.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
41301 49 App.:1372(a). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, §402(a), 72 Stat. 757.

The word "provide" is substituted for "engage in" for consistency in the revised title. The word "holds" is substituted for "there is in force" to eliminate unnecessary words.

§41302. Permits of foreign air carriers

The Secretary of Transportation may issue a permit to a person (except a citizen of the United States) authorizing the person to provide foreign air transportation as a foreign air carrier if the Secretary finds that—

(1) the person is fit, willing, and able to provide the foreign air transportation to be authorized by the permit and to comply with this part and regulations of the Secretary; and

(2)(A) the person is qualified, and has been designated by the government of its country, to provide the foreign air transportation under an agreement with the United States Government; or

(B) the foreign air transportation to be provided under the permit will be in the public interest.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1126.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
41302 49 App.:1372(b). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, §402(b), 72 Stat. 758; restated Feb. 15, 1980, Pub. L. 96–192, §7, 94 Stat. 38.
  49 App.:1551(b)(1)(E). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, 72 Stat. 731, §1601(b)(1)(E); added Oct. 4, 1984, Pub. L. 98–443, §3(e), 98 Stat. 1704.

In this section, before clause (1), the words "person (except a citizen of the United States)" and "person" are substituted for "applicant" for clarity and consistency because only a person other than a United States citizen may be a "foreign air carrier" as defined in section 40102(a) of the revised title. In clauses (1) and (2), the word "provide" is substituted for "perform" for consistency in the revised title. In clause (1), the word "properly" is omitted as surplus. The word "comply" is substituted for "conform" for consistency in the revised title. The word "rules" is omitted as being synonymous with "regulations". The word "requirements" is omitted as surplus. In clause (2)(A), the words "government of its country" are substituted for "its government" for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the United States Code.

§41303. Transfers of permits

A permit issued under section 41302 of this title may be transferred only when the Secretary of Transportation approves the transfer because the transfer is in the public interest.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1127.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
41303 49 App.:1372(g). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, §402(g), 72 Stat. 758.
  49 App.:1551(b)(1)(E). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, 72 Stat. 731, §1601(b)(1)(E); added Oct. 4, 1984, Pub. L. 98–443, §3(e), 98 Stat. 1704.

§41304. Effective periods and amendments, modifications, suspensions, and revocations of permits

(a) General.—The Secretary of Transportation may prescribe the period during which a permit issued under section 41302 of this title is in effect. After notice and an opportunity for a hearing, the Secretary may amend, modify, suspend, or revoke the permit if the Secretary finds that action to be in the public interest.

(b) Suspensions and Restrictions.—Without a hearing, but subject to the approval of the President, the Secretary—

(1) may suspend summarily the permits of foreign air carriers of a foreign country, or amend, modify, or limit the operations of the foreign air carriers under the permits, when the Secretary finds—

(A) the action is in the public interest; and

(B) the government, an aeronautical authority, or a foreign air carrier of the foreign country, over the objection of the United States Government, has—

(i) limited or denied the operating rights of an air carrier; or

(ii) engaged in unfair, discriminatory, or restrictive practices that have a substantial adverse competitive impact on an air carrier related to air transportation to, from, through, or over the territory of the foreign country; and


(2) to make this subsection effective, may restrict operations between the United States and the foreign country by a foreign air carrier of a third country.


(c) Illegal Importation of Controlled Substances.—The Secretary—

(1) in consultation with appropriate departments, agencies, and instrumentalities of the Government, shall reexamine immediately the fitness of a foreign air carrier that—

(A) violates the laws and regulations of the United States related to the illegal importation of a controlled substance; or

(B) does not adopt available measures to prevent the illegal importation of a controlled substance into the United States on its aircraft; and


(2) when appropriate, shall amend, modify, suspend, or revoke the permit of the carrier issued under this chapter.


(d) Responses.—An interested person may file a response with the Secretary opposing or supporting the amendment, modification, suspension, or revocation of a permit under subsection (a) of this section.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1127.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
41304(a) 49 App.:1372(e) (related to duration of permits). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, §402(e) (related to duration of permits), 72 Stat. 758.
  49 App.:1372(f)(1) (1st sentence). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, §402(f)(1), 72 Stat. 758; Feb. 15, 1980, Pub. L. 96–192, §9, 94 Stat. 38.
  49 App.:1551(b)(1)(E). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, 72 Stat. 731, §1601(b)(1)(E); added Oct. 4, 1984, Pub. L. 98–443, §3(e), 98 Stat. 1704.
41304(b) 49 App.:1372(f)(2). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, 72 Stat. 731, §402(f)(2); added Feb. 15, 1980, Pub. L. 96–192, §9, 94 Stat. 38.
  49 App.:1551(b)(1)(E).
41304(c) 49 App.:1371a (related to permit). Aug. 15, 1985, Pub. L. 99–88, §100 (1st complete par. related to permit on p. 352), 99 Stat. 352.
41304(d) 49 App.:1372(f)(1) (last sentence).
  49 App.:1551(b)(1)(E).

In subsection (a), the words "altered" and "cancelled" are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (b)(1), before clause (A), the words "alter" and "condition" are omitted as surplus. In clause (B)(i) and (ii), the words "United States" before "air carriers" and "carriers" are omitted as surplus and for consistency because only a citizen of the United States may be an "air carrier" as defined in section 40102(a) of the revised title. In clause (B)(i), the word "impaired" is omitted as surplus.

In subsection (c), before clause (1), the words "Notwithstanding any other provision of law" are omitted as surplus. The words "on and after August 15, 1985" are omitted as executed. In clause (1), before subclause (A), the words "law enforcement and other" are omitted as surplus. The words "departments, agencies, and instrumentalities of the Government" are substituted for "agencies" for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the Code. The words "a foreign air carrier" are substituted for "any carrier" for clarity. In clause (2), the words "of public convenience and necessity" are omitted as surplus. The word "amend" is added for consistency. The words "issued under this chapter" are added for clarity.

In subsection (d), the word "response" is substituted for "protest or memorandum" to eliminate unnecessary words. The words "alteration" and "cancellation" are omitted as surplus.

§41305. Applications for permits

(a) Form, Contents, Notice, Response, and Actions on Applications.—(1) A person must apply in writing to the Secretary of Transportation to be issued a permit under section 41302 of this title. The Secretary shall prescribe regulations to require that the application be—

(A) verified;

(B) in a certain form and contain certain information;

(C) served on interested persons; and

(D) accompanied by proof of service on those persons.


(2) When an application is filed, the Secretary shall post a notice of the application in the office of the Secretary and give notice of the application to other persons as required by regulations of the Secretary. An interested person may file a response with the Secretary opposing or supporting the issuance of the permit. The Secretary shall act on an application as expeditiously as possible.

(b) Terms.—The Secretary may impose terms for providing foreign air transportation under the permit that the Secretary finds may be required in the public interest.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1127.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
41305(a)(1) 49 App.:1372(c). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, §402(c), (e) (related to terms, conditions, or limitations of permits), 72 Stat. 758.
  49 App.:1551(b)(1)(E). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, 72 Stat. 731, §1601(b)(1)(E); added Oct. 4, 1984, Pub. L. 98–443, §3(e), 98 Stat. 1704.
41305(a)(2) 49 App.:1372(d). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, §402(d), 72 Stat. 758; Feb. 15, 1980, Pub. L. 96–192, §8, 94 Stat. 38.
  49 App.:1551(b)(1)(E).
41305(b) 49 App.:1372(e) (related to terms, conditions, or limitations of permits).
  49 App.:1551(b)(1)(E).

In subsection (a)(1), before clause (A), the words "A person must apply . . . to the Secretary of Transportation to be issued a permit under section 41302 of this title" are added for clarity. Clause (C) is added for clarity.

In subsection (a)(2), the words "give due notice thereof to the public by" are omitted as surplus. The word "response" is substituted for "protest or memorandum" to eliminate unnecessary words. The word "expeditiously" is substituted for "speedily" for consistency in this chapter.

In subsection (b), the words "reasonable" and "conditions, or limitations" are omitted as surplus. The words "for providing foreign air transportation" are added for clarity.

§41306. Simplified procedure to apply for, amend, modify, and suspend permits

(a) Regulations.—The Secretary of Transportation shall prescribe regulations that simplify the procedure for—

(1) acting on an application for a permit to provide foreign air transportation under section 41302 of this title; and

(2) amending, modifying, or suspending any part of that permit under section 41304(a) or (b) of this title.


(b) Notice and Opportunity To Respond.—Regulations under this section shall provide for notice and an opportunity for each interested person to file appropriate written evidence and argument. An oral evidentiary hearing is not required to be provided under this section.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1128.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
41306(a) 49 App.:1372(h) (1st sentence). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, 72 Stat. 731, §402(h); added Oct. 24, 1978, Pub. L. 95–504, §21(b)(1), 92 Stat. 1723.
  49 App.:1551(b)(1)(E). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, 72 Stat. 731, §1601(b)(1)(E); added Oct. 4, 1984, Pub. L. 98–443, §3(e), 98 Stat. 1704.
41306(b) 49 App.:1372(h) (last sentence).

In subsection (a)(1), the words "acting on" are substituted for "disposition of" for consistency. The word "provide" is substituted for "engage in" for consistency in the revised title.

In subsection (a)(2), the word "alteration" is omitted as surplus. The word "transfer" is omitted because 49 App.:1372(f) does not cover transfer of a permit.

In subsection (b), the word "adequate" is omitted as surplus.

§41307. Presidential review of actions about foreign air transportation

The Secretary of Transportation shall submit to the President for review each decision of the Secretary to issue, deny, amend, modify, suspend, revoke, or transfer a certificate issued under section 41102 of this title authorizing an air carrier, or a permit issued under section 41302 of this title authorizing a foreign air carrier, to provide foreign air transportation. The President may disapprove the decision of the Secretary only if the reason for disapproval is based on foreign relations or national defense considerations that are under the jurisdiction of the President. The President may not disapprove a decision of the Secretary if the reason is economic or related to carrier selection. A decision of the Secretary—

(1) is void if the President disapproves the decision and publishes the reasons (to the extent allowed by national security) for disapproval not later than 60 days after it is submitted to the President; or

(2)(A) takes effect as a decision of the Secretary if the President does not disapprove the decision not later than 60 days after the decision is submitted to the President; and

(B) when effective, may be reviewed judicially under section 46110 of this title.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1128.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
41307 49 App.:1461(a). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, §801(a), 72 Stat. 782; Mar. 22, 1972, Pub. L. 92–259, §2, 86 Stat. 96; restated Oct. 24, 1978, Pub. L. 95–504, §34, 92 Stat. 1740.
  49 App.:1551(b)(1)(E). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, 72 Stat. 731, §1601(b)(1)(E); added Oct. 4, 1984, Pub. L. 98–443, §3(e), 98 Stat. 1704.

In this section, before clause (1), the word "cancellation" is omitted as surplus. The word "modify" is added for consistency. The words "and the terms, conditions, and limitations contained in" are omitted as surplus. The words "issued under section 41102 of this title" are added for clarity. The word "provide" is substituted for "engage in" for consistency in the revised title. In clause (1), the words "null and" are omitted as surplus. The word "publishes" is substituted for "issued in a public document" to eliminate unnecessary words. In clause (2)(A), the words "not the President" are omitted as surplus.

Executive Order No. 11920

Ex. Ord. No. 11920, June 10, 1976, 41 F.R. 23665, which provided for establishment of Executive branch procedures to facilitate review of submitted decisions, was revoked by Ex. Ord. No. 12547, Feb. 6, 1986, 51 F.R. 5029.

Executive Order No. 12547

Ex. Ord. No. 12547, Feb. 6, 1986, 51 F.R. 5029, which provided for establishment of procedures to facilitate Presidential review of international aviation decisions submitted by Department of Transportation, was revoked by Ex. Ord. No. 12597, May 13, 1987, 52 F.R. 18335, set out below.

Ex. Ord. No. 12597. Establishing Procedures for Facilitating Presidential Review of International Aviation Decisions by the Department of Transportation

Ex. Ord. No. 12597, May 13, 1987, 52 F.R. 18335, provided:

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and laws of the United States of America, including Section 801 of the Federal Aviation Act, as amended (49 U.S.C. app. §1461) [see 49 U.S.C. 41307, 41509(f)], and in order to provide presidential guidance to department and agency heads and facilitate presidential review of decisions by the Department of Transportation pursuant to the Federal Aviation Act [see 49 U.S.C. 40101 et seq.], it is hereby ordered as follows:

Section 1. Executive Order No. 12547 of February 6, 1986, is revoked.

Sec. 2. The Secretary of Transportation is designated and empowered to receive on behalf of the President any decision of the Department of Transportation (hereinafter referred to as the "DOT") subject to Section 801 of the Federal Aviation Act, as amended. The Secretary of Transportation is further designated and empowered to exercise, without the approval, ratification, or other action of the President, the authority of the President under Section 801 of the Federal Aviation Act, as amended, to review and determine not to disapprove any such decision that is not the subject of any written recommendation for disapproval or for a statement of reasons submitted to the Department of Transportation in accordance with section 5(b) of this Order.

Sec. 3. (a) Except as otherwise provided in this section, decisions of the DOT subject to Section 801 of the Federal Aviation Act, as amended, may be made available by the DOT for public inspection and copying following transmission to Executive departments and agencies pursuant to section 3(c) of this Order.

(b) In the interests of national security, and in order to allow for consideration of appropriate action under [former] Executive Order No. 12356, decisions of the DOT transmitted to Executive departments and agencies pursuant to section 3(c) of this Order shall be withheld from public disclosure for a period not to exceed 5 days after said transmission.

(c) At the same time that decisions of the DOT are received by the Secretary of Transportation pursuant to section 2 of this Order, the DOT shall transmit copies thereof to the Secretary of State, the Secretary of Defense, the Secretary of the Treasury, the Attorney General, the Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs, the Director of the Office of Management and Budget, and any other Executive department or agency that the DOT deems appropriate.

(d) The Secretary of State and the Secretary of Defense, or their designees, shall review the decisions of the DOT transmitted pursuant to section 3(c) of this Order and shall promptly advise the Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs or his designee whether action pursuant to Executive Order No. 12356 is deemed appropriate. If, after considering these recommendations, the Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs determines that classification under Executive Order No. 12356 is appropriate, he shall take such action and immediately so inform the DOT. Action pursuant to this subsection shall be completed by the persons designated herein within 5 days of the transmission of the decision.

(e) On and after the 6th day following transmission of a DOT decision pursuant to section 3(c) of this Order, or upon earlier notification by the Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs or his designee, the DOT is authorized to disclose all unclassified portions of the text of such decision. Nothing in this section is intended to affect the ability to withhold material under any Executive order or statute other than Section 801.

Sec. 4. (a) Departments and agencies outside of the Executive Office of the President shall raise only matters of national defense or foreign relations in the course of the presidential review established by this Order. All other matters, including those related to regulatory policy, shall be presented to the DOT in accordance with the procedures of the DOT.

(b) Departments and agencies outside of the Executive Office of the President that identify matters of national defense or foreign relations while a decision is pending before the DOT shall, except as confidentiality is required for reasons of defense or foreign policy, make those matters known to the DOT in the course of its proceedings.

Sec. 5. (a) The DOT shall receive the recommendations, addressed to the President, of the departments and agencies referred to in section 3(c) of this Order.

(b) Departments or agencies outside of the Executive Office of the President making recommendations on matters of national defense or foreign relations with respect to any decision received by the Secretary of Transportation under section 2 of this Order shall submit their recommendations in writing to the DOT: (1) within 4 days of the DOT's issuance of a decision subject to a 10-day statutory review period under Section 801(b) [see 49 U.S.C. 41509(f)]; and (2) within 21 days of the DOT's issuance of a decision subject to a 60-day statutory review period under Section 801(a) [see 49 U.S.C. 41307]; or (3) in exceptional cases, within the period specified by the DOT in its letter of transmittal.

(c) The DOT shall, as soon as practical after the deadlines specified in section 5(b) of this Order: (1) if no recommendations for disapproval or for a statement of reasons are received from the departments and agencies specified in section 3(c) of this Order, issue its decision to become effective according to its terms; or (2) if recommendations for disapproval or for a statement of reasons are received, transmit them to the Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs, who, upon review, shall transmit a memorandum to the President with a recommendation as to whether or not the President should disapprove the proposed decision.

Sec. 6. (a) In advising the President with respect to his review of a decision pursuant to Section 801, departments and agencies outside of the Executive Office of the President shall identify with particularity the defense or foreign policy implications of the DOT decision that are deemed appropriate for consideration.

(b) If any department or agency that made recommendations to the President pursuant to Section 801 believes that, if the President decides not to disapprove a decision, the letter so advising the DOT should include a statement that the decision not to disapprove was based on national defense or foreign relations reasons, it should so indicate separately and explain why.

Sec. 7. Individuals within the Executive Office of the President shall follow a policy of: (a) refusing to discuss matters relating to the disposition of a case subject to the review of the President under Section 801 with any interested private party, or an attorney or agent for any such party, prior to the decision by the President or his designee; and (b) referring any written communication from an interested private party, or an attorney or agent for any such party, to the appropriate department or agency outside of the Executive Office of the President. Exceptions to this policy may be made only when the head of an appropriate department or agency outside of the Executive Office of the President personally finds, on a nondelegable basis, that direct written or oral communication between a private party and a person within the Executive Office of the President is needed for reasons of defense or foreign policy.

Sec. 8. Departments and agencies outside of the Executive Office of the President that regularly make recommendations in connection with the presidential review pursuant to Section 801 shall, consistent with applicable law, including the provisions of Chapter 5 of Title 5 of the United States Code:

(a) establish public dockets for all written communications (other than those requiring confidential treatment for defense or foreign policy reasons) between their officers and employees and private parties in connection with the preparation of such recommendations; and

(b) prescribe such other procedures governing oral and written communications as they deem appropriate.

Sec. 9. This Order is intended solely for the internal guidance of the departments and agencies in order to facilitate the presidential review process. This Order does not confer rights on any private parties.

Sec. 10. None of the time deadlines specified in this Order shall be construed as a limitation on expedited presidential review of any decision under Section 801.

Sec. 11. The provisions of this Order shall become effective upon publication in the Federal Register and shall govern the review of any proposed decisions of the DOT that have not become final prior to that date under Executive Order No. 12547.

Sec. 12. References in any Executive order to any provision in Executive Order No. 12547 shall be deemed to refer to the corresponding provision in this Order.

Ronald Reagan.      

§41308. Exemption from the antitrust laws

(a) Definition.—In this section, "antitrust laws" has the same meaning given that term in the first section of the Clayton Act (15 U.S.C. 12).

(b) Exemption Authorized.—When the Secretary of Transportation decides it is required by the public interest, the Secretary, as part of an order under section 41309 or 42111 of this title, may exempt a person affected by the order from the antitrust laws to the extent necessary to allow the person to proceed with the transaction specifically approved by the order and with any transaction necessarily contemplated by the order.

(c) Exemption Required.—In an order under section 41309 of this title approving an agreement, request, modification, or cancellation, the Secretary, on the basis of the findings required under section 41309(b)(1), shall exempt a person affected by the order from the antitrust laws to the extent necessary to allow the person to proceed with the transaction specifically approved by the order and with any transaction necessarily contemplated by the order.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1128.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
41308 49 App.:1384. Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, §414, 72 Stat. 770; restated Oct. 24, 1978, Pub. L. 95–504, §30(a), 92 Stat. 1731; Feb. 15, 1980, Pub. L. 96–192, §27, 94 Stat. 47.
  49 App.:1551(a)(6) (related to 49 App.:1384). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, 72 Stat. 731, §1601(a)(6) (related to §414); added Oct. 4, 1984, Pub. L. 98–443, §3(c), 98 Stat. 1704.
  49 App.:1551(b)(1)(C) (related to 49 App.:1384). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, 72 Stat. 731, §1601(b)(1)(C) (related to §414); added Oct. 24, 1978, Pub. L. 95–504, §40(a), 92 Stat. 1745; Oct. 14, 1982, Pub. L. 97–309, §4(b), 96 Stat. 1454; Oct. 4, 1984, Pub. L. 98–443, §3(a), 98 Stat. 1703.

Subsection (a) is substituted for "the 'anti-trust laws' set forth in subsection (a) of section 12 of title 15" for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the United States Code.

In subsection (b), reference to 49 App.:1378 and 1379 is omitted as obsolete.

§41309. Cooperative agreements and requests

(a) Filing.—An air carrier or foreign air carrier may file with the Secretary of Transportation a true copy of or, if oral, a true and complete memorandum of, an agreement (except an agreement related to interstate air transportation), or a request for authority to discuss cooperative arrangements (except arrangements related to interstate air transportation), and any modification or cancellation of an agreement, between the air carrier or foreign air carrier and another air carrier, a foreign carrier, or another carrier.

(b) Approval.—The Secretary of Transportation shall approve an agreement, request, modification, or cancellation referred to in subsection (a) of this section when the Secretary finds it is not adverse to the public interest and is not in violation of this part. However, the Secretary shall disapprove—

(1) or, after periodic review, end approval of, an agreement, request, modification, or cancellation, that substantially reduces or eliminates competition unless the Secretary finds that—

(A) the agreement, request, modification, or cancellation is necessary to meet a serious transportation need or to achieve important public benefits (including international comity and foreign policy considerations); and

(B) the transportation need cannot be met or those benefits cannot be achieved by reasonably available alternatives that are materially less anticompetitive; or


(2) an agreement that—

(A) is between an air carrier not directly operating aircraft in foreign air transportation and a carrier subject to subtitle IV of this title; and

(B) governs the compensation the carrier may receive for the transportation.


(c) Notice and Opportunity To Respond or for Hearing.—(1) When an agreement, request, modification, or cancellation is filed, the Secretary of Transportation shall give the Attorney General and the Secretary of State written notice of, and an opportunity to submit written comments about, the filing. On the initiative of the Secretary of Transportation or on request of the Attorney General or Secretary of State, the Secretary of Transportation may conduct a hearing to decide whether an agreement, request, modification, or cancellation is consistent with this part whether or not it was approved previously.

(2) In a proceeding before the Secretary of Transportation applying standards under subsection (b)(1) of this section, a party opposing an agreement, request, modification, or cancellation has the burden of proving that it substantially reduces or eliminates competition and that less anticompetitive alternatives are available. The party defending the agreement, request, modification, or cancellation has the burden of proving the transportation need or public benefits.

(3) The Secretary of Transportation shall include the findings required by subsection (b)(1) of this section in an order of the Secretary approving or disapproving an agreement, request, modification, or cancellation.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1129; Pub. L. 104–88, title III, §308(l), Dec. 29, 1995, 109 Stat. 948; Pub. L. 104–287, §5(71), Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3396.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Pub. L. 103–272
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
41309(a) 49 App.:1382(a)(1). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, 72 Stat. 731, §412(a), (b); added Oct. 24, 1978, Pub. L. 95–504, §28(c), 92 Stat. 1729; Feb. 15, 1980, Pub. L. 96–192, §11, 94 Stat. 39.
  49 App.:1551(a)(6) (related to 49 App.:1382). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, 72 Stat. 731, §1601(a)(6) (related to §412); added Oct. 4, 1984, Pub. L. 98–443, §3(c), 98 Stat. 1704.
  49 App.:1551(b)(1)(C) (related to 49 App.:1382(a)). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, 72 Stat. 731, §1601(b)(1)(C) (related to §412(a), (b)); added Oct. 24, 1978, Pub. L. 95–504, §40(a), 92 Stat. 1745; Oct. 14, 1982, Pub. L. 97–309, §4(b), 96 Stat. 1454; Oct. 4, 1984, Pub. L. 98–443, §3(a), 98 Stat. 1703.
41309(b) 49 App.:1382(a)(2)(A).
  49 App.:1551(a)(6), (b)(1)(C) (as 1551(a)(6), (b)(1)(C) relates to 49 App.:1382(a)).
41309(c)(1) 49 App.:1382(b).
  49 App.:1551(a)(6), (b)(1)(C) (as 1551(a)(6), (b)(1)(C) relates to 49 App.:1382(b)).
41309(c)(2) 49 App.:1382(a)(2)(B).
41309(c)(3) 49 App.:1382(a)(2)(C).
  49 App.:1551(a)(6), (b)(1)(C) (as 1551(a)(6), (b)(1)(C) relates to 49 App.:1382(a)).

In this section, the word "contract" is omitted as being included in "agreement".

In subsection (a), the words "(whether enforceable by provisions for liquidated damages, penalties, bonds, or otherwise)" are omitted as surplus. The words "(except an agreement related to interstate air transportation)" and "(except arrangements related to interstate air transportation)" are added because of 49 App.:1551(a)(6) (related to 49 App.:1382). The word "working" is omitted as surplus. The words "in force on October 24, 1978, or thereafter entered into" are omitted as executed. The words "and any modification or cancellation of an agreement" are substituted for "or any modification or cancellation thereof" for clarity and consistency.

In subsection (b), before clause (1), the words "The Board shall by order disapprove any contract, agreement, or request . . . that it finds to be adverse to the public interest or in violation of this chapter" are omitted as surplus because of the language restated in this subsection that sets out the requirements for approval by the Secretary of Transportation before the antitrust exemption is effective. The words "whether or not previously approved by it" are omitted as surplus because of the language in clause (1) requiring periodic review and continuing approval. The words "by order" are omitted as unnecessary because of 5:ch. 5, subch. II. The text of 49 App.:1382(a)(2)(A)(iii) is omitted as obsolete because of 49 App.:1551(a)(6) (related to 49 App.:1382).

In subsection (c)(1), the words "in accordance with regulations which it prescribes" are omitted as surplus. The words "in accordance with regulations prescribed by the Board" are omitted as surplus.

Pub. L. 104–287

This amends 49:41309(b)(2)(B) for consistency in the subsection.

Amendments

1996—Subsec. (b)(2)(B). Pub. L. 104–287 substituted "carrier" for "common carrier".

1995—Subsec. (b)(2)(A). Pub. L. 104–88 substituted "a carrier" for "a common carrier".

Effective Date of 1995 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 104–88 effective Jan. 1, 1996, see section 2 of Pub. L. 104–88, set out as an Effective Date note under section 1301 of this title.

Air Transportation Arrangements in Certain States

Pub. L. 107–71, title I, §116, Nov. 19, 2001, 115 Stat. 624, which related to air transportation arrangements for flights that both originate and terminate at points within the same State, was repealed by Pub. L. 107–273, div. C, title IV, §14102(g), Nov. 2, 2002, 116 Stat. 1922.

§41310. Discriminatory practices

(a) Prohibition.—An air carrier or foreign air carrier may not subject a person, place, port, or type of traffic in foreign air transportation to unreasonable discrimination.

(b) Review and Negotiation of Discriminatory Foreign Charges.—(1) The Secretary of Transportation shall survey charges imposed on an air carrier by the government of a foreign country or another foreign entity for the use of airport property or airway property in foreign air transportation. If the Secretary of Transportation decides that a charge is discriminatory, the Secretary promptly shall report the decision to the Secretary of State. The Secretaries of State and Transportation promptly shall begin negotiations with the appropriate government to end the discrimination. If the discrimination is not ended in a reasonable time through negotiation, the Secretary of Transportation shall establish a compensating charge equal to the discriminatory charge. With the approval of the Secretary of State, the Secretary of the Treasury shall impose the compensating charge on a foreign air carrier of that country as a condition to accepting the general declaration of the aircraft of the foreign air carrier when it lands or takes off.

(2) The Secretary of the Treasury shall maintain an account to credit money collected under paragraph (1) of this subsection. An air carrier shall be paid from the account an amount certified by the Secretary of Transportation to compensate the air carrier for the discriminatory charge paid to the government.

(c) Actions Against Discriminatory Activity.—(1) The Secretary of Transportation may take actions the Secretary considers are in the public interest to eliminate an activity of a government of a foreign country or another foreign entity, including a foreign air carrier, when the Secretary, on the initiative of the Secretary or on complaint, decides that the activity—

(A) is an unjustifiable or unreasonable discriminatory, predatory, or anticompetitive practice against an air carrier; or

(B) imposes an unjustifiable or unreasonable restriction on access of an air carrier to a foreign market.


(2) The Secretary of Transportation may deny, amend, modify, suspend, revoke, or transfer under paragraph (1) of this subsection a foreign air carrier permit or tariff under section 41302, 41303, 41304(a), 41504(c), 41507, or 41509 of this title.

(d) Filing of, and Acting on, Complaints.—(1) An air carrier, computer reservations system firm, or a department, agency, or instrumentality of the United States Government may file a complaint under subsection (c) or (g) of this section with the Secretary of Transportation. The Secretary shall approve, deny, or dismiss the complaint, set the complaint for a hearing or investigation, or begin another proceeding proposing remedial action not later than 60 days after receiving the complaint. The Secretary may extend the period for acting for additional periods totaling not more than 30 days if the Secretary decides that with additional time it is likely that a complaint can be resolved satisfactorily through negotiations with the government of the foreign country or foreign entity. The Secretary must act not later than 90 days after receiving the complaint. However, the Secretary may extend this 90-day period for not more than an additional 90 days if, on the last day of the initial 90-day period, the Secretary finds that—

(A) negotiations with the government have progressed to a point that a satisfactory resolution of the complaint appears imminent;

(B) an air carrier or computer reservations system firm has not been subjected to economic injury by the government or entity as a result of filing the complaint; and

(C) the public interest requires additional time before the Secretary acts on the complaint.


(2) In carrying out paragraph (1) of this subsection and subsection (c) of this section, the Secretary of Transportation shall—

(A) solicit the views of the Secretaries of Commerce and State and the United States Trade Representative;

(B) give an affected air carrier or foreign air carrier reasonable notice and an opportunity to submit written evidence and arguments within the time limits of this subsection; and

(C) submit to the President under section 41307 or 41509(f) of this title actions proposed by the Secretary of Transportation.


(e) Review.—(1) The Secretaries of State, the Treasury, and Transportation and the heads of other departments, agencies, and instrumentalities of the Government shall keep under review, to the extent of each of their jurisdictions, each form of discrimination or unfair competitive practice to which an air carrier is subject when providing foreign air transportation or a computer reservations system firm is subject when providing services with respect to airline service. Each Secretary and head shall—

(A) take appropriate action to eliminate any discrimination or unfair competitive practice found to exist; and

(B) request Congress to enact legislation when the authority to eliminate the discrimination or unfair practice is inadequate.


(2) The Secretary of Transportation shall report to Congress annually on each action taken under paragraph (1) of this subsection and on the continuing program to eliminate discrimination and unfair competitive practices. The Secretaries of State and the Treasury each shall give the Secretary of Transportation information necessary to prepare the report.

(f) Reports.—Not later than 30 days after acting on a complaint under this section, the Secretary of Transportation shall report to the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate on action taken under this section on the complaint.

(g) Actions Against Discriminatory Activity by Foreign CRS Systems.—The Secretary of Transportation may take such actions as the Secretary considers are in the public interest to eliminate an activity of a foreign air carrier that owns or markets a computer reservations system, or of a computer reservations system firm whose principal offices are located outside the United States, when the Secretary, on the initiative of the Secretary or on complaint, decides that the activity, with respect to airline service—

(1) is an unjustifiable or unreasonable discriminatory, predatory, or anticompetitive practice against a computer reservations system firm whose principal offices are located inside the United States; or

(2) imposes an unjustifiable or unreasonable restriction on access of such a computer reservations system to a foreign market.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1130; Pub. L. 104–287, §5(9), Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3389; Pub. L. 106–181, title VII, §741, Apr. 5, 2000, 114 Stat. 174.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
41310(a) 49 App.:1374(b). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, §404(b), 72 Stat. 760.
  49 App.:1551(a)(4)(C) (related to 49 App.:1374(b)). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, 72 Stat. 731, §1601(a)(4)(C) (related to §404(b)); added Oct. 4, 1984, Pub. L. 98–443, §3(c), 98 Stat. 1703.
41310(b) 49 App.:1159a. June 16, 1948, ch. 473, 62 Stat. 450, §11; added Jan. 3, 1975, Pub. L. 93–623, §3, 88 Stat. 2103; Oct. 4, 1984, Pub. L. 98–443, §9(c), 98 Stat. 1706.
41310(c) 49 App.:1159b(b)(1). Jan. 3, 1975, Pub. L. 93–623, 88 Stat. 2102, §2(b)(1), (2), (4); added Feb. 15, 1980, Pub. L. 96–192, §23, 94 Stat. 45; Oct. 4, 1984, Pub. L. 98–443, §9(d)(2), (3), 98 Stat. 1707; Aug. 23, 1988, Pub. L. 100–418, §§10011, 10012(1), (2), 102 Stat. 1573.
41310(d)(1) 49 App.:1159b(b)(2), (4).
41310(d)(2) 49 App.:1159b(b)(3). Jan. 3, 1975, Pub. L. 93–623, 88 Stat. 2102, §2(b)(3), (e); added Aug. 23, 1988, Pub. L. 100–418, §§10012(3), 10013, 102 Stat. 1573.
41310(e)(1) 49 App.:1159b(a). Jan. 3, 1975, Pub. L. 93–623, §2(a), 88 Stat. 2102; Oct. 4, 1984, Pub. L. 98–443, §9(d)(1), 98 Stat. 1706.
  49 App.:1159b(c). Jan. 3, 1975, Pub. L. 93–623, §2(c), 88 Stat. 2103; Feb. 15, 1980, Pub. L. 96–192, §23, 94 Stat. 45.
41310(e)(2) 49 App.:1159b(d). Jan. 3, 1975, Pub. L. 93–623, §2(d), 88 Stat. 2103; Feb. 15, 1980, Pub. L. 96–192, §23, 94 Stat. 45; Oct. 4, 1984, Pub. L. 98–443, §9(d)(2), (4), 98 Stat. 1707.
41310(f) 49 App.:1159b(e).

In subsection (a), the words "may not subject . . . to unreasonable discrimination" are substituted for "No . . . shall make, give, or cause any undue or unreasonable preference or advantage . . . in any respect whatsoever or subject . . . to any unjust discrimination or any undue or unreasonable prejudice or disadvantage in any respect whatsoever" to eliminate unnecessary words. The words "foreign air transportation" are substituted for "air transportation" because 49 App.:1551(a)(4)(C) provides that 49 App.:1374 no longer applies to interstate or overseas air transportation except insofar as 49 App.:1374 requires air carriers to provide safe and adequate service.

In subsection (b)(1), the words "at any time", "unreasonably exceed comparable charges for furnishing such airport property or airway property in the United States or are otherwise" and "reduce such charges or" are omitted as surplus. The words "the Secretary of State shall promptly report such instances to" are omitted as surplus because the Secretary of Transportation is involved in the negotiations and aware of the failure to end the discrimination. The words "excessive or" are omitted as surplus. The words "or carriers" are omitted because of 1:1.

In subsection (b)(2), the words "in accordance with such regulations as he shall adopt" are omitted as surplus because of 49:322(a). The words "by them" are omitted as surplus.

In subsections (c)–(e), the words "United States" before "air carriers" and "air carrier" are omitted as surplus and for consistency because only a citizen of the United States may be an "air carrier" as defined in section 40102(a) of the revised title and because 49 App.:1301 applies to this section.

In subsections (c)(1) and (d)(1), before each clause (A), the words "foreign entity" and "entity" are substituted for "instrumentality" for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the United States Code.

In subsection (c)(2), the words "alteration", "cancellation", "limitation", and "pursuant to the powers of the Secretary" are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (d)(1), before clause (A), the words "department, agency, or instrumentality of the United States Government" are substituted for "agency of the Government of the United States" for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the Code. The words "additional periods totaling not more than 30 days" are substituted for "an additional period or periods of up to 30 days each" for clarity because the amendment made by section 10111 of the Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act of 1988 (Public Law 100–418, 102 Stat. 1573) changed the additional period within which the Secretary had to act to only 30 days. The word "initial" is added for clarity.

In subsection (d)(2)(A), the words "the Secretaries of Commerce and State and the United States Trade Representative" are substituted for "the Department of State, the Department of Commerce, and the Office of the United States Trade Representative" because of 15:1501, 22:2651, and 19:2171, respectively.

In subsection (d)(2)(B), the words "as is consistent with acting on the complaint" are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (e)(1), before clause (A), the text of 49 App.:1159b(a) (1st, 2d sentences) is omitted as executed. The words "The Secretaries of State, the Treasury, and Transportation" are substituted for "The Department of State, the Department of the Treasury, the Department of Transportation" because of 22:2651, 31:301(b), and 49:102(b), respectively. The words "the heads of" and "instrumentalities of the Government" are added for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the Code. The word "jurisdictions" is substituted for "respective functions" for clarity and consistency. In clause (A), the words "within its jurisdiction . . . such forms of" are omitted as surplus. Clause (B) is substituted for 49 App.:1159b(c) to eliminate unnecessary words.

In subsection (e)(2), the words "faced by United States carriers in foreign air transportation", "as may be", and "required by this subsection" are omitted as surplus.

Amendments

2000—Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 106–181, §741(b)(1)(A), (B), in first sentence of introductory provisions, substituted "air carrier, computer reservations system firm," for "air carrier" and "subsection (c) or (g)" for "subsection (c)".

Subsec. (d)(1)(B). Pub. L. 106–181, §741(b)(1)(C), substituted "air carrier or computer reservations system firm" for "air carrier".

Subsec. (e)(1). Pub. L. 106–181, §741(b)(2), inserted "or a computer reservations system firm is subject when providing services with respect to airline service" before period at end of first sentence.

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 106–181, §741(a), added subsec. (g).

1996—Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 104–287 substituted "Transportation and Infrastructure" for "Public Works and Transportation".

Effective Date of 2000 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 106–181 applicable only to fiscal years beginning after Sept. 30, 1999, see section 3 of Pub. L. 106–181, set out as a note under section 106 of this title.

Termination of Reporting Requirements

For termination, effective May 15, 2000, of provisions in subsec. (e)(2) of this section relating to the requirement that the Secretary of Transportation report annually to Congress, see section 3003 of Pub. L. 104–66, as amended, set out as a note under section 1113 of Title 31, Money and Finance, and the 21st item on page 132 of House Document No. 103–7.

§41311. Gambling restrictions

(a) In General.—An air carrier or foreign air carrier may not install, transport, or operate, or permit the use of, any gambling device on board an aircraft in foreign air transportation.

(b) Definition.—In this section, the term "gambling device" means any machine or mechanical device (including gambling applications on electronic interactive video systems installed on board aircraft for passenger use)—

(1) which when operated may deliver, as the result of the application of an element of chance, any money or property; or

(2) by the operation of which a person may become entitled to receive, as the result of the application of an element of chance, any money or property.

(Added Pub. L. 103–305, title II, §205(a)(1), Aug. 23, 1994, 108 Stat. 1583.)

Study of Gambling on Commercial Aircraft

Pub. L. 103–305, title II, §205(b), Aug. 23, 1994, 108 Stat. 1583, provided that: "Not later than 1 year after the date of the enactment of this Act [Aug. 23, 1994], the Secretary shall complete a study of—

"(1) the aviation safety effects of gambling applications on electronic interactive video systems installed on board aircraft for passenger use, including an evaluation of the effect of such systems on the navigational and other electronic equipment of the aircraft, on the passengers and crew of the aircraft, and on issues relating to the method of payment;

"(2) the competitive implications of permitting foreign air carriers only, but not United States air carriers, to install, transport, and operate gambling applications on electronic interactive video systems on board aircraft in the foreign commerce of the United States on flights over international waters, or in fifth freedom city-pair markets; and

"(3) whether gambling should be allowed on international flights, including proposed legislation to effectuate any recommended changes in existing law.

The Secretary shall, within 5 days after the completion of the study, submit a report to the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate and the Committee on Public Works and Transportation [now Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure] of the House of Representatives on the results of the study."

§41312. Ending or suspending foreign air transportation

(a) General.—An air carrier holding a certificate issued under section 41102 of this title to provide foreign air transportation—

(1) may end or suspend the transportation to a place under the certificate only when the carrier gives at least 90 days notice of its intention to end or suspend the transportation to the Secretary of Transportation, any community affected by that decision, and the State authority of the State in which a community is located; and

(2) if it is the only air carrier holding a certificate to provide non-stop or single-plane foreign air transportation between 2 places, may end or suspend the transportation between those places only when the carrier gives at least 60 days notice of its intention to end or suspend the transportation to the Secretary and each community directly affected by that decision.


(b) Temporary Suspension.—The Secretary may authorize the temporary suspension of foreign air transportation under subsection (a) of this section when the Secretary finds the suspension is in the public interest.

(Added Pub. L. 103–429, §6(51)(A), Oct. 31, 1994, 108 Stat. 4384; amended Pub. L. 104–287, §5(72), Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3396.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Pub. L. 103–429
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
41312(a) 49 App.:1371(j)(1) (1st sentence), (2). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, §401(j), 72 Stat. 756, as restated Oct. 24, 1978, Pub. L. 95–504, §19(a), 92 Stat. 1720.
  49 App.:1551(a)(1)(D). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, §1601(a)(1)(D), as added Oct. 24, 1978, Pub. L. 95–504, §40(a), 92 Stat. 1744.
  49 App.:1551(b)(1)(E). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, §1601(b)(1)(E), as added Oct. 4, 1984, Pub. L. 98–443, §3(e), 98 Stat. 1704.
41312(b) 49 App.:1371(j)(1) (last sentence).

49 App.:1551(a)(1)(D), (b)(1)(E).

In the section, the text of 49 App.:1371(j) (related to interstate and overseas transportation of persons) is omitted because of 49 App.:1551(a)(1)(D). The text of 49 App.:1371(j) (related to other interstate and overseas air transportation and the domestic air transportation of mail) is omitted because a certificate of public convenience and necessity is no longer required. See H.R. Rept. 98–793, 98th Cong., 2d Sess., p. 10 (1984). The text of 49 App.:1371(j) (related to essential air transportation) is omitted as superseded by 49 App.:1389, restated as subchapter II of chapter 417 of title 49.

In subsection (a)(1) and (2), the word "place" is substituted for "point" for consistency in the revised title. The words "by that decision" are added for clarity.

In subsection (a)(1), the words "which it is providing" are omitted as surplus. The word "authority" is substituted for "agency" for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the United States Code.

In subsection (a)(2), the words "between those places" are substituted for "being provided by such air carrier under such certificate" to eliminate unnecessary words.

In subsection (b), the words "by regulation or otherwise" are omitted as surplus. The words "when the Secretary finds the suspension is in" are substituted for "as may be" for clarity and consistency.

Pub. L. 104–287

This amends 49:41312(a)(1) to conform to the style of title 49.

Amendments

1996—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 104–287 substituted "Secretary of Transportation" for "Secretary".

Effective Date

Section effective July 5, 1994, see section 9 of Pub. L. 103–429, set out as an Effective Date of 1994 Amendment note under section 321 of this title.

§41313. Plans to address needs of families of passengers involved in foreign air carrier accidents

(a) Definitions.—In this section, the following definitions apply:

(1) Aircraft accident.—The term "aircraft accident" means any aviation disaster, regardless of its cause or suspected cause, that occurs within the United States; and

(2) Passenger.—The term "passenger" has the meaning given such term by section 1136.


(b) Submission of Plans.—A foreign air carrier providing foreign air transportation under this chapter shall transmit to the Secretary of Transportation and the Chairman of the National Transportation Safety Board a plan for addressing the needs of the families of passengers involved in an aircraft accident that involves an aircraft under the control of the foreign air carrier and results in any loss of life.

(c) Contents of Plans.—To the extent permitted by foreign law which was in effect on the date of the enactment of this section, a plan submitted by a foreign air carrier under subsection (b) shall include the following:

(1) Telephone number.—A plan for publicizing a reliable, toll-free telephone number and staff to take calls to such number from families of passengers involved in an aircraft accident that involves an aircraft under the control of the foreign air carrier and results in any loss of life.

(2) Notification of families.—A process for notifying, in person to the extent practicable, the families of passengers involved in an aircraft accident that involves an aircraft under the control of the foreign air carrier and results in any loss of life before providing any public notice of the names of such passengers. Such notice shall be provided by using the services of—

(A) the organization designated for the accident under section 1136(a)(2); or

(B) other suitably trained individuals.


(3) Notice provided as soon as possible.—An assurance that the notice required by paragraph (2) shall be provided as soon as practicable after the foreign air carrier has verified the identity of a passenger on the foreign aircraft, whether or not the names of all of the passengers have been verified.

(4) List of passengers.—An assurance that the foreign air carrier shall provide, immediately upon request, and update a list (based on the best available information at the time of the request) of the names of the passengers aboard the aircraft (whether or not such names have been verified), to—

(A) the director of family support services designated for the accident under section 1136(a)(1); and

(B) the organization designated for the accident under section 1136(a)(2).


(5) Consultation regarding disposition of remains and effects.—An assurance that the family of each passenger will be consulted about the disposition of any remains and personal effects of the passenger that are within the control of the foreign air carrier.

(6) Return of possessions.—An assurance that, if requested by the family of a passenger, any possession (regardless of its condition) of that passenger that is within the control of the foreign air carrier will be returned to the family unless the possession is needed for the accident investigation or a criminal investigation.

(7) Unclaimed possessions retained.—An assurance that any unclaimed possession of a passenger within the control of the foreign air carrier will be retained by the foreign air carrier for not less than 18 months after the date of the accident.

(8) Monuments.—An assurance that the family of each passenger will be consulted about construction by the foreign air carrier of any monument to the passengers built in the United States, including any inscription on the monument.

(9) Equal treatment of passengers.—An assurance that the treatment of the families of nonrevenue passengers (and any other victim of the accident, including any victim on the ground) will be the same as the treatment of the families of revenue passengers.

(10) Service and assistance to families of passengers.—An assurance that the foreign air carrier will work with any organization designated under section 1136(a)(2) on an ongoing basis to ensure that families of passengers receive an appropriate level of services and assistance following an accident.

(11) Compensation to service organizations.—An assurance that the foreign air carrier will provide reasonable compensation to any organization designated under section 1136(a)(2) for services and assistance provided by the organization.

(12) Travel and care expenses.—An assurance that the foreign air carrier will assist the family of any passenger in traveling to the location of the accident and provide for the physical care of the family while the family is staying at such location.

(13) Resources for plan.—An assurance that the foreign air carrier will commit sufficient resources to carry out the plan.

(14) Substitute measures.—If a foreign air carrier does not wish to comply with paragraph (10), (11), or (12), a description of proposed adequate substitute measures for the requirements of each paragraph with which the foreign air carrier does not wish to comply.

(15) Training of employees and agents.—An assurance that the foreign air carrier will provide adequate training to the employees and agents of the carrier to meet the needs of survivors and family members following an accident.

(16) Consultation on carrier response not covered by plan.—An assurance that, in the event that the foreign air carrier volunteers assistance to United States citizens within the United States with respect to an aircraft accident outside the United States involving any loss of life, will consult 1 with the Board and the Department of State on the provision of the assistance.

(17) Notice concerning liability for manmade structures.—

(A) In general.—An assurance that, in the case of an accident that results in any damage to a manmade structure or other property on the ground that is not government-owned, the foreign air carrier will promptly provide notice, in writing, to the extent practicable, directly to the owner of the structure or other property about liability for any property damage and means for obtaining compensation.

(B) Minimum contents.—At a minimum, the written notice shall advise an owner (i) to contact the insurer of the property as the authoritative source for information about coverage and compensation; (ii) to not rely on unofficial information offered by foreign air carrier representatives about compensation by the foreign air carrier for accident-site property damage; and (iii) to obtain photographic or other detailed evidence of property damage as soon as possible after the accident, consistent with restrictions on access to the accident site.


(18) Simultaneous electronic transmission of ntsb hearing.—An assurance that, in the case of an accident in which the National Transportation Safety Board conducts a public hearing or comparable proceeding at a location greater than 80 miles from the accident site, the foreign air carrier will ensure that the proceeding is made available simultaneously by electronic means at a location open to the public at both the origin city and destination city of the foreign air carrier's flight if that city is located in the United States.


(d) Permit and Exemption Requirement.—The Secretary shall not approve an application for a permit under section 41302 unless the applicant has included as part of the application or request for exemption a plan that meets the requirements of subsection (c).

(e) Limitation on Liability.—A foreign air carrier shall not be liable for damages in any action brought in a Federal or State court arising out of the performance of the foreign air carrier in preparing or providing a passenger list pursuant to a plan submitted by the foreign air carrier under subsection (c), unless the liability was caused by conduct of the foreign air carrier which was grossly negligent or which constituted intentional misconduct.

(Added Pub. L. 105–148, §1(a), Dec. 16, 1997, 111 Stat. 2681; amended Pub. L. 106–181, title IV, §403(a)–(c)(1), Apr. 5, 2000, 114 Stat. 130; Pub. L. 108–176, title VIII, §809(b), Dec. 12, 2003, 117 Stat. 2589; Pub. L. 115–254, div. B, title V, §539(d), div. C, §1109(b), Oct. 5, 2018, 132 Stat. 3370, 3434.)

References in Text

The date of the enactment of this section, referred to in subsec. (c), is the date of enactment of Pub. L. 105–148, which was approved Dec. 16, 1997.

Amendments

2018—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 115–254, §1109(b)(1), substituted "any loss of life" for "a major loss of life".

Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 115–254, §1109(b)(2)(A), substituted "any loss of life" for "a significant loss of life".

Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 115–254, §1109(b)(2)(B), substituted "any loss of life" for "a significant loss of life" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (c)(9). Pub. L. 115–254, §1109(b)(2)(C), amended par. (9) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "An assurance that the treatment of the families of nonrevenue passengers will be the same as the treatment of the families of revenue passengers."

Subsec. (c)(16). Pub. L. 115–254, §1109(b)(2)(D), substituted "any loss of life" for "major loss of life" and "will consult" for "the foreign air carrier will consult".

Pub. L. 115–254, §539(d), substituted "An assurance that" for "An assurance that the foreign air carrier".

Subsec. (c)(17)(A). Pub. L. 115–254, §1109(b)(2)(E), substituted "any damage" for "significant damage".

2003—Subsec. (c)(17), (18). Pub. L. 108–176 added pars. (17) and (18).

2000—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 106–181, §403(a), amended heading and text of par. (2) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "The term 'passenger' includes an employee of a foreign air carrier or air carrier aboard an aircraft."

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 106–181, §403(b), substituted "major" for "significant".

Subsec. (c)(15), (16). Pub. L. 106–181, §403(c)(1), added pars. (15) and (16).

Effective Date of 2003 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 108–176 applicable only to fiscal years beginning after Sept. 30, 2003, except as otherwise specifically provided, see section 3 of Pub. L. 108–176, set out as a note under section 106 of this title.

Effective Date of 2000 Amendment

Amendment by section 403(a) and (b) of Pub. L. 106–181 applicable only to fiscal years beginning after Sept. 30, 1999, see section 3 of Pub. L. 106–181, set out as a note under section 106 of this title.

Pub. L. 106–181, title IV, §403(c)(2), Apr. 5, 2000, 114 Stat. 131, provided that: "The amendment made by paragraph (1) [amending this section] shall take effect on the 180th day following the date of the enactment of this Act [Apr. 5, 2000]. On or before such 180th day, each foreign air carrier providing foreign air transportation under chapter 413 of title 49, United States Code, shall submit to the Secretary [of Transportation] and the Chairman of the National Transportation Safety Board an updated plan under section 41313 of such title that meets the requirements of the amendment made by paragraph (1)."

Effective Date

Pub. L. 105–148, §1(c), Dec. 16, 1997, 111 Stat. 2683, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [enacting this section] shall take effect on the 180th day following the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 16, 1997]."

1 So in original. Probably should be "the foreign air carrier will consult".

CHAPTER 415—PRICING

Sec.
41501.
Establishing reasonable prices, classifications, rules, practices, and divisions of joint prices for foreign air transportation.
41502.
Establishing joint prices for through routes with other carriers.
41503.
Establishing joint prices for through routes provided by State authorized carriers.
41504.
Tariffs for foreign air transportation.
41505.
Uniform methods for establishing joint prices, and divisions of joint prices, applicable to commuter air carriers.
41506.
Price division filing requirements for foreign air transportation.
41507.
Authority of the Secretary of Transportation to change prices, classifications, rules, and practices for foreign air transportation.
41508.
Authority of the Secretary of Transportation to adjust divisions of joint prices for foreign air transportation.
41509.
Authority of the Secretary of Transportation to suspend, cancel, and reject tariffs for foreign air transportation.
41510.
Required adherence to foreign air transportation tariffs.
41511.
Special prices for foreign air transportation.

        

Amendments

1997Pub. L. 105–102, §2(21), Nov. 20, 1997, 111 Stat. 2205, struck out "common" before "carriers" in item 41502.

§41501. Establishing reasonable prices, classifications, rules, practices, and divisions of joint prices for foreign air transportation

Every air carrier and foreign air carrier shall establish, comply with, and enforce—

(1) reasonable prices, classifications, rules, and practices related to foreign air transportation; and

(2) for joint prices established for foreign air transportation, reasonable divisions of those prices among the participating air carriers or foreign air carriers without unreasonably discriminating against any of those carriers.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1132.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
41501 49 App.:1374(a)(2). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, 72 Stat. 731, §404(a)(2); added Mar. 22, 1972, Pub. L. 92–259, §1, 86 Stat. 95.

In this chapter, the word "regulation" is omitted in restating the phrase "classifications, rules, regulations, and practices" because it is covered by the word "rules" and to distinguish the rules of an air carrier or foreign air carrier from the regulations of the United States Government. The word "reasonable" is substituted for "just and reasonable" and "just, reasonable, and equitable" for consistency in the revised title and to eliminate unnecessary words. See the revision notes following 49:10101. The word "prices" is substituted for "fares" and "rates, fares, and charges" because of the definition of "price" in section 40102(a) of the revised title.

In this section, before clause (1), the words "comply with" are substituted for "observe" for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the United States Code. In clause (1), the words "individual and joint" are omitted as surplus. In clause (2), the words "unreasonably discriminating" are substituted for "unduly prefer or prejudice" for consistency in the revised title and to eliminate unnecessary words. See the revision notes following 49:10101.

§41502. Establishing joint prices for through routes with other carriers

(a) Joint Prices.—An air carrier may establish reasonable joint prices and through service with another carrier. However, an air carrier not directly operating aircraft in air transportation (except an air express company) may not establish under this section a joint price for the transportation of property with a carrier subject to subtitle IV of this title.

(b) Prices, Classifications, Rules, and Practices and Divisions of Joint Prices.—For through service by an air carrier and a carrier subject to subtitle IV of this title, the participating carriers shall establish—

(1) reasonable prices and reasonable classifications, rules, and practices affecting those prices or the value of the transportation provided under those prices; and

(2) for joint prices established for the through service, reasonable divisions of those joint prices among the participating carriers.


(c) Statements Included in Tariffs.—An air carrier and a carrier subject to subtitle IV of this title that are participating in through service and joint prices shall include in their tariffs, filed with the Secretary of Transportation, a statement showing the through service and joint prices.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1132; Pub. L. 104–88, title III, §308(l), Dec. 29, 1995, 109 Stat. 948; Pub. L. 105–102, §2(22), Nov. 20, 1997, 111 Stat. 2205.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Pub. L. 103–272
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
41502(a) 49 App.:1483(b) (1st sentence). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, §1003(b), 72 Stat. 791.
41502(b) 49 App.:1483(b) (2d sentence).
41502(c) 49 App.:1483(b) (last sentence).
  49 App.:155(b)(1)(E). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, 72 Stat. 731, §1601(b)(1)(E); added Oct. 4, 1984, Pub. L. 98–443, §3(e), 98 Stat. 1704.

In subsection (a), the words "(except an air express company)" are substituted for "(other than companies engaged in the air express business)" to eliminate unnecessary words.

In subsection (b), before clause (1), the words "participating carriers" are substituted for "carriers parties thereto" and "carriers participating therein" for consistency in this chapter.

In subsection (c), the words "or the Interstate Commerce Commission, as the case may be" are omitted because of 49:10526(a)(8)(B).

Pub. L. 105–102

This amends the catchline for 49:41502 to make a technical and conforming amendment necessary because section 308(l) of the ICC Termination Act (Public Law 104–88, 109 Stat. 948) struck "common" from the text of 49:41502.

Amendments

1997Pub. L. 105–102 struck out "common" before "carriers" in section catchline.

1995Pub. L. 104–88 substituted "another carrier" for "another common carrier" in subsec. (a) and "a carrier" for "a common carrier" in subsecs. (a), (b), and (c).

Effective Date of 1995 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 104–88 effective Jan. 1, 1996, see section 2 of Pub. L. 104–88, set out as an Effective Date note under section 1301 of this title.

§41503. Establishing joint prices for through routes provided by State authorized carriers

Subject to sections 41309 and 42111 of this title, a citizen of the United States providing transportation under section 41101(b) of this title may make an agreement with an air carrier or foreign air carrier for joint prices for that transportation. The joint prices agreed to must be the lowest of—

(1) the sum of the applicable prices for—

(A) the part of the transportation provided in the State and approved by the appropriate State authority; and

(B) the part of the transportation provided by the air carrier or foreign air carrier;


(2) a joint price established and filed under section 41504 of this title; or

(3) a joint price prescribed by the Secretary of Transportation under section 41507 of this title.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1132.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
41503 49 App.:1371(d) (4)(A)(ii) (related to joint rates, fares), (B). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, 72 Stat. 731, §401(d) (4)(A)(ii) (related to joint rates, fares), (B); added Nov. 9, 1977, Pub. L. 95–163, §9, 91 Stat. 1281; restated Oct. 24, 1978, Pub. L. 95–504, §9, 92 Stat. 1713.
  49 App.:1551(b)(1)(E). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, 72 Stat. 731, §1601(b)(1)(E); added Oct. 4, 1984, Pub. L. 98–443, §3(e), 98 Stat. 1704.

In this section, before clause (1), the words "Notwithstanding any other provision of this chapter" are omitted as surplus. The words "a citizen of the United States providing transportation under section 41101(b) of this title" are substituted for "any citizen of the United States who undertakes, within any State, the carriage of persons or property as a common carrier for compensation or hire with aircraft capable of carrying thirty or more persons pursuant to authority for such carriage within such State granted by the appropriate State agency" for clarity and because of the restatement of 49 App.:1371(d)(4)(A)(i) and (ii) (related to joint services) in section 41101(b) of the revised title. The words "the establishment of" are omitted as surplus.

§41504. Tariffs for foreign air transportation

(a) Filing and Contents.—In the way prescribed by regulation by the Secretary of Transportation, every air carrier and foreign air carrier shall file with the Secretary, publish, and keep open to public inspection, tariffs showing the prices for the foreign air transportation provided between places served by the carrier and provided between places served by the carrier and places served by another air carrier or foreign air carrier with which through service and joint prices have been established. A tariff—

(1) shall contain—

(A) to the extent the Secretary requires by regulation, a description of the classifications, rules, and practices related to the foreign air transportation;

(B) a statement of the prices in money of the United States; and

(C) other information the Secretary requires by regulation; and


(2) may contain—

(A) a statement of the prices in money that is not money of the United States; and

(B) information that is required under the laws of a foreign country in or to which the air carrier or foreign air carrier is authorized to operate.


(b) Changes.—(1) Except as provided in paragraph (2) of this subsection, an air carrier or foreign air carrier may change a price or a classification, rule, or practice affecting that price or the value of the transportation provided under that price, specified in a tariff of the carrier for foreign air transportation only after 30 days after the carrier has filed, published, and posted notice of the proposed change in the same way as required for a tariff under subsection (a) of this section. However, the Secretary may prescribe an alternative notice requirement, of at least 25 days, to allow an air carrier or foreign air carrier to match a proposed change in a passenger fare or a charge of another air carrier or foreign air carrier. A notice under this paragraph must state plainly the change proposed and when the change will take effect.

(2) If the effect of a proposed change would be to begin a passenger fare that is outside of, or not covered by, the range of passenger fares specified under section 41509(e)(2) and (3) of this title, the proposed change may be put into effect only on the expiration of 60 days after the notice is filed under regulations prescribed by the Secretary.

(c) Rejection of Changes.—The Secretary may reject a tariff or tariff change that is not consistent with this section and regulations prescribed by the Secretary. A tariff or change that is rejected is void.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1133.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
41504(a) 49 App.:1373(a) (1st sentence, 2d sentence words before semicolon, last sentence). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, §403(a), 72 Stat. 758.
  49 App.:1551(a)(4)(B) (related to 49 App.:1373(a)), (b)(1)(E). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, 72 Stat. 731, §1601(a)(4)(B) (related to §403(a), (c)(1), (2)), (b)(1)(E); added Oct. 4, 1984, Pub. L. 98–443, §3(c), (e), 98 Stat. 1703, 1704.
41504(b)(1) 49 App.:1373(c)(1). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, §403(c)(1), (2), 72 Stat. 759; Nov. 9, 1977, Pub. L. 95–163, §10(a), 91 Stat. 1281; restated Oct. 24, 1978, Pub. L. 95–504, §22, 92 Stat. 1724; Feb. 15, 1980, Pub. L. 96–192, §24(b), (c), 94 Stat. 47.
  49 App.:1551(a)(4)(B) (related to 49 App.:1373(c)(1)), (b)(1)(E).
41504(b)(2) 49 App.:1373(c)(2).
  49 App.:1551(a)(4)(B) (related to 49 App.:1373(c)(2)), (b)(1)(E).
41504(c) 49 App.:1373(a) (2d sentence words after semicolon, 3d sentence).
  49 App.:1551(a)(4)(B) (related to 49 App.:1373(a)), (b)(1)(E).

In this section, the words "foreign air transportation" are substituted for "air transportation" because 49 App.:1551(a)(4)(B) provides that 49 App.:1373 no longer applies to interstate or overseas air transportation and 49 App.:1376(a)–(e), restated in section 41901 of the revised title, governs rates for the transportation of mail by aircraft. See section 40102(a) of the revised title defining "air transportation" to mean interstate or foreign air transportation or the transportation of mail by aircraft. The words "passenger fare" are substituted for "fare" for consistency in the revised title.

In subsection (a), before clause (1), the word "print" is omitted as being included in "publish". The word "places" is substituted for "points" for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the United States Code. In clause (1)(A), the word "services" is omitted as being included in "practices". In clauses (1)(B) and (2)(A), the word "lawful" is omitted as surplus.

In subsection (b)(1), the words "for foreign air transportation" are added because of 49 App.:1551(a)(4)(B). See the revision notes for subsection (a) of this section. The words "in the same way as required for a tariff under" are substituted for "in accordance with" for clarity. The words "proposed change in a passenger fare or a charge of another air carrier or foreign air carrier" are substituted for "fares or charges specified in another air carrier's or foreign air carrier's proposed tariff" for clarity and consistency in this section.

In subsection (b)(2), the words "not covered by" are substituted for "to which such range of fares does not apply" to eliminate unnecessary words. The words "subparagraphs (A) and (B) of section 1482(d)(4) of this Appendix . . . section 1482(d)(7) of this Appendix" are omitted because those sections related to interstate and overseas air transportation and the source provisions restated in this section relate to foreign air transportation. In addition, the text of 49 App.:1551(a)(5)(D) provides that 49 App.:1482(d) ceased to be in effect on January 1, 1985, except as related to foreign air transportation. The reference in the source provisions to "section 1482(j)(9) of this Appendix" has been restated as though it were a reference to 49 App.:1482(j)(10) to correct an apparent error in the International Air Transportation Competition Act of 1979 (Public Law 96–192, 94 Stat. 35). Section 24(b) of S. 1300 of the 96th Congress (the derivative source for the International Air Transportation Competition Act of 1979), as originally passed by both the Senate and the House of Representatives, restated section 403(c)(2) of the Federal Aviation Act of 1958 (Public Law 85–726, 72 Stat. 759) to read as it now does with a cross–reference to section 1002(j)(9) of the Federal Aviation Act of 1958. Also contained in those versions of S. 1300 in section 24(a) was an amendment to section 1002(j) of the Federal Aviation Act of 1958 to add a paragraph (9) that contained language identical to what is now section 1002(j)(10) of the Federal Aviation Act of 1958. When S. 1300 was reported by the conference committee and enacted into law as the International Air Transportation Competition Act of 1979, section 24(a) had been changed so that a different paragraph (9) was added and what had been paragraph (9) was now designated as a new paragraph (10) to be added. Apparently, when the conference committee redesignated section 1002(j)(9) as 1002(j)(10) it did not make a corresponding change in the cross–reference in section 403(c)(2). See 125 Cong. Rec. 26936, 32147, 36939.

§41505. Uniform methods for establishing joint prices, and divisions of joint prices, applicable to commuter air carriers

(a) Definition.—In this section, "commuter air carrier" means an air carrier providing transportation under section 40109(f) of this title that provides at least 5 scheduled roundtrips a week between the same 2 places.

(b) General.—Except as provided in subsection (c) of this section, when the Secretary of Transportation prescribes under section 41508 or 41509 of this title a uniform method generally applicable to establishing joint prices and divisions of joint prices for and between air carriers holding certificates issued under section 41102 of this title, the Secretary shall make that uniform method apply to establishing joint prices and divisions of joint prices for and between air carriers and commuter air carriers.

(c) Notice Required Before Modifying, Suspending, or Ending Transportation.—A commuter air carrier that has an agreement with an air carrier to provide transportation for passengers and property that includes through service by the commuter air carrier over the commuter air carrier's routes and air transportation provided by the air carrier shall give the air carrier and the Secretary at least 90 days' notice before modifying, suspending, or ending the transportation. If the commuter air carrier does not give that notice, the uniform method of establishing joint prices and divisions of joint prices referred to in subsection (b) of this section does not apply to the commuter air carrier.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1134.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
41505(a) 49 App.:1482a(2), (3). Oct. 24, 1978, Pub. L. 95–504, §37(c), 92 Stat. 1742.
41505(b) 49 App.:1482a(1) (1st sentence).
  49 App.:1551(b)(1)(E). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, 72 Stat. 731, §1601(b)(1)(E); added Oct. 4, 1984, Pub. L. 98–443, §3(e), 98 Stat. 1704.
41505(c) 49 App.:1482a(1) (last sentence).
  49 App.:1551(b)(1)(E).

In subsection (a), the text of 49 App.:1482a(2)(A) is omitted as unnecessary because the definition of "air carrier" in 49 App.:1301(3) is restated in section 40102(a) of the revised title and applies to this section and because the functions of the Civil Aeronautics Board under 49 App.:1482a were transferred to the Secretary of Transportation by 49 App.:1551(b)(1)(E) and the complete name of the Secretary is used the first time the term appears in a section. The text of 49 App.:1482a(3) is omitted as executed. The reference in the source provisions to "section 416(b)(3) of the Federal Aviation Act of 1958 [49 App. U.S.C. 1386(b)(3)]" has been restated as though it were a reference to section 416(b)(4) to correct an apparent error in the Airline Deregulation Act of 1978 (Public Law 95–504, 92 Stat. 1705). Section 24 of H.R. 12611 of the 95th Congress (the derivative source for 416(b)(4)), added section 416(b)(3) to the Federal Aviation Act. Section 29(c) added provisions that eventually were classified as 49 App.:1482a. Those provisions contained a reference to section 416(b)(3). When S. 2493 (passed in lieu of the House bill after being amended to contain much of the text of the House bill) was reported by the conference committee and enacted into law, section 32 added what had been a new 416(b)(3) as a new 416(b)(4). However, the conference committee did not make a corresponding change in the cross-reference in section 37(c), that added 49 App.:1482a. See 124 Cong. Rec. 30714, 30716, 36521, 36524. The word "scheduled" is substituted for "pursuant to flight schedules" to eliminate unnecessary words. The words "the same 2 places" are substituted for "one pair of points" for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the United States Code.

In subsection (b), the words "Except as provided in subsection (c) of this section" are added for clarity. The words "pursuant to its authority" are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (c), the word "passengers" is substituted for "persons" for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the Code. The words "through service by the commuter air carrier over the commuter air carrier's routes" are substituted for "transportation over its routes" for clarity. The words "between air carriers and commuter air carriers" are omitted as surplus.

§41506. Price division filing requirements for foreign air transportation

Every air carrier and foreign air carrier shall keep currently on file with the Secretary of Transportation, if the Secretary requires, the established divisions of all joint prices for foreign air transportation in which the carrier participates.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1134.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
41506 49 App.:1373(d). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, §403(d), 72 Stat. 759.
  49 App.:1551(a)(4)(B) (related to 49 App.:1373(d)), (b)(1)(E). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, 72 Stat. 731, §1601(a)(4)(B) (related to §403(d)), (b)(1)(E); added Oct. 4, 1984, Pub. L. 98–443, §3(c), (e), 98 Stat. 1703, 1704.

The words "foreign air transportation" are substituted for "air transportation" because 49 App.:1551(a)(4)(B) provides that 49 App.:1373 no longer applies to interstate or overseas air transportation and 49 App.:1376(a)–(e), restated in section 41901 of the revised title, governs rates for the transportation of mail by aircraft. See section 40102(a) of the revised title defining "air transportation" to mean interstate or foreign air transportation or the transportation of mail by aircraft.

§41507. Authority of the Secretary of Transportation to change prices, classifications, rules, and practices for foreign air transportation

(a) General.—When the Secretary of Transportation decides that a price charged or received by an air carrier or foreign air carrier for foreign air transportation, or a classification, rule, or practice affecting that price or the value of the transportation provided under that price, is or will be unreasonably discriminatory, the Secretary may—

(1) change the price, classification, rule, or practice as necessary to correct the discrimination; and

(2) order the air carrier or foreign air carrier to stop charging or collecting the discriminatory price or carrying out the discriminatory classification, rule, or practice.


(b) When Secretary May Act.—The Secretary may act under this section on the Secretary's own initiative or on a complaint filed with the Secretary and only after notice and an opportunity for a hearing.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1134.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
41507(a) 49 App.:1482(f) (words after 4th comma). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, §1002(f), 72 Stat. 789.
  49 App.:1551(b)(1)(E). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, 72 Stat. 731, §1601(b)(1)(E); added Oct. 4, 1984, Pub. L. 98–443, §3(e), 98 Stat. 1704.
41507(b) 49 App.:1482(f) (words before 4th comma).
  49 App.:1551(b)(1)(E).

In subsection (a), before clause (1), the words "individual or joint" are omitted as surplus. The words "charged or received" are substituted for "demanded, charged, collected, or received" to eliminate unnecessary words. The words "unreasonably discriminatory" are substituted for "unjustly discriminatory, or unduly preferential, or unduly prejudicial" for consistency in the revised title and to eliminate unnecessary words. See the revision notes following 49:10101. In clause (2), the words "carrying out" are substituted for "enforcing" for clarity.

In subsection (b), the words "opportunity for a" are added for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the United States Code.

§41508. Authority of the Secretary of Transportation to adjust divisions of joint prices for foreign air transportation

(a) General.—When the Secretary of Transportation decides that a division between air carriers, foreign air carriers, or both, of a joint price for foreign air transportation is or will be unreasonable or unreasonably discriminatory against any of those carriers, the Secretary shall prescribe a reasonable division of the joint price among those carriers. The Secretary may order the adjustment in the division of the joint price to be made retroactively to the date the complaint was filed, the date the order for an investigation was made, or a later date the Secretary decides is reasonable.

(b) When Secretary May Act.—The Secretary may act under this section on the Secretary's own initiative or on a complaint filed with the Secretary and only after notice and an opportunity for a hearing.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1135.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
41508(a) 49 App.:1482(h) (words after 3d comma). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, §1002(h), 72 Stat. 790; Nov. 9, 1977, Pub. L. 95–163, §18(c), 91 Stat. 1287.
  49 App.:1551(a)(5)(D) (related to 49 App.:1482(h)), (b)(1)(E). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, 72 Stat. 731, §1601(a)(5)(D) (related to §1002(h)), (b)(1)(E); added Oct. 4, 1984, Pub. L. 98–443, §3(c), (e), 98 Stat. 1703, 1704.
41508(b) 49 App.:1482(h) (words before 3d comma).
  49 App.:1551(a)(5)(D) (related to 49 App.:1482(h)), (b)(1)(E).

In subsection (a), the words "interstate air transportation of persons, air transportation of property within the State of Alaska, air transportation of property within the state of Hawaii, or overseas or" are omitted because 49:1551(a)(5)(D) provides that 49 App.:1482(h) applies only to foreign air transportation. The words "unreasonable or unreasonably discriminatory" are substituted for "unjust, unreasonable, inequitable, or unduly preferential or prejudicial" for consistency in the revised title and to eliminate unnecessary words. See the revision notes following 49:10101. The words "against any of those carriers" are substituted for "as between the air carriers or foreign air carriers parties thereto" to eliminate unnecessary words. The word "retroactively" is added for clarity.

In subsection (b), the words "an opportunity for a" are added for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the United States Code.

§41509. Authority of the Secretary of Transportation to suspend, cancel, and reject tariffs for foreign air transportation

(a) Cancellation and Rejection.—(1) On the initiative of the Secretary of Transportation or on a complaint filed with the Secretary, the Secretary may conduct a hearing to decide whether a price for foreign air transportation contained in an existing or newly filed tariff of an air carrier or foreign air carrier, a classification, rule, or practice affecting that price, or the value of the transportation provided under that price, is lawful. The Secretary may begin the hearing at once and without an answer or another formal pleading by the air carrier or foreign air carrier, but only after reasonable notice. If, after the hearing, the Secretary decides that the price, classification, rule, or practice is or will be unreasonable or unreasonably discriminatory, the Secretary may cancel or reject the tariff and prevent the use of the price, classification, rule, or practice.

(2) With or without a hearing, the Secretary may cancel or reject an existing or newly filed tariff of a foreign air carrier and prevent the use of a price, classification, rule, or practice when the Secretary decides that the cancellation or rejection is in the public interest.

(3) In deciding whether to cancel or reject a tariff of an air carrier or foreign air carrier under this subsection, the Secretary shall consider—

(A) the effect of the price on the movement of traffic;

(B) the need in the public interest of adequate and efficient transportation by air carriers and foreign air carriers at the lowest cost consistent with providing the transportation;

(C) the standards prescribed under law related to the character and quality of transportation to be provided by air carriers and foreign air carriers;

(D) the inherent advantages of transportation by aircraft;

(E) the need of the air carrier and foreign air carrier for revenue sufficient to enable the air carrier and foreign air carrier, under honest, economical, and efficient management, to provide adequate and efficient air carrier and foreign air carrier transportation;

(F) whether the price will be predatory or tend to monopolize competition among air carriers and foreign air carriers in foreign air transportation;

(G) reasonably estimated or foreseeable future costs and revenues for the air carrier or foreign air carrier for a reasonably limited future period during which the price would be in effect; and

(H) other factors.


(b) Suspension.—(1)(A) Pending a decision under subsection (a)(1) of this section, the Secretary may suspend a tariff and the use of a price contained in the tariff or a classification, rule, or practice affecting that price.

(B) The Secretary may suspend a tariff of a foreign air carrier and the use of a price, classification, rule, or practice when the suspension is in the public interest.

(2) A suspension becomes effective when the Secretary files with the tariff and delivers to the air carrier or foreign air carrier affected by the suspension a written statement of the reasons for the suspension. To suspend a tariff, reasonable notice of the suspension must be given to the affected carrier.

(3) The suspension of a newly filed tariff may be for periods totaling not more than 365 days after the date the tariff otherwise would go into effect. The suspension of an existing tariff may be for periods totaling not more than 365 days after the effective date of the suspension. The Secretary may rescind at any time the suspension of a newly filed tariff and allow the price, classification, rule, or practice to go into effect.

(c) Effective Tariffs and Prices When Tariff Is Suspended, Canceled, or Rejected.—(1) If a tariff is suspended pending the outcome of a proceeding under subsection (a) of this section and the Secretary does not take final action in the proceeding during the suspension period, the tariff goes into effect at the end of that period subject to cancellation when the proceeding is concluded.

(2)(A) During the period of suspension, or after the cancellation or rejection, of a newly filed tariff (including a tariff that has gone into effect provisionally), the affected air carrier or foreign air carrier shall maintain in effect and use—

(i) the corresponding seasonal prices, or the classifications, rules, and practices affecting those prices or the value of transportation provided under those prices, that were in effect for the carrier immediately before the new tariff was filed; or

(ii) another price provided for under an applicable intergovernmental agreement or understanding.


(B) If the suspended, canceled, or rejected tariff is the first tariff of the carrier for the covered transportation, the carrier, for the purpose of operations during the period of suspension or pending effectiveness of a new tariff, may file another tariff containing a price or another classification, rule, or practice affecting the price, or the value of the transportation provided under the price, that is in effect (and not subject to a suspension order) for any air carrier providing the same transportation.

(3) If an existing tariff is suspended or canceled, the affected air carrier or foreign air carrier, for the purpose of operations during the period of suspension or pending effectiveness of a new tariff, may file another tariff containing a price or another classification, rule, or practice affecting the price, or the value of the transportation provided under the price, that is in effect (and not subject to a suspension order) for any air carrier providing the same transportation.

(d) Response to Refusal of Foreign Country To Allow Air Carrier To Charge a Price.—When the Secretary finds that the government or an aeronautical authority of a foreign country has refused to allow an air carrier to charge a price contained in a tariff filed and published under section 41504 of this title for foreign air transportation to the foreign country—

(1) the Secretary, without a hearing—

(A) may suspend any existing tariff of a foreign air carrier providing transportation between the United States and the foreign country for periods totaling not more than 365 days after the date of the suspension; and

(B) may order the foreign air carrier to charge, during the suspension periods, prices that are the same as those contained in a tariff (designated by the Secretary) of an air carrier filed and published under section 41504 of this title for foreign air transportation to the foreign country; and


(2) a foreign air carrier may continue to provide foreign air transportation to the foreign country only if the government or aeronautical authority of the foreign country allows an air carrier to start or continue foreign air transportation to the foreign country at the prices designated by the Secretary.


(e) Standard Foreign Fare Level.—(1)(A) In this subsection, "standard foreign fare level" means—

(i) for a class of fares existing on October 1, 1979, the fare between 2 places (as adjusted under subparagraph (B) of this paragraph) filed for and allowed by the Civil Aeronautics Board to go into effect after September 30, 1979, and before August 13, 1980 (with seasonal fares adjusted by the percentage difference that prevailed between seasons in 1978), or the fare established under section 1002(j)(8) of the Federal Aviation Act of 1958 (Public Law 85–726, 72 Stat. 731), as added by section 24(a) of the International Air Transportation Competition Act of 1979 (Public Law 96–192, 94 Stat. 46); or

(ii) for a class of fares established after October 1, 1979, the fare between 2 places in effect on the effective date of the establishment of the new class.


(B) At least once every 60 days for fuel costs, and at least once every 180 days for other costs, the Secretary shall adjust the standard foreign fare level for the particular foreign air transportation to which the standard foreign fare level applies by increasing or decreasing that level by the percentage change from the last previous period in the actual operating cost for each available seat-mile. In adjusting a standard foreign fare level, the Secretary may not make an adjustment to costs actually incurred. In establishing a standard foreign fare level and making adjustments in the level under this paragraph, the Secretary may use all relevant or appropriate information reasonably available to the Secretary.

(2) The Secretary may not decide that a proposed fare for foreign air transportation is unreasonable on the basis that the fare is too low or too high if the proposed fare is neither more than 5 percent higher nor 50 percent lower than the standard foreign fare level for the same or essentially similar class of transportation. The Secretary by regulation may increase the 50 percent specified in this paragraph.

(3) Paragraph (2) of this subsection does not apply to a proposed fare that is not more than—

(A) 5 percent higher than the standard foreign fare level when the Secretary decides that the proposed fare may be unreasonably discriminatory or that suspension of the fare is in the public interest because of an unreasonable regulatory action by the government of a foreign country that is related to a fare proposal of an air carrier; or

(B) 50 percent lower than the standard foreign fare level when the Secretary decides that the proposed fare may be predatory or discriminatory or that suspension of the fare is required because of an unreasonable regulatory action by the government of a foreign country that is related to a fare proposal of an air carrier.


(f) Submission of Orders to President.—The Secretary shall submit to the President an order made under this section suspending, canceling, or rejecting a price for foreign air transportation, and an order rescinding the effectiveness of such an order, before publishing the order. Not later than 10 days after its submission, the President may disapprove the order on finding disapproval is necessary for United States foreign policy or national defense reasons.

(g) Compliance as Condition of Certificate or Permit.—This section and compliance with an order of the Secretary under this section are conditions to any certificate or permit held by an air carrier or foreign air carrier. An air carrier or foreign air carrier may provide foreign air transportation only as long as the carrier maintains prices for that transportation that comply with this section and orders of the Secretary under this section.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1135.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
41509(a)(1) 49 App.:1482(j)(1) (1st sentence words before semicolon, 2d sentence related to tariffs of air carriers and foreign air carriers), (2) (1st sentence words before semicolon, 2d sentence related to tariffs of air carriers and foreign air carriers). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, 72 Stat. 731, §1002(j)(1), (2); added Mar. 22, 1972, Pub. L. 92–259, §3(a), 86 Stat. 96; restated Feb. 15, 1980, Pub. L. 96–192, §§14, 15, 94 Stat. 40.
  49 App.:1551(b)(1)(E). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, 72 Stat. 731, §1601(a)(4)(B) (related to §403(c)(3)), (b) (1)(E); added Oct. 4, 1984, Pub. L. 98–443, §3(c), (e), 98 Stat. 1703, 1704.
41509(a)(2) 49 App.:1482(j)(1) (2d sentence related to tariffs of foreign air carriers), (2) (2d sentence related to tariffs of foreign air carriers).
  49 App.:1551(b)(1)(E).
41509(a)(3) 49 App.:1482(j)(5). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, 72 Stat. 731, §1002(j)(5); added Mar. 22, 1972, Pub. L. 92–259, §3(a), 86 Stat. 98; Feb. 15, 1980, Pub. L. 96–192, §16, 94 Stat. 42.
  49 App.:1551(b)(1)(E).
41509(b) 49 App.:1373(c)(3). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, 72 Stat. 731, §403(c)(3); added Oct. 24, 1978, Pub. L. 95–504, §22, 92 Stat. 1724.
  49 App.:1482(j)(1) (1st sentence words after semicolon, 3d sentence), (2) (1st sentence words after semicolon).
  49 App.:1551(a)(4)(B) (related to 49 App.:1373(c)(3)), (b)(1)(E).
41509(c)(1) 49 App.:1482(j)(1) (4th sentence), (2) (3d sentence).
  49 App.:1551(b)(1)(E).
41509(c)(2) 49 App.:1482(j)(1) (5th, last sentences).
41509(c)(3) 49 App.:1482(j)(2) (last sentence).
41509(d) 49 App.:1482(j)(3). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, 72 Stat. 731, §1002(j)(3), (4); added Mar. 22, 1972, Pub. L. 92–259, §3(a), 86 Stat. 98.
  49 App.:1551(b)(1)(E).
41509(e) (1)(A) 49 App.:1482(j)(7). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, 72 Stat. 731, §1002(j)(6), (7), (9), (10); added Feb. 15, 1980, Pub. L. 96–192, §24(a), 94 Stat. 45, 47.
41509(e) (1)(B) 49 App.:1482(j)(9).
  49 App.:1551(b)(1)(E).
41509(e)(2), (3) 49 App.:1482(j)(6), (10).
  49 App.:1551(b)(1)(E).
41509(f) 49 App.:1461(b). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, 72 Stat. 731, §801(b); added Mar. 22, 1972, Pub. L. 92–259, §2, 86 Stat. 96.
  49 App.:1551(b)(1)(E).
41509(g) 49 App.:1482(j)(4).
  49 App.:1551(b)(1)(E).

In subsection (a)(1) and (2), the words "take action to" are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (a)(1), the words "individual or joint (between air carriers, between foreign air carriers, or between an air carrier or carriers and a foreign air carrier or carriers)" and "and, if it so orders" are omitted as surplus. The words "unreasonable or unreasonably discriminatory" are substituted for "unjust or unreasonable, or unjustly discriminatory, or unduly preferential, or unduly prejudicial" for consistency in the revised title and to eliminate unnecessary words. See the revision notes following 49:10101.

In subsection (a)(3), before clause (A), the words "In deciding whether to cancel or reject a tariff of an air carrier or foreign air carrier under this subsection" are substituted for "In exercising and performing its powers and duties under this subsection with respect to the rejection or cancellation of rates for the carriage of persons or property" for consistency in this section and to eliminate unnecessary words. In clause (B), the words "of persons and property" are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (b)(1), the words "contained in the tariff" are added for clarity.

In subsection (b)(1)(A), the words "such hearing and" are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (b)(1)(B), the words "or in the case of" are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (b)(2), the text of 49 App.:1373(c)(3) is omitted as obsolete. Reference to 49 App.:1482(g) is omitted because 49 App.:1482(g) does not relate to foreign air transportation and 49 App.:1551(a)(5)(D) provides that 49 App.:1482(g) ceased to be in effect on January 1, 1985, except insofar as it related to foreign air transportation. Reference to 49 App.:1482(j) is omitted because it consistently has been interpreted that the minimum notice requirement does not apply to foreign air transportation.

In subsection (b)(3), the words "for periods totaling not more than 365 days after" are substituted for "a period or periods not exceeding 365 days in the aggregate beyond the time when" and "a period or periods not exceeding 365 days in the aggregate from" to eliminate unnecessary words.

In subsection (c)(1), the words "a tariff is suspended pending the outcome of a proceeding under subsection (a) of this section" are added for clarity. The words "and the Secretary does not take final action in the proceeding during the suspension period" are substituted for "the proceeding has not been concluded and an order made within the period of suspension or suspensions" and "the proceeding has not been concluded within the period of suspension or suspensions" to eliminate unnecessary words. The words "or if the Board shall otherwise so direct" are omitted as surplus because under subsection (b)(3) of this section the Secretary may rescind a suspension at any time.

In subsection (c)(2)(A), before clause (i), the words "or suspensions" are omitted because of 1:1. In clause (i), the words "corresponding seasonal" are added for clarity.

In subsection (c)(2)(B) and (3), the words "providing the same transportation" are substituted for "engaged in the same foreign air transportation" for consistency in this chapter and to eliminate unnecessary words.

In subsection (c)(2)(B), the words "of the carrier for the covered transportation" and "during the period of suspension or" are added for clarity.

In subsection (c)(3), the words "If an existing tariff is suspended or canceled" are added for clarity. The words "following cancellation of an existing tariff" are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (d), the word "properly" is omitted as surplus. In clause (1)(A), the words "the operation of" are omitted as surplus. The words "periods totaling not more than 365 days after the date of the suspension" are substituted for "for a period or periods not exceeding three hundred and sixty-five days in the aggregate from the date of such suspension" for clarity and to eliminate unnecessary words. In subclause (B), the words "or suspensions" are omitted because of 1:1. In clause (2), the words "by the Secretary" are added for clarity.

In subsection (e)(1)(B), the words "within 30 days after February 15, 1980" are omitted as executed. The words "as the case may be" are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (e)(2), the text of 49 App.:1482(j)(6)(A) is omitted as expired. The words "with respect to any proposed increase filed with the Board after the 180th day after February 15, 1980" and "with respect to any proposed decrease filed after February 15, 1980" are omitted as obsolete. The words "of persons" are omitted as surplus because a "fare" is only for passengers. The words "The Secretary by regulation may increase the 50 percent specified in this paragraph" are substituted for 49 App.:1482(j)(10) for clarity.

In subsection (e)(3)(A), the words "unreasonably discriminatory" are substituted for "unduly preferential, unduly prejudicial, or unjustly discriminatory" to eliminate unnecessary words and for consistency in the revised title. See the revision notes following 49:10101.

In subsection (g), the words "express" and "now . . . or hereafter issued" are omitted as surplus. The words "may provide foreign air transportation only as long as" are substituted for "shall be a condition to the continuation of the affected service" for clarity.

References in Text

Section 1002(j)(8) of the Federal Aviation Act of 1958, referred to in subsec. (e)(1)(A)(i), is section 1002(j)(8) of Pub. L. 85–726, which was classified to section 1482(j)(8) of former Title 49, Transportation, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 103–272, §7(b), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1379.

§41510. Required adherence to foreign air transportation tariffs

(a) Prohibited Actions by Air Carriers, Foreign Air Carriers, and Ticket Agents.—An air carrier, foreign air carrier, or ticket agent may not—

(1) charge or receive compensation for foreign air transportation that is different from the price specified in the tariff of the carrier that is in effect for that transportation;

(2) refund or remit any part of the price specified in the tariff; or

(3) extend to any person a privilege or facility, related to a matter required by the Secretary of Transportation to be specified in a tariff for foreign air transportation, except as specified in the tariff.


(b) Prohibited Actions by Any Person.—A person may not knowingly—

(1) pay compensation for foreign air transportation of property that is different from the price specified in the tariff in effect for that transportation; or

(2) solicit, accept, or receive—

(A) a refund or remittance of any part of the price specified in the tariff; or

(B) a privilege or facility, related to a matter required by the Secretary to be specified in a tariff for foreign air transportation of property, except as specified in the tariff.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1138.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
41510(a) 49 App.:1373(b)(1) (1st sentence). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, §403(b)(1) (1st sentence), 72 Stat. 759; restated Jan. 3, 1975, Pub. L. 93–623, §§7(a), 8(a), 88 Stat. 2105.
  49 App.:1551(a)(4)(B) (related to 49 App.:1373(b)(1)), (b)(1)(E). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, 72 Stat. 731, §1601(a)(4)(B) (related to §403(b)), (b)(1)(E); added Oct. 4, 1984, Pub. L. 98–443, §3(c), (e), 98 Stat. 1703, 1704.
41510(b) 49 App.:1373(b)(2). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, 72 Stat. 731, §403(b)(2); added Jan. 3, 1975, Pub. L. 93–623, §8(a), 88 Stat. 2105.
  49 App.:1551(a)(4)(B) (related to 49 App.:1373(b)(2)), (b)(1)(E).

In this section, the words "greater or less" are omitted as being included in "different". The words "foreign air transportation" are substituted for "air transportation" because 49 App.:1551(a)(4)(B) provides that 49 App.:1373 no longer applies to interstate or overseas air transportation and 49 App.:1376(a)–(e), restated in section 41901 of the revised title, governs prices for the transportation of mail by aircraft. See section 40102(a) of the revised title defining "air transportation" to mean interstate or foreign air transportation or the transportation of mail by aircraft. The words "for any service in connection therewith" are omitted as surplus because the word "transportation" includes any services related to the transportation.

In subsection (a), before clause (1), the words "may not" are substituted for "no . . . shall" and "no . . . shall, in any manner or by any device, directly or indirectly, or through any agent or broker, or otherwise" for clarity and to eliminate unnecessary words. In clause (1), the words "demand or collect" are omitted as being included in "charge or receive". The words "then currently" are omitted as surplus. In clause (3), the words "tariff for foreign air transportation" are substituted for "such tariffs" for clarity.

In subsection (b), before clause (1), the words "shipper, consignor, consignee, forwarder, broker, or other . . . or any director, officer, agent, or employee thereof" are omitted as surplus. In clause (1), the words "directly or indirectly, by any device or means" and "currently" are omitted as surplus. In clause (2), before subclause (A), the words "in any manner or by any device, directly or indirectly, through any agent or broker, or otherwise" are omitted as surplus. In subclause (B), the word "favor" is omitted as surplus.

§41511. Special prices for foreign air transportation

(a) Free and Reduced Pricing.—This chapter does not prohibit an air carrier or foreign air carrier, under terms the Secretary of Transportation prescribes, from issuing or interchanging tickets or passes for free or reduced-price foreign air transportation to or for the following:

(1) a director, officer, or employee of the carrier (including a retired director, officer, or employee who is receiving retirement benefits from an air carrier or foreign air carrier).

(2) a parent or the immediate family of such an officer or employee or the immediate family of such a director.

(3) a widow, widower, or minor child of an employee of the carrier who died as a direct result of a personal injury sustained when performing a duty in the service of the carrier.

(4) a witness or attorney attending a legal investigation in which the air carrier is interested.

(5) an individual injured in an aircraft accident and a physician or nurse attending the individual.

(6) a parent or the immediate family of an individual injured or killed in an aircraft accident when the transportation is related to the accident.

(7) an individual or property to provide relief in a general epidemic, pestilence, or other emergency.

(8) other individuals under other circumstances the Secretary prescribes by regulation.


(b) Space-Available Basis.—Under terms the Secretary prescribes, an air carrier or foreign air carrier may grant reduced-price foreign air transportation on a space-available basis to the following:

(1) a minister of religion.

(2) an individual who is at least 60 years of age and no longer gainfully employed.

(3) an individual who is at least 65 years of age.

(4) an individual who has severely impaired vision or hearing or another physical or mental handicap and an accompanying attendant needed by that individual.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1139.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
41511(a) 49 App.:1373(b)(1) (2d sentence). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, §403(b)(1) (2d– last sentences), 72 Stat. 759; July 12, 1960, Pub. L. 86–627, 74 Stat. 445; Jan. 3, 1975, Pub. L. 93–623, §8(a), 88 Stat. 2105; Nov. 9, 1977, Pub. L. 95–163, §8(a), 91 Stat. 1281.
  49 App.:1551(a)(4)(B) (related to 49 App.:1373(b)(1)), (b)(1)(E). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, 72 Stat. 731, §1601(a)(4)(B) (related to §403(b)(1)), (b)(1)(E); added Oct. 4, 1984, Pub. L. 98–443, §3(c), (e), 98 Stat. 1703, 1704.
41511(b) 49 App.:1373(b)(1) (3d–last sentences).
  49 App.:1551(a)(4)(B) (related to 49 App.:1373(b)(1)), (b)(1)(E).

In this section, the words "foreign air transportation" are substituted for "transportation" and "in the case of overseas or foreign air transportation" because 49 App.:1551(a)(4)(B) provides that 49 App.:1373 no longer applies to interstate or overseas air transportation and 49 App.:1376(a)–(e), restated in section 41901 of the revised title, governs rates for the transportation of mail by aircraft. See section 40102(a) of the revised title defining "air transportation" to mean interstate or foreign air transportation or the transportation of mail by aircraft. The word "conditions" is omitted as being included in "terms".

In subsection (a)(7), the words "or other emergency" are substituted for "other calamitous visitation" for consistency.

In subsection (b)(2), the words "no longer gainfully employed" are substituted for "retired" and "For purposes of this subsection, the term 'retired' means no longer gainfully employed as defined by the Board" to eliminate unnecessary words.

In subsection (b)(4), the words "an individual who has severely impaired vision or hearing or another physical or mental handicap" are substituted for "handicapped person" and "For the purposes of this subsection, the term 'handicapped person' means any person who has severely impaired vision or hearing, and any other physically or mentally handicapped person, as defined by the Board" to eliminate unnecessary words.

CHAPTER 417—OPERATIONS OF CARRIERS

SUBCHAPTER I—REQUIREMENTS

Sec.
41701.
Classification of air carriers.
41702.
Interstate air transportation.
41703.
Navigation of foreign civil aircraft.
41704.
Transporting property not to be transported in aircraft cabins.
41705.
Discrimination against handicapped individuals.
41706.
Prohibitions against smoking on passenger flights.
41707.
Incorporating contract terms into written instrument.
41708.
Reports.
41709.
Records of air carriers.
41710.
Time requirements.
41711.
Air carrier management inquiry and cooperation with other authorities.
41712.
Unfair and deceptive practices and unfair methods of competition.
41713.
Preemption of authority over prices, routes, and service.
41714.
Availability of slots.
41715.
Phase-out of slot rules at certain airports.
41716.
Interim slot rules at New York airports.
41717.
Interim application of slot rules at Chicago O'Hare International Airport.
41718.
Special rules for Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport.
41719.
Air service termination notice.
41720.
Joint venture agreements.
41721.
Reports by carriers on incidents involving animals during air transport.
41722.
Delay reduction actions.
41723.
Notice concerning aircraft assembly.
41724.
Musical instruments.
41725.
Prohibition on certain cell phone voice communications.
41726.
Strollers.

        

SUBCHAPTER II—SMALL COMMUNITY AIR SERVICE

41731.
Definitions.
41732.
Basic essential air service.
41733.
Level of basic essential air service.
41734.
Ending, suspending, and reducing basic essential air service.
41735.
Enhanced essential air service.
41736.
Air transportation to noneligible places.
41737.
Compensation guidelines, limitations, and claims.
41738.
Fitness of air carriers.
41739.
Air carrier obligations.
41740.
Joint proposals.
41741.
Insurance.
41742.
Essential air service authorization.
41743.
Airports not receiving sufficient service.
41744.
Preservation of basic essential air service at single carrier dominated hub airports.
41745.
Community and regional choice programs.
41746.
Tracking service.
[41747.
Repealed.]
41748.
Marketing program.

        

SUBCHAPTER III—REGIONAL AIR SERVICE INCENTIVE PROGRAM

41761.
Purpose.
41762.
Definitions.
41763.
Federal credit instruments.
41764.
Use of Federal facilities and assistance.
41765.
Administrative expenses.
41766.
Funding.
41767.
Termination.

        

Amendments

2018Pub. L. 115–254, div. B, title IV, §§403(b), 412(b), title V, §539(e), Oct. 5, 2018, 132 Stat. 3329, 3332, 3370, added items 41725 and 41726 and substituted "rules" for "Rules" in item 41718.

2012Pub. L. 112–95, title IV, §403(b), Feb. 14, 2012, 126 Stat. 85, which directed amendment of analysis for "such subchapter", meaning subchapter I of chapter 417, by adding item 41724 at the end, was executed by adding item 41724 to analysis for this chapter to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

Pub. L. 112–95, title IV, §§401(b), 430, Feb. 14, 2012, 126 Stat. 83, 100, substituted "Prohibitions against smoking on passenger flights" for "Prohibitions against smoking on scheduled flights" in item 41706, and struck out item 41747 "EAS local participation program".

2003Pub. L. 108–176, title IV, §§408(b), 410(b), 422(b), title VIII, §810(b), Dec. 12, 2003, 117 Stat. 2547, 2549, 2552, 2590, added items 41721 to 41723 and 41745 to 41748 and struck out former item 41721 "Reports by carriers on incidents involving animals during air transportation".

2000Pub. L. 106–181, title II, §§203(b), 204(b), 210(b), 231(j)(2), title VII, §710(b), Apr. 5, 2000, 114 Stat. 93, 94, 102, 115, 160, added items 41715 to 41718, redesignated former items 41715 and 41716 as 41719 and 41720, respectively, and added items 41721, 41743, and 41744, subchapter III heading, and items 41761 to 41767.

1998Pub. L. 105–277, div. C, title I, §110(f)(2), Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–590, which directed amendment of the analysis for subchapter I of chapter 417 by adding item 41716 without specifying the Code title or Act for chapter 417, was executed by adding item 41716 to this analysis to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

1996Pub. L. 104–264, title II, §278(d), Oct. 9, 1996, 110 Stat. 3250, substituted "Essential air service authorization" for "Ending effective date" in item 41742.

1994Pub. L. 103–429, §6(52), Oct. 31, 1994, 108 Stat. 4385, made technical correction to chapter heading.

Pub. L. 103–305, title II, §§206(b), 207(b), Aug. 23, 1994, 108 Stat. 1587, 1588, added items 41714 and 41715.

SUBCHAPTER I—REQUIREMENTS

§41701. Classification of air carriers

The Secretary of Transportation may establish—

(1) reasonable classifications for air carriers when required because of the nature of the transportation provided by them; and

(2) reasonable requirements for each class when the Secretary decides those requirements are necessary in the public interest.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1140.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
41701 49 App.:1386(a). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, §416(a), 72 Stat. 771.
  49 App.:1551(b)(1)(E). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, 72 Stat. 731, §1601(b)(1)(E); added Oct. 4, 1984, Pub. L. 98–443, §3(e), 98 Stat. 1704.

In this section, before clause (1), the words "from time to time" are omitted as unnecessary. In clauses (1) and (2), the word "just" is omitted as being included in "reasonable". In clause (1), the word "groups" is omitted as being included in "classifications". The words "transportation provided" are substituted for "services performed" for consistency in the revised title. In clause (2), the word "requirements" is substituted for "rules and regulations pursuant to and consistent with the provisions of this subchapter" as being more appropriate and for consistency in the revised title.

§41702. Interstate air transportation

An air carrier shall provide safe and adequate interstate air transportation.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1140.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
41702 49 App.:1374(a)(1). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, §404(a)(1), 72 Stat. 760; Mar. 22, 1972, Pub. L. 92–259, §1, 86 Stat. 95; Oct. 24, 1978, Pub. L. 95–504, §23, 92 Stat. 1724.
  49 App.:1551(a)(4)(C) (related to 49 App.:1374(a)(1)). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, 72 Stat. 731, §1601(a)(4)(C) (related to §404(a)(1)); added Oct. 4, 1984, Pub. L. 98–443, §3(c), 98 Stat. 1703.

This section is substituted for 49 App.:1374(a)(1) because 49 App.:1551(a)(4)(C) provides that 49 App.:1374 no longer applies to interstate or overseas air transportation except insofar as 49 App.:1374 requires air carriers to provide safe and adequate service.

§41703. Navigation of foreign civil aircraft

(a) Permitted Navigation.—A foreign aircraft, not part of the armed forces of a foreign country, may be navigated in the United States only—

(1) if the country of registry grants a similar privilege to aircraft of the United States;

(2) by an airman holding a certificate or license issued or made valid by the United States Government or the country of registry;

(3) if the Secretary of Transportation authorizes the navigation; and

(4) if the navigation is consistent with terms the Secretary may prescribe.


(b) Requirements for Authorizing Navigation.—The Secretary may authorize navigation under this section only if the Secretary decides the authorization is—

(1) in the public interest; and

(2) consistent with any agreement between the Government and the government of a foreign country.


(c) Providing Air Commerce.—The Secretary may authorize an aircraft permitted to navigate in the United States under this section to provide air commerce in the United States. However, the aircraft may take on for compensation, at a place in the United States, passengers or cargo destined for another place in the United States only if—

(1) specifically authorized under section 40109(g) of this title; or

(2) under regulations the Secretary prescribes authorizing air carriers to provide otherwise authorized air transportation with foreign registered aircraft under lease or charter to them without crew.


(d) Permit Requirements Not Affected.—This section does not affect section 41301 or 41302 of this title. However, a foreign air carrier holding a permit under section 41302 does not need to obtain additional authorization under this section for an operation authorized by the permit.

(e) Cargo in Alaska.—

(1) In general.—For the purposes of subsection (c), eligible cargo taken on or off any aircraft at a place in Alaska in the course of transportation of that cargo by any combination of 2 or more air carriers or foreign air carriers in either direction between a place in the United States and a place outside the United States shall not be deemed to have broken its international journey in, be taken on in, or be destined for Alaska.

(2) Eligible cargo.—For purposes of paragraph (1), the term "eligible cargo" means cargo transported between Alaska and any other place in the United States on a foreign air carrier (having been transported from, or thereafter being transported to, a place outside the United States on a different air carrier or foreign air carrier) that is carried—

(A) under the code of a United States air carrier providing air transportation to Alaska;

(B) on an air carrier way bill of an air carrier providing air transportation to Alaska;

(C) under a term arrangement or block space agreement with an air carrier; or

(D) under the code of a United States air carrier for purposes of transportation within the United States.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1140; Pub. L. 108–176, title VIII, §808, Dec. 12, 2003, 117 Stat. 2588.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
41703(a) 49 App.:1508(b) (1st sentence). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, §1108(b) (1st, 2d, last sentences), 72 Stat. 798, 799.
  49 App.:1551(b)(1)(E). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, 72 Stat. 731, §1601(b)(1)(E); added Oct. 4, 1984, Pub. L. 98–443, §3(e), 98 Stat. 1704.
41703(b) 49 App.:1508(b) (2d sentence).
  49 App.:1551(b)(1)(E).
41703(c) 49 App.:1508(b) (3d sentence). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, §1108(b) (3d sentence), 72 Stat. 799; Feb. 15, 1980, Pub. L. 96–192, §20, 94 Stat. 43.
  49 App.:1551(b)(1)(E).
41703(d) 49 App.:1508(b) (last sentence).

In subsection (a), the word "country" is substituted for "nation" for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the United States Code. In clause (3), the words "permit, order, or regulation issued" are omitted as surplus. In clause (4), the words "conditions, and limitations" are omitted as being included in "terms".

In subsection (b)(2), the word "agreement" is substituted for "treaty, convention, or agreement" for clarity and consistency in the revised title. The words "which may be in force" are omitted as surplus. The words "or countries" are omitted because of 1:1.

In subsection (c), before clause (1), the word "place" is substituted for "point", and the word "passengers" is substituted for "persons", for consistency in the revised title.

In subsection (d), the word "affect" is substituted for "limit, modify, or amend" to eliminate unnecessary words.

Amendments

2003—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 108–176 added subsec. (e).

Effective Date of 2003 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 108–176 applicable only to fiscal years beginning after Sept. 30, 2003, except as otherwise specifically provided, see section 3 of Pub. L. 108–176, set out as a note under section 106 of this title.

§41704. Transporting property not to be transported in aircraft cabins

Under regulations or orders of the Secretary of Transportation, an air carrier shall transport as baggage the property of a passenger traveling in air transportation that may not be carried in an aircraft cabin because of a law or regulation of the United States. The carrier is liable to pay an amount not more than the amount declared to the carrier by that passenger for actual loss of, or damage to, the property caused by the carrier. The carrier may impose reasonable charges and conditions for its liability.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1141.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
41704 49 App.:1516. Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, 72 Stat. 731, §1116; added Aug. 5, 1974, Pub. L. 93–366, §205, 88 Stat. 418.
  49 App.:1551(b)(1)(E). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, 72 Stat. 731, §1601(b)(1)(E); added Oct. 4, 1984, Pub. L. 98–443, §3(e), 98 Stat. 1704.

The words "as may be necessary", "which . . . lawfully", and "by such person" are omitted as surplus. The words "The carrier is liable to pay an amount not more than" are substituted for "shall assume liability . . . within" for clarity. The words "to such person" are omitted as surplus. The words "The carrier may impose" are added for clarity. The words "terms and" are omitted as covered by "conditions".

Refunds for Delayed Baggage

Pub. L. 114–190, title II, §2305, July 15, 2016, 130 Stat. 640, provided that:

"(a) In General.—Not later than 1 year after the date of enactment of this Act [July 15, 2016], the Secretary of Transportation shall issue final regulations to require an air carrier or foreign air carrier to promptly provide to a passenger an automated refund for any ancillary fees paid by the passenger for checked baggage if—

"(1) the air carrier or foreign air carrier fails to deliver the checked baggage to the passenger—

"(A) not later than 12 hours after the arrival of a domestic flight; or

"(B) not later than 15 hours after the arrival of an international flight; and

"(2) the passenger has notified the air carrier or foreign air carrier of the lost or delayed checked baggage.

"(b) Exception.—If, as part of the rulemaking, the Secretary makes a determination on the record that a requirement under subsection (a) is not feasible and would adversely affect consumers in certain cases, the Secretary may modify 1 or both of the deadlines specified in subsection (a)(1) for such cases, except that—

"(1) the deadline relating to a domestic flight may not exceed 18 hours after the arrival of the domestic flight; and

"(2) the deadline relating to an international flight may not exceed 30 hours after the arrival of the international flight."

§41705. Discrimination against handicapped individuals

(a) In General.—In providing air transportation, an air carrier, including (subject to section 40105(b)) any foreign air carrier, may not discriminate against an otherwise qualified individual on the following grounds:

(1) the individual has a physical or mental impairment that substantially limits one or more major life activities.

(2) the individual has a record of such an impairment.

(3) the individual is regarded as having such an impairment.


(b) Each Act Constitutes Separate Offense.—For purposes of section 46301, a separate violation occurs under this section for each individual act of discrimination prohibited by subsection (a).

(c) Investigation of Complaints.—

(1) In general.—The Secretary shall investigate each complaint of a violation of subsection (a).

(2) Publication of data.—The Secretary shall publish disability-related complaint data in a manner comparable to other consumer complaint data.

(3) Review and report.—The Secretary shall regularly review all complaints received by air carriers alleging discrimination on the basis of disability and shall report annually to Congress on the results of such review.

(4) Technical assistance.—Not later than 180 days after the date of the enactment of this subsection, the Secretary shall—

(A) implement a plan, in consultation with the Department of Justice, the United States Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board, and the National Council on Disability, to provide technical assistance to air carriers and individuals with disabilities in understanding the rights and responsibilities set forth in this section; and

(B) ensure the availability and provision of appropriate technical assistance manuals to individuals and entities with rights or responsibilities under this section.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1141; Pub. L. 106–181, title VII, §707(a), Apr. 5, 2000, 114 Stat. 158; Pub. L. 108–176, title V, §503(d)(1), Dec. 12, 2003, 117 Stat. 2559.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
41705 49 App.:1374(c). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, 72 Stat. 731, §404(c); added Oct. 2, 1986, Pub. L. 99–435, §2(a), 100 Stat. 1080.

In this section, before clause (1), the words "on the following grounds" are substituted for "by reason of such handicap" and "For purposes of paragraph (1) of this subsection the term 'handicapped individual' means any individual who" because of the restatement.

References in Text

The date of the enactment of this subsection, referred to in subsec. (c)(4), is the date of enactment of Pub. L. 106–181, which was approved Apr. 5, 2000.

Amendments

2003—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 108–176 substituted "section 46301" for "section 46301(a)(3)(E)".

2000Pub. L. 106–181 designated existing provisions as subsec. (a), inserted heading, substituted "carrier, including (subject to section 40105(b)) any foreign air carrier," for "carrier" in introductory provisions, and added subsecs. (b) and (c).

Effective Date of 2003 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 108–176 applicable only to fiscal years beginning after Sept. 30, 2003, except as otherwise specifically provided, see section 3 of Pub. L. 108–176, set out as a note under section 106 of this title.

Effective Date of 2000 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 106–181 applicable only to fiscal years beginning after Sept. 30, 1999, see section 3 of Pub. L. 106–181, set out as a note under section 106 of this title.

Regulations Ensuring Assistance for Passengers With Disabilities in Air Transportation

Pub. L. 115–254, div. B, title IV, §440, Oct. 5, 2018, 132 Stat. 3347, provided that:

"(a) In General.—Not later than 180 days after the date of enactment of this Act [Oct. 5, 2018], the Secretary of Transportation shall—

"(1) review, and if necessary revise, applicable regulations to ensure that passengers with disabilities who request assistance while traveling in air transportation receive dignified, timely, and effective assistance at airports and on aircraft from trained personnel; and

"(2) review, and if necessary revise, applicable regulations related to covered air carrier training programs for air carrier personnel, including contractors, who provide physical assistance to passengers with disabilities to ensure that training under such programs—

"(A) occurs on an annual schedule for all new and continuing personnel charged with providing physical assistance; and

"(B) includes, as appropriate, instruction by personnel, with hands-on training for employees who physically lift or otherwise physically assist passengers with disabilities, including the use of relevant equipment.

"(b) Types of Assistance.—The assistance referred to [in] subsection (a)(1) may include requests for assistance in boarding or deplaning an aircraft, requests for assistance in connecting between flights, and other similar or related requests, as appropriate."

[For definition of "covered air carrier" as used in section 440 of Pub. L. 115–254, set out above, see section 401 of Pub. L. 115–254, set out as a Definitions of Terms in Pub. L. 115–254 note under section 40101 of this title.]

Airline Passengers With Disabilities Bill of Rights

Pub. L. 115–254, div. B, title IV, §434, Oct. 5, 2018, 132 Stat. 3343, provided that:

"(a) Airline Passengers With Disabilities Bill of Rights.—The Secretary of Transportation shall develop a document, to be known as the 'Airline Passengers with Disabilities Bill of Rights', using plain language to describe the basic protections and responsibilities of covered air carriers, their employees and contractors, and people with disabilities under the [sic] section 41705 of title 49, United States Code.

"(b) Content.—In developing the Airline Passengers with Disabilities Bill of Rights under subsection (a), the Secretary shall include, at a minimum, plain language descriptions of protections and responsibilities provided in law related to the following:

"(1) The right of passengers with disabilities to be treated with dignity and respect.

"(2) The right of passengers with disabilities to receive timely assistance, if requested, from properly trained covered air carrier and contractor personnel.

"(3) The right of passengers with disabilities to travel with wheelchairs, mobility aids, and other assistive devices, including necessary medications and medical supplies, including stowage of such wheelchairs, aids, and devices.

"(4) The right of passengers with disabilities to receive seating accommodations, if requested, to accommodate a disability.

"(5) The right of passengers with disabilities to receive announcements in an accessible format.

"(6) The right of passengers with disabilities to speak with a complaint resolution officer or to file a complaint with a covered air carrier or the Department of Transportation.

"(c) Rule of Construction.—The development of the Airline Passengers with Disabilities Bill of Rights under subsections (a) and (b) shall not be construed as expanding or restricting the rights available to passengers with disabilities on the day before the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 5, 2018] pursuant to any statute or regulation.

"(d) Consultations.—In developing the Airline Passengers with Disabilities Bill of Rights under subsection (a), the Secretary of Transportation shall consult with stakeholders, including disability organizations and covered air carriers and their contractors.

"(e) Display.—Each covered air carrier shall include the Airline Passengers with Disabilities Bill of Rights—

"(1) on a publicly available internet website of the covered air carrier; and

"(2) in any pre-flight notifications or communications provided to passengers who alert the covered air carrier in advance of the need for accommodations relating to a disability.

"(f) Training.—Covered air carriers and contractors of covered air carriers shall submit to the Secretary of Transportation plans that ensure employees of covered air carriers and their contractors receive training on the protections and responsibilities described in the Airline Passengers with Disabilities Bill of Rights. The Secretary shall review such plans to ensure the plans address the matters described in subsection (b)."

[For definition of "covered air carrier" as used in section 434 of Pub. L. 115–254, set out above, see section 401 of Pub. L. 115–254, set out as a Definitions of Terms in Pub. L. 115–254 note under section 40101 of this title.]

Harmonization of Service Animal Standards

Pub. L. 115–254, div. B, title IV, §437, Oct. 5, 2018, 132 Stat. 3344, provided that:

"(a) Rulemaking.—The Secretary of Transportation shall conduct a rulemaking proceeding—

"(1) to define the term 'service animal' for purposes of air transportation; and

"(2) to develop minimum standards for what is required for service and emotional support animals carried in aircraft cabins.

"(b) Considerations.—In conducting the rulemaking under subsection (a), the Secretary shall consider, at a minimum—

"(1) whether to align the definition of 'service animal' with the definition of that term in regulations of the Department of Justice implementing the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (Public Law 101–336) [42 U.S.C. 12101 et seq.];

"(2) reasonable measures to ensure pets are not claimed as service animals, such as—

"(A) whether to require photo identification for a service animal identifying the type of animal, the breed of animal, and the service the animal provides to the passenger;

"(B) whether to require documentation indicating whether or not a service animal was trained by the owner or an approved training organization;

"(C) whether to require, from a licensed physician, documentation indicating the mitigating task or tasks a service animal provides to its owner; and

"(D) whether to allow a passenger to be accompanied by more than 1 service animal;

"(3) reasonable measures to ensure the safety of all passengers, such as—

"(A) whether to require health and vaccination records for a service animal; and

"(B) whether to require third-party proof of behavioral training for a service animal;

"(4) the impact additional requirements on service animals could have on access to air transportation for passengers with disabilities; and

"(5) if impacts on access to air transportation for passengers with disabilities are found, ways to eliminate or mitigate those impacts.

"(c) Final Rule.—Not later than 18 months after the date of enactment of this Act [Oct. 5, 2018], the Secretary shall issue a final rule pursuant to the rulemaking conducted under this section."

Advisory Committee on the Air Travel Needs of Passengers With Disabilities

Pub. L. 115–254, div. B, title IV, §439, Oct. 5, 2018, 132 Stat. 3345, provided that:

"(a) Establishment.—The Secretary of Transportation shall establish an advisory committee on issues related to the air travel needs of passengers with disabilities (referred to in this section as the 'Advisory Committee').

"(b) Duties.—The Advisory Committee shall—

"(1) identify and assess the disability-related access barriers encountered by passengers with disabilities;

"(2) determine the extent to which the programs and activities of the Department of Transportation are addressing the barriers identified in paragraph (1);

"(3) recommend consumer protection improvements to the air travel experience of passengers with disabilities;

"(4) advise the Secretary with regard to the implementation of section 41705 of title 49, United States Code; and

"(5) conduct such activities as the Secretary considers necessary to carry out this section.

"(c) Membership.—

"(1) In general.—The Advisory Committee shall be composed of at least 1 representative of each of the following groups:

"(A) Passengers with disabilities.

"(B) National disability organizations.

"(C) Air carriers.

"(D) Airport operators.

"(E) Contractor service providers.

"(F) Aircraft manufacturers.

"(G) Wheelchair manufacturers.

"(H) National veterans organizations representing disabled veterans.

"(2) Appointment.—The Secretary of Transportation shall appoint each member of the Advisory Committee.

"(3) Vacancies.—A vacancy in the Advisory Committee shall be filled in the manner in which the original appointment was made.

"(d) Chairperson.—The Secretary of Transportation shall designate, from among the members appointed under subsection (c), an individual to serve as chairperson of the Advisory Committee.

"(e) Travel Expenses.—Members of the Advisory Committee shall serve without pay, but shall receive travel expenses, including per diem in lieu of subsistence, in accordance with subchapter I of chapter 57 of title 5, United States Code.

"(f) Reports.—

"(1) In general.—Not later than 14 months after the date of establishment of the Advisory Committee, and annually thereafter, the Advisory Committee shall submit to the Secretary of Transportation a report on the needs of passengers with disabilities in air travel, including—

"(A) an assessment of existing disability-related access barriers, and any emerging disability-related access barriers that will likely be an issue in the next 5 calendar years;

"(B) an evaluation of the extent to which the Department of Transportation's programs and activities are eliminating disability-related access barriers;

"(C) a description of the Advisory Committee's actions;

"(D) a description of improvements related to the air travel experience of passengers with disabilities; and

"(E) any recommendations for legislation, administrative action, or other action that the Advisory Committee considers appropriate.

"(2) Report to congress.—Not later than 60 days after the date the Secretary receives the report under paragraph (1), the Secretary shall submit to the appropriate committees of Congress [Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate and Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure of the House of Representatives] a copy of the report, including any additional findings or recommendations that the Secretary considers appropriate.

"(g) Termination.—The Advisory Committee established under this section shall terminate on September 30, 2023.

"(h) Termination of the Next Generation Air Transportation System Senior Policy Committee.—The Next Generation Air Transportation System Senior Policy Committee established by the Secretary of Transportation shall terminate on the date of the initial appointment of the members of the Advisory Committee."

Training Policies Regarding Assistance for Persons With Disabilities

Pub. L. 115–254, div. B, title IV, §433, Oct. 5, 2018, 132 Stat. 3342, provided that: "Following the receipt of the report required under section 2107 of the FAA Extension, Safety, and Security Act of 2016 (Public Law 114–190; 130 Stat. 622) [set out below], the Secretary of Transportation shall develop, if appropriate, specific recommendations regarding improvements to wheelchair assistance provided by air carriers and recommendations on how training programs by air carriers can address consumer complaints regarding wheelchair assistance."

Pub. L. 114–190, title II, §2107, July 15, 2016, 130 Stat. 622, provided that:

"(a) In General.—Not later than 270 days after the date of enactment of this Act [July 15, 2016], the Comptroller General of the United States shall submit to Congress a report assessing required air carrier personnel and contractor training programs regarding the assistance of persons with disabilities, including—

"(1) variations in training programs between air carriers;

"(2) instances since 2005 where the Department of Transportation has requested that an air carrier take corrective action following a review of the air carrier's training programs; and

"(3) actions taken by air carriers following requests described in paragraph (2).

"(b) Best Practices.—After the date the report is submitted under subsection (a), the Secretary of Transportation, based on the findings of the report, shall develop, make publicly available, and appropriately disseminate to air carriers such best practices as the Secretary considers necessary to improve the reviewed training programs."

Establishment of Higher International Standards

Pub. L. 106–181, title VII, §707(c), Apr. 5, 2000, 114 Stat. 158, provided that: "The Secretary [of Transportation] shall work with appropriate international organizations and the aviation authorities of other nations to bring about the establishment of higher standards for accommodating handicapped passengers in air transportation, particularly with respect to foreign air carriers that code-share with air carriers."

Restrictions on Air Transportation of Peanuts; Scientific Study on Effect of Airborne Particles on Passengers

Pub. L. 106–69, title III, §346, Oct. 9, 1999, 113 Stat. 1023, provided that: "Hereafter, none of the funds made available under this Act or any other Act, may be used to implement, carry out, or enforce any regulation issued under section 41705 of title 49, United States Code, including any regulation contained in part 382 of title 14, Code of Federal Regulations, or any other provision of law (including any Act of Congress, regulation, or Executive order or any official guidance or correspondence thereto), that requires or encourages an air carrier (as that term is defined in section 40102 of title 49, United States Code) to, on intrastate or interstate air transportation (as those terms are defined in section 40102 of title 49, United States Code)—

"(1) provide a peanut-free buffer zone or any other related peanut-restricted area; or

"(2) restrict the distribution of peanuts,

until 90 days after submission to the Congress and the Secretary of a peer-reviewed scientific study that determines that there are severe reactions by passengers to peanuts as a result of contact with very small airborne peanut particles of the kind that passengers might encounter in an aircraft."

Similar provisions were contained in Pub. L. 105–277, div. A, §101(g) [title III, §372], Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–439, 2681-479.

§41706. Prohibitions against smoking on passenger flights

(a) Smoking Prohibition in Interstate and Intrastate Air Transportation.—An individual may not smoke—

(1) in an aircraft in scheduled passenger interstate or intrastate air transportation; or

(2) in an aircraft in nonscheduled passenger interstate or intrastate air transportation, if a flight attendant is a required crewmember on the aircraft (as determined by the Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration).


(b) Smoking Prohibition in Foreign Air Transportation.—The Secretary of Transportation shall require all air carriers and foreign air carriers to prohibit smoking—

(1) in an aircraft in sc