16 USC CHAPTER 52, SUBCHAPTER I: GENERAL PROVISIONS
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TEXT OF PART V OF SUBTITLE A (3001 ET SEQ.), EFFECTIVE JANUARY 1, 2022, CURRENTLY SET OUT AS A PREVIEW

16 USC CHAPTER 52, SUBCHAPTER I: GENERAL PROVISIONS
From Title 16—CONSERVATIONCHAPTER 52—SALMON AND STEELHEAD CONSERVATION AND ENHANCEMENT

SUBCHAPTER I—GENERAL PROVISIONS

§3301. Congressional findings and declaration of purpose

(a) The Congress finds and declares the following:

(1) The stocks of salmon and steelhead which originate in the rivers of the conservation areas constitute valuable and renewable natural resources. Many groups of commercial, recreational, and treaty fishermen have historically depended upon these stocks of fish for their livelihoods and avocations. These fishery resources contribute to the food supply and economic health of the Pacific Northwest and the Nation as a whole, provide valuable recreational experiences for thousands of citizens from various parts of the United States and represent a central element of the cultures and economies of Indian tribes and the citizens of the Pacific Northwest.

(2) Over a period of several decades, competing uses of salmon and steelhead habitat and historical problems relating to conservation measures, the regulation of harvest and enhancement have depressed several of these stocks of salmon and steelhead.

(3) Improved management and enhancement planning and coordination among salmon and steelhead managers will help prevent a further decline of salmon and steelhead stocks and will assist in increasing the supply of these stocks.

(4) Due in principal part to the Federal court decisions in the United States against Washington and Sohappy against Smith, the fishing capacity of nontreaty fishermen in the conservation areas established by this chapter exceeds that required to harvest the available salmon resources. This excess capacity causes severe economic problems for these fishermen.

(5) The supply of salmon and steelhead can be increased through carefully planned enhancement measures designed to improve the survival of stocks and to augment the production of artificially propagated stocks. By careful choice of species, areas, and stocking procedures, enhancement programs can be used to—

(A) improve the distribution of fish among different groups of treaty and nontreaty fishermen; and

(B) add stability to the treaty and nontreaty fisheries by reducing variations in fish availability.


(b) In order to assist the harvesters of the salmon and steelhead resources within the Columbia River conservation area and the Washington conservation area established by this chapter to overcome temporary dislocations arising from the decisions in the cases of United States against Washington and Sohappy against Smith and from other causes, this chapter authorizes the establishment of a cooperative program involving the United States, the States of Washington and Oregon, the treaty tribes acting through the appropriate tribal coordinating bodies, and other parties, to—

(1) encourage stability in and promote the economic well being of the treaty and nontreaty commercial fishing and charter fishing industries and improve the distribution of fishing power between treaty and nontreaty fisheries through—

(A) the purchase of nontreaty commercial and charter fishing vessels, gear, and licenses; and

(B) coordinated research, enhancement, and management of salmon and steelhead resources and habitat; and


(2) improve the quality of, and maintain the opportunities for, salmon and steelhead recreational fishing.

(Pub. L. 96–561, title I, §102, Dec. 22, 1980, 94 Stat. 3275.)

Short Title

Pub. L. 96–561, title I, §101, Dec. 22, 1980, 94 Stat. 3275, provided that: "This title [enacting this chapter and provisions set out as a note under section 1823 of this title] may be cited as the 'Salmon and Steelhead Conservation and Enhancement Act of 1980'."

Research and Development Program To Improve Salmon Survival

Pub. L. 104–303, title V, §511, Oct. 12, 1996, 110 Stat. 3761, as amended by Pub. L. 106–53, title V, §582, Aug. 17, 1999, 113 Stat. 375; Pub. L. 110–114, title V, §5025, Nov. 8, 2007, 121 Stat. 1203; Pub. L. 113–235, div. D, title I, §104, Dec. 16, 2014, 128 Stat. 2307, provided that:

"(a) Salmon Survival Activities.—

"(1) In general.—In conjunction with the Secretary of Commerce and the Secretary of the Interior, the Secretary shall accelerate ongoing research and development activities, and may carry out or participate in additional research and development activities, for the purpose of developing innovative methods and technologies for improving the survival of salmon, especially salmon in the Columbia/Snake River Basin.

"(2) Accelerated activities.—Accelerated research and development activities referred to in paragraph (1) may include research and development related to—

"(A) impacts from water resources projects and other impacts on salmon life cycles;

"(B) juvenile and adult salmon passage;

"(C) light and sound guidance systems;

"(D) surface-oriented collector systems;

"(E) transportation mechanisms; and

"(F) dissolved gas monitoring and abatement.

"(3) Additional activities.—Additional research and development activities referred to in paragraph (1) may include research and development related to—

"(A) studies of juvenile salmon survival in spawning and rearing areas;

"(B) estuary and near-ocean juvenile and adult salmon survival;

"(C) impacts on salmon life cycles from sources other than water resources projects;

"(D) cryopreservation of fish gametes and formation of a germ plasma repository for threatened and endangered populations of native fish; and

"(E) other innovative technologies and actions intended to improve fish survival, including the survival of resident fish.

"(4) Coordination.—The Secretary shall coordinate any activities carried out under this subsection with appropriate Federal, State, and local agencies, affected Indian tribes, and the Northwest Power Planning Council.

"(5) Report.—Not later than 3 years after the date of enactment of the Water Resources Development Act of 1999 [Aug. 17, 1999], the Secretary shall submit to Congress a report on the research and development activities carried out under this subsection, including any recommendations of the Secretary concerning the research and development activities.

"(6) Authorization of appropriations.—There is authorized to be appropriated $43,400,000 to carry out research and development activities under paragraph (3).

"(b) Advanced Turbine Development.—

"(1) In general.—In conjunction with the Secretary of Energy, the Secretary shall accelerate efforts toward developing and installing in Corps of Engineers-operated dams innovative, efficient, and environmentally safe hydropower turbines, including design of fish-friendly turbines, for use on the Columbia/Snake River hydrosystem.

"(2) Authorization of appropriations.—There is authorized to be appropriated $35,000,000 to carry out this subsection.

"(c) Management of Predation on Columbia/Snake River System Native Fishes.—

"(1) Nesting avian predators.—In conjunction with the Secretary of Commerce and the Secretary of the Interior, and consistent with a management plan to be developed by the United States Fish and Wildlife Service, the Secretary shall carry out methods to reduce nesting populations of avian predators on dredge spoil islands in the Columbia River under the jurisdiction of the Secretary.

"(2) Authorization of appropriations.—There is authorized to be appropriated $10,000,000 to carry out research and development activities under this subsection.

"(d) Implementation.—Nothing in this section affects the authority of the Secretary to implement the results of the research and development carried out under this section or any other law."

§3302. Definitions

As used in this chapter—

(1) The term "appropriate tribal coordinating body" means the Columbia River tribal coordinating body or the Washington tribal coordinating body, as the context requires.

(2) The term "charter vessel" means any vessel licensed by the State to carry passengers for hire for the purpose of recreational salmon fishing.

(3) The term "charter fishing" means fishing undertaken aboard charter vessels.

(4) The term "Columbia River conservation area" means—

(A) all habitat within the Columbia River drainage basin; and

(B) those areas in—

(i) the fishery conservation zone over which the Pacific Fishery Management Council has jurisdiction, and

(ii) the territorial seas of Oregon and Washington,


in which one or more stocks that originate in the habitat describe 1 in subparagraph (A) migrate.


(5) The term "Columbia River tribal coordinating body" means the organization duly authorized by those treaty tribes of the Columbia River drainage basin to coordinate activities for them for purposes of this chapter.

(6) The term "commercial fishing" means fishing for the purpose of sale or barter.

(7) The term "commercial fishing vessel" or "fishing vessel" means any vessel, boat, ship, or other craft which is licensed for, and used for, equipped to be used for, or of a type which is normally used for, commercial salmon fishing.

(8) The term "enhancement" means projects undertaken to increase the production of naturally spawning or artificially propagated stocks of salmon or steelhead, or to protect, conserve, or improve the habitat of such stocks.

(9) The term "habitat" means those portions of the land or water, including the constituent elements thereof, (A) which salmon or steelhead occupy at any time during their life cycle, or (B) which affect the salmon or steelhead resources.

(10) The term "recreational fishing" means fishing for personal use and enjoyment using conventional angling gear, and not for sale or barter.

(11) The term "salmon" means any anadromous species of the family Salmonidae and Genus Oncorhynchus, commonly known as Pacific salmon.

(12) The term "salmon or steelhead resource" means any stock of salmon or steelhead.

(13) The term "steelhead" means the anadromous rainbow trout species Salmo gairdneri, commonly known as steelhead.

(14) The term "stock" means a species, subspecies, race, geographical grouping, run, or other category of salmon or steelhead.

(15) The term "treaty" means any treaty between the United States and any treaty tribe that relates to the reserved right of such tribe to harvest salmon and steelhead within the Washington or Columbia River conservation areas.

(16) The term "treaty tribe" means any Indian tribe recognized by the United States Government, with usual and accustomed fishing grounds in the Washington or Columbia River conservation areas, whose fishing right under a treaty has been recognized by a Federal court.

(17) The term "Washington conservation area" means all salmon and steelhead habitat within the State of Washington except for the Columbia River drainage basin, and in the fishery conservation zone adjacent to the State of Washington which is subject to the jurisdiction of the United States.

(18) The term "Washington tribal coordinating body" means the organization duly authorized by the treaty tribes of the Washington conservation area to coordinate their activities for them for the purposes of this chapter.

(Pub. L. 96–561, title I §103, Dec. 22, 1980, 94 Stat. 3276.)

References in Text

The Pacific Fishery Management Council, referred to in par. (4)(B)(i), was established by section 1852 of this title. Pub. L. 99–659 amended section 1811 of this title by substituting provisions relating to exclusive economic zones, for fishery conservation zones.

1 So in original. Probably should be "described".