[USC02] 28 USC Ch. 95: COURT OF INTERNATIONAL TRADE
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28 USC Ch. 95: COURT OF INTERNATIONAL TRADE
From Title 28—JUDICIARY AND JUDICIAL PROCEDUREPART IV—JURISDICTION AND VENUE

CHAPTER 95—COURT OF INTERNATIONAL TRADE

Sec.
1581.
Civil actions against the United States and agencies and officers thereof.
1582.
Civil actions commenced by the United States.
1583.
Counterclaims, cross-claims, and third-party actions.
1584.
Civil actions under the North American Free Trade Agreement or the United States-Canada Free-Trade Agreement.
1585.
Powers in law and equity.

        

Amendment of Analysis

Pub. L. 116–113, title IV, §§423(a)(3), 432, Jan. 29, 2020, 134 Stat. 66, provided that, effective on the date on which the USMCA enters into force, but not applicable to certain determinations under section 1516a of this title or binational panel reviews under NAFTA, this analysis is amended by striking item 1584 and adding new item 1584 "Civil actions under the United States-Canada Free-Trade Agreement or the USMCA". See 2020 Amendment note below.

Amendments

2020Pub. L. 116–113, title IV, §423(a)(3), Jan. 29, 2020, 134 Stat. 66, added item 1584 and struck out former item 1584 "Civil actions under the North American Free Trade Agreement or the United States-Canada Free-Trade Agreement".

1993Pub. L. 103–182, title IV, §414(a)(3), Dec. 8, 1993, 107 Stat. 2147, inserted "the North American Free Trade Agreement or" in item 1584.

1988Pub. L. 100–449, title IV, §402(d)(2), Sept. 28, 1988, 102 Stat. 1884, temporarily added item 1584. See Effective and Termination Dates of 1988 Amendment note set out under section 1584 of this title.

1982Pub. L. 97–164, title I, §135, Apr. 2, 1982, 96 Stat. 41, struck out item 1584 "Cure of defects".

1980Pub. L. 96–417, title II, §201, Oct. 10, 1980, 94 Stat. 1728, substituted "COURT OF INTERNATIONAL TRADE" for "CUSTOMS COURT" in heading for chapter 95, "Civil actions against the United States and agencies and officers thereof" for "Powers generally" in item 1581, "Civil actions commenced by the United States" for "Jurisdiction of the Customs Court" in item 1582, and added items 1583 to 1585.

§1581. Civil actions against the United States and agencies and officers thereof

(a) The Court of International Trade shall have exclusive jurisdiction of any civil action commenced to contest the denial of a protest, in whole or in part, under section 515 of the Tariff Act of 1930.

(b) The Court of International Trade shall have exclusive jurisdiction of any civil action commenced under section 516 of the Tariff Act of 1930.

(c) The Court of International Trade shall have exclusive jurisdiction of any civil action commenced under section 516A or 517 of the Tariff Act of 1930.

(d) The Court of International Trade shall have exclusive jurisdiction of any civil action commenced to review—

(1) any final determination of the Secretary of Labor under section 223 of the Trade Act of 1974 with respect to the eligibility of workers for adjustment assistance under such Act;

(2) any final determination of the Secretary of Commerce under section 251 of the Trade Act of 1974 with respect to the eligibility of a firm for adjustment assistance under such Act;

(3) any final determination of the Secretary of Commerce under section 273 1 of the Trade Act of 1974 with respect to the eligibility of a community for adjustment assistance under such Act; and

(4) any final determination of the Secretary of Agriculture under section 293 or 296 of the Trade Act of 1974 (19 U.S.C. 2401b1 with respect to the eligibility of a group of agricultural commodity producers for adjustment assistance under such Act.


(e) The Court of International Trade shall have exclusive jurisdiction of any civil action commenced to review any final determination of the Secretary of the Treasury under section 305(b)(1) of the Trade Agreements Act of 1979.

(f) The Court of International Trade shall have exclusive jurisdiction of any civil action involving an application for an order directing the administering authority or the International Trade Commission to make confidential information available under section 777(c)(2) of the Tariff Act of 1930.

(g) The Court of International Trade shall have exclusive jurisdiction of any civil action commenced to review—

(1) any decision of the Secretary of the Treasury to deny a customs broker's license under section 641(b)(2) or (3) of the Tariff Act of 1930, or to deny a customs broker's permit under section 641(c)(1) of such Act, or to revoke a license or permit under section 641(b)(5) or (c)(2) of such Act;

(2) any decision of the Secretary of the Treasury to revoke or suspend a customs broker's license or permit, or impose a monetary penalty in lieu thereof, under section 641(d)(2)(B) of the Tariff Act of 1930; and

(3) any decision or order of the Customs Service to deny, suspend, or revoke accreditation of a private laboratory under section 499(b) of the Tariff Act of 1930.


(h) The Court of International Trade shall have exclusive jurisdiction of any civil action commenced to review, prior to the importation of the goods involved, a ruling issued by the Secretary of the Treasury, or a refusal to issue or change such a ruling, relating to classification, valuation, rate of duty, marking, restricted merchandise, entry requirements, drawbacks, vessel repairs, or similar matters, but only if the party commencing the civil action demonstrates to the court that he would be irreparably harmed unless given an opportunity to obtain judicial review prior to such importation.

(i) In addition to the jurisdiction conferred upon the Court of International Trade by subsections (a)–(h) of this section and subject to the exception set forth in subsection (j) of this section, the Court of International Trade shall have exclusive jurisdiction of any civil action commenced against the United States, its agencies, or its officers, that arises out of any law of the United States providing for—

(1) revenue from imports or tonnage;

(2) tariffs, duties, fees, or other taxes on the importation of merchandise for reasons other than the raising of revenue;

(3) embargoes or other quantitative restrictions on the importation of merchandise for reasons other than the protection of the public health or safety; or

(4) administration and enforcement with respect to the matters referred to in paragraphs (1)–(3) of this subsection and subsections (a)–(h) of this section.


This subsection shall not confer jurisdiction over an antidumping or countervailing duty determination which is reviewable either by the Court of International Trade under section 516A(a) of the Tariff Act of 1930 or by a binational panel under article 1904 of the North American Free Trade Agreement or the United States-Canada Free-Trade Agreement and section 516A(g) of the Tariff Act of 1930.

(j) The Court of International Trade shall not have jurisdiction of any civil action arising under section 305 of the Tariff Act of 1930.

(Added Pub. L. 96–417, title II, §201, Oct. 10, 1980, 94 Stat. 1728; amended Pub. L. 98–573, title II, §212(b)(1), Oct. 30, 1984, 98 Stat. 2983; Pub. L. 99–514, title XVIII, §1891(1), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2926; Pub. L. 100–449, title IV, §402(a), Sept. 28, 1988, 102 Stat. 1883; Pub. L. 103–182, title IV, §414(a)(1), title VI, §684(a)(1), Dec. 8, 1993, 107 Stat. 2147, 2219; Pub. L. 111–5, div. B, title I, §1873(b)(2), Feb. 17, 2009, 123 Stat. 414; Pub. L. 114–125, title IV, §421(b), Feb. 24, 2016, 130 Stat. 168; Pub. L. 116–113, title IV, §423(a)(1), Jan. 29, 2020, 134 Stat. 65.)

Amendment of Subsection (i)

Pub. L. 116–113, title IV, §§423(a)(1), 432, Jan. 29, 2020, 134 Stat. 65, 66, made amendments to subsection (i) of this section, effective on the date on which the USMCA enters into force, but not applicable to certain determinations under section 1516a of Title 19, Customs Duties, or binational panel reviews under NAFTA. After such effective date, subsection (i) of this section will read as follows:

(i)(1) In addition to the jurisdiction conferred upon the Court of International Trade by subsections (a)–(h) of this section and subject to the exception set forth in subsection (j) of this section, the Court of International Trade shall have exclusive jurisdiction of any civil action commenced against the United States, its agencies, or its officers, that arises out of any law of the United States providing for—

(A) revenue from imports or tonnage;

(B) tariffs, duties, fees, or other taxes on the importation of merchandise for reasons other than the raising of revenue;

(C) embargoes or other quantitative restrictions on the importation of merchandise for reasons other than the protection of the public health or safety; or

(D) administration and enforcement with respect to the matters referred to in subparagraphs (A) through (C) of this paragraph and subsections (a)–(h) of this section.


(2) This subsection shall not confer jurisdiction over an antidumping or countervailing duty determination which is reviewable by—

(A) the Court of International Trade under section 516A(a) of the Tariff Act of 1930 (19 U.S.C. 1516a(a)); or

(B) a binational panel under section 516A(g) of the Tariff Act of 1930 (19 U.S.C. 1516a(g)).

See 2020 Amendment notes below.

Amendment of Section

For termination of amendment by section 501(c) of Pub. L. 100–449, see Effective and Termination Dates of 1988 Amendment note below.

Prior History of Court

The United States Customs Court, the predecessor of the Court of International Trade, was omitted in the general revision of this chapter by Pub. L. 96–417.

The predecessor of the United States Customs Court was the Board of General Appraisers which was created by the Customs Administrative Act of June 10, 1890. The Board was under the administrative supervision of the Secretary of the Treasury.

From 1890 to 1926, the Board of General Appraisers had jurisdiction over all protests from decisions of the collectors of customs and appeals for reappraisement under sections 13 and 14 of the Customs Administrative Act of June 10, 1890, ch. 407, 26 Stat. 136.

The Customs Court was established by act May 28, 1926, ch. 411, §§1, 2, 44 Stat. 669, sections 405a and 405b of Title 19, Customs Duties, and said act transferred to it all the jurisdiction and powers of the former Board of General Appraisers. The Tariff Act of June 1930, ch. 497, title IV, §518, 46 Stat. 737, section 1518 of Title 19, continued the Customs Court as constituted on June 17, 1930 with, however, several important changes.

References in Text

Section 515 of the Tariff Act of 1930, referred to in subsec. (a), is classified to section 1515 of Title 19, Customs Duties.

Section 516 of the Tariff Act of 1930, referred to in subsec. (b), is classified to section 1516 of Title 19, Customs Duties.

Sections 516A and 517 of the Tariff Act of 1930, referred to in subsecs. (c) and (i), are classified to sections 1516a and 1517 of Title 19, Customs Duties.

The Trade Act of 1974, referred to in subsec. (d), is Pub. L. 93–618, Jan. 3, 1975, 88 Stat. 1978, which is classified principally to chapter 12 (§2101 et seq.) of Title 19, Customs Duties. Sections 223, 251, 293, and 296 of the Act are classified to sections 2273, 2341, 2401b, and 2401e, respectively, of Title 19. Section 273 of the Act, formerly classified to section 2371b of Title 19, was repealed by Pub. L. 112–40, title II, §222(a)(1), Oct. 21, 2011, 125 Stat. 411. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see References in Text note set out under section 2101 of Title 19 and Tables.

Section 305(b)(1) of the Trade Agreements Act of 1979, referred to in subsec. (e), is classified to section 2515(b)(1) of Title 19, Customs Duties.

Section 777(c)(2) of the Tariff Act of 1930, referred to in subsec. (f), is classified to section 1677f(c)(2) of Title 19, Customs Duties.

Section 641 of the Tariff Act of 1930, referred to in subsec. (g)(1), (2), is classified to section 1641 of Title 19, Customs Duties.

Section 499(b) of the Tariff Act of 1930, referred to in subsec. (g)(3), is classified to section 1499(b) of Title 19, Customs Duties.

Section 305 of the Tariff Act of 1930, referred to in subsec. (j), is classified to section 1305 of Title 19, Customs Duties.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 1581, act June 25, 1948, ch. 646, 62 Stat. 943, related to powers of the Customs Court generally, prior to the general revision of this chapter by Pub. L. 96–417. See section 1585 of this title.

Amendments

2020—Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 116–113, §423(a)(1)(A), (B), (D), designated existing provisions as par. (1), redesignated former pars. (1) to (4) as subpars. (A) to (D), respectively, of par. (1), added par. (2), and struck out former concluding provisions which read as follows: "This subsection shall not confer jurisdiction over an antidumping or countervailing duty determination which is reviewable either by the Court of International Trade under section 516A(a) of the Tariff Act of 1930 or by a binational panel under article 1904 of the North American Free Trade Agreement or the United States-Canada Free-Trade Agreement and section 516A(g) of the Tariff Act of 1930."

Subsec. (i)(1)(D). Pub. L. 116–113, §423(a)(1)(C), substituted "subparagraphs (A) through (C) of this paragraph" for "paragraphs (1)–(3) of this subsection".

2016—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 114–125 inserted "or 517" after "516A".

2009—Subsec. (d)(3), (4). Pub. L. 111–5 substituted "273" for "271" in par. (3) and added par. (4).

1993—Subsec. (g)(3). Pub. L. 103–182, §684(a)(1), added par. (3).

Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 103–182, §414(a)(1), inserted "the North American Free Trade Agreement or" before "the United States-Canada Free-Trade Agreement" in last sentence.

1988—Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 100–449 temporarily inserted at end "This subsection shall not confer jurisdiction over an antidumping or countervailing duty determination which is reviewable either by the Court of International Trade under section 516A(a) of the Tariff Act of 1930 or by a binational panel under article 1904 of the United States-Canada Free-Trade Agreement and section 516A(g) of the Tariff Act of 1930." See Effective and Termination Dates of 1988 Amendment note below.

1986—Subsec. (g)(1). Pub. L. 99–514 substituted "(3)" for "(3) or (c)".

1984—Subsec. (g)(1). Pub. L. 98–573 amended par. (1) generally, substituting "a customs broker's license under section 641(b)(2) or (3) or (c) of the Tariff Act of 1930, or to deny a customs broker's permit under section 641(c)(1) of such Act, or to revoke a license or permit under section 641(b)(5) or (c)(2) of such Act" for "or revoke a customhouse broker's license under section 641(a) of the Tariff Act of 1930".

Subsec. (g)(2). Pub. L. 98–573 amended par. (2) generally, substituting "any decision of the Secretary of the Treasury to revoke or suspend a customs broker's license or permit, or impose a monetary penalty in lieu thereof, under section 641(d)(2)(B) of the Tariff Act of 1930" for "any order of the Secretary of the Treasury to revoke or suspend a customhouse broker's license under section 641(b) of the Tariff Act of 1930".

Effective Date of 2020 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 116–113 effective on the date on which the USMCA enters into force, but not applicable to certain determinations under section 1516a of Title 19, Customs Duties, or binational panel reviews under NAFTA, see section 432 of Pub. L. 116–113, set out as a note under section 1516a of Title 19.

Effective Date of 2016 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 114–125 effective 180 days after Feb. 24, 2016, see section 421(c) of Pub. L. 114–125, set out as an Effective Date note under section 1517 of Title 19, Customs Duties.

Effective Date of 2009 Amendment

Except as otherwise provided and subject to certain applicability provisions, amendment by Pub. L. 111–5 effective upon the expiration of the 90-day period beginning on Feb. 17, 2009, see section 1891 of Pub. L. 111–5, set out as an Effective and Termination Dates of 2009 Amendment note under section 2271 of Title 19, Customs Duties.

Effective Date of 1993 Amendment

Amendment by section 414(a)(1) of Pub. L. 103–182 effective on the date the North American Free Trade Agreement enters into force with respect to the United States [Jan. 1, 1994], but not applicable to any final determination described in section 1516a(a)(1)(B) or (2)(B)(i), (ii), or (iii) of Title 19, Customs Duties, notice of which is published in the Federal Register before such date, or to a determination described in section 1516a(a)(2)(B)(vi) of Title 19, notice of which is received by the Government of Canada or Mexico before such date, or to any binational panel review under the United States-Canada Free-Trade Agreement, or to any extraordinary challenge arising out of any such review, that was commenced before such date, see section 416 of Pub. L. 103–182, set out as an Effective Date note under section 3431 of Title 19.

Effective and Termination Dates of 1988 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 100–449 effective on date United States-Canada Free-Trade Agreement enters into force (Jan. 1, 1989), and to cease to have effect on date Agreement ceases to be in force, see section 501(a), (c) of Pub. L. 100–449, set out in a note under section 2112 of Title 19, Customs Duties.

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 98–573 effective on close of 180th day after Oct. 30, 1984, see section 214(d) of Pub. L. 98–573, set out as a note under section 1304 of Title 19, Customs Duties.

Effective Date

Chapter effective Nov. 1, 1980, and applicable with respect to civil actions pending on or commenced on or after such date, see section 701(a) of Pub. L. 96–417, set out as an Effective Date of 1980 Amendment note under section 251 of this title.

Subsecs. (d) and (g) to (i) of this section applicable with respect to civil actions commenced on or after Nov. 1, 1980, see section 701(b)(1)(A) of Pub. L. 96–417.

Application of 1993 Amendment

Pub. L. 103–182, title VI, §684(b), Dec. 8, 1993, 107 Stat 2219, provided that: "For purposes of applying the amendments made by subsection (a) [amending this section and sections 2631, 2636, 2640, and 2642 of this title], any decision or order of the Customs Service denying, suspending, or revoking the accreditation of a private laboratory on or after the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 8, 1993] and before regulations to implement section 499(b) of the Tariff Act of 1930 [19 U.S.C. 1499(b)] are issued shall be treated as having been denied, suspended, or revoked under such section 499(b)."

[Pub. L. 116–113, title VI, §601, Jan. 29, 2020, 134 Stat. 78, provided that, effective on the date the USMCA enters into force, section 684(b) of Pub. L. 103–182, set out above, is repealed.]

Transfer of Functions

For transfer of functions, personnel, assets, and liabilities of the United States Customs Service of the Department of the Treasury, including functions of the Secretary of the Treasury relating thereto, to the Secretary of Homeland Security, and for treatment of related references, see sections 203(1), 551(d), 552(d), and 557 of Title 6, Domestic Security, and the Department of Homeland Security Reorganization Plan of November 25, 2002, as modified, set out as a note under section 542 of Title 6. For establishment of U.S. Customs and Border Protection in the Department of Homeland Security, treated as if included in Pub. L. 107–296 as of Nov. 25, 2002, see section 211 of Title 6, as amended generally by Pub. L. 114–125, and section 802(b) of Pub. L. 114–125, set out as a note under section 211 of Title 6.

Effect of Termination of NAFTA Country Status

For provisions relating to effect of termination of NAFTA country status on sections 401 to 416 of Pub. L. 103–182, see section 3451 of Title 19, Customs Duties.

1 See References in Text note below.

§1582. Civil actions commenced by the United States

The Court of International Trade shall have exclusive jurisdiction of any civil action which arises out of an import transaction and which is commenced by the United States—

(1) to recover a civil penalty under section 592, 593A, 641(b)(6), 641(d)(2)(A), 704(i)(2), or 734(i)(2) of the Tariff Act of 1930;

(2) to recover upon a bond relating to the importation of merchandise required by the laws of the United States or by the Secretary of the Treasury; or

(3) to recover customs duties.

(Added Pub. L. 96–417, title II, §201, Oct. 10, 1980, 94 Stat. 1729; amended Pub. L. 98–573, title II, §212(b)(2), Oct. 30, 1984, 98 Stat. 2983; Pub. L. 99–514, title XVIII, §1891(2), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2926; Pub. L. 103–182, title VI, §684(c), Dec. 8, 1993, 107 Stat. 2219.)

References in Text

Sections 592, 593A, 641(b)(6), 641(d)(2)(A), 704(i)(2), and 734(i)(2) of the Tariff Act of 1930, referred to in par. (1), are classified to sections 1592, 1593a, 1641(b)(6), 1641(d)(2)(A), 1671c(i)(2), and 1673c(i)(2), respectively, of Title 19, Customs Duties.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 1582, acts June 25, 1948, ch. 646, 62 Stat. 943; June 2, 1970; Pub. L. 91–271, title I, §110, 84 Stat. 278; July 26, 1979, Pub. L. 96–39, title X, §1001(b)(4)(B), 93 Stat. 305, related to the jurisdiction of the Customs Court, prior to the general revision of this chapter by Pub. L. 96–417.

Amendments

1993—Par. (1). Pub. L. 103–182 inserted "593A," after "592,".

1986—Par. (1). Pub. L. 99–514 substituted "641(b)(6)" for "641(a)(1)(C)".

1984—Par. (1). Pub. L. 98–573 inserted references to section 641(a)(1)(C) and 641(d)(2)(A) of the Tariff Act of 1930.

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 98–573 effective on close of 180th day after Oct. 30, 1984, see section 214(d) of Pub. L. 98–573, set out as a note under section 1304 of Title 19, Customs Duties.

Effective Date

Section applicable with respect to civil actions commenced on or after the 90th day after Nov. 1, 1980, see section 701(c)(1)(A) of Pub. L. 96–417, set out as an Effective Date of 1980 Amendment note under section 251 of this title.

§1583. Counterclaims, cross-claims, and third-party actions

In any civil action in the Court of International Trade, the court shall have exclusive jurisdiction to render judgment upon any counterclaim, cross-claim, or third-party action of any party, if (1) such claim or action involves the imported merchandise that is the subject matter of such civil action, or (2) such claim or action is to recover upon a bond or customs duties relating to such merchandise.

(Added Pub. L. 96–417, title II, §201, Oct. 10, 1980, 94 Stat. 1729.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 1583, act June 25, 1948, ch. 646, 62 Stat. 943, related to certain cases of exclusive jurisdiction of the Customs Court, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 91–271, title I, §111, June 2, 1970, 84 Stat. 278.

Effective Date

Section applicable with respect to civil actions commenced on or after Nov. 1, 1980, see section 701(b)(1)(A) of Pub. L. 96–417, set out as an Effective Date of 1980 Amendment note under section 251 of this title.

§1584. Civil actions under the North American Free Trade Agreement or the United States-Canada Free-Trade Agreement

The United States Court of International Trade shall have exclusive jurisdiction of any civil action which arises under section 777(f) of the Tariff Act of 1930 and is commenced by the United States to enforce administrative sanctions levied for violation of a protective order or an undertaking.

(Added Pub. L. 100–449, title IV, §402(d)(1), Sept. 28, 1988, 102 Stat. 1884; amended Pub. L. 103–182, title IV, §414(a)(2), Dec. 8, 1993, 107 Stat. 2147; Pub. L. 116–113, title IV, §423(a)(2), Jan. 29, 2020, 134 Stat. 65.)

Amendment of Section

Pub. L. 116–113, title IV, §§423(a)(2), 432, Jan. 29, 2020, 134 Stat. 65, 66, provided that, effective on the date on which the USMCA enters into force, but not applicable to certain determinations under section 1516a of Title 19, Customs Duties, or binational panel reviews under NAFTA, this section is amended by striking the section catchline and inserting "Civil actions under the United States-Canada Free-Trade Agreement or the USMCA". See 2020 Amendment note below.

Termination of Section

For termination of section by section 501(c) of Pub. L. 100–449, see Effective and Termination Dates note below.

References in Text

Section 777(f) of the Tariff Act of 1930, referred to in text, is classified to section 1677f(f) of Title 19, Customs Duties.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 1584, added Pub. L. 96–417, title II, §201, Oct. 10, 1980, 94 Stat. 1729, provided that if a civil action within the exclusive jurisdiction of the Court of International Trade was commenced in a district court of the United States, the district court, in the interest of justice, was to transfer such civil action to the Court of International Trade, where such action would proceed as if it had been commenced in the Court of International Trade in the first instance, and that if a civil action within the exclusive jurisdiction of a district court, a court of appeals, or the Court of Customs and Patent Appeals was commenced in the Court of International Trade, the Court of International Trade, in the interest of justice, would transfer such civil action to the appropriate district court or court of appeals or to the Court of Customs and Patent Appeals where such action was to proceed as if it had been commenced in such court in the first instance, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 97–164, title I, §135, Apr. 2, 1982, 96 Stat. 41, effective Oct. 1, 1982.

Amendments

2020Pub. L. 116–113 substituted "Civil actions under the United States-Canada Free-Trade Agreement or the USMCA" for "Civil actions under the North American Free Trade Agreement or the United States-Canada Free-Trade Agreement" in section catchline.

1993Pub. L. 103–182 amended section catchline generally, inserting "the North American Free Trade Agreement or", and in text substituted "section 777(f)" for "section 777(d)".

Effective Date of 2020 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 116–113 effective on the date on which the USMCA enters into force, but not applicable to certain determinations under section 1516a of Title 19, Customs Duties, or binational panel reviews under NAFTA, see section 432 of Pub. L. 116–113, set out as a note under section 1516a of Title 19.

Effective Date of 1993 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 103–182 effective on the date the North American Free Trade Agreement enters into force with respect to the United States [Jan. 1, 1994], but not applicable to any final determination described in section 1516a(a)(1)(B) or (2)(B)(i), (ii), or (iii) of Title 19, Customs Duties, notice of which is published in the Federal Register before such date, or to a determination described in section 1516a(a)(2)(B)(vi) of Title 19, notice of which is received by the Government of Canada or Mexico before such date, or to any binational panel review under the United States-Canada Free-Trade Agreement, or to any extraordinary challenge arising out of any such review that was commenced before such date, see section 416 of Pub. L. 103–182, set out as an Effective Date note under section 3431 of Title 19.

Effective and Termination Dates

Section effective on date United States-Canada Free-Trade Agreement enters into force (Jan. 1, 1989), and to cease to have effect on date Agreement ceases to be in force, see section 501(a), (c) of Pub. L. 100–449, set out in a note under section 2112 of Title 19, Customs Duties.

Effect of Termination of NAFTA Country Status

For provisions relating to effect of termination of NAFTA country status on sections 401 to 416 of Pub. L. 103–182, see section 3451 of Title 19, Customs Duties.

§1585. Powers in law and equity

The Court of International Trade shall possess all the powers in law and equity of, or as conferred by statute upon, a district court of the United States.

(Added Pub. L. 96–417, title II, §201, Oct. 10, 1980, 94 Stat. 1730.)