[USC02] 42 USC CHAPTER 161, SUBCHAPTER III: DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OFFICE OF SCIENCE POLICY
Result 1 of 1
   
 
42 USC CHAPTER 161, SUBCHAPTER III: DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OFFICE OF SCIENCE POLICY
From Title 42—THE PUBLIC HEALTH AND WELFARECHAPTER 161—DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY RESEARCH AND INNOVATION

SUBCHAPTER III—DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OFFICE OF SCIENCE POLICY

§18641. Basic energy sciences

(a) Energy Frontier Research Centers

(1) In general

The Director shall carry out a program to provide awards, on a competitive, merit-reviewed basis, to multi-institutional collaborations or other appropriate entities to conduct fundamental and use-inspired energy research to accelerate scientific breakthroughs.

(2) Collaborations

A collaboration receiving an award under this subsection may include multiple types of institutions and private sector entities.

(3) Selection and duration

(A) In general

A collaboration under this subsection shall be selected for a period of 4 years.

(B) Existing centers

An Energy Frontier Research Center in existence and supported by the Director on September 28, 2018, may continue to receive support for a period of 4 years beginning on the date of establishment of that center.

(C) Reapplication

After the end of the period described in subparagraph (A) or (B), as applicable, a recipient of an award may reapply for selection on a competitive, merit-reviewed basis.

(D) Termination

Consistent with the existing authorities of the Department, the Director may terminate an underperforming center for cause during the performance period.

(4) No funding for construction

No funding provided pursuant to this subsection may be used for the construction of new buildings or facilities.

(b) Basic energy sciences user facilities

(1) In general

The Director shall carry out a program for the development, construction, operation, and maintenance of national user facilities.

(2) Requirements

To the maximum extent practicable, the national user facilities developed, constructed, operated, or maintained under paragraph (1) shall serve the needs of the Department, industry, the academic community, and other relevant entities to create and examine materials and chemical processes for the purpose of improving the competitiveness of the United States.

(3) Included facilities

The national user facilities developed, constructed, operated, or maintained under paragraph (1) shall include—

(A) x-ray light sources;

(B) neutron sources;

(C) nanoscale science research centers; and

(D) such other facilities as the Director considers appropriate, consistent with section 7139 of this title.

(c) Accelerator research and development

The Director shall carry out research and development on advanced accelerator and storage ring technologies relevant to the development of basic energy sciences user facilities, in consultation with the High Energy Physics and Nuclear Physics programs of the Office of Science.

(Pub. L. 115–246, title III, §303(a)–(c), Sept. 28, 2018, 132 Stat. 3140, 3141.)

§18642. Advanced scientific computing research

(a) Omitted

(b) High-performance computing and networking research

The Director shall support research in high-performance computing and networking relevant to energy applications, including modeling, simulation, and advanced data analytics for basic and applied energy research programs carried out by the Secretary.

(c) Applied mathematics and software development for high-end computing systems

The Director shall carry out activities to develop, test, and support—

(1) mathematics, models, and algorithms for complex systems and programming environments; and

(2) tools, languages, and operating systems for high-end computing systems (as defined in section 5541 of title 15).

(Pub. L. 115–246, title III, §304, Sept. 28, 2018, 132 Stat. 3145.)

Codification

Section is comprised of section 304 of Pub. L. 115–246. Subsec. (a) of section 304 of Pub. L. 115–246 amended sections 16316 of this title, sections 5541 and 5542 of Title 15, Commerce and Trade, and provisions set out as a note under section 5501 of Title 15.

§18643. High-energy physics

(a) Sense of Congress

It is the sense of Congress that—

(1) the Director should incorporate the findings and recommendations of the report of the Particle Physics Project Prioritization Panel entitled "Building for Discovery: Strategic Plan for U.S. Particle Physics in the Global Context" into the planning process of the Department; and

(2) the nations that lead in particle physics by hosting international teams dedicated to a common scientific goal attract the world's best talent and inspire future generations of physicists and technologists.

(b) International collaboration

The Director, as practicable and in coordination with other appropriate Federal agencies as necessary, shall ensure the access of United States researchers to the most advanced accelerator facilities and research capabilities in the world, including the Large Hadron Collider.

(c) Neutrino research

The Director shall carry out research activities on rare decay processes and the nature of the neutrino, which may include collaborations with the National Science Foundation or international collaborations.

(d) Dark energy and dark matter research

The Director shall carry out research activities on the nature of dark energy and dark matter, which may include collaborations with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration or the National Science Foundation; or international collaborations.

(Pub. L. 115–246, title III, §305, Sept. 28, 2018, 132 Stat. 3147.)

§18644. Biological and environmental research

(a) Biological systems

The Director shall carry out research and development activities in fundamental, structural, computational, and systems biology to increase systems-level understanding of the complex biological systems, which may include activities—

(1) to accelerate breakthroughs and new knowledge that would enable the cost-effective, sustainable production of—

(A) biomass-based liquid transportation fuels;

(B) bioenergy; and

(C) biobased materials;


(2) to improve understanding of the global carbon cycle, including processes for removing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, through photosynthesis and other biological processes, for sequestration and storage; and

(3) to understand the biological mechanisms used to transform, immobilize, or remove contaminants from subsurface environments.

(b) Limitation for research funds

The Director shall not approve new climate science-related initiatives without making a determination that such work is well-coordinated with any relevant work carried out by other Federal agencies.

(c) Low-dose radiation research program

(1) In general

The Director shall carry out a research program on low-dose radiation.

(2) Purpose

The purpose of the program is to enhance the scientific understanding of, and reduce uncertainties associated with, the effects of exposure to low-dose radiation to inform improved risk-management methods.

(Pub. L. 115–246, title III, §306, Sept. 28, 2018, 132 Stat. 3148.)

§18645. Fusion energy

(a) Fusion materials research and development

As part of the activities authorized in section 16318 of this title

(1) the Director, in coordination with the Assistant Secretary for Nuclear Energy of the Department, shall carry out research and development activities to identify, characterize, and demonstrate materials that can endure the neutron, plasma, and heat fluxes expected in a fusion power system; and

(2) the Director shall provide an assessment of—

(A) the need for one or more facilities that can examine and test potential fusion and next generation fission materials and other enabling technologies relevant to the development of fusion power; and

(B) whether a single new facility that substantially addresses magnetic fusion and next generation fission materials research needs is feasible, in conjunction with the expected capabilities of facilities operational as of September 28, 2018.

(b) Tokamak research and development

The Director shall support research and development activities and facility operations to optimize the tokamak approach to fusion energy.

(c) Inertial fusion energy research and development

The Director shall support research and development activities for inertial fusion for energy applications.

(d) Alternative and enabling concepts

The Director shall support research and development activities and facility operations at institutions of higher education, National Laboratories, and private facilities in the United States for a portfolio of alternative and enabling fusion energy concepts that may provide solutions to significant challenges to the establishment of a commercial magnetic fusion power plant, prioritized based on the ability of the United States to play a leadership role in the international fusion research community.

(e) Coordination with ARPA–E

The Director shall coordinate with the Director of the Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy (referred to in this subsection as "ARPA–E") to—

(1) assess the potential for any fusion energy project supported by ARPA–E to represent a promising approach to a commercially viable fusion power plant;

(2) determine whether the results of any fusion energy project supported by ARPA–E merit the support of follow-on research activities carried out by the Office of Science; and

(3) avoid the unintentional duplication of activities.

(f) Omitted

(g) Identification of priorities

(1) Report

(A) In general

Not later than 2 years after September 28, 2018, the Secretary shall submit to Congress a report on the fusion energy research and development activities that the Department proposes to carry out over the 10-year period following the date of the report under not fewer than 3 realistic budget scenarios, including a scenario based on 3-percent annual growth in the non-ITER portion of the budget for fusion energy research and development activities.

(B) Inclusions

The report required under subparagraph (A) shall—

(i) identify specific areas of fusion energy research and enabling technology development in which the United States can and should establish or solidify a lead in the global fusion energy development effort;

(ii) identify priorities for initiation of facility construction and facility decommissioning under each of the three budget scenarios described in subparagraph (A); and

(iii) assess the ability of the fusion workforce of the United States to carry out the activities identified under clauses (i) and (ii), including the adequacy of programs at institutions of higher education in the United States to train the leaders and workers of the next generation of fusion energy researchers.

(2) Process

In order to develop the report required under paragraph (1)(A), the Secretary shall leverage best practices and lessons learned from the process used to develop the most recent report of the Particle Physics Project Prioritization Panel of the High Energy Physics Advisory Panel.

(3) Requirement

No member of the Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee shall be excluded from participating in developing or voting on final approval of the report required under paragraph (1)(A).

(Pub. L. 115–246, title III, §307, Sept. 28, 2018, 132 Stat. 3148.)

Codification

Section is comprised of section 307 of Pub. L. 115–246. Subsec. (f) of section 307 of Pub. L. 115–246 amended section 2053 of this title.

§18646. Isotope development and production for research applications

The Director—

(1) may carry out a program for the production of isotopes, including the development of techniques to produce isotopes, that the Secretary determines are needed for research, medical, industrial, or related purposes; and

(2) shall ensure that isotope production activities carried out under the program under this paragraph do not compete with private industry unless the Director determines that critical national interests require the involvement of the Federal Government.

(Pub. L. 115–246, title III, §308(a), Sept. 28, 2018, 132 Stat. 3150.)

§18647. Science laboratories infrastructure program

(a) In general

The Director shall carry out a program to improve the safety, efficiency, and mission readiness of infrastructure at laboratories of the Office of Science.

(b) Inclusions

The program under subsection (a) shall include projects—

(1) to renovate or replace space that does not meet research needs;

(2) to replace facilities that are no longer cost effective to renovate or operate;

(3) to modernize utility systems to prevent failures and ensure efficiency;

(4) to remove excess facilities to allow safe and efficient operations; and

(5) to construct modern facilities to conduct advanced research in controlled environmental conditions.

(Pub. L. 115–246, title III, §309, Sept. 28, 2018, 132 Stat. 3150.)