[USC02] 22 USC Ch. 44: JAPAN-UNITED STATES FRIENDSHIP
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22 USC Ch. 44: JAPAN-UNITED STATES FRIENDSHIP
From Title 22—FOREIGN RELATIONS AND INTERCOURSE

CHAPTER 44—JAPAN-UNITED STATES FRIENDSHIP

Sec.
2901.
Congressional statement of findings and declaration of purpose.
2902.
Japan-United States Friendship Trust Fund.
2903.
Japan-United States Friendship Commission.
2904.
Functions of Commission.
2905.
Administrative powers of Commission.
2906.
Management of the Friendship Trust Fund.

        

§2901. Congressional statement of findings and declaration of purpose

(a) The Congress hereby finds that—

(1) the post-World War II evolution of the relationship between Japan and the United States to peacetime friendship and partnership is one of the most significant developments of the postwar period;

(2) the Agreement Between Japan and the United States of America Concerning the Ryukyu Islands and the Daito Islands, signed at Washington and Tokyo on June 17, 1971, is a major achievement and symbol of the new relationship between the United States and Japan; and

(3) the continuation of close United States-Japan friendship and cooperation will make a vital contribution to the prospects for peace, prosperity, and security in Asia and the world.


(b) It is therefore the purpose of this chapter to provide for the use of an amount equal to a part of the total sum payable by Japan to the United States in connection with the reversion of Okinawa to Japanese administration and the remaining funds of the amount set aside in 1962 for educational and cultural exchange with Japan (known as the G.A.R.I.O.A. Account) to aid education and culture at the highest level in order to enhance reciprocal people-to-people understanding and to support the close friendship and mutuality of interests between the United States and Japan.

(Pub. L. 94–118, §2, Oct. 20, 1975, 89 Stat. 603.)

Short Title

Pub. L. 94–118, §1, Oct. 20, 1975, 89 Stat. 603, provided: "That this Act [enacting this chapter] may be cited as the 'Japan-United States Friendship Act'."

§2902. Japan-United States Friendship Trust Fund

(a) Establishment

There is established in the Treasury of the United States a trust fund to be known as the Japan-United States Friendship Trust Fund (hereafter referred to as the "Fund").

(b) Use of amounts in Fund for promotion of scholarly, cultural, and artistic activities between Japan and United States

Amounts in the Fund shall be used for the promotion of scholarly, cultural, and artistic activities between Japan and the United States, including—

(1) support for studies, including language studies, in institutions of higher education or scholarly research in Japan and the United States, designed to foster mutual understanding between Japan and the United States;

(2) support for major collections of Japanese books and publications in appropriate libraries located throughout the United States and similar support for collections of American books and publications in appropriate libraries located throughout Japan;

(3) support for programs in the arts in association with appropriate institutions in Japan and the United States;

(4) support for fellowships and scholarships at the graduate and faculty levels in Japan and the United States in accord with the purposes of this chapter;

(5) support for visiting professors and lecturers at colleges and universities in Japan and the United States; and

(6) support for other Japan-United States cultural and educational activities consistent with the purposes of this chapter.

(c) Use of amounts in Fund for administrative expenses of Japan-United States Friendship Commission

Amounts in the Fund may also be used to pay administrative expenses of the Japan-United States Friendship Commission, established by section 2903 of this title, as directed by that Commission.

(d) Authorization of appropriations; source of amounts

There is authorized to be appropriated to the Fund, for fiscal year 1976, an amount equal to 7.5 per centum of the total funds payable to the United States pursuant to the Agreement Between Japan and the United States of America Concerning the Ryukyu Islands and the Daito Islands, signed at Washington and Tokyo, June 17, 1971, including interest and proceeds accruing to the Fund from such funds in accordance with sections 2905(4) and 2906 of this title.

(e) Additional authorization of appropriations; source of amounts; subsequent use of unappropriated portion of amounts authorized to be appropriated

(1) There is authorized to be appropriated to the Fund, for fiscal year 1976, in addition to the amount authorized to be appropriated by subsection (d) of this section, those funds available in United States accounts in Japan and transferred by the Government of Japan to the United States pursuant to the United States request made under article V of the agreement between the United States of America and Japan regarding the settlement of Postwar Economic Assistance to Japan, signed in Tokyo, January 9, 1962, and the exchange of notes of the same date (13 U.S.T. 1957; T.I.A.S. 5154) (the G.A.R.I.O.A. Account), including interest accruing to the G.A.R.I.O.A. Account and interest and proceeds accruing to the Fund from such funds in accordance with sections 2905(4) and 2906 of this title.

(2) The amount authorized to be appropriated by paragraph (1) of this subsection shall not include any amount required by law to be applied to United States participation in the International Ocean Exposition to be held in Okinawa, Japan.

(3) Any unappropriated portion of the amount authorized to be appropriated by subsection (d) of this section and paragraph (1) of this subsection for fiscal year 1976 may be appropriated in any subsequent fiscal year.

(Pub. L. 94–118, §3, Oct. 20, 1975, 89 Stat. 603; Pub. L. 94–350, title IV, §401(2), (3)(A), July 12, 1976, 90 Stat. 833.)

Amendments

1976—Subsecs. (d), (e)(1). Pub. L. 94–350 included interest and proceeds accruing to the Fund in accordance with sections 2905(4) and 2906 of this title.

§2903. Japan-United States Friendship Commission

(a) Establishment; composition

There is established a commission to be known as the Japan-United States Friendship Commission (hereafter referred to as the "Commission"). The Commission shall be composed of—

(1) the members of the United States Panel of the Joint Committee on United States-Japan Cultural and Educational Cooperation;

(2) two Members of the House of Representatives, to be appointed at the beginning of each Congress or upon the occurrence of a vacancy during a Congress by the Speaker of the House of Representatives;

(3) two Members of the Senate, to be appointed at the beginning of each Congress or upon the occurrence of a vacancy during a Congress by the President pro tempore of the Senate;

(4) the Chairman of the National Endowment for the Arts; and

(5) the Chairman of the National Endowment for the Humanities.

(b) Compensation and travel expenses

Members of the Commission who are not full-time officers or employees of the United States and who are not Members of Congress shall, while serving on business of the Commission, be entitled to receive compensation at rates fixed by the President, but not exceeding the rate specified at the time of such service for grade GS–18 in section 5332 of title 5, including traveltime; and while so serving away from their homes or regular places of business, all members of the Commission may be allowed travel expenses including per diem in lieu of subsistence, as authorized by section 5703 of title 5 for persons in Government service employed intermittently.

(c) Chairman; quorum; meetings

The Chairman of the United States Panel of the Joint Committee on United States-Japan Cultural and Educational Cooperation shall be the Chairman of the Commission. A majority of the members of the Commission shall constitute a quorum. The Commission shall meet at least twice in each year.

(Pub. L. 94–118, §4, Oct. 20, 1975, 89 Stat. 604.)

References in Other Laws to GS–16, 17, or 18 Pay Rates

References in laws to the rates of pay for GS–16, 17, or 18, or to maximum rates of pay under the General Schedule, to be considered references to rates payable under specified sections of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees, see section 529 [title I, §101(c)(1)] of Pub. L. 101–509, set out in a note under section 5376 of Title 5.

§2904. Functions of Commission

(a) Promotion of scholarly, cultural, and artistic activities; grants

The Commission is authorized to—

(1) develop and carry out programs at public or private institutions for the promotion of scholarly, cultural, and artistic activities in Japan and the United States consistent with the provisions of section 2902(b) of this title; and

(2) make grants to carry out such programs.

(b) Annual report

The Commission shall submit to the President and to the Congress an annual report of its activities under this chapter together with such recommendations as the Commission determines appropriate.

(Pub. L. 94–118, §5, Oct. 20, 1975, 89 Stat. 605.)

§2905. Administrative powers of Commission

In order to carry out its functions under this chapter, the Commission is authorized to—

(1) prescribe such regulations as it deems necessary governing the manner in which its functions shall be carried out;

(2) receive money and property donated, bequeathed, or devised, without condition or restriction other than that it be used for the purposes of this chapter; and to use, sell, or otherwise dispose of such property (including transfer to the Fund) for the purpose of carrying out the purposes of this chapter, and any such donation shall be exempt from any Federal income, State, or gift tax;

(3) in the discretion of the Commission, receive (and use, sell, or otherwise dispose of, in accordance with paragraph (2)) money and other property donated, bequeathed, or devised to the Commission with a condition or restriction, including a condition that the Commission use other funds of the Commission for the purposes of the gift, and any such donation shall be exempt from any Federal income, State, or gift tax;

(4) direct the Secretary of the Treasury to make expenditure of the income of the Fund, any amount of the contributions deposited in the Fund from nonappropriated sources pursuant to paragraph (2) or (3) of this section, and not to exceed 5 percent annually of the principal of the total amount appropriated to the Fund to carry out the purposes of this chapter, including the payment of Commission expenses if needed;

(5) appoint an Executive Director, without regard to the provisions of title 5 governing appointments in the competitive service, who shall be compensated at the rate provided for a GS–18 of the General Schedule of such title;

(6) obtain the services of experts and consultants in accordance with the provisions of section 3109 of title 5, at rates for individuals not to exceed the rate specified at the time of such service for grade GS–18 in section 5332 of title 5;

(7) accept and utilize the services of voluntary and noncompensated personnel and reimburse them for travel expenses, including per diem, as authorized by section 5703 of title 5;

(8) enter into contracts, grants, or other arrangements, or modifications thereof;

(9) make advances, progress, and other payments which the Commission deems necessary under this chapter;

(10) obtain such administrative support services and personnel as the Commission deems necessary and appropriate to its needs; and

(11) transmit its official mail as penalty mail in the same manner and upon the same conditions as an officer of the United States other than a Member of Congress is permitted to transmit official mail as penalty mail under section 3202 of title 39.

(Pub. L. 94–118, §6, Oct. 20, 1975, 89 Stat. 605; Pub. L. 94–350, title IV, §401(1), July 12, 1976, 90 Stat. 833; Pub. L. 95–426, title VII, §703(a), Oct. 7, 1978, 92 Stat. 992; Pub. L. 97–241, title V, §503(a), Aug. 24, 1982, 96 Stat. 298; Pub. L. 102–138, title I, §167, Oct. 28, 1991, 105 Stat. 676; Pub. L. 105–277, div. A, §101(b) [title IV, §404(a)], Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–50, 2681-101.)

Amendments

1998—Par. (4). Pub. L. 105–277 substituted "needed" for "needed, except that any amounts expended from amounts appropriated to the Fund under section 2902(e)(1) of this title shall be expended in Japan or for not more than 50 percent of administrative expenses in the United States".

1991—Par. (4). Pub. L. 102–138 inserted "or for not more than 50 percent of administrative expenses in the United States" after "Japan".

1982—Par. (4). Pub. L. 97–241 substituted ", any amount of the contributions deposited in the Fund from nonappropriated sources pursuant to paragraph (2) or (3) of this section, and not to exceed 5 percent annually of the principal of the total amount appropriated to the Fund" for "and not to exceed 5 per centum annually of the principal of the Fund".

1978—Par. (11). Pub. L. 95–426 added par. (11).

1976—Par. (10). Pub. L. 94–350 struck out "from the Secretary of State, on a reimbursable basis," after "obtain".

Effective Date of 1978 Amendment

Pub. L. 95–426, title VII, §703(b), Oct. 7, 1978, 92 Stat. 992, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall take effect on October 1, 1978."

References in Other Laws to GS–16, 17, or 18 Pay Rates

References in laws to the rates of pay for GS–16, 17, or 18, or to maximum rates of pay under the General Schedule, to be considered references to rates payable under specified sections of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees, see section 529 [title I, §101(c)(1)] of Pub. L. 101–509, set out in a note under section 5376 of Title 5.

§2906. Management of the Friendship Trust Fund

(a) Constituent amounts

The Fund shall consist of—

(1) amounts appropriated under sections 2902(d) and (e)(1) of this title;

(2) any other amounts received by the Fund by way of gifts and donations; and

(3) interest and proceeds credited to it under subsection (b) of this section.

(b) Investments by Secretary of Treasury in authorized obligations; issuance of obligations and special obligations; conditions of acquisition

It shall be the duty of the Secretary of the Treasury (hereafter referred to as the "Secretary") to invest such portion of the Fund as is not, in the judgment of the Commission, required to meet current withdrawals. Such investment may be made only in interest-bearing obligations of the United States, in obligations guaranteed as to both principal and interest by the United States, in interest-bearing obligations of Japan, or in obligations guaranteed as to both principal and interest by Japan. For such purposes, the obligations may be acquired (1) on original issue at the issue price, or (2) by purchase of outstanding obligations at the market price. The purposes for which obligations of the United States may be issued under chapter 31 of title 31, are hereby extended to authorize the issuance at par of special obligations exclusively to the Fund. Such special obligations shall bear interest at a rate equal to the average rate of interest, computed as to the end of the calendar month next preceding the date of such issue, borne by all marketable interest-bearing obligations of the United States issued during the preceding two years then forming part of the public debt; except that where such average rate is not a multiple of one-eight of 1 per centum, the rate of interest of such special obligations shall be the multiple of one-eighth of 1 per centum next lower than such average rate. Such special obligations shall be issued only if the Secretary determines that the purchase of other interest-bearing obligations of the United States, or of obligations guaranteed as to both principal and interest by the United States on original issue or at the market price, is not in the public interest.

(c) Sale of obligations; redemption of special obligations

Any obligation acquired by the Fund (except special obligations issued exclusively to the Fund) may be sold by the Secretary at the market price, and such special obligations may be redeemed at par plus accrued interest.

(d) Credit to Fund of interest on, and proceeds from sale or redemption of, any obligations held in Fund

The interest on, and the proceeds from the sale or redemption of, any obligations held in the Fund shall be credited to and form a part of the Fund.

(e) Payments for implementation of programs and necessary expenses of Commission; appropriation of amounts; exceptions

In accordance with section 2905(4) of this title, the Secretary shall pay out of the Fund such amounts, including expenses of the Commission, as the Commission considers necessary to carry out the provisions of this chapter; except that amounts in the Fund, other than amounts which have been appropriated and amounts received (including amounts earned as interest on, and proceeds from the sale or redemption of, obligations purchased with amounts received) by the Commission pursuant to sections 2905(2) and (3) of this title, shall be subject to the appropriation process.

(Pub. L. 94–118, §7, Oct. 20, 1975, 89 Stat. 606; Pub. L. 94–350, title IV, §401(3)(B), July 12, 1976, 90 Stat. 833; Pub. L. 97–241, title V, §503(b), Aug. 24, 1982, 96 Stat. 298; Pub. L. 105–277, div. A, §101(b) [title IV, §404(b)], Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–50, 2681-101.)

Codification

In subsec. (b), "chapter 31 of title 31" substituted for "the Second Liberty Bond Act, as amended" on authority of Pub. L. 97–258, §4(b), Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 1067, the first section of which enacted Title 31, Money and Finance.

Amendments

1998—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 105–277 amended second sentence generally. Prior to amendment, second sentence read as follows: "Such investment of amounts authorized to be appropriated under section 2902(d) of this title may be made only in interest-bearing obligations of the United States or in obligations guaranteed as to both principal and interest by the United States."

1982—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 97–241 inserted "(including amounts earned as interest on, and proceeds from the sale or redemption of, obligations purchased with amounts received)" after "amounts received".

1976—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 94–350 substituted "investment of amounts authorized to be appropriated under section 2902(d) of this title may be made" for "investment may be made" in second sentence.