[USC02] 28 USC Ch. 45: SUPREME COURT
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TEXT OF PART V OF SUBTITLE A (3001 ET SEQ.), EFFECTIVE JANUARY 1, 2022, CURRENTLY SET OUT AS A PREVIEW

28 USC Ch. 45: SUPREME COURT
From Title 28—JUDICIARY AND JUDICIAL PROCEDUREPART III—COURT OFFICERS AND EMPLOYEES

CHAPTER 45—SUPREME COURT

Sec.
671.
Clerk.
672.
Marshal.
673.
Reporter.
674.
Librarian.
675.
Law clerks and secretaries.
676.
Printing and binding.
677.
Counselor to the Chief Justice.

        

Editorial Notes

Amendments

2008Pub. L. 110–402, §1(b)(3)(B), Oct. 13, 2008, 122 Stat. 4254, added item 677 and struck out former item 677 "Administrative Assistant to the Chief Justice".

1972Pub. L. 92–238, §2, Mar. 1, 1972, 86 Stat. 46, added item 677.

§671. Clerk

(a) The Supreme Court may appoint and fix the compensation of a clerk and one or more deputy clerks. The clerk shall be subject to removal by the Court. Deputy clerks shall be subject to removal by the clerk with the approval of the Court or the Chief Justice of the United States.

[(b) Repealed. Pub. L. 92–310, title II, §206(c), June 6, 1972, 86 Stat. 203.]

(c) The clerk may appoint and fix the compensation of necessary assistants and messengers with the approval of the Chief Justice of the United States.

(d) The clerk shall pay into the Treasury all fees, costs, and other moneys collected by him. He shall make annual returns thereof to the Court under regulations prescribed by it.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 646, 62 Stat. 918; Pub. L. 88–279, §1, Mar. 10, 1964, 78 Stat. 158; Pub. L. 92–310, title II, §206(c), June 6, 1972, 86 Stat. 203.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., §§325, 326, 327, 541 and 542 (Feb. 22, 1875, ch. 95, §§2, 3, 18 Stat. 333; Mar. 3, 1883, ch. 143, 22 Stat. 631; Mar. 15, 1898, ch. 68, §8, 30 Stat. 317; Mar. 3, 1911, ch. 231, §§219, 220, 221, 291, 36 Stat. 1152, 1153, 1167; June 10, 1921, ch. 18, §304, 42 Stat. 24).

This section consolidates sections 541 and 542 of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., with parts of sections 325, 326 and 327 of such title.

The provisions in said section 325 relating to appointment of a marshal and reporter are incorporated in sections 672 and 673 of this title.

The provisions in section 327 of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., relating to duties and liabilities of the clerk's deputies are incorporated in section 954 of this title.

The provision of section 326 of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., that a duly certified copy of the clerk's bond should be competent evidence in any court, is incorporated in section 1737 of this title.

The provision that the clerk shall be subject to removal by the Court is new. Section 327 of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., contained a similar provision as to deputies, but fixed no term of office for the clerk and made no provision for his removal. The Supreme Court held, in 1839, that a district judge had power to remove his clerk at pleasure in absence of any law fixing the clerk's tenure. In re Hennen, 38 U.S. 230, 13 Pet. 230, 10 L.Ed. 138. (See, also Myers v. U.S., 1926, 47 S.Ct. 21, 272 U.S. 52, 71 L.Ed. 160.)

The provision in section 326 of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., that the clerk's bond be not less than $5,000 and not more than $20,000 was omitted. The Supreme Court should have wide discretion in such administrative matters. (See Hearings before Appropriations Committee, House of Representatives, 78th Cong., 2d sess., on Judiciary Appropriation Bill for 1945, page 102.)

A provision of section 326 of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., that a renewed or augmented bond should be required upon the Attorney General's motion and after thirty days' notice was omitted. The manner of requiring such bond is left to the Court's discretion by the revised section.

A further provision of section 326 of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., that the failure to furnish such renewed or augmented bond should vacate the clerk's office was omitted as unnecessary, since the clerk is removable by the Court under this section.

The references in section 541 of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., to return "under oath" to be made "on the 1st day of January of each year, or thirty days thereafter" and "on a form prescribed by the Attorney General", were omitted as fully covered by the revised language "annual returns" under "regulations prescribed by the Court". Verification seems unnecessary especially as clerks of the courts of appeals are not required to submit similar returns under oath (see section 711 of this title). "Court" was substituted for "Attorney General", since the latter's powers and functions in court administrative matters have been transferred to the Director of the Administration Office of the United States Courts. (See sections 604 and 607 of this title.) The Director, however, exercises no authority in Supreme Court matters.

Section 542 of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., provided that the clerk "shall not retain", out of fees received, more than $6,000 annually above clerk hire and expenses; that the surplus should be paid into the Treasury. Such indirect and unusual provision is simplified in this section by providing that his salary shall be fixed by the Court. Such salary limitation is omitted as inconsistent with larger salaries paid other clerks of courts.

The provisions that the Court shall fix the compensation of deputy clerks, and that the clerk shall fix the compensation of assistants and messengers with the approval of the Chief Justice, are new. Current appropriation Acts providing that the compensation of officers and employees of the Supreme Court, other than clerk and reporter shall be fixed by the court, unnecessarily burden the court with administrative details. Provision for allowance and approval of payments of compensation and office expenses by the clerk upon allowance and approval by the Chief Justice, instead of by the Court, was inserted with the approval of the Judicial Conference Committee on Revision of the Judicial Code as not inconsistent with section 542 of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed.

References in sections 541 and 542 of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., to certification of expenses by the justices and for audit and allowances by the General Accounting Office, were omitted as unnecessary in view of this section.

Changes were made in phraseology.


Editorial Notes

Amendments

1972—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 92–310 repealed subsec. (b) which related to bond of Clerk of Supreme Court.

1964—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 88–279 struck out provision for disbursement by clerk of compensation of clerk, his deputies, assistants, and messengers and the necessary expenses of office from the fees collected by clerk, upon allowance and approval by Chief Justice of the United States.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 88–279 substituted "moneys collected by him" for "emoluments of his office over and above his lawful disbursements".


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Effective Date of 1964 Amendment

Pub. L. 88–279, §4, Mar. 10, 1964, 78 Stat. 158, provided that: "The amendments proposed in this Act [amending this section and section 672 of this title] shall become effective only when funds have been appropriated and are available to pay the salaries and other expenses of the clerk's office."

Appropriations

Pub. L. 88–279, §3, Mar. 10, 1964, 78 Stat. 158, provided that: "There are hereby authorized to be appropriated annually such sums as are necessary to carry out the provisions of this Act [amending this section and section 672 of this title]."

§672. Marshal

(a) The Supreme Court may appoint a marshal, who shall be subject to removal by the Court, and may fix his compensation.

(b) The marshal may, with the approval of the Chief Justice of the United States, appoint and fix the compensation of necessary assistants and other employees to attend the Court, and necessary custodial employees.

(c) The marshal shall:

(1) Attend the Court at its sessions;

(2) Serve and execute all process and orders issued by the Court or a member thereof;

(3) Take charge of all property of the United States used by the Court or its members;

(4) Disburse funds appropriated for work upon the Supreme Court building and grounds under the jurisdiction of the Architect of the Capitol upon certified vouchers submitted by the Architect;

(5) Disburse funds appropriated for the purchase of books, pamphlets, periodicals and other publications, and for their repair, binding, and rebinding, upon vouchers certified by the librarian of the Court;

(6) Pay the salaries of the Chief Justice, associate justices, and all officers and employees of the Court and disburse other funds appropriated for disbursement, under the direction of the Chief Justice;

(7) Pay the expenses of printing briefs and travel expenses of attorneys in behalf of persons whose motions to appear in forma pauperis in the Supreme Court have been approved and when counsel have been appointed by the Supreme Court, upon vouchers certified by the clerk of the Court;

(8) Oversee the Supreme Court Police.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 646, 62 Stat. 918; Pub. L. 88–279, §2, Mar. 10, 1964, 78 Stat. 158; Pub. L. 97–390, §2, Dec. 29, 1982, 96 Stat. 1958.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., §§325, 331, and section 13d of title 40, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Public Buildings, Property and Works (Mar. 3, 1911, ch. 231, §§219, 224, 36 Stat. 1152, 1153; April 11, 1928, ch. 358, 45 Stat. 424; May 7, 1934, ch. 222, §4, 48 Stat. 668).

This section consolidates part of section 325 of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., with section 331 of such title and section 13d of title 40, U.S.C., 1940 ed.

Provisions of section 325 of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., relating to appointment of clerk and reporter of the Supreme Court are incorporated in sections 671 and 673 of this title.

Provision of section 331 of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., fixing the marshal's salary at "not to exceed $5,500 per annum" was omitted and the court given authority to fix the salary in conformity with sections 671 and 673 of this title relating to the clerk and the reporter.

Part of subsection (c)(5) is new. It recognizes the propriety of certification by the Court Librarian of vouchers for expenditures for the library. (See reviser's note under section 674 of this title.)

The marshal's duties as superintendent of the Supreme Court building are incorporated in section 13c of title 40, U.S.C., 1940 ed.

Changes were made in phraseology.


Editorial Notes

Amendments

1982—Subsec. (c)(8). Pub. L. 97–390 added par. (8).

1964—Subsec. (c)(6). Pub. L. 88–279, §2(a), struck out "except the clerk, his deputies and employees," after "employees of the Court".

Subsec. (c)(7). Pub. L. 88–279, §2(b), added par. (7).


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Effective Date of 1964 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 88–279 effective upon appropriation and availability of funds to pay salaries and other expenses of the clerk's office, see section 4 of Pub. L. 88–279, set out as a note under section 671 of this title.

Appropriations

Annual appropriations to carry out amendment of this section by Pub. L. 88–279, see section 3 of Pub. L. 88–279, set out as a note under section 671 of this title.

§673. Reporter

(a) The Supreme Court may appoint and fix the compensation of a reporter of its decisions who shall be subject to removal by the Court.

(b) The reporter may appoint and fix the compensation of necessary professional and clerical assistants and other employees, with the approval of the Court or the Chief Justice of the United States.

(c) The reporter shall, under the direction of the Court or the Chief Justice, prepare the decisions of the Court for publication in bound volumes and advance copies in pamphlet installments.

The reporter shall determine the quality and size of the paper, type, format, proofs and binding subject to the approval of the Court or the Chief Justice.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 646, 62 Stat. 919.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., §§325, 332, and 333 (Mar. 3, 1911, ch. 231, §§219, 225, 226, 36 Stat. 1152, 1153; July 1, 1922, ch. 267, §§1, 2, 42 Stat. 816; May 29, 1926, ch. 425, §1, 44 Stat. 677).

This section consolidates sections 332 and 333 of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., with part of section 325 of such title.

Provisions of section 325 of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., relating to appointment of clerk and marshal of the Supreme Court are incorporated in sections 671 and 672 of this title.

The provision as to tenure is new and is added to insure consistency with other revised sections relating to tenure of court officers.

The provisions of section 333 of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., fixing the reporter's salary at $8,000 per annum were omitted and the Court given authority to fix the salary in conformity with sections 671 and 672 of this title relating to the clerk and the marshal.

Provisions of section 333 of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., for allowance of stationery, supplies, equipment, and office rent are omitted as obsolete. Offices are now provided in the Supreme Court building and supplies are furnished by the marshal.

The last sentence of section 333 of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., relating to the payment of the reporter's expenses from appropriation for the Supreme Court, was omitted as surplusage.

The revised section makes specific the implied power to fix the compensation of the reporter's assistants.

The provision in section 332 of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., authorizing the Public Printer to do the printing referred to in such section, was omitted as unnecessary. (See section 111 of title 44, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Public Printing and Documents.)

Authority for making an appropriation to carry into effect the provisions of this section relating to compensation and allowances of the reporter, compensation of his assistants, and preparation of the decisions of the Supreme Court for publication, is contained in section 336 of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed. (Acts July 1, 1922, ch. 267, §5, 42 Stat. 818; May 29, 1926, ch. 425, §3, 44 Stat. 678), which is omitted, but not repealed, as unnecessary in this revision.

§674. Librarian

(a) The Supreme Court may appoint a librarian, whose salary it shall fix, and who shall be subject to removal by the Court.

(b) The librarian shall, with the approval of the Chief Justice, appoint necessary assistants and fix their compensation and make rules governing the use of the library.

(c) He shall select and acquire by purchase, gift, bequest, or exchange, such books, pamphlets, periodicals, microfilm and other processed copy as may be required by the Court for its official use and for the reasonable needs of its bar.

(d) The librarian shall certify to the marshal for payment vouchers covering expenditures for the purchase of such books and other material, and for binding, rebinding and repairing the same.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 646, 62 Stat. 919; Pub. L. 92–310, title II, §206(d), June 6, 1972, 86 Stat. 203.)

Historical and Revision Notes

This section gives statutory recognition to the office of librarian. For many years the Court has appointed its librarian directly through the Chief Justice, rather than through the marshal. Other members of the library staff are appointed by the librarian, with the approval of the Chief Justice.

Under this section the marshal will not be required to certify to expenditures for some 2,000 books bought for the library each year but this will be the duty of the librarian.


Editorial Notes

Amendments

1972—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 92–310 struck out sentence which required the librarian to furnish a bond.

§675. Law clerks and secretaries

The Chief Justice of the United States, and the associate justices of the Supreme Court may appoint law clerks and secretaries whose salaries shall be fixed by the Court.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 646, 62 Stat. 919.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on title 28, U.S.C., 1926 ed., §328 (June 1, 1922, ch. 204, title II, 42 Stat. 614; Jan. 3, 1923, ch. 21, title II, 42 Stat. 1081; May 28, 1924, ch. 204, title II, 43 Stat. 218; Feb. 27, 1925, ch. 364, title II, 43 Stat. 1028).

Section is derived from Appropriation Acts for fiscal years cited in the credits. It was omitted from the 1934 and 1940 editions of the U.S. Code because it was considered to be probably of a temporary nature. This section is consistent with other provisions authorizing the appointment of similar personnel for circuit and district judges.

The 1942 appropriation act (July 2, 1942, ch. 472, title IV, 56 Stat. 501) made provision for "all other officers and employees, whose compensation shall be fixed by the Court, except as otherwise provided by law and who may be assigned by the Chief Justice to any office or work of the Court."

The salary limitation of $3,600 was omitted and the Court authorized to fix law clerks' salaries. Current appropriation acts provide that salaries of the Court's officers and employees, except the clerk and reporter, shall be fixed by the Court.

See section 711 et seq. and section 751 et seq., of this title, relating to appointment of law clerks and secretaries to circuit and district judges.

Changes were made in phraseology.

§676. Printing and binding

(a) The printing and binding for the Supreme Court, including the printing and binding of individual copies, advance pamphlet installments, and bound volumes, of its decisions, whether requisitioned or ordered by the Court or any of its officers or by any other office or agency, and whether paid for by, or charged to the appropriation for, the Court or any other office or agency, shall be done by the printer or printers whom the Court or the Chief Justice of the United States may select, unless it shall otherwise order.

(b) Whenever advance pamphlet installments and bound volumes of the Court's decisions are printed by a private printer, an adequate number of copies for distribution in accordance with the requirements of section 411 of this title and for sale to the public shall be provided and made available for these purposes in such manner and at such prices as may be determined from time to time by the Supreme Court or the Chief Justice of the United States, in lieu of compliance by the Director of the Government Publishing Office and the Superintendent of Documents with the requirements of sections 411 and 412 of this title with respect to such copies. Pending distribution or sale, such copies shall be the property of the United States and shall be held in the custody of the marshal or such other person, organization, or agency, as the Supreme Court or the Chief Justice of the United States may designate.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 646, 62 Stat. 919; May 24, 1949, ch. 139, §74, 63 Stat. 100; Oct. 31, 1951, ch. 655, §45, 65 Stat. 725; Pub. L. 113–235, div. H, title I, §1301(d), Dec. 16, 2014, 128 Stat. 2537.)

Historical and Revision Notes

1948 Act

Based on title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., §354 (Feb. 27, 1925, ch. 364, title II, 43 Stat. 1028; Apr. 29, 1926, ch. 195, title II, 44 Stat. 344; Feb. 24, 1927, ch. 189, title II, 44 Stat. 1194; Feb. 15, 1928, ch. 57, title II, 45 Stat. 79; Jan. 25, 1929, ch. 102, title II, 45 Stat. 1109; Apr. 18, 1930, ch. 184, title II, 46 Stat. 188; Feb. 23, 1931, ch. 280, title II, 46 Stat. 1323; July 1, 1932, ch. 361, title II, 47 Stat. 490; Mar. 1, 1933, ch. 144, title II, 47 Stat. 1382; Apr. 7, 1934, ch. 104, title II, 48 Stat. 539).

The section was expanded to include the printing and binding of the official edition of the court's decisions, thus making possible an economy in the expenditure of Government funds by having the printing and binding done by the same printer.

Subsection (b) of the revised section was supplied to conform to sections 411 and 412 of this title.

1949 Act

This section corrects a grammatical error in subsection (a) of section 676 of title 28, U.S.C.


Editorial Notes

Amendments

1951—Subsec. (b). Act Oct. 31, 1951, inserted "of this title" in two places.

1949—Subsec. (a). Act May 24, 1949, inserted "whom" between "printers" and "the Court".


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Change of Name

"Director of the Government Publishing Office" substituted for "Public Printer" in subsec. (b) on authority of section 1301(d) of Pub. L. 113–235, set out as a note under section 301 of Title 44, Public Printing and Documents.

§677. Counselor to the Chief Justice

(a) The Chief Justice of the United States may appoint a Counselor who shall serve at the pleasure of the Chief Justice and shall perform such duties as may be assigned to him by the Chief Justice. The salary payable to the Counselor shall be fixed by the Chief Justice at a rate which shall not exceed the salary payable to the Director of the Administrative Office of the United States Courts. The Counselor may elect to bring himself within the same retirement program available to the Director of the Administrative Office of the United States Courts, as provided by section 611 of this title, by filing a written election with the Chief Justice within the time and in the manner prescribed by section 611.

(b) The Counselor, with the approval of the Chief Justice, may appoint and fix the compensation of necessary employees. The Counselor and his employees shall be deemed employees of the Supreme Court.

(c)(1) Notwithstanding section 1342 of title 31, the Counselor, with the approval of the Chief Justice, may accept voluntary personal services to assist with public and visitor programs.

(2) No person may volunteer personal services under this subsection unless the person has first agreed, in writing, to waive any claim against the United States arising out of or in connection with such services, other than a claim under chapter 81 of title 5.

(3) No person volunteering personal services under this subsection shall be considered an employee of the United States for any purpose other than for purposes of—

(A) chapter 81 of title 5; or

(B) chapter 171 of this title.


(4) In the administration of this subsection, the Counselor shall ensure that the acceptance of personal services shall not result in the reduction of pay or displacement of any employee of the Supreme Court.

(Added Pub. L. 92–238, §1, Mar. 1, 1972, 86 Stat. 46; amended Pub. L. 105–233, §1, Aug. 13, 1998, 112 Stat. 1535; Pub. L. 110–402, §1(b)(3)(A), Oct. 13, 2008, 122 Stat. 4254.)


Editorial Notes

Amendments

2008Pub. L. 110–402, §1(b)(3)(A)(i), substituted "Counselor" for "Administrative Assistant" in section catchline.

Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 110–402, §1(b)(3)(A)(ii), substituted "a Counselor" for "an Administrative Assistant" in first sentence and "Counselor" for "Administrative Assistant" in second and third sentences.

Subsecs. (b), (c). Pub. L. 110–402, §1(b)(3)(A)(iii), substituted "Counselor" for "Administrative Assistant" wherever appearing.

1998—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 105–233 added subsec. (c).