[USC02] SHIPPING
Result 1 of 1
   
 

*Public Laws 116-315 through 117-1 have been enacted but classifications have not yet been finalized. The currency ("laws in effect") date does not reflect acts for which classification has not been finalized.

TITLE 46—SHIPPING

This title was enacted by Pub. L. 98–89, §1, Aug. 26, 1983, 97 Stat. 500; Pub. L. 99–509, title V, subtitle B, §5101, Oct. 21, 1986, 100 Stat. 1913; Pub. L. 100–424, §6, Sept. 9, 1988, 102 Stat. 1591; Pub. L. 100–710, title I, §102, Nov. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 4738; Pub. L. 109–304, Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1485

Subtitle
Sec.
I.
GENERAL
101
II.
VESSELS AND SEAMEN
2101
III.
MARITIME LIABILITY
30101
IV.
REGULATION OF OCEAN SHIPPING
40101
V.
MERCHANT MARINE
50101
VI.
CLEARANCE, TONNAGE TAXES, AND DUTIES
60101
VII.
SECURITY AND DRUG ENFORCEMENT
70101
VIII.
MISCELLANEOUS
80101

        

Editorial Notes

Amendments

2006Pub. L. 109–304, §3, Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1485, amended title analysis generally, adding item IV, substituting "50101" for "53101" in item V, adding item VI, substituting "SECURITY AND DRUG ENFORCEMENT" for "MISCELLANEOUS" in item VII, and adding item VIII.

Pub. L. 109–241, title IX, §901(k)(2), July 11, 2006, 120 Stat. 565, redesignated item VI "MISCELLANEOUS" as item VII.

2003Pub. L. 108–136, div. C, title XXXV, §3531(b), Nov. 24, 2003, 117 Stat. 1817, added item V.

2002Pub. L. 107–295, title I, §102(b), Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2084, added item VI.

1988Pub. L. 100–710, title I, §102(b), Nov. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 4738, amended title analysis generally, substituting "GENERAL" for "[Reserved—general]" in item I and adding item III.

Disposition Table
(Showing Disposition of Former Sections of Title 46 or Title 46 Appendix)
Title 46 or Title 46 Appendix

Former Sections

Title 46

New Sections

1 Rep.
2 2103
3 note prec. (Act 12-27-1950, §§1, 2) 501
3 Rep.
4 2105
5, 6 Rep.
7 2107
8 2108
9(a), (b) 3316
9(c) Rep.
9(d) 3316
11, 12 Rep.
13 Rep.
14 (words before last proviso) 12107
14 (last proviso) 12151
15–41 Rep.
42 60103
43–56 Rep.
57 60102
58 Rep.
59 Rep.
60–63 Rep.
65(1) 2101(10)
65(2) 2101(11)
65(3) 2101(34)
65a 12113
65b 12102
65c 12114
65d 12115
65e 12103
65f 12116
65g 12104
65h 12105
65i 12106
65j 12107
65k 12108
65l 12109
65m 12110
65n 12122
65o 12111
65p 12112
65q 12117
65r 12118
65s 12119
65t 12120
65u 2107, 12122(a)
65v(1) 2104
65v(2) 12121
65w 12101
71 12102, 14102, 14104, 14501, 14502, 14504, 14511, 14521, 14522
72 14503
73, 74 Rep.
75 14512
76 Rep.
77 14502, 14512
78, 79 Rep.
80 (See former 660–1)
81 14306
82 3101
83 14502, 14513
83a–83g 14513
83h 14102
83i 14702
83j 14701
83k 2107
85–85g Rep.
86 5114, 5115
86a 5101
86b 5102
86c 5102, 5103, 5104, 5106
86d 5107
86e 5108
86f 5109
86g 5112
86h 5113
86i 5116
88 5102
88a 5104, 5108
88b 5103, 5107
88c 5112
88d 5109
88e 5112
88f 5113
88g 5116
88h, 88i Rep.
91 60105
91a–96 Rep.
97 60106
98 60109
99 Rep.
100 60107
101, 102 Rep.
103 Rep.
104 60504
105–110 Rep.
111 Elim.
112, 113 Rep.
121 (1st sentence) 60302
121 (2d sentence) 60301
121 (3d sentence related to distress) 60305
121 (3d sentence related to trade) 60306
121 (4th sentence) 60302
121 (5th sentence words before semicolon) 60302
121 (5th sentence words after semicolon) 60304
121 (last sentence words before semicolon) 60312
121 (last sentence words after semicolon) 60302
122 60307
123 60308
124 60309
125 60310
126, 127 Rep.
128, 129 60303
130, 131 Rep.
132 60301
133, 134 60311
135 60312
141 60503
142 60505
143 60506
144, 145 60507
146 60502
151–162 Rep.
163 60101
170 3306(a)(5), Rep. in part
170(14) 2106
170a, 170b Rep.
171–175 Rep.
178, 179 Rep.
181 30503
182 30504
183(a) 30505
183(b) (1st sentence) 30506
183(b) (last sentence) 30507
183(c)–(e) 30506
183(f) (related to 46 App.:183(b)–(e)) 30506
183(f) (related to 46 App.:183b) 30508
183(g) 30510
183a Rep.
183b 30508
183c 30509
184 30507
185 30511
186 30501
187 30512
188 30502
189 30505
190 30704
191 30705
192 30706
193 30703
194 30707
195 30702
196 Rep.
201 11301
202 11302
203 11303
211 8501(a)
212 8501(b)
213 8501(c), (e)
214 7101
214(c) 7106
215 8501(d), 8502
216(a) 9301(2)
216(b) 2101(34)
216(c) 9301(3)
216(d) 9301(1)
216(e), (f) Rep.
216a 9302(a), (b), (d)
216b(a)–(c) 9303
216b(d) 9305
216b(e) 9304
216c 9303
216d 9305
216e(a)–(c) 9308
216e(d) 2107
216e(e) 2106
216f 9302(c)
216g 9306
216h 9307
216i Rep.
221 8103
222 8101
223 8301
224 7101, 8101
224a 8303, 8304
224a(2) 7111
225 7106, 7109, 7113
226 7101, 7106, 7703
227 Rep.
228 7101, 7106, 7703
229 7101, 7106, 7703
229a 7101, 7103
229b 7101, 7103
229c 7106, 7108, 7318
229d Rep.
229e 7105
229f 7110
229g 7103, 7318
229h Rep.
230 7112
231 7105
232 7110
233 7109
234 3315
235 8104
236 8103
237, 238 Rep.
239 6101, 6301, 7703
239(d) 6303
239(e) 6304, 7705
239(f) 6304
239(g) 6305, 7701
239(i) 6306
239(j) 6301, 6307
239(k) 6305
239a(a) 7503(a), 7704(a)
239a(b) 2101(34)
239a(c) 7302
239b(a) 7503(b)
239b(b) 7704(b), (c)
240 7703
241 8304
242 7101, 7102, 8302(a)–(d)
243 7101, 7104, 7107, 7108
244 7101, 7105
245 8302(g), (h)
246(a) 8302(a)–(d)
246(b) Rep.
246(c) 7703
247 7101
248 8302
249–249c Rep.
251, 251a 55114
251b Rep.
252–262 Rep.
263–276 Rep.
277 12133
278–288 Rep.
289 55103
289a, 289b 55121
289c 55104
290 Rep.
291 55120
292 55109
293–293b Rep.
294–315 Rep.
316(a), (b) 55111
316(c) 55118
316(d), (e) 80104
316a 55112
317, 318 Rep.
319 T. 19 §1706a
320–325 Rep.
326 502
327 503
328 Rep.
329, 330 Rep.
331 2110
332–336 Rep.
351–353 Rep.
354, 355 60104
361 2101(16), (37)
362 2109, 3301(9), 3314
362(a) 3303
362(b) 3504
362(c) 3505
363 2109
364 8502
365 Rep.
366 3306
367 2101(16), (33), 2303, 3301(7), 3302
369 3305, 3306, 3316
369(b) 3503
369(e) 3318
371 Rep.
372 2103
373–374a Rep.
375 3306
376–382a–1 Rep.
382b 2104, 2111, 2112
382b–1 3317(b)
382c–385 Rep.
390 3302, 3304
390(a) 2101(21)(B)
390(b) 2101(35)
390(d) 2101(34)
390(e) 2101(13)
390(f) 2101(27)
390(g) 2101(30)
390(h) 2101(28)
390(i) 2101(29)
390a 3301(4), (5), (8), 3305
390a(a) 3307(2)
390a(b) 3317(a), 7114
390b 3306, 8901, 8902
390c 3303(a), 3309, 3311
390c(b), (c) 3313
390d 2106, 3318(a), 8906
390e–390g Rep.
391 3301(1), (4), (9), 3304, 3305
391(b) 3307(3)
391(c) 2101(22), 3307(1)
391(e) 3302
391a 3301(10), 3702, 8502
391a(2)(A) 2101(9)
391a(2)(B) 2101(12)
391a(2)(C) 2101(14)
391a(2)(D) 2101(15)
391a(2)(E) 2101(20)
391a(2)(F) 3701(4)
391a(2)(G) 2101(24)
391a(2)(H) 2101(5)
391a(2)(I) 2101(34)
391a(2)(J) 3701(5)
391a(2)(K) 3701(6)
391a(2)(L) 2101(46)
391a(2)(M) 2101(38)
391a(2)(N) 2101(8)
391a(2)(O) 2101(23)
391a(2)(P) 3701(2)
391a(2)(Q) 3701(3)
391a(2)(R) 3701(1)
391a(2)(S) 2101(7)
391a(3) 2101(39), 2301, 3303, 3702(a)
391a(4) 2109
391a(4)(B) 8703(c)
391a(5) 3702
391a(6) 3703
391a(7) 3704–3709
391a(8) 3309, 3313
391a(8)(A) 3710, 3712
391a(8)(B) 3711, 3712
391a(8)(C) 3711
391a(8)(D) 3710
391a(8)(E) 3710, 3711
391a(9) 9102
391a(10)(A) 8703(a)
391a(10)(B) 9101(b)
391a(10)(C) 7317, 8703(b)
391a(10)(D) Rep. See 7701 et seq.
391a(11) 9101(a)
391a(12) 3703
391a(13) 3713
391a(14) 2107, 3718
391a(14)(C) 2106
391a(15) 3714
391a(16) 3717
391a(17) 3715
391a(18) 3716
391b Rep.
392 3304–3306
392(b) 3307(3)
393, 394 Rep.
395 3301(6), 3305, 3311
395(d) 3309
395(e) 2101(32)
396, 397 Rep.
398 3318
399 3309, 3311, 3314
400 3312
401, 402 Rep.
403 3318
404 2101(13), (16), (17), 3301(1), 3302, 3306, 3307
404–1 3301(3), 3305, 3501
404–1(1) 2101(19)
404–1(4) 2101(21)(C)
404–1(6) 3307(2), (3)
404–1(8) 8301
404a Rep.
405 2101(40), 3301(9), 3305
405(b) 8104
405(b)(1)(A) 2101(34)
405(b)(2) 8904
405(b)(3) 8905(b)
406 3305
407 3305, 3318
408 3305, 3306, 3318
409 Rep.
410 3318
411, 412 3306
413 3318
414 3310, 7502
415 Rep.
416 2104, 3306
417 (See former 416)
418, 419 Rep.
420 3302, 3306
431–434 Rep.
435 3308, 3313
436 2106, 3318
437–440 Rep.
441(1) 2101(18), 50503
441(2) 2101(31), 50503
442 3302
443 50503
444 8701, 50503
445 2113, 3306
446–446c 50504
446 note (Pub. L. 97–322, §201) Rep.
446d 8101
451 3501
452 3501(b), (c)
453 2113
454–457 T. 33 §§1233–1236
458 Rep.
459 3306
460, 460a, 461 3502
462 2106, 3501, 3502
463, 463a, 464 Rep.
465 (See former 170)
466 Rep.
466a 3901
466b 3902
466c T. 15 §1824a
467–469 Rep.
470, 471 8102
472 Rep.
473 3306
474–476 Rep.
477–479 3306
480 2301
481 2106, 3306
481(a) 2101(34)
481(c) 2106
481(d) 3318
482, 483 3306
484–488 Rep.
489 3306
490 Rep.
491 (words before semicolon) 30102
491 (words after semicolon) 30103
492 3506
493–496 Rep.
497 2106, 3318, 8502
498 Rep.
511–522 Rep.
526 2101(43)
526a–526d Rep.
526e 4102(b)
526f Rep.
526g 4102(a)
526h 4103
526i 4102(c)
526j 4102(d)
526k–526n Rep.
526o 2106, 2107, 4106
526p 2107, 3306, 4104
526q–526t Rep.
526u 4101
527–527h Rep.
531 10601
532 Rep. See 11501
533, 534 10602
541–542a Rep.
543 2104
544, 545 Rep.
546 10102
547–549 Rep.
561, 562 Rep.
563 11110
564 10301, 10302
565 10305
566 10301
567, 568 10321
569 10309
570 10308
571 10321
572, 573 Rep.
574 10301, 10501, 10502
575 10508
576 10509
577 10307
578 11107
579 Rep.
591 10313(a)
592 10313(b)
593 10313(b)
594 10313(c)
595 10313(d)
596 10313(e)–(i), 10504
597 2101(12), 10313(e)–(i), 10504
598 10313(e), 10504(a), (d), 10505(d)
599 2101(12), 10314, 10315, 10505, 10506
599(g) 10316
600 10317
601 11108, 11109
602 11111
603–608, 611 Rep.
621 10701, 10702
622 10703
623 10711
624 10704, 10705
625 10706
626 10707
627 10709
628 10708, 10710
641, 642 10310
643 8701, 8702, 10102(c), 10311, 10503
643(a) 7302, 7303, 7318
643(b) 7304
643(c) 7302, 10306
643(e) 10311
643(f) 7319, 7502
643(h) 7501
643(l) 7316, 10103
643a 8701
643b Rep.
644 10312(a), (b), (d)–(f)
645, 646, 651 Rep.
652 10312(c)
653 10901, 10902(a), 10907
654 10901, 10903(a), (b)
655 10901, 10904
656 10901, 10905
657 10905
658 10901, 10906, 10908
659 10903(c)
660 10903(d)
660–1 11101
660a 3305, 3308
660b 3308
661 10321
662 10902(b)
663 Rep.
664 10907
665 10321, 11106(b)–(d)
666 11102(a)
667 11102(b)
668, 669 Rep.
670, 671 11103
672 8701, 8702
672(a) 2101(34)
672(b) 7306
672(b)(1) 7307
672(b)(2) 7308
672(b)(3) 7309, 7310
672(b)(4) 7311
672(c) 7301, 7315
672(d) 8702(d)
672(e) 8702(b), (c)
672(f) 7312
672(g) 7313, 7314
672(h) 8103
672(i) 7302
672(j) 2106, 8702(e)
672–1, 672–2 Rep.
672a 8103
672b, 672b–1, 672c Rep.
673 8104
674–677 Rep.
678 11104(a)
679 11104(b)–(d)
680, 681 Rep.
682 10318, 10507
683 10318, 10507
684 11105
685 11106(a)
686, 687 Rep.
688(a) 30104
688(b) 30105
689 2103, 2104
690 8103
691 Sec. 2(f) of Pub. L. 98–89
692 Rep.
701 11501
702 11502
703 11503
704 T. 18 §2196
705 11504
706 11505
707 10319
708 T. 18 §2279
709 Rep.
710 11506
710a Rep.
710b (See former 239a)
710c (See former 239b)
711 Rep.
712 11507
713 10101, 10303, 10304
721 80101
722, 723 80103
724 80102
725 80105
726 80106
727 80107
728 2304
729, 730 80107
731 2304, 80107
732–735 Rep.
738 80301
738a 80302
738b Rep.
738c 80303
738d Rep.
740 30101
741 (11th–26th words) 30902
741 (less 11th–26th words) 30908
742 (1st sentence) 30903
742 (2d sentence) 30906
742 (3d sentence) 30903
742 (last sentence) 30906
743 (1st sentence) 30907
743 (2d, 3d sentences) 30911
743 (4th–6th sentences) 30907
743 (last sentence) 30909
743a Rep.
744 30914
745 (words before 1st proviso) 30905
745 (1st proviso) 30904
745 (2d proviso) Rep.
745 (last proviso) 30911
746 30910
747 30915
748 30913
749 30912
750 30916
751 30917
752 30918
761(a) 30302
761(b) 30307
762(a) 30303
762(b) 30307
763 Rep.
763a 30106
764 30306
765 30305
766 30304
767 30308
768 Rep.
781 31102
782 (1st sentence) 31104
782 (last sentence words before last comma) 31103
782 (last sentence words after last comma) 31107
783 (words before proviso) 31102
783 (proviso) 31105
784 31110
785 31111
786 31108
787 31109
788 31112
789 31106
790 31113
791–799 Rep.
801 Rep.
802 50501
803 50502
804 Rep.
804a Rep.
805–807 Rep.
808(4th par., prior to amendment by Pub. L. 100–710) 31328
808(a) Rep.
808(b) 57109
808(c)–(f) 56101
808a 56101
809–810a Rep.
811 (1st sentence words before 1st comma) 50105
811 (1st sentence words after 1st comma) 50106
811 (2d sentence words before 2d comma) 50105
811 (2d sentence words after 2d comma) 50107
811 (3d sentence) 50106
811 (4th sentence) 50109
811 (last sentence) 50111
812–817c Rep.
817d(a) (1st–5th, 29th–last words) 44103
817d(a) (6th–28th words) 44101
817d(b) 44103
817d(c) 44104
817d(d) 44106
817d(e) 44105
817e(a) (1st–14th, 37th–last words) 44102
817e(a) (15th–36th words) 44101
817e(b) 44102
817e(c) 44104
817e(d) 44106
817e(e) 44105
818–832 Rep.
833, 833a Rep.
834 60108
835 56102
836, 837 56105
838 31306
839 (1st par.) 56103
839 (last par.) 56104
840–841c Rep.
842 Rep.
843–848 Rep.
861 50101
862–864 Rep.
864a Rep.
864b 57108
865 Rep.
865a 53101 note
866 Rep.
867 50302
868, 869 Rep.
870–870d Rep.
871 57106
872 50304
873, 874 Rep.
875 50304
876(a)(1) Rep.
876(a)(2) 42101
876(a)(3) 42102
876(b), (c) 42102
876(d) 42103
876(e) 42101
876(f), (g) 42104
876(h) 42105
876(i) 42106
876(j) 42107
876(k) 42108
876(l ) 42109
877 55101
877 note (Proc. No. 3215, Dec. 12, 1957) 55101
878–880 Rep.
881 3305, 3316, 12119
882 3304
883 (words before 1st proviso) 55102
883 (1st proviso, 2d proviso less meaning of "rebuilt") 12132
883 (2d proviso related to meaning of "rebuilt") 12101
883 (3d proviso) 55116
883 (4th proviso) 55119
883 (5th proviso) 55117
883 (6th proviso) 55107
883 (7th proviso) 55106
883 (8th proviso) Rep.
883 (2d–6th sentences, last sentence less provisos) 55105
883 (10th proviso) 55115
883 (11th proviso) 55102
883 (12th proviso) 55110
883 (last proviso) 55108
883 note (Pub. L. 104–324, §1120(f)) 12120
883–1 12118
883a (1st sentence) 12139
883a (2d, last sentences) 12151
883b Rep.
884 58108
885 T. 15 §38
886 Rep.
887–889 Rep.
891 50101
891a Rep.
891b 57106
891c–891y Rep.
911(1), (2) 30101(1)
911(3) Rep.
911(4) 30101(1)
911(5) 31301(3)
921 31321(a)(1), (e)
922(a), (b) 31322(a)(1)
922(b) 31301(6)(A)
922(c), (d) Rep.
922(e), (f) 31322(c)
923 31324
924 31323(a), (b)
925 31343
925(b) 31321(f), (h)
926(a), (b) 31321(b)
926(c) Rep.
926(d) 31322(b)
927 31302(1), (2)
941(a) Rep.
941(b) (1st sentence) 31330(a), (c)
941(b) (last sentence) 31323(c)
941(c) 31304
951 (1st par.) 31325(a), (b)(1), (c), (d)
951 (2d par. less proviso) 31301(6)(B)
951 (2d par. proviso) 31326(b)(2)
952 (1st, 2d sentences) 31325(e)
952 (last sentence) 31308
953(a) 31301(5)
953(b) 31326(a), (b)(1)
954(a) 31325(b)(2)
954(b) 31303
961(a) Rep.
961(b) 31327
961(c) 31326(a)
961(d), (e) 31328
961(f) 31329
971 31342
972 31341
973 31341(a)
974 31305
975 31307
981–984 Rep.
1011 Rep.
1012 31321(a)(2)
1013, 1014 Rep.
1101 50101
1111(a), (b) Rep.
1111(c) (related to seal) 301
1111(c) (related to records) 303
1111(c) (related to rules and regulations) 305
1111(d) (related to Commission) 307
1111(d) (related to Secretary) Rep.
1111(e) Rep.
1111(f) (1st, last sentences) Rep.
1111(f) (2d sentence related to Commission) Rep.
1111(f) (2d sentence related to Secretary) T. 49 §109
1111 note (Pub. L. 89–56) 301
1111 note (Reorg. Plan No. 6 of 1949) 301
1111 note (Reorg. Plan No. 21 of 1950, §§201, 203, 204) T. 49 §109
1111 note (Reorg. Plan No. 7 of 1961, §§101, 102(a)–(c), 104, 105(d)) 301
1111 note (Reorg. Plan No. 7 of 1961, §102(d)) 302
1111 note (Reorg. Plan No. 7 of 1961, §105(a)–(c)) 304
1111 note (Reorg. Plan No. 7 of 1961, §201) T. 49 §109
1111a–1111c Rep.
1112 50303
1113 Rep.
1114 Rep.
1115 58107
1116, 1116a Rep.
1117 (related to Commission) Rep.
1117 (related to Secretary) T. 49 §109
1118 (related to Commission) 306
1118 (related to Secretary) 50111
1118 note (Pub. L. 106–398, [§3506]) 50111
1119 T. 49 §109
1119a, 1119b Rep.
1120 50102
1121(a)–(c) 50103
1121(d) 50105
1121(e) 50106
1121(f) 50109
1121(g) 50106
1121(h), (i) 50109
1121(j) (words before 1st semicolon) 50105
1121(j) (words between 1st and 2d semicolons) 50110
1121(j) (words after 2d semicolon) 50109
1121–1 55301
1121–2 50112
1122(a) 50104
1122(b)(1) 50110
1122(b)(2) 50105
1122(c) 50105
1122(d) 50110, T. 49 §109
1122(e) Rep.
1122(f) 50108
1122(g) 50111
1122a 50113
1122b 55501
1123 50109
1124 50306
1125 57105
1125 note (Pub. L. 86–518, §9) 57105, 57506
1125a 57107
1126 Rep.
1126–1(a) (1st sentence) 51101
1126–1(a) (last sentence), (b) 51104
1126a, 1126a–1 Rep.
1126b, 1126b–1 Rep.
1126c, 1126d Rep.
1127–1128h Rep.
1131 53101 note
1132 (prior provision) 8103
1132(a) (prior provision) 7102
1132 (added by Pub. L. 104–239) 52101
1141–1144 Rep.
1145 Rep.
1151–1155 53101 note
1155a Rep.
1156, 1157 53101 note
1158(a) 57102
1158(b) 57103
1159 53101 note
1160(a) 57301
1160(b) (1st sentence) 57302
1160(b) (2d sentence) 57304
1160(b) (3d sentence) 57305
1160(b) (4th–7th sentences) 57306
1160(b) (last sentence) 57302
1160(c) 57303
1160(d) 57305
1160(e) 57307
1160(f) 50111
1160(g) 57308
1160(h) Rep.
1160(i) 57104
1160(j) 57101
1161(a) 53301
1161(b) (1st sentence words before 6th comma) 53302
1161(b) (1st sentence words between 6th and 10th commas) 53303
1161(b) (1st sentence between 10th and 16th commas) 53302
1161(b) (1st sentence words after 16th comma) 53305
1161(b) (last sentence) 53302
1161(c) 53306
1161(d) 53307
1161(e) 53308
1161(f) 53309
1161(g), (h) 53310
1161(i) 53311
1161(j) 53312
1161(k) Rep.
1161(l ) 53304
1161(m)–(o) 53301
1162, 1171–1176 53101 note
1177(a) (1st sentence) 53503
1177(a) (2d sentence related to purpose) 53503
1177(a) (2d sentence related to deposits) 53504
1177(a) (last sentence) 53504
1177(b)(1), (2) 53505
1177(b)(3) 53501
1177(c) 53506
1177(d) 53507
1177(e) 53508
1177(f) 53509
1177(g) 53510
1177(h) (less (2) (last sentence)) 53511
1177(h)(2) (last sentence) 53512
1177(i) 53513
1177(j) 53514
1177(k)(1)–(3) 53501
1177(k)(4) Rep.
1177(k)(5)–(9) 53501
1177(l ) (1st sentence) 53515
1177(l ) (2d sentence) 53502
1177(l ) (last sentence) 53516
1177(m) 53517
1177–1 53501
1177a Rep.
1178–1181 53101 note
1182 Rep.
1183–1185a 53101 note
1187–1187e Rep.
1191 57501
1192 57502
1193(a) 57503
1193(b) 57502
1193(c) (related to construction, reconstruction, or reconditioning) 57503
1193(c) (related to chartering) 57512
1194 57504
1195 (1st, 2d sentences) 57505
1195 (last sentence) 57506
1196(a) 57512
1196(b) (1st sentence related to announcement) 57512
1196(b) (1st sentence related to authority) 57515
1196(b) (last sentence) 57513
1197 57515
1198 57516
1199 57517
1200 57518
1201 57511
1202(a) 57519
1202(b), (c) 57520
1202(d) 57521
1203 57514
1204 57531
1205 57532
1206 Rep.
1211, 1212 53101 note
1213(a) (less 3d sentence as related to 1121(a)) 53101 note
1213(a) (3d sentence related to 1121(a)) 50103
1213(b) T. 49 §109
1214 Rep.
1221 Rep.
1222 Rep.
1223(a) 58101
1223(b) 58102
1223(c) Rep.
1223(d) 58103
1223(e) Rep.
1223(f) 58104
1224, 1225 Rep.
1226 58105
1227 58106
1228 (1st, 2d pars.) 58109
1228 (last par.) 505
1241(a) 55302
1241(b) 55305
1241(c) 55303
1241–1 55304
1241a, 1241b 50301
1241b note (limitation on funds for fiscal year 1957) 50301
1241c 50301
1241d 55311
1241e 55313
1241f(a)–(d) 55314
1241f(e) 55312
1241g 55315
1241h 55316
1241h note (Pub. L. 100–202, §101(a) [title V, §501]) 55316
1241i Rep.
1241j 55317
1241k–1241n Rep.
1241o 55314
1241p 55318
1241q 55333
1241r 55332
1241s 55334
1241t(a), (c) 55335
1241t(b) 55336
1241u Rep.
1241v 55331
1242(a) (1st, 2d sentences) 56301
1242(a) (3d sentence) 56303
1242(a) (4th sentence) 56307
1242(a) (last sentence) 56303
1242(b) 56303
1242(c) (1st sentence) 56302
1242(c) (2d sentence) 56304
1242(c) (last sentence) 56303
1242(d) (1st par. words before 2d comma) 56303
1242(d) (1st par. words after 2d comma) 56304
1242(d) (last par.) 56305
1242(e) 56306
1242–1 Rep.
1242a(a) 56501
1242a(b) 56502
1242a(c) 56503
1242a(d) 56504
1242a(e) 56502
1243 Rep.
1244(a) 109
1244(b) Rep.
1244(c) 50501
1244(d)–(f) Rep.
1244(g) 114
1245 (1st sentence) Rep.
1245 (last sentence) 101 note
1246 Rep.
1247 50305
1248, 1249 53101 note
1251–1262 Rep.
1271 53701
1272 53717
1273(a) 53702
1273(b) 53711
1273(c) 53709
1273(d) 53705
1273(e) (1st sentence) 53705
1273(e) (last sentence) 53721, 53722
1273(f) 53704
1273(g) 53732
1273(h) 53704
1273(i), (j) 53706
1273a 53707
1274(a) 53706
1274(b)(1) 53707
1274(b)(2) 53709
1274(b)(3)–(7) 53710
1274(b) (last 2 sentences) 53709
1274(c)(1) (1st sentence) 53711
1274(c)(1) (last sentence) 53709
1274(c)(2) 53711
1274(d)(1), (2) 53708
1274(d)(3) 53732
1274(d)(4) 53707
1274(d)(5) Rep.
1274(e) 53714
1274(f)(1) 53713
1274(f)(2), (3) 53708
1274(f)(4) 53713
1274(g) 53717
1274(h) 53710
1274(i) 53709
1274(j) 53732
1274(k) 53712
1274(l ) 53703
1274(m) 53712
1274(n) 53703
1274a 53734
1275(a) 53721
1275(b) 53722
1275(c) 53724
1275(d) 53723
1275(e) 53725
1275(f) 53722
1276–1279 Rep.
1279a 53715
1279b (prior provision) Rep.
1279b (added by Pub. L. 107–107) 53716
1279c 53731
1279d 53732
1279e 53733
1279f 53735
1279g 53702
1280 53717
1280a 53733
1280b 53718
1281(a)–(c) 53901
1281(d), (e) Rep.
1282 53902
1283(a) (1st, 2d sentences) 53903
1283(a) (last sentence) 53910
1283(b) (1st sentence) 53903
1283(b) (last sentence) 53901
1283(c)–(f) 53903
1284 53903
1285 53905
1286 53904
1287 53907
1288, 1288a 53909
1289(a)(1) 53910
1289(a)(2) 53906
1289(b)–(f) 53910
1290 Rep.
1291 50111
1292 53911
1293 53908
1294 53912
1295 (1st sentence) 51101
1295 (last sentence cl. (1)) 51103
1295 (last sentence cl. (2)) 51104
1295a 51102
1295b(a) 51301
1295b(b)(1)–(3)(C) 51302
1295b(b)(3)(D) 51303
1295b(b)(3)(E) 51305
1295b(b)(3)(F) 51311
1295b(b)(3)(G) Rep.
1295b(b)(4) Rep.
1295b(b)(5)–(7) 51304
1295b(b)(8) 51309
1295b(c) 51311
1295b(d) 51308
1295b(e)(1)–(4) 51306
1295b(e)(5) 51310
1295b(f) 51307
1295b(g) 51309
1295b(h) 51312
1295b(i) 51313
1295b(j) 51314
1295c(a) 51501
1295c(b) 51503
1295c(c)(1), (2) 51504
1295c(c)(3)(A) 51507
1295c(c)(3)(B) 51508
1295c(d)(1) 51505
1295c(d)(2) 51501
1295c(e) 51502
1295c(f) 51506
1295c(g)(1)–(6) 51509
1295c(g)(7) 51510
1295c(g)(8) 51509
1295c(h) 51511
1295c note (Pub. L. 101–115, §4) 51504
1295c–1 T. 49 §109
1295d(a), (b) 51703
1295d(c) 51704
1295e 51701
1295f(a), (b) 51702
1295f(c) 2101(17), 3301(2), 3306, 3307(1)
1295f(d)(1) 51702
1295f(d)(2), (3) 3318(g)
1295g(a) Rep.
1295g(b)–(d) 51103
1295g(e)(1) 2101(17)
1295g(e)(2)–(5) Rep.
1300–1315 30701 note
1331–1341 Rep.
1351–1364 Rep.
1381–1388 Rep.
1401–1413 Rep.
1451 Rep.
1452(1)(A), (B) 2101(25)
1452(1)(C) 2101(42)
1452(2) 2101(45)
1452(3) 2101(41)
1452(5) 2101(21)(D)
1452(7) 2101(26)
1452(8) 2101(1)
1452(9) 2101(34)
1452(10) 2102(2)
1452(11) 2102(1)
1452(12) 2102(4)
1452(13) 2102(5)
1452(14) 2102(3)
1453 4105, 4301
1454, 1455 4302
1456 4302(a)(3)
1457 4303
1458 4305
1459 4306
1460 4304, 4306
1461(a) 4307(a)
1461(b) 4311(f)
1461(c) 4307(b)
1461(d) 2302(a), (b)
1461(e) 8903
1461(f) 8903, 8905(a)
1462 4308
1463 4309
1464 4310
1464(g) 4302
1465 2303
1466 12301
1467 12302
1468 12303
1469 12304
1470 12305
1471 12306
1472 12307
1473 12308
1474 13101
1475 13102
1476 13103
1477 13104
1478 13105
1479 13106
1479a 13107
1480 13108
1481 13109
1482 13110
1483 2302(b), 4311(a), 12309(a)
1484(a) 4311(b)
1484(b) 2106, 2302(a), (c), 4311(c), 12309(b)
1484(c) 2107
1484(d) 4311(d), 12309(c)
1485 2305, 4311(e)
1486 6101, 6102
1487 Rep.
1488 4302
1489 4311(g)
1501 80501
1502(a) (related to application of Convention) 80502
1502(a) (related to approval and examination) 80504
1502(b) Rep.
1503(a)–(c)(1) 80503
1503(c)(2) 80506
1503(c)(3) 80503
1503(d) 80506
1503(e) 80503
1504 80505
1505 80509
1506 80507
1507 80508
1508 Rep.
1601–1603 T. 49 §109
1604–1608 Rep.
1609 T. 49 §109 note
1610 Elim.
1701 40101
1702 40102
1703 40301
1704(a) 40302
1704(b)–(d) 40303
1704(e) (less last sentence) 40305
1704(e) (last sentence) 40301
1704(f) 40301
1704(g) 40303
1705(a)–(f) 40304
1705(g)–(i) 41307
1705(j) 40306
1705(k) 41307
1706 40307
1707(a), (b) 40501
1707(c) 40502
1707(d) 40501
1707(e) 40503
1707(f), (g) 40501
1707a Rep.
1708(a) 40701
1708(b) 40702
1708(c) (1st sentence) 40703
1708(c) (last sentence), (d) 40704
1708(e) 40705
1708(f) 40706
1709(a) 41102
1709(b)(1)–(12) 41104
1709(b)(13), (words after cl. (13)) 41103
1709(c) 41105
1709(d)(1) 41102
1709(d)(2) 41106
1709(d)(3) (related to (b)(10)) 41106
1709(d)(3) (related to (b)(13)) 41103
1709(d)(4) 41106
1709(d)(5) 41103
1709(e) 41101
1710(a), (b) 41301
1710(c) (1st–3d sentences) 41302
1710(c) (last sentence) 41307
1710(d)–(f) 41302
1710(g) (related to time limit) 41301
1710(g) (less time limit) 41305
1710(h)(1) 41307
1710(h)(2) 41306
1710a(a) 42301
1710a(b), (c) 42302
1710a(d) 42303
1710a(e)(1), (2) 42304
1710a(e)(3) 42306
1710a(f) 42305
1710a(g) 306
1710a(h) (related to 876(a)(2)) 42101
1710a(h) (related to 1712(b)(6)) 41108
1710a(i) 42307
1711 41303
1712(a) 41107
1712(b) 41108
1712(c)–(f) 41109
1713(a), (b) 41304
1713(c) 41308
1713(d) 41309
1713(e) 41308, 41309
1714 40104
1715 40103
1716 305
1717 Rep.
1718(a) 40901
1718(b) 40902
1718(c) 40903
1718(d) 40901
1718(e) 40904
1719(a)–(c) Rep.
1719(d) 40101 note
1719(e) Rep.
1720 Rep.
1721 Rep.
1801 70302
1802 70306
1803 70303
1804 70304
1805 70305
1806 Rep.
1807 70301
1808 Rep.
1809 70306
1901 Rep.
1902 70501
1903(a) 70503
1903(b), (c) 70502
1903(d) 70505
1903(e) 70503
1903(f) 70504
1903(g) 70506
1903(h) 70503
1903(i) 70502
1903(j) 70506
1904 70507
2001 51901
2002 51901
2003 51902
2004(a) 51903
2004(b) 51904
2004(c) 51907
2004(d) 51901
2005 51905
2006 51906
2007 51908
12101 note (Pub. L. 104–324, §1117) 55113
12102 note (Pub. L. 105–277, §203(b)–(e)) 12113
12106 note (Pub. L. 105–383, §§502–504) 12121
12119 note (Pub. L. 107–295, §403) 12138

Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Enacting Clauses

Pub. L. 100–710, title I, §102(a), Nov. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 4738, provided that: "Certain general and permanent laws of the United States, related to definitions and maritime commercial instruments and liens, are revised, consolidated, and enacted by paragraph (3) of this subsection [probably means subsection (c) of this section] as subtitle III of title 46, United States Code, 'Shipping'."

Pub. L. 98–89, §1, Aug. 26, 1983, 97 Stat. 500, provided in part that: "Certain general and permanent laws of the United States, related to vessels and seamen, are revised, consolidated, and enacted as title 46, United States Code, 'Shipping' ".

Legislative Purpose and Construction

Pub. L. 109–304, §2, Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1485, provided that:

"(a) Purpose.—The purpose of this Act [see Tables for classification] is to complete the codification of title 46, United States Code, "Shipping", as positive law, by reorganizing and restating the laws currently in the appendix to title 46.

"(b) Conformity With Original Intent.—In the codification of laws by this Act, the intent is to conform to the understood policy, intent, and purpose of the Congress in the original enactments, with such amendments and corrections as will remove ambiguities, contradictions, and other imperfections, in accordance with section 205(c)(1) of House Resolution No. 988, 93d Congress, as enacted into law by Public Law 93–554 (2 U.S.C. 285b(1))."

Pub. L. 109–304, §18, Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1709, provided that:

"(a) Cutoff Date.—This Act [see Tables for classification] replaces certain provisions enacted on or before April 30, 2005. If a law enacted after that date amends or repeals a provision replaced by this Act, that law is deemed to amend or repeal, as the case may be, the corresponding provision enacted by this Act. If a law enacted after that date is otherwise inconsistent with this Act, it supersedes this Act to the extent of the inconsistency.

"(b) Original Date of Enactment Unchanged.—For purposes of determining whether one provision supersedes another based on enactment later in time, the date of enactment of a provision enacted by this Act is deemed to be the date of enactment of the provision it replaced.

"(c) References to Provisions Replaced.—A reference to a provision replaced by this Act is deemed to refer to the corresponding provision enacted by this Act.

"(d) Laws Governing Applicability of Prior Amendments.—This Act does not affect any law governing the applicability of an amendment to a provision replaced by this Act, notwithstanding the repeal by this Act of the provision that was amended. To the extent that any such law governed the applicability of a provision replaced by this Act, that law governs the applicability of the corresponding provision enacted by this Act.

"(e) Regulations, Orders, and Other Administrative Actions.—A regulation, order, or other administrative action in effect under a provision replaced by this Act continues in effect under the corresponding provision enacted by this Act.

"(f) Actions Taken and Offenses Committed.—An action taken or an offense committed under a provision replaced by this Act is deemed to have been taken or committed under the corresponding provision enacted by this Act."

Pub. L. 100–710, title I, §105, Nov. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 4751, provided that:

"(a) A reference to a law replaced by section 102 of this Act [see Tables for classification], including a reference in a regulation, order, or other law, is deemed to refer to the corresponding provision of this Act.

"(b) An order, rule, or regulation in effect under a law replaced by section 102 of this Act continues in effect under the corresponding provision of this Act until repealed, amended, or superseded.

"(c) An action taken or an offense committed under a law replaced by section 102 of this Act is deemed to have been taken or committed under the corresponding provision of this Act.

"(d) An inference of legislative construction is not to be drawn by reason of the caption or catch line of a provision enacted by section 102 of this Act.

"(e) If a provision of this Act is held invalid, all valid provisions that are severable from the invalid provision remain in effect. If a provision of this Act is held invalid in any of its applications, the provision remains valid for all valid applications that are severable from any of the invalid applications."

Pub. L. 99–509, title V, subtitle B, §5103(a)–(f), Oct. 21, 1986, 100 Stat. 1927, provided that:

"(a) Laws effective after January 1, 1986, that are inconsistent with this subtitle [see Tables for classification] supersede this subtitle to the extent of the inconsistency.

"(b) A reference to a law replaced by this subtitle, including a reference in a regulation, order, or other law, is deemed to refer to the corresponding provision of this subtitle.

"(c) An order, rule, or regulation in effect under a law replaced by this subtitle continues in effect under the corresponding provision of this subtitle until repealed, amended, or superseded.

"(d) An action taken or an offense committed under a law replaced by this subtitle is deemed to have been taken or committed under the corresponding provision of this subtitle.

"(e) An inference of legislative construction is not to be drawn by reason of the caption or catch line of a provision enacted by this subtitle.

"(f) If a provision enacted by this subtitle is held invalid, all valid provisions that are severable from the invalid provision remain in effect. If a provision of this subtitle is held invalid in one or more of its applications, the provision remains in effect in all valid applications that are severable from the invalid application or applications."

Pub. L. 98–89, §2(a)–(f), Aug. 26, 1983, 97 Stat. 598, provided that:

"(a) Laws effective after December 31, 1982, that are inconsistent with this Act [see Tables for classification] supersede this Act to the extent of the inconsistency.

"(b) A reference to a law replaced by this Act, including a reference in a regulation, order, or other law, is deemed to refer to the corresponding provision of this Act.

"(c) An order, rule, or regulation in effect under a law replaced by this Act continues in effect under the corresponding provision of this Act until repealed, amended, or superseded.

"(d) An action taken or an offense committed under a law replaced by this Act is deemed to have been taken or committed under the corresponding provision of this Act.

"(e) An inference of legislative construction is not to be drawn by reason of the caption or catch line of a provision enacted by this Act.

"(f) If a provision enacted by this Act is held invalid, all valid provisions that are severable from the invalid provision remain in effect. If a provision of this Act is held invalid in one or more of its applications, the provision remains in effect in all valid applications that are severable from the invalid application or applications."

Codification of Shipping and Maritime Laws by Federal Maritime Commission and Secretary of Transportation

Pub. L. 98–89, §2(j), Aug. 26, 1983, 97 Stat. 599, provided that: "Within 2 years after the date of enactment of this Act [Aug. 26, 1983], the Federal Maritime Commission and the Secretary of Transportation each shall submit to Congress a proposed codification of the laws within their respective jurisdictions related to shipping and maritime matters."

Transitional and Savings Provisions

Pub. L. 115–282, title IV, §403, Dec. 4, 2018, 132 Stat. 4264, provided that:

"(a) Definitions.—In this section:

"(1) Source provision.—The term 'source provision' means a provision of law that is replaced by a title 46 provision under this title.

"(2) Title 46 provision.—The term 'title 46 provision' means a provision of title 46, United States Code, that is enacted by section 402 [probably means "section 401", which enacted chapter 700 (§70001 et seq.) of this title].

"(b) Cutoff Date.—The title 46 provisions replace certain provisions of law enacted before the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 4, 2018]. If a law enacted after that date amends or repeals a source provision, that law is deemed to amend or repeal, as the case may be, the corresponding title 46 provision. If a law enacted after that date is otherwise inconsistent with a title 46 provision or a provision of this title, that law supersedes the title 46 provision or provision of this title to the extent of the inconsistency.

"(c) Original Date of Enactment Unchanged.—For purposes of determining whether one provision of law supersedes another based on enactment later in time, a title 46 provision is deemed to have been enacted on the date of enactment of the source provision that the title 46 provision replaces.

"(d) References to Title 46 Provisions.—A reference to a title 46 provision, including a reference in a regulation, order, or other law, is deemed to refer to the corresponding source provision.

"(e) References to Source Provisions.—A reference to a source provision, including a reference in a regulation, order, or other law, is deemed to refer to the corresponding title 46 provision.

"(f) Regulations, Orders, and Other Administrative Actions.—A regulation, order, or other administrative action in effect under a source provision continues in effect under the corresponding title 46 provision.

"(g) Actions Taken and Offenses Committed.—An action taken or an offense committed under a source provision is deemed to have been taken or committed under the corresponding title 46 provision."

Repeals and Savings Provisions

Pub. L. 109–304, §19, Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1710, as amended by Pub. L. 110–181, div. C, title XXXV, §3529(b)(1)(C), Jan. 28, 2008, 122 Stat. 603, repealed specified laws relating to shipping, except with respect to rights and duties that matured, penalties that were incurred, or proceedings that were begun before Oct. 6, 2006.

Pub. L. 100–710, title I, §106(a), Nov. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 4752, provided that: "The repeal of a law by this title may not be construed as a legislative implication that the provision was or was not in effect before its repeal."

Pub. L. 100–710, title I, §106(b), Nov. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 4752, repealed specified laws relating to shipping, except for rights and duties that matured, penalties that were incurred, and proceedings that were begun before the effective date of this title, which is Jan. 1, 1989, with certain exceptions and qualifications, see section 107 of Pub. L. 100–710, set out as an Effective Date note under section 31301 of this title.

Pub. L. 99–509, title V, subtitle B, §5104(a), Oct. 21, 1986, 100 Stat. 1928, provided that: "The repeal of a law by this subtitle may not be construed as a legislative implication that the provision was or was not in effect before its repeal."

Pub. L. 99–509, title V, subtitle B, §5104(b), Oct. 21, 1986, 100 Stat. 1928, repealed specified laws relating to shipping, except for rights and duties that matured, penalties that were incurred, and proceedings that were begun before Oct. 21, 1986.

Pub. L. 98–89, §4(a), Aug. 26, 1983, 97 Stat. 599, provided that: "The repeal of a law by this Act may not be construed as a legislative implication that the provision was or was not in effect before its repeal."

Pub. L. 98–89, §4(b), Aug. 26, 1983, 97 Stat. 599, repealed specified laws relating to shipping, except for rights and duties that matured, penalties that were incurred, and proceedings that were begun before Aug. 26, 1983, and except as provided by section 2 of Pub. L. 98–89, set out as notes above and notes under sections 3101, 3302, 3715, and 6301 of this title.

Rule of Construction

Pub. L. 115–282, title IV, §404, Dec. 4, 2018, 132 Stat. 4265, provided that: "This title [see Tables for classification], including the amendments made by this title, is intended only to transfer provisions of the Ports and Waterways Safety Act [Pub. L. 92–340, former 33 U.S.C. 1221 et seq.] to title 46, United States Code, and may not be construed to alter—

"(1) the effect of a provision of the Ports and Waterways Safety Act, including any authority or requirement therein;

"(2) a department or agency interpretation with respect to the Ports and Waterways Safety Act; or

"(3) a judicial interpretation with respect to the Ports and Waterways Safety Act."

Subtitle I—General

Chapter
Sec.
1.
Definitions
101
3.
Federal Maritime Commission
301
5.
Other General Provisions
501

        

CHAPTER 1—DEFINITIONS

Sec.
101.
Agency.
102.
Barge.
103.
Boundary Line.
104.
Citizen of the United States.
105.
Consular officer.
106.
Documented vessel.
107.
Exclusive economic zone.
108.
Fisheries.
109.
Foreign commerce or trade.
110.
Foreign vessel.
111.
Numbered vessel.
112.
State.
113.
Undocumented.
114.
United States.
115.
Vessel.
116.
Vessel of the United States.

        

§101. Agency

In this title, the term "agency" means a department, agency, or instrumentality of the United States Government.

(Pub. L. 109–304, §4, Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1486.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
101 (no source).

A definition of "agency" is added to avoid having to repeat the substance of the definition at various places in the revised title.


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Short Title of 2019 Amendment

Pub. L. 116–92, div. C, title XXXV, §3514(a), Dec. 20, 2019, 133 Stat. 1980, provided that: "This section [amending section 50302 of this title, enacting provisions set out as a note under section 50302 of this title, and amending provisions set out as notes under section 51318 of this title and section 9620 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare] may be cited as the 'Ports Improvement Act'."

Short Title of 2018 Amendment

Pub. L. 115–265, §1, Oct. 11, 2018, 132 Stat. 3742, provided that: "This Act [enacting section 6309 of this title, amending sections 2116, 3306, 3316, and 6101 of this title and sections 1952, 1954, and 1958 of Title 33, Navigation and Navigable Waters, and enacting provisions set out as notes under this section, sections 2101, 2116, 3201, 3203, 3306, 3315, and 3316 of this title, sections 1, 58, 88, and 93 of Title 14, Coast Guard, and section 822 of Title 45, Railroads] may be cited as the 'Save Our Seas Act of 2018'."

Pub. L. 115–265, title II, §201, Oct. 11, 2018, 132 Stat. 3744, provided that: "This title [enacting section 6309 of this title, amending sections 2116, 3306, 3316, and 6101 of this title, and enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 2101, 2116, 3201, 3203, 3306, 3315, and 3316 of this title, sections 88 and 93 of Title 14, Coast Guard, and section 822 of Title 45, Railroads] may be cited as the 'Hamm Alert Maritime Safety Act of 2018'."

Pub. L. 115–254, div. J, §1801, Oct. 5, 2018, 132 Stat. 3533, provided that: "This division [div. J (§§1801–1816) of Pub. L. 115–254, enacting sections 243 and 244 of Title 6, Domestic Security, amending sections 70101 to 70103, and 70112 of this title, and sections 921, 941, 945, and 983 of Title 6, repealing sections 70107A and 70116 of this title and sections 922 and 984 of Title 6, enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 70101, 70102, 70107A, and 70112 of this title, and amending provisions set out as a note under section 70107A of this title] may be cited as the 'Maritime Security Improvement Act of 2018'."

Short Title of 2012 Amendment

Pub. L. 112–213, title V, §501, Dec. 20, 2012, 126 Stat. 1574, provided that: "This title [enacting section 51705 of this title, amending section 55305 of this title, and enacting provisions set out as a note under section 51705 of this title] may be cited as the 'Piracy Suppression Act of 2012'."

Short Title of 2010 Amendment

Pub. L. 111–281, title VI, §601, Oct. 15, 2010, 124 Stat. 2959, provided that: "This title [see Tables for classification] may be cited as the 'Maritime Safety Act of 2010'."

Pub. L. 111–207, §1(a), July 27, 2010, 124 Stat. 2243, provided that: "This Act [enacting sections 3507 and 3508 of this title, amending section 676 of Title 14, Coast Guard, and section 355 of Title 37, Pay and Allowances of the Uniformed Services, enacting provisions set out as notes under section 3507 of this title and section 1828 of Title 16, Conservation, amending provisions set out as a note under section 2720 of Title 33, Navigation and Navigable Waters, and repealing provisions set out as notes under section 70101 of this title and section 637 of Title 14] may be cited as the 'Cruise Vessel Security and Safety Act of 2010'."

Short Title of 2009 Amendment

Pub. L. 111–83, title V, §561(a), Oct. 28, 2009, 123 Stat. 2182, provided that: "This section [amending section 70103 of this title and sections 114 and 40119 of Title 49, Transportation] may be cited as the 'American Communities' Right to Public Information Act'."

Short Title of 2003 Amendment

Pub. L. 108–136, div. C, title XXXV, §3501, Nov. 24, 2003, 117 Stat. 1789, provided that: "This title [see Tables for classification] may be cited as the 'Maritime Security Act of 2003'."

Short Title of 2002 Amendment

Pub. L. 107–295, §1(a), Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2064, provided that: "This Act [see Tables for classification] may be cited as the 'Maritime Transportation Security Act of 2002'."

Pub. L. 107–295, title II, §201, Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2093, provided that: "This title [see Tables for classification] may be cited as the 'Maritime Policy Improvement Act of 2002'."

Short Title of 1999 Amendment

Pub. L. 106–65, div. C, title XXXVI, §3601, Oct. 5, 1999, 113 Stat. 975, provided that: "This title [see Tables for classification] may be cited as the 'Maritime Administration Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2000'."

Short Title of 1998 Amendment

Pub. L. 105–277, div. C, title II, §201, Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–616, provided that: "This title [see Tables for classification] may be cited as the 'American Fisheries Act'."

Short Title of 1996 Amendment

Pub. L. 104–324, title VI, §601, Oct. 19, 1996, 110 Stat. 3927, provided that: "This title [see Tables for classification] may be cited as the 'Coast Guard Regulatory Reform Act of 1996'."

Pub. L. 104–297, title III, §301, Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3615, provided that: "This title [see Tables for classification] may be cited as the 'Fisheries Financing Act'."

Pub. L. 104–239, §1, Oct. 8, 1996, 110 Stat. 3118, provided that: "This Act [see Tables for classification] may be cited as the 'Maritime Security Act of 1996'."

Short Title of 1993 Amendment

Pub. L. 103–206, title V, §501, Dec. 20, 1993, 107 Stat. 2439, provided that: "This title [see Tables for classification] may be cited as the 'Passenger Vessel Safety Act of 1993'."

Short Title of 1992 Amendment

Pub. L. 102–587, title V, §5301, Nov. 4, 1992, 106 Stat. 5081, provided that: "This subtitle [subtitle C (§§5301–5305) of title V of Pub. L. 102–587, see Tables for classification] may be cited as the 'Abandoned Barge Act of 1992'."

Short Title of 1990 Amendment

Pub. L. 101–595, title VI, §601, Nov. 16, 1990, 104 Stat. 2990, provided that: "This title [see Tables for classification] may be cited as the 'Aleutian Trade Act of 1990'."

Short Title of 1988 Amendment

Pub. L. 100–424, §1, Sept. 9, 1988, 102 Stat. 1585, provided that: "This Act [see Tables for classification] may be cited as the 'Commercial Fishing Industry Vessel Safety Act of 1988'."

Pub. L. 100–418, title X, §10001, Aug. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 1570, provided that: "This subtitle [subtitle A (§§10001–10003) of title X of Pub. L. 100–418, see Tables for classification] may be cited as the 'Foreign Shipping Practices Act of 1988'."

Pub. L. 100–239, §1, Jan. 11, 1988, 101 Stat. 1778, provided that: "This Act [see Tables for classification] may be cited as the 'Commercial Fishing Industry Vessel Anti-Reflagging Act of 1987'."

Short Title of 1986 Amendment

Pub. L. 99–626, §1, Nov. 7, 1986, 100 Stat. 3504, provided that: "This act [see Tables for classification] may be cited as the 'Recreational Boating Safety Act of 1986'."

Short Title of 1984 Amendment

Pub. L. 98–498, title II, §210, Oct. 19, 1984, 98 Stat. 2303, provided that: "This subtitle [subtitle A (§§210–214) of title II of Pub. L. 98–498, see Tables for classification] may be cited as the 'Maritime Safety Act of 1984'."

Pub. L. 98–364, title IV, §401, July 17, 1984, 98 Stat. 445, provided that: "This title [see Tables for classification] may be cited as the 'Commercial Fishing Industry Vessel Act'."

Short Title of 1981 Amendment

Pub. L. 97–31, §1, Aug. 6, 1981, 95 Stat. 151, provided: "That this Act [see Tables for classification] may be cited as the 'Maritime Act of 1981'."

Short Title of 1976 Amendment

Pub. L. 94–372, §1, July 31, 1976, 90 Stat. 1042, provided: "That this Act [see Tables for classification] may be cited as the 'Negotiated Shipbuilding Contracting Act of 1976'."

Short Title of 1970 Amendment

Pub. L. 91–469, §44, Oct. 21, 1970, 84 Stat. 1039, provided that: "This Act [see Tables for classification] may be cited as the 'Merchant Marine Act of 1970'."

Short Title of 1936 Amendment

Act June 29, 1936, ch. 858, title IX, §906, 49 Stat. 2016, as amended by Pub. L. 109–304, §19, Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1710, provided that: "This Act [see Tables for classification] may be cited as the Merchant Marine Act, 1936."

§102. Barge

In this title, the term "barge" means a non-self-propelled vessel.

(Pub. L. 109–304, §4, Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1486.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
102 46:2101(2).

§103. Boundary Line

In this title, the term "Boundary Line" means a line established under section 2(b) of the Act of February 19, 1895 (33 U.S.C. 151(b)).

(Pub. L. 109–304, §4, Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1486; Pub. L. 114–120, title III, §306(a)(1), Feb. 8, 2016, 130 Stat. 54.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
103 46:2101(3).

Editorial Notes

Amendments

2016—Pub. L. 114–120 substituted "(33 U.S.C. 151(b))." for "(33 U.S.C. 151)."

§104. Citizen of the United States

In this title, the term "citizen of the United States", when used in reference to a natural person, means an individual who is a national of the United States as defined in section 101(a)(22) of the Immigration and Nationality Act (8 U.S.C. 1101(a)(22)).

(Pub. L. 109–304, §4, Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1486.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
104 46:2101(3a).

The words "when used in reference to a natural person" are added because of provisions in the title which treat entities as citizens. The words "or an individual citizen of the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands who is exclusively domiciled in the Northern Mariana Islands within the meaning of section 1005(e) of the Covenant to Establish a Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands in Political Union with the United States of America (48 U.S.C. 1801 note)" are omitted because the Covenant referred to became effective November 4, 1986, making citizens of the Northern Mariana Islands citizens or non-citizen nationals of the United States.

§105. Consular officer

In this title, the term "consular officer" means an officer or employee of the United States Government designated under regulations to issue visas.

(Pub. L. 109–304, §4, Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1486.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
105 46:2101(6).

§106. Documented vessel

In this title, the term "documented vessel" means a vessel for which a certificate of documentation has been issued under chapter 121 of this title.

(Pub. L. 109–304, §4, Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1486.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
106 46:2101(10).

§107. Exclusive economic zone

In this title, the term "exclusive economic zone" means the zone established by Presidential Proclamation 5030 of March 10, 1983 (16 U.S.C. 1453 note).

(Pub. L. 109–304, §4, Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1487.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
107 46:2101(10a).

§108. Fisheries

In this title, the term "fisheries" includes processing, storing, transporting (except in foreign commerce), planting, cultivating, catching, taking, or harvesting fish, shellfish, marine animals, pearls, shells, or marine vegetation in the navigable waters of the United States or in the exclusive economic zone.

(Pub. L. 109–304, §4, Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1487.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
108 46:12101(a)(1).

§109. Foreign commerce or trade

(a) In General.—In this title, the terms "foreign commerce" and "foreign trade" mean commerce or trade between a place in the United States and a place in a foreign country.

(b) Capital Construction Funds and Construction-Differential Subsidies.—In the context of capital construction funds under chapter 535 of this title, and in the context of construction-differential subsidies under title V of the Merchant Marine Act, 1936, the terms "foreign commerce" and "foreign trade" also include, in the case of liquid and dry bulk cargo carrying services, trading between foreign ports in accordance with normal commercial bulk shipping practices in a manner that will permit bulk vessels of the United States to compete freely with foreign bulk vessels in their operation or competition for charters, subject to regulations prescribed by the Secretary of Transportation.

(Pub. L. 109–304, §4, Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1487.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
109 46 App.:1244(a). June 29, 1936, ch. 858, title IX, §905(a), 49 Stat. 2016; June 23, 1938, ch. 600, §39(a), 52 Stat. 964; Pub. L. 91–469, §28, Oct. 21, 1970, 84 Stat. 1034; Pub. L. 92–402, §2, Aug. 22, 1972, 86 Stat. 617; Pub. L. 97–31, §12(133)(A), Aug. 6, 1981, 95 Stat. 165.

In subsection (a), the words "its Territories or possessions, or the District of Columbia" are omitted because of the definition of "United States" in this chapter.


Editorial Notes

References in Text

The Merchant Marine Act, 1936, referred to in subsec. (b), is act June 29, 1936, ch. 858, 49 Stat. 1985. Title V of the Act enacted provisions set out as notes under section 53101 of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title of 1936 Amendment note set out under section 101 of this title and Tables.

§110. Foreign vessel

In this title, the term "foreign vessel" means a vessel of foreign registry or operated under the authority of a foreign country.

(Pub. L. 109–304, §4, Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1487.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
110 46:2101(12).

§111. Numbered vessel

In this title, the term "numbered vessel" means a vessel for which a number has been issued under chapter 123 of this title.

(Pub. L. 109–304, §4, Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1487.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
111 46:2101(17b).

§112. State

In this title, the term "State" means a State of the United States, the District of Columbia, Guam, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, American Samoa, the Northern Mariana Islands, and any other territory or possession of the United States.

(Pub. L. 109–304, §4, Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1487.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
112 46:2101(36).

§113. Undocumented

In this title, the term "undocumented" means not having and not required to have a certificate of documentation issued under chapter 121 of this title.

(Pub. L. 109–304, §4, Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1487.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
113 46:2101(41).

The words "certificate of documentation" are substituted for "document" for consistency with chapter 121.

§114. United States

In this title, the term "United States", when used in a geographic sense, means the States of the United States, the District of Columbia, Guam, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, American Samoa, the Northern Mariana Islands, and any other territory or possession of the United States.

(Pub. L. 109–304, §4, Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1487.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
114 46:2101(44).
  46 App.:1244(g). June 29, 1936, ch. 858, title IX, §905(g), 49 Stat. 2016; as added Pub. L. 96–453, §3(b), Oct. 15, 1980, 94 Stat. 2008.

The language in 46 App. U.S.C. 1244(g) relating to the areas and installations in the Republic of Panama is omitted because those areas and installations were turned over to Panama by the end of 1999.

§115. Vessel

In this title, the term "vessel" has the meaning given that term in section 3 of title 1.

(Pub. L. 109–304, §4, Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1487.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
115 46:2101(45).

§116. Vessel of the United States

In this title, the term "vessel of the United States" means a vessel documented under chapter 121 of this title (or exempt from documentation under section 12102(c) of this title), numbered under chapter 123 of this title, or titled under the law of a State.

(Pub. L. 109–304, §4, Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1488.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
116 46:2101(46).

CHAPTER 3—FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION

Sec.
301.
General organization.
302.
Quorum.
303.
Meetings.
304.
Delegation of authority.
305.
Regulations.
306.
Annual report.
307.
Expenditures.
308.
Authorization of appropriations.

        

Editorial Notes

Amendments

2018Pub. L. 115–282, title VII, §711(b), Dec. 4, 2018, 132 Stat. 4298, substituted "Meetings" for "Record of meetings and votes" in item 303.

2016Pub. L. 114–120, title IV, §401(b), Feb. 8, 2016, 130 Stat. 67, added item 308.

§301. General organization

(a) Organization.—The Federal Maritime Commission is an independent establishment of the United States Government.

(b) Commissioners.—

(1) Composition.—The Commission is composed of 5 Commissioners, appointed by the President by and with the advice and consent of the Senate. Not more than 3 Commissioners may be appointed from the same political party.

(2) Terms.—The term of each Commissioner is 5 years. When the term of a Commissioner ends, the Commissioner may continue to serve until a successor is appointed and qualified, but for a period not to exceed one year. Except as provided in paragraph (3), no individual may serve more than 2 terms.

(3) Vacancies.—A vacancy shall be filled in the same manner as the original appointment. An individual appointed to fill a vacancy is appointed only for the unexpired term of the individual being succeeded. An individual appointed to fill a vacancy may serve 2 terms in addition to the remainder of the term for which the predecessor of that individual was appointed.

(4) Conflicts of interest.—

(A) Limitation on relationships with regulated entities.—A Commissioner may not have a pecuniary interest in, hold an official relation to, or own stocks or bonds of any entity the Commission regulates under chapter 401 of this title.

(B) Limitation on other activities.—A Commissioner may not engage in another business, vocation, or employment.


(5) Removal.—The President may remove a Commissioner for inefficiency, neglect of duty, or malfeasance in office.


(c) Chairman.—

(1) Designation.—The President shall designate one of the Commissioners as Chairman.

(2) General authority.—The Chairman is the chief executive and administrative officer of the Commission. In carrying out the duties and powers of the Commission (other than under paragraph (3)), the Chairman is subject to the policies, regulatory decisions, findings, and determinations of the Commission.

(3) Particular duties.—

(A) In general.—The Chairman shall—

(i) appoint and supervise officers and employees of the Commission;

(ii) appoint the heads of major organizational units (with such appointments subject to the approval of the Commission);

(iii) distribute the business of the Commission among personnel and organizational units;

(iv) supervise the expenditure of money for administrative purposes;

(v) assign Commission personnel, including Commissioners, to perform duties and powers delegated by the Commission under section 304 of this title; and

(vi) prepare and submit to the President and the Congress requests for appropriations for the Commission (with such requests subject to the approval of the Commission).


(B) Nonapplication.—Subparagraph (A) (other than clause (v)) does not apply to personnel employed regularly and full-time in the offices of Commissioners other than the Chairman.


(4) Delegation.—The Chairman may designate officers and employees under the Chairman's jurisdiction to perform duties and powers of the Chairman, subject to the Chairman's supervision and direction.


(d) Seal.—The Commission shall have a seal which shall be judicially recognized.

(Pub. L. 109–304, §4, Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1488; Pub. L. 113–281, title IV, §403(a), Dec. 18, 2014, 128 Stat. 3056; Pub. L. 114–120, title IV, §402, Feb. 8, 2016, 130 Stat. 67.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
301(a) 46 App.:1111 note. Reorg. Plan No. 7 of 1961, eff. Aug. 12, 1961, §101, 75 Stat. 840.
301(b) 46 App.:1111 note. Reorg. Plan No. 7 of 1961, eff. Aug. 12, 1961, §102(a), (c), 75 Stat. 840; Pub. L. 88–426, title III, §305(19)(A), Aug. 14, 1964, 78 Stat. 425.
  46 App.:1111 note. Pub. L. 89–56, June 30, 1965, 79 Stat. 195.
301(c) 46 App.:1111 note. Reorg. Plan No. 6 of 1949, eff. Aug. 20, 1949, 63 Stat. 1069.
  46 App.:1111 note. Reorg. Plan No. 7 of 1961, eff. Aug. 12, 1961, §§102(b), 104, 105(d), 75 Stat. 840, 841.
301(d) 46 App.:1111(c) (related to seal). June 29, 1936, ch. 858, title II, §201(c) (related to seal), 49 Stat. 1986.

In subsection (a), the words "is an independent establishment" are substituted for "shall not be a part of any executive department or under the authority of the head of any executive department" for consistency with other titles of the United States Code and to eliminate unnecessary words.

In subsection (b)(2), the words "The term of each Commissioner is 5 years, with each term beginning one year apart" are substituted for the language about terms in section 102(c) of Reorganization Plan No. 7 of 1961 (46 App. U.S.C. 1111 note) and the Act of June 30, 1965 (Pub. L. 89–56, 79 Stat. 195), for clarity and to eliminate executed and obsolete language.

In subsection (c), section 104 of Reorganization Plan No. 7 of 1961 is omitted as executed.

Subsection (c)(1) is based on section 102(b) of Reorganization Plan No. 7 of 1961. The words "from time to time" are omitted as unnecessary.

Subsection (c)(2) is based on section 1 of Reorganization Plan No. 6 of 1949.

Subsection (c)(3) is based on section 2 of Reorganization Plan No. 6 of 1949 and section 105(d) of Reorganization Plan No. 7 of 1961.

Subsection (c)(4) is based on section 3 of Reorganization Plan No. 6 of 1949.


Editorial Notes

Amendments

2016—Subsec. (c)(3)(A)(ii). Pub. L. 114–120, §402(1), substituted "units (with such appointments subject to the approval of the Commission);" for "units, but only after consultation with the other Commissioners;".

Subsec. (c)(3)(A)(vi). Pub. L. 114–120, §402(2)–(4), added cl. (vi).

2014—Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 113–281, §403(a)(1), amended par. (2) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "The term of each Commissioner is 5 years, with each term beginning one year apart. An individual appointed to fill a vacancy is appointed only for the unexpired term of the individual being succeeded. A vacancy shall be filled in the same manner as the original appointment. When the term of a Commissioner ends, the Commissioner may continue to serve until a successor is appointed and qualified."

Subsec. (b)(3) to (5). Pub. L. 113–281, §403(a)(2), added pars. (3) and (4) and redesignated former par. (3) as (5).


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Effective Date of 2014 Amendment

Pub. L. 113–281, title IV, §403(b), Dec. 18, 2014, 128 Stat. 3056, provided that: "The amendment made by subsection (a)(1) [amending this section] does not apply with respect to a Commissioner of the Federal Maritime Commission appointed and confirmed by the Senate before the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 18, 2014]."

§302. Quorum

A vacancy or vacancies in the membership of the Federal Maritime Commission do not impair the power of the Commission to execute its functions. The affirmative vote of a majority of the Commissioners serving on the Commission is required to dispose of any matter before the Commission.

(Pub. L. 109–304, §4, Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1489.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
302 46 App.:1111 note. Reorg. Plan No. 7 of 1961, eff. Aug. 12, 1961, §102(d), 75 Stat. 840; Pub. L. 105–258, title II, §202, Oct. 14, 1998, 112 Stat. 1915.

§303. Meetings

(a) In General.—The Federal Maritime Commission shall be deemed to be an agency for purposes of section 552b of title 5.

(b) Record.—The Commission, through its secretary, shall keep a record of its meetings and the votes taken on any action, order, contract, or financial transaction of the Commission.

(c) Nonpublic Collaborative Discussions.—

(1) In general.—Notwithstanding section 552b of title 5, a majority of the Commissioners may hold a meeting that is not open to public observation to discuss official agency business if—

(A) no formal or informal vote or other official agency action is taken at the meeting;

(B) each individual present at the meeting is a Commissioner or an employee of the Commission;

(C) at least 1 Commissioner from each political party is present at the meeting, if applicable; and

(D) the General Counsel of the Commission is present at the meeting.


(2) Disclosure of nonpublic collaborative discussions.—Except as provided under paragraph (3), not later than 2 business days after the conclusion of a meeting under paragraph (1), the Commission shall make available to the public, in a place easily accessible to the public—

(A) a list of the individuals present at the meeting; and

(B) a summary of the matters discussed at the meeting, except for any matters the Commission properly determines may be withheld from the public under section 552b(c) of title 5.


(3) Exception.—If the Commission properly determines matters may be withheld from the public under section 555b(c) 1 of title 5, the Commission shall provide a summary with as much general information as possible on those matters withheld from the public.

(4) Ongoing proceedings.—If a meeting under paragraph (1) directly relates to an ongoing proceeding before the Commission, the Commission shall make the disclosure under paragraph (2) on the date of the final Commission decision.

(5) Preservation of open meetings requirements for agency action.—Nothing in this subsection may be construed to limit the applicability of section 552b of title 5 with respect to a meeting of the Commissioners other than that described in this subsection.

(6) Statutory construction.—Nothing in this subsection may be construed—

(A) to limit the applicability of section 552b of title 5 with respect to any information which is proposed to be withheld from the public under paragraph (2)(B) of this subsection; or

(B) to authorize the Commission to withhold from any individual any record that is accessible to that individual under section 552a of title 5.

(Pub. L. 109–304, §4, Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1489; Pub. L. 115–282, title VII, §711(a), Dec. 4, 2018, 132 Stat. 4297.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
303 46 App.:1111(c) (related to records). June 29, 1936, ch. 858, title II, §201(c) (related to records), 49 Stat. 1986.

The words "true" and "yea-and-nay" are omitted as unnecessary.


Editorial Notes

Amendments

2018—Pub. L. 115–282 amended section generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "The Federal Maritime Commission, through its secretary, shall keep a record of its meetings and the votes taken on any action, order, contract, or financial transaction of the Commission."

1 So in original. Probably should be "section 552b(c)".

§304. Delegation of authority

(a) Delegation.—The Federal Maritime Commission, by published order or regulation, may delegate to a division of the Commission, an individual Commissioner, an employee board, or an officer or employee of the Commission, any of its duties or powers, including those relating to hearing, determining, ordering, certifying, reporting, or otherwise acting on any matter. This subsection does not affect section 556(b) of title 5.

(b) Review.—The Commission may review any action taken under a delegation of authority under subsection (a). The review may be taken on the Commission's own initiative or on the petition of a party to or an intervenor in the action, within the time and in the manner prescribed by the Commission. The vote of a majority of the Commission, less one member, is sufficient to bring an action before the Commission for review.

(c) Deemed Action of Commission.—If the Commission declines review, or if review is not sought, within the time prescribed under subsection (b), the action taken under the delegation of authority is deemed to be the action of the Commission.

(Pub. L. 109–304, §4, Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1489.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
304 46 App.:1111 note. Reorg. Plan No. 7 of 1961, eff. Aug. 12, 1961, §105(a)–(c), 75 Stat. 841.

§305. Regulations

The Federal Maritime Commission may prescribe regulations to carry out its duties and powers.

(Pub. L. 109–304, §4, Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1489.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
305 46 App.:1111(c) (related to rules and regulations). June 29, 1936, ch. 858, title II, §201(c) (related to rules and regulations), 49 Stat. 1986.
  46 App.:1716. Pub. L. 98–237, §17, Mar. 20, 1984, 98 Stat. 84.

The words "to carry out its duties and powers" are substituted for "in regard to its procedure and the conduct of its business" in 46 App. U.S.C. 1111(c) and "to carry out this chapter" in 46 App. U.S.C. 1716(a) for consistency in the revised title. The text of 46 App. U.S.C. 1716(b) is omitted as executed and obsolete.


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Transparency in Unfinished Regulatory Proceedings

Pub. L. 115–282, title VII, §712, Dec. 4, 2018, 132 Stat. 4298, provided that:

"(a) In General.—Beginning not later than 60 days after the date of enactment of this Act [Dec. 4, 2018], the Federal Maritime Commission shall submit to the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate and the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure of the House of Representatives biannual reports that describe the Commission's progress toward addressing the issues raised in each unfinished regulatory proceeding, regardless of whether the proceeding is subject to a statutory or regulatory deadline.

"(b) Format of Reports.—Each report under subsection (a) shall, among other things, clearly identify for each unfinished regulatory proceeding—

"(1) the popular title;

"(2) the current stage of the proceeding;

"(3) an abstract of the proceeding;

"(4) what prompted the action in question;

"(5) any applicable statutory, regulatory, or judicial deadline;

"(6) the associated docket number;

"(7) the date the rulemaking was initiated;

"(8) a date for the next action; and

"(9) if a date for next action identified in the previous report is not met, the reason for the delay."

§306. Annual report

(a) In General.—Not later than April 1 of each year, the Federal Maritime Commission shall submit a report to Congress. The report shall include the results of its investigations, a summary of its transactions, the purposes for which all of its expenditures were made, and any recommendations for legislation.

(b) Report on Foreign Laws and Practices.—The Commission shall include in its annual report to Congress—

(1) a list of the 20 foreign countries that generated the largest volume of oceanborne liner cargo for the most recent calendar year in bilateral trade with the United States;

(2) an analysis of conditions described in section 42302(a) of this title being investigated or found to exist in foreign countries;

(3) any actions being taken by the Commission to offset those conditions;

(4) any recommendations for additional legislation to offset those conditions;

(5) a list of petitions filed under section 42302(b) of this title that the Commission rejected and the reasons for each rejection; and

(6) an analysis of the impacts on competition for the purchase of certain covered services by alliances of ocean common carriers acting pursuant to an agreement under this part 1 between or among ocean common carriers, including a summary of actions, including corrective actions, taken by the Commission to promote such competition.


(c) Definition of Certain Covered Services.—In this section, the term "certain covered services" has the meaning given the term in section 40102.

(Pub. L. 109–304, §4, Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1489; Pub. L. 115–282, title VII, §703, Dec. 4, 2018, 132 Stat. 4294.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
306(a) 46 App.:1118 (related to Commission). June 29, 1936, ch. 858, title II, §208 (related to Commission), 49 Stat. 1988; Pub. L. 94–273, §36, Apr. 21, 1976, 90 Stat. 380; Pub. L. 97–31, §12(65), Aug. 6, 1981, 95 Stat. 159.
306(b) 46 App.:1710a(g). Pub. L. 100–418, title X, §10002(g), Aug. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 1572.

In subsection (a), the words "a statement of all receipts under this chapter" are omitted as inapplicable to the Commission.


Editorial Notes

Amendments

2018—Subsec. (b)(6). Pub. L. 115–282, §703(1), added par. (6).

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 115–282, §703(2), added subsec. (c).

1 So in original. Subtitle I of title 46 does not contain parts.

§307. Expenditures

(a) In General.—The Federal Maritime Commission may make such expenditures as are necessary in the performance of its functions from funds appropriated or otherwise made available to it, which appropriations are authorized.

(b) Prohibition.—Notwithstanding subsection (a), the Federal Maritime Commission may not expend any funds appropriated or otherwise made available to it to a non-Federal entity to issue an award, prize, commendation, or other honor that is not related to the purposes set forth in section 40101.

(Pub. L. 109–304, §4, Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1490; Pub. L. 114–120, title IV, §403, Feb. 8, 2016, 130 Stat. 67.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
307 46 App.:1111(d) (related to Commission). June 29, 1936, ch. 858, title II, §201(d) (related to Commission), 49 Stat. 1986; Pub. L. 97–31, §12(58)(B), Aug. 6, 1981, 95 Stat. 158.

The words "by this chapter", "after June 29, 1936", and "further" are omitted as unnecessary.


Editorial Notes

Amendments

2016—Pub. L. 114–120 designated existing provisions as subsec. (a), inserted heading, and added subsec. (b).

§308. Authorization of appropriations

There is authorized to be appropriated to the Federal Maritime Commission $28,012,310 for fiscal year 2018 and $28,544,543 for fiscal year 2019 for the activities of the Commission authorized under this chapter and subtitle IV.

(Added Pub. L. 114–120, title IV, §401(a), Feb. 8, 2016, 130 Stat. 67; amended Pub. L. 115–282, title VII, §702, Dec. 4, 2018, 132 Stat. 4294.)


Editorial Notes

Amendments

2018—Pub. L. 115–282 substituted "$28,012,310 for fiscal year 2018 and $28,544,543 for fiscal year 2019" for "$24,700,000 for each of fiscal years 2016 and 2017".

CHAPTER 5—OTHER GENERAL PROVISIONS

Sec.
501.
Waiver of navigation and vessel-inspection laws.
502.
Cargo exempt from forfeiture.
503.
Notice of seizure.
504.
Remission of fees and penalties.
505.
Penalty for violating regulation or order.

        

§501. Waiver of navigation and vessel-inspection laws

(a) On Request of Secretary of Defense.—On request of the Secretary of Defense, the head of an agency responsible for the administration of the navigation or vessel-inspection laws shall waive compliance with those laws to the extent the Secretary considers necessary in the interest of national defense.

(b) By Head of Agency.—

(1) In general.—When the head of an agency responsible for the administration of the navigation or vessel-inspection laws considers it necessary in the interest of national defense, the individual, following a determination by the Maritime Administrator, acting in the Administrator's capacity as Director, National Shipping Authority, of the non-availability of qualified United States flag capacity to meet national defense requirements, may waive compliance with those laws to the extent, in the manner, and on the terms the individual, in consultation with the Administrator, acting in that capacity, prescribes.

(2) Determinations.—The Maritime Administrator shall—

(A) for each determination referred to in paragraph (1), identify any actions that could be taken to enable qualified United States flag capacity to meet national defense requirements;

(B) provide notice of each such determination to the Secretary of Transportation and the head of the agency referred to in paragraph (1) for which the determination is made; and

(C) publish each such determination on the Internet Web site of the Department of Transportation not later than 48 hours after notice of the determination is provided to the Secretary of Transportation.


(3) Notice to congress.—

(A) In general.—The head of an agency referred to in paragraph (1) shall notify the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure and the Committee on Armed Services of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation and the Committee on Armed Services of the Senate—

(i) of any request for a waiver of the navigation or vessel-inspection laws under this section not later than 48 hours after receiving such a request; and

(ii) of the issuance of any such waiver not later than 48 hours after such issuance.


(B) Contents.—Such head of an agency shall include in each notification under subparagraph (A)(ii) an explanation of—

(i) the reasons the waiver is necessary; and

(ii) the reasons actions referred to in paragraph (2)(A) are not feasible.


(c) Termination of Authority.—The authority granted by this section shall terminate at such time as the Congress by concurrent resolution or the President may designate.

(Pub. L. 109–304, §4, Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1490; Pub. L. 110–417, div. C, title XXXV, §3510, Oct. 14, 2008, 122 Stat. 4769; Pub. L. 112–213, title III, §301, Dec. 20, 2012, 126 Stat. 1562; Pub. L. 112–239, div. C, title XXXV, §3517(a)(2), Jan. 2, 2013, 126 Stat. 2229.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
501 46 App.:3 note prec. Dec. 27, 1950, ch. 1155, §§1, 2, 64 Stat. 1120.

In subsection (b), the words "When the head of an agency . . . considers it necessary" are substituted for "either upon his own initiative or upon the written recommendation of the head of any other Government agency, when he deems that such action is necessary" to eliminate unnecessary words.


Editorial Notes

Amendments

2013—Subsec. (b)(3)(A). Pub. L. 112–239 substituted "the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure and the Committee on Armed Services of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation and the Committee on Armed Services of the Senate" for "the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate" in introductory provisions.

2012—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 112–213 designated existing provisions as par. (1), inserted par. (1) heading, and added pars. (2) and (3).

2008—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 110–417 reenacted heading without change and amended text generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "When the head of an agency responsible for the administration of the navigation or vessel-inspection laws considers it necessary in the interest of national defense, the individual may waive compliance with those laws to the extent, in the manner, and on the terms the individual prescribes."

§502. Cargo exempt from forfeiture

Cargo on a vessel is exempt from forfeiture under this title if—

(1) the cargo is owned in good faith by a person not the owner, master, or crewmember of the vessel; and

(2) the customs duties on the cargo have been paid or secured for payment as provided by law.

(Pub. L. 109–304, §4, Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1490.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
502 46 App.:326. R.S. §4378.

§503. Notice of seizure

When a forfeiture of a vessel or cargo accrues, the official of the United States Government required to give notice of the seizure of the vessel or cargo shall include in the notice, if they are known to that official, the name and the place of residence of the owner or consignee at the time of the seizure.

(Pub. L. 109–304, §4, Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1490.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
503 46 App.:327. R.S. §4379.

§504. Remission of fees and penalties

Any part of a fee, tax, or penalty paid or a forfeiture incurred under a law or regulation relating to vessels or seamen may be remitted if—

(1) application for the remission is made within one year after the date of the payment or forfeiture; and

(2) it is found that the fee, tax, penalty, or forfeiture was improperly or excessively imposed.

(Pub. L. 109–304, §4, Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1491.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
504 46:2108.

This section replaces 46 U.S.C. 2108, which was enacted as part of the codification of subtitle II of title 46 in 1983. That provision was based on section 26 of the Act of June 26, 1884, ch. 121, 23 Stat. 59, which prior to the subtitle II codification appeared at 46 U.S.C. 8 (1982 ed.). In the enactment of 46 U.S.C. 2108, the scope of the 1884 provision was narrowed, presumably inadvertently. This section restores the remissions authority to its prior scope. Note that 19 C.F.R. §4.24 (2003) still refers to "the authority to make refunds in accordance with section 26 of the Act of June 26, 1884 (46 U.S.C. 8)" as if that provision had not been replaced by 46 U.S.C. 2108 in 1983.

§505. Penalty for violating regulation or order

A person convicted of knowingly and willfully violating a regulation or order of the Federal Maritime Commission or the Secretary of Transportation under subtitle IV or V of this title, for which no penalty is expressly provided, shall be fined not more than $500. Each day of a continuing violation is a separate offense.

(Pub. L. 109–304, §4, Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1491.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
505 46 App.:1228 (last par.). June 29, 1936, ch. 858, title VIII, §806(d); as added Aug. 4, 1939, ch. 417, §13, 53 Stat. 1187; Pub. L. 97–31, §12(125), Aug. 6, 1981, 95 Stat. 164.

Subtitle II—Vessels and Seamen

Part A—General Provisions

Chapter
Sec.
21.
General
2101
23.
Operation of Vessels Generally
2301

        

Part B—Inspection and Regulation of Vessels

31.
General
3101
32.
Management of Vessels
3201
33.
Inspection Generally
3301
35.
Carriage of Passengers
3501
37.
Carriage of Liquid Bulk Dangerous Cargoes
3701
[39.
Repealed.]
41.
Uninspected Vessels Generally
4101
43.
Recreational Vessels
4301
45.
Uninspected Commercial Fishing Industry Vessels
4501
47.
Abandonment of Barges
4701

        

Part C—Load Lines of Vessels

51.
Load Lines
5101

        

Part D—Marine Casualties

61.
Reporting Marine Casualties
6101
63.
Investigating Marine Casualties
6301

        

Part E—Merchant Seamen Licenses, Certificates, and Documents

71.
Licenses and Certificates of Registry
7101
73.
Merchant Mariners' Documents
7301
75.
General Procedures for Licensing, Certification, and Documentation
7501
77.
Suspension and Revocation
7701

        

Part F—Manning of Vessels

81.
General
8101
83.
Masters and Officers
8301
85.
Pilots
8501
87.
Unlicensed Personnel
8701
89.
Small Vessel Manning
8901
91.
Tank Vessel Manning Standards
9101
93.
Great Lakes Pilotage
9301

        

Part G—Merchant Seamen Protection and Relief

101.
General
10101
103.
Foreign and Intercoastal Voyages
10301
105.
Coastwise Voyages
10501
106.
Fishing Voyages
10601
107.
Effects of Deceased Seamen
10701
109.
Proceedings on Unseaworthiness
10901
111.
Protection and Relief
11101
112.
Merchant Mariner Benefits
11201
113.
Official Logbooks
11301
115.
Offenses and Penalties
11501

        

Part H—Identification of Vessels

121.
Documentation of Vessels
12101
123.
Numbering Undocumented Vessels
12301
125.
Vessel Identification System
12501

        

Part I—State Boating Safety Programs

131.
Recreational Boating Safety
13101

        

Part J—Measurement of Vessels

141.
General
14101
143.
Convention Measurement
14301
145.
Regulatory Measurement
14501
147.
Penalties
14701

        

Part K—National Maritime Transportation Advisory Committees

151.
National Maritime Transportation Advisory Committees
15101

        

Editorial Notes

Amendments

2018Pub. L. 115–282, title VI, §601(b), Dec. 4, 2018, 132 Stat. 4289, added item for part K.

2006Pub. L. 109–304, §15(1), Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1702, in each chapter item, capitalized first letter of each word containing 4 or more letters, struck out item for chapter 39 "Carriage of animals", and substituted "Uninspected Commercial Fishing Industry Vessels" for "Fish processing vessels" in item 45.

2000Pub. L. 106–398, §1 [[div. A], title X, §1087(g)(6)], Oct. 30, 2000, 114 Stat. 1654, 1654A-294, substituted "mariner benefits" for "Mariner Benefits" in item 112.

1998Pub. L. 105–368, title IV, §402(b), Nov. 11, 1998, 112 Stat. 3337, added item 112.

1996Pub. L. 104–324, title VI, §602(b), Oct. 19, 1996, 110 Stat. 3930, added item 32.

1992Pub. L. 102–587, title V, §5304, Nov. 4, 1992, 106 Stat. 5083, added item 47.

1988Pub. L. 100–710, title I, §101(b), Nov. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 4738, added item 125.

Pub. L. 100–424, §6(b), Sept. 9, 1988, 102 Stat. 1592, added item 106.

1986Pub. L. 99–509, title V, §5101(1), Oct. 21, 1986, 100 Stat. 1913, inserted items for parts C and J.

1985Pub. L. 99–36, §1(a)(9)(A), May 15, 1985, 99 Stat. 67, substituted "Merchant Seamen Licenses, Certifications, and" for "Licenses, Certificates, and Merchant Mariners' " in heading for part E.

1984Pub. L. 98–364, title IV, §402(7)(A), July 17, 1984, 98 Stat. 446, inserted "generally" in item 41, reenacted item 43 without change, and added item 45.

Part A—General Provisions

Historical and Revision Notes

Part A contains general provisions that apply throughout the subtitle and provisions that apply generally to the operation of all vessels.

CHAPTER 21—GENERAL

Sec.
2101.
General definitions.
2102.
Limited definitions.
2103.
Superintendence of the merchant marine.
2104.
Delegation.
2105.
Report.
2106.
Liability in rem.
2107.
Civil penalty procedures.
[2108.
Repealed.]
2109.
Public vessels.
2110.
Fees.
2111.
Pay for overtime services.
2112.
Authority to change working hours.
2113.
Authority to exempt certain vessels.
2114.
Protection of seamen against discrimination.
2115.
Civil penalty to enforce alcohol and dangerous drug testing.
2116.
Marine safety strategy, goals, and performance assessments.
2117.
Termination for unsafe operation.
2118.
Establishment of equipment standards.

        

Historical and Revision Notes

Chapter 21 contains definitions that are general in nature and applicable to all references within Subtitle II—Vessels and Seamen. The chapter provides the basic authority and responsibility for the enforcement and administration of this subtitle with appropriate delegation and reporting requirements.


Editorial Notes

Amendments

2010Pub. L. 111–281, title V, §522(b), title VI, §608(b), Oct. 15, 2010, 124 Stat. 2957, 2968, added items 2116 to 2118.

2008Pub. L. 110–181, div. C, title XXXV, §3529(a)(1), Jan. 28, 2008, 122 Stat. 603, struck out item 2108 "Refund of penalties".

1996Pub. L. 104–324, title III, §303(b), Oct. 19, 1996, 110 Stat. 3917, added item 2115.

1990Pub. L. 101–508, title X, §10401(b), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1388–398, substituted "Fees" for "Fees prohibited" in item 2110.

1984Pub. L. 98–557, §13(b), Oct. 30, 1984, 98 Stat. 2864, added item 2114.

§2101. General definitions

In this subtitle—

(1) "associated equipment"—

(A) means—

(i) a system, accessory, component, or appurtenance of a recreational vessel; or

(ii) a marine safety article intended for use on board a recreational vessel; but


(B) with the exception of emergency locator beacons for recreational vessels operating beyond 3 nautical miles from the baselines from which the territorial sea of the United States is measured or beyond 3 nautical miles from the coastline of the Great Lakes, does not include radio equipment.


(2) "Coast Guard" means the organization established and continued under section 1 1 of title 14.

(3) "Commandant" means the Commandant of the Coast Guard.

(4) "commercial service" includes any type of trade or business involving the transportation of goods or individuals, except service performed by a combatant vessel.

(5) "consideration" means an economic benefit, inducement, right, or profit including pecuniary payment accruing to an individual, person, or entity, but not including a voluntary sharing of the actual expenses of the voyage, by monetary contribution or donation of fuel, food, beverage, or other supplies.

(6) "crude oil" means a liquid hydrocarbon mixture occurring naturally in the earth, whether or not treated to render it suitable for transportation, and includes crude oil from which certain distillate fractions may have been removed, and crude oil to which certain distillate fractions may have been added.

(7) "crude oil tanker" means a tanker engaged in the trade of carrying crude oil.

(8) "dangerous drug" means a narcotic drug, a controlled substance, or a controlled substance analog (as defined in section 102 of the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970 (21 U.S.C. 802)).

(9) "discharge", when referring to a substance discharged from a vessel, includes spilling, leaking, pumping, pouring, emitting, emptying, or dumping, however caused.

(10) "ferry" means a vessel that is used on a regular schedule—

(A) to provide transportation only between places that are not more than 300 miles apart; and

(B) to transport only—

(i) passengers; or

(ii) vehicles, or railroad cars, that are being used, or have been used, in transporting passengers or goods.


(11) "fish" means finfish, mollusks, crustaceans, and all other forms of marine animal and plant life, except marine mammals and birds.

(12) "fishing vessel" means a vessel that commercially engages in the catching, taking, or harvesting of fish or an activity that can reasonably be expected to result in the catching, taking, or harvesting of fish.

(13) "fish processing vessel" means a vessel that commercially prepares fish or fish products other than by gutting, decapitating, gilling, skinning, shucking, icing, freezing, or brine chilling.

(14) "fish tender vessel" means a vessel that commercially supplies, stores, refrigerates, or transports fish, fish products, or materials directly related to fishing or the preparation of fish to or from a fishing, fish processing, or fish tender vessel or a fish processing facility.

(15) "freight vessel" means a motor vessel of more than 15 gross tons as measured under section 14502 of this title, or an alternate tonnage measured under section 14302 of this title as prescribed by the Secretary under section 14104 of this title that carries freight for hire, except an oceanographic research vessel or an offshore supply vessel.

(16) "Great Lakes barge" means a non-self-propelled vessel of at least 3,500 gross tons as measured under section 14502 of this title, or an alternate tonnage measured under section 14302 of this title as prescribed by the Secretary under section 14104 of this title operating on the Great Lakes.

(17) "hazardous material" means a liquid material or substance that is—

(A) flammable or combustible;

(B) designated a hazardous substance under section 311(b) of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act (33 U.S.C. 1321); or

(C) designated a hazardous material under section 5103(a) of title 49.


(18) "major conversion" means a conversion of a vessel that—

(A) substantially changes the dimensions or carrying capacity of the vessel;

(B) changes the type of the vessel;

(C) substantially prolongs the life of the vessel; or

(D) otherwise so changes the vessel that it is essentially a new vessel, as decided by the Secretary.


(19) "marine environment" means—

(A) the navigable waters of the United States and the land and resources in and under those waters;

(B) the waters and fishery resources of an area over which the United States asserts exclusive fishery management authority;

(C) the seabed and subsoil of the outer Continental Shelf of the United States, the resources of the Shelf, and the waters superjacent to the Shelf; and

(D) the recreational, economic, and scenic values of the waters and resources referred to in subclauses (A)–(C) of this clause.


(20) "mobile offshore drilling unit" means a vessel capable of engaging in drilling operations for the exploration or exploitation of subsea resources.

(21) "motor vessel" means a vessel propelled by machinery other than steam.

(22) "nautical school vessel" means a vessel operated by or in connection with a nautical school or an educational institution under section 558 of title 40.

(23) "navigable waters of the United States" includes all waters of the territorial sea of the United States as described in Presidential Proclamation No. 5928 of December 27, 1988.

(24) "oceanographic research vessel" means a vessel that the Secretary finds is being employed only in instruction in oceanography or limnology, or both, or only in oceanographic or limnological research, including studies about the sea such as seismic, gravity meter, and magnetic exploration and other marine geophysical or geological surveys, atmospheric research, and biological research.

(25) "offshore supply vessel" means a motor vessel that regularly carries goods, supplies, individuals in addition to the crew, or equipment in support of exploration, exploitation, or production of offshore mineral or energy resources.

(26) "oil" includes oil of any type or in any form, including petroleum, fuel oil, sludge, oil refuse, and oil mixed with wastes except dredged spoil.

(27) "oil spill response vessel" means a vessel that is designated in its certificate of inspection as such a vessel, or that is adapted to respond to a discharge of oil or a hazardous material.

(28) "overall in length" means—

(A) for a foreign vessel or a vessel engaged on a foreign voyage, the greater of—

(i) 96 percent of the length on a waterline at 85 percent of the least molded depth measured from the top of the keel (or on a vessel designed with a rake of keel, on a waterline parallel to the designed waterline); or

(ii) the length from the fore side of the stem to the axis of the rudder stock on that waterline; and


(B) for any other vessel, the horizontal distance of the hull between the foremost part of the stem and the aftermost part of the stern, excluding fittings and attachments.


(29) "passenger"—

(A) means an individual carried on the vessel except—

(i) the owner or an individual representative of the owner or, in the case of a vessel under charter, an individual charterer or individual representative of the charterer;

(ii) the master; or

(iii) a member of the crew engaged in the business of the vessel who has not contributed consideration for carriage and who is paid for on board services;


(B) on an offshore supply vessel, means an individual carried on the vessel except—

(i) an individual included in clause (i), (ii), or (iii) of subparagraph (A) of this paragraph;

(ii) an employee of the owner, or of a subcontractor to the owner, engaged in the business of the owner;

(iii) an employee of the charterer, or of a subcontractor to the charterer, engaged in the business of the charterer; or

(iv) an individual employed in a phase of exploration, exploitation, or production of offshore mineral or energy resources served by the vessel;


(C) on a fishing vessel, fish processing vessel, or fish tender vessel, means an individual carried on the vessel except—

(i) an individual included in clause (i), (ii), or (iii) of subparagraph (A) of this paragraph;

(ii) a managing operator;

(iii) an employee of the owner, or of a subcontractor to the owner, engaged in the business of the owner;

(iv) an employee of the charterer, or of a subcontractor to the charterer, engaged in the business of the charterer; or

(v) an observer or sea sampler on board the vessel pursuant to a requirement of State or Federal law; or


(D) on a sailing school vessel, means an individual carried on the vessel except—

(i) an individual included in clause (i), (ii), or (iii) of subparagraph (A) of this paragraph;

(ii) an employee of the owner of the vessel engaged in the business of the owner, except when the vessel is operating under a demise charter;

(iii) an employee of the demise charterer of the vessel engaged in the business of the demise charterer; or

(iv) a sailing school instructor or sailing school student.


(30) "passenger for hire" means a passenger for whom consideration is contributed as a condition of carriage on the vessel, whether directly or indirectly flowing to the owner, charterer, operator, agent, or any other person having an interest in the vessel.

(31) "passenger vessel" means a vessel of at least 100 gross tons as measured under section 14502 of this title, or an alternate tonnage measured under section 14302 of this title as prescribed by the Secretary under section 14104 of this title—

(A) carrying more than 12 passengers, including at least one passenger for hire;

(B) that is chartered and carrying more than 12 passengers;

(C) that is a submersible vessel carrying at least one passenger for hire; or

(D) that is a ferry carrying a passenger.


(32) "product carrier" means a tanker engaged in the trade of carrying oil except crude oil.

(33) "public vessel" means a vessel that—

(A) is owned, or demise chartered, and operated by the United States Government or a government of a foreign country; and

(B) is not engaged in commercial service.


(34) "recreational vessel" means a vessel—

(A) being manufactured or operated primarily for pleasure; or

(B) leased, rented, or chartered to another for the latter's pleasure.


(35) "recreational vessel manufacturer" means a person engaged in the manufacturing, construction, assembly, or importation of recreational vessels, components, or associated equipment.

(36) "riding gang member" means an individual who—

(A) has not been issued a merchant mariner document under chapter 73;

(B) does not perform—

(i) watchstanding, automated engine room duty watch, or personnel safety functions; or

(ii) cargo handling functions, including any activity relating to the loading or unloading of cargo, the operation of cargo-related equipment (whether or not integral to the vessel), and the handling of mooring lines on the dock when the vessel is made fast or let go;


(C) does not serve as part of the crew complement required under section 8101;

(D) is not a member of the steward's department; and

(E) is not a citizen or temporary or permanent resident of a country designated by the United States as a sponsor of terrorism or any other country that the Secretary, in consultation with the Secretary of State and the heads of other appropriate United States agencies, determines to be a security threat to the United States.


(37) "sailing instruction" means teaching, research, and practical experience in operating vessels propelled primarily by sail and may include—

(A) any subject related to that operation and to the sea, including seamanship, navigation, oceanography, other nautical and marine sciences, and maritime history and literature; and

(B) only when in conjunction with a subject referred to in subclause (A) of this clause, instruction in mathematics and language arts skills to sailing school students having learning disabilities.


(38) "sailing school instructor" means an individual who is on board a sailing school vessel to provide sailing instruction, but does not include an operator or crewmember who is among those required to be on board the vessel to meet a requirement established under part F of this subtitle.

(39) "sailing school student" means an individual who is on board a sailing school vessel to receive sailing instruction.

(40) "sailing school vessel" means a vessel—

(A) that is less than 500 gross tons as measured under section 14502 of this title, or an alternate tonnage measured under section 14302 of this title as prescribed by the Secretary under section 14104 of this title;

(B) carrying more than 6 individuals who are sailing school instructors or sailing school students;

(C) principally equipped for propulsion by sail, even if the vessel has an auxiliary means of propulsion; and

(D) owned or demise chartered, and operated by an organization described in section 501(c)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 (26 U.S.C. 501(c)(3)) and exempt from tax under section 501(a) of that Code, or by a State or political subdivision of a State, during times that the vessel is operated by the organization, State, or political subdivision only for sailing instruction.


(41)(A) Subject to subparagraph (B), "scientific personnel" means individuals on board an oceanographic research vessel only to engage in scientific research, or to instruct or receive instruction in oceanography or limnology.

(B)(i) Such term includes an individual who is on board an oceanographic research vessel only to—

(I) engage in scientific research;

(II) instruct in oceanography or limnology; or

(III) receive instruction in oceanography or limnology.


(ii) For purposes of clause (i), the age of an individual may not be considered in determining whether the individual is described in such clause.

(42) "seagoing barge" means a non-self-propelled vessel of at least 100 gross tons as measured under section 14502 of this title, or an alternate tonnage measured under section 14302 of this title as prescribed by the Secretary under section 14104 of this title making voyages beyond the Boundary Line.

(43) "seagoing motor vessel" means a motor vessel of at least 300 gross tons as measured under section 14502 of this title, or an alternate tonnage measured under section 14302 of this title as prescribed by the Secretary under section 14104 of this title making voyages beyond the Boundary Line.

(44) "Secretary" means the Secretary of the department in which the Coast Guard is operating.

(45) "small passenger vessel" means a wing-in-ground craft, regardless of tonnage, carrying at least one passenger for hire, and a vessel of less than 100 gross tons as measured under section 14502 of this title, or an alternate tonnage measured under section 14302 of this title as prescribed by the Secretary under section 14104 of this title—

(A) carrying more than 6 passengers, including at least one passenger for hire;

(B) that is chartered with the crew provided or specified by the owner or the owner's representative and carrying more than 6 passengers;

(C) that is chartered with no crew provided or specified by the owner or the owner's representative and carrying more than 12 passengers;

(D) that is a submersible vessel carrying at least one passenger for hire; or

(E) that is a ferry carrying more than 6 passengers.


(46) "steam vessel" means a vessel propelled in whole or in part by steam, except a recreational vessel of not more than 40 feet in length.

(47) "submersible vessel" means a vessel that is capable of operating below the surface of the water.

(48) "tanker" means a self-propelled tank vessel constructed or adapted primarily to carry oil or hazardous material in bulk in the cargo spaces.

(49) "tank vessel" means a vessel that is constructed or adapted to carry, or that carries, oil or hazardous material in bulk as cargo or cargo residue, and that—

(A) is a vessel of the United States;

(B) operates on the navigable waters of the United States; or

(C) transfers oil or hazardous material in a port or place subject to the jurisdiction of the United States.


(50) "towing vessel" means a commercial vessel engaged in or intending to engage in the service of pulling, pushing, or hauling along side, or any combination of pulling, pushing, or hauling along side.

(51) "uninspected passenger vessel" means an uninspected vessel—

(A) of at least 100 gross tons as measured under section 14502 of this title, or an alternate tonnage measured under section 14302 of this title as prescribed by the Secretary under section 14104 of this title—

(i) carrying not more than 12 passengers, including at least one passenger for hire; or

(ii) that is chartered with the crew provided or specified by the owner or the owner's representative and carrying not more than 12 passengers; and


(B) of less than 100 gross tons as measured under section 14502 of this title, or an alternate tonnage measured under section 14302 of this title as prescribed by the Secretary under section 14104 of this title—

(i) carrying not more than 6 passengers, including at least one passenger for hire; or

(ii) that is chartered with the crew provided or specified by the owner or the owner's representative and carrying not more than 6 passengers.


(52) "uninspected vessel" means a vessel not subject to inspection under section 3301 of this title that is not a recreational vessel.

(53) "vessel of war" means a vessel—

(A) belonging to the armed forces of a country;

(B) bearing the external marks distinguishing vessels of war of that country;

(C) under the command of an officer commissioned by the government of that country and whose name appears in the appropriate service list or its equivalent; and

(D) staffed by a crew under regular armed forces discipline.


(54) "wing-in-ground craft" means a vessel that is capable of operating completely above the surface of the water on a dynamic air cushion created by aerodynamic lift due to the ground effect between the vessel and the water's surface.

(Pub. L. 98–89, Aug. 26, 1983, 97 Stat. 501; Pub. L. 98–364, title IV, §402(1), July 17, 1984, 98 Stat. 445; Pub. L. 98–454, title III, §301(a), Oct. 5, 1984, 98 Stat. 1734; Pub. L. 98–557, §34(a), Oct. 30, 1984, 98 Stat. 2876; Pub. L. 99–307, §1(1), (2), May 19, 1986, 100 Stat. 444; Pub. L. 99–509, title V, §5102(b)(1), Oct. 21, 1986, 100 Stat. 1926; Pub. L. 99–514, §2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095; Pub. L. 99–640, §§10(b)(1), 11(a), 13(d), Nov. 10, 1986, 100 Stat. 3549–3551; Pub. L. 100–239, §6(a)(1), Jan. 11, 1988, 101 Stat. 1781; Pub. L. 100–424, §8(c)(1), Sept. 9, 1988, 102 Stat. 1593; Pub. L. 100–710, title I, §104(a)(1), (2), Nov. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 4749; Pub. L. 101–225, title II, §209, Dec. 12, 1989, 103 Stat. 1913; Pub. L. 101–380, title IV, §4103(a)(2)(A), Aug. 18, 1990, 104 Stat. 511; Pub. L. 101–595, title VI, §603(1), Nov. 16, 1990, 104 Stat. 2993; Pub. L. 102–587, title V, §5208(a), Nov. 4, 1992, 106 Stat. 5075; Pub. L. 103–206, title V, §§502–510, Dec. 20, 1993, 107 Stat. 2439–2441; Pub. L. 103–272, §5(l), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1375; Pub. L. 104–324, title VII, §709, title XI, §1104(a), Oct. 19, 1996, 110 Stat. 3934, 3966; Pub. L. 105–383, title III, §301(b)(1), Nov. 13, 1998, 112 Stat. 3417; Pub. L. 107–217, §3(m)(1), Aug. 21, 2002, 116 Stat. 1302; Pub. L. 107–295, title IV, §419, Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2124; Pub. L. 109–241, title III, §§301, 312(b), July 11, 2006, 120 Stat. 526, 533; Pub. L. 109–304, §15(2), Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1702; Pub. L. 111–281, title VI, §§617(a)(1)(A), 618, Oct. 15, 2010, 124 Stat. 2972, 2975; Pub. L. 111–330, §1(9), Dec. 22, 2010, 124 Stat. 3570; Pub. L. 115–232, div. C, title XXXV, §3541(a)(1), Aug. 13, 2018, 132 Stat. 2322; Pub. L. 115–282, title V, §515, Dec. 4, 2018, 132 Stat. 4279.)

Historical and Revision Notes

A number of definitions are provided because of the need to define jurisdictional and applicability limits of various sections to the many types and classes of vessels.

 
Revised sectionSource section (U.S. Code)
2101(1) 46:1452(8)
2101(2) ..............................................
2101(3) ..............................................
2101(4) 14:1
2101(5) 46:391a(2)(H)
2101(6) ..............................................
2101(7) 46:391a(2)(S)
2101(8) 46:391a(2)(N)
2101(9) 46:391a(2)(A)
2101(10) 46:65(1)
2101(11) 46:65(2)
2101(12) 46:391a(2)(B)

46:597

46:599

2101(13) 46:404

46:390(e)

2101(14) 46:391a(2)(C)
2101(15) 46:391a(2)(D)
2101(16) 46:361

46:367

46:404

2101(17) 46:404

46:1295f(c)

46:1295g(e)(1)

2101(18) 46:441(1)
2101(19) 46:404–1(1)
2101(20) 46:391a(2)(E)
2101(21) 46:390(a)

46:404–1(4)

46:1452(5)

2101(22) 46:391(c)
2101(23) 46:391a(2)(O)
2101(24) 46:391a(2)(G)
2101(25) 46:1452(1)(A), (B)
2101(26) 46:1452(7)
2101(27) 46:390(f)
2101(28) 46:390(h)
2101(29) 46:390(i)
2101(30) 46:390(g)
2101(31) 46:441(2)
2101(32) 46:395(e)
2101(33) 46:367
2101(34) 33:151

46:216(b)

46:239a(b)

46:390(d)

46:391a(2)(I)

46:405(b)(1)(A)

46:481(a)

46:672(a)

46:1452(9)

2101(35) 46:390(b)
2101(36) ..............................................
2101(37) 46:361
2101(38) 46:391a(2)(M)
2101(39) 46:391a(3)
2101(40) 46:405
2101(41) 46:1452(3)
2101(42) 46:1452(1)(C)
2101(43) 46:526
2101(44) ..............................................
2101(45) 1:3

46:1452(2)

2101(46) 46:391a(2)(L)

Section 2101(1) defines the type of "associated equipment" that is involved in the use of recreational boats that are subject to Federal regulatory authority. This equipment is subject to a number of controls under federally established construction and performance standards. Radio equipment is exempt from these regulatory controls, since this equipment continues to be regulated by the Federal Communications Commission.

Section 2101(2) defines "barge" as a vessel that is non-self-propelled and that is often pushed ahead, towed alongside, or towed astern on a hawser by a towing vessel. It does not include a vessel that is propelled by sail only.

Section 2101(3) defines "boundary line" for the establishment of jurisdictional parameters for various maritime safety laws. Public Law 96–324, codified at 33 U.S.C. 151, permits the Secretary to establish appropriate identifiable lines dividing inland waters of the U.S. from the high seas for the purpose of determining the applicability of these laws. These laws will now be included within subtitle II of title 46—Shipping. These lines may not be located more than twelve nautical miles seaward of the baseline from which the territorial sea is measured and may differ in position for the purposes of different parts or sections of subtitle II.

Section 2101(4) defines "Coast Guard".

Section 2101(5) provides that wherever the term "commercial service" is used it is to include all vessels except those that are primarily used for combatant purposes. This is to make sure that vessels that are engaged in the transportation of goods or individuals are subject to the applicable maritime and environmental safety laws, even if they are sovereign controlled vessels.

Section 2101(6) defines "consular officer" as one who has authority to issue visas. Traditionally this person is knowledgeable and familiar with the maritime safety and seamen's welfare laws.

Section 2101(7) defines "crude oil" because certain equipment requirements like inert gas systems, segregated ballast tanks, crude oil washing systems or special ballast arrangements are applicable only to tank vessels that carry crude oil. Crude oil is still included within the definition of "hazardous material" and "oil".

Section 2101(8) defines a "crude oil tanker" as one engaged in carrying crude oil. The definition does not include a tank barge since a tanker is defined as a self-propelled tank vessel. See also 2101(38).

Section 2101(9) makes it clear that the term "discharge" when referring to a substance that emanates from a vessel and is related to the marine environmental laws concerning pollution by oil or hazardous substances.

Section 2101(10) defines a "documented vessel" as any vessel of the United States that has been issued a certificate of documentation that might include a register, enrollment, license, or enrollment and license for various trades.

Section 2101(11) lists what is included in the term "fisheries" for the purpose of documentation of vessels and is intended to be all-inclusive of the numerous types of fishing activities.

Section 2101(12) defines "foreign vessel" as any foreign flag or foreign operated vessel that is operated under the jurisdiction or authority of a government other than the United States.

Section 2101(13) defines a "freight vessel" as a motor vessel or any vessel propelled by diesel or other internal combustion engines and that carries freight for hire.

Section 2101(14) defines "hazardous materials" as a broad range of materials that are not only flammable or combustible but are also designated under related maritime safety and environmental laws.

Section 2101(15) defines "marine environment" as an all-inclusive term that was developed to cover land and water areas that could be affected by pollution from all vessels and not only tank vessels.

Section 2101(16) defines "motor vessel" as a vessel propelled by machinery other than steam to make it clear that these vessels are not steam vessels.

Section 2101(17) defines "nautical school vessel" as a vessel that can be a privately owned and operated as well as a publicly owned and operated school vessel.

Section 2101(18) defines "oceanographic research vessel" as a vessel employed in oceanography or limnology research or instruction. It is defined because this type of vessel, while not inspected and certified as such, is subject to a number of special statutory and regulatory requirements.

Section 2101(19) defines "offshore supply vessel" as a class of vessel that is limited by tonnage and its employment in the mineral and oil industry and while so employed it is not a small passenger vessel.

Section 2101(20) defines "oil" to include oil of any type, in any form, or in any mixture. This is the definition that originated with marine environment and pollution laws and continues the definition that was adopted by port and tanker safety laws.

Section 2101(21) defines the term "passengers" in relation to various types of vessels. Due to the complexity of existing laws with respect to the definitions of "passenger" on various categories of vessels and the need to not make any changes of a substantive nature that could be construed as controversial, four definitions of "passenger" have been included.

Section 2101(22) defines "passenger vessel" as one that is at least 100 gross tons and carries at least one passenger for hire.

Section 2101(23) defines "product carrier" as a tanker that is engaged in carrying oil. This definition when read with the definition of tanker means that it is a self-propelled vessel. A tank barge carrying oil products is a tank vessel but is not subject to the special standards or requirements for a product carrier.

Section 2101(24) defines a "public vessel" as a governmental vessel that is not in commercial service. It should be noted that a sovereign-controlled foreign-flag vessel that is engaged in commercial service is not a public vessel and is subject to maritime safety and environment laws.

Section 2101(25) defines a "recreational vessel" as a class of vessel whose primary purpose is for pleasure. These vessels while not subject to inspection are subject to certain requirements of law to improve boating safety.

Section 2101(26) defines a "recreational vessel manufacturer" as one that is involved with not only the recreational vessels themselves but also with their components or associated equipment.

Section 2101(27), (28), (29), and (30) provides a number of definitions that define the type of instruction, instructor, student, and vessel that is involved in the teaching of sailing.

Section 2101(31) defines "scientific personnel" as individuals engaged in oceanography or limnology because they are specially treated under various maritime safety requirements.

Section 2101(32) defines a "seagoing barge" as a vessel that is at least 100 gross tons making voyages to sea beyond the boundary line.

Section 2101(33) defines a "seagoing motor vessel" as a vessel that must be a motor vessel, as defined in 2101(15), of at least 300 gross tons making voyages to sea beyond the boundary line.

Section 2101(34) defines "Secretary" so that maritime safety and seamen's welfare jurisdiction remains within the Coast Guard at all times.

Section 2101(35) defines "small passenger vessel" as one that is less than 100 gross tons carrying more than six passengers as defined in section 2101(21).

Section 2101(36) defines "State" as a State, territory or possession of the United States and is used to establish jurisdictional limits for the application of the various maritime safety and environmental safety laws of this subtitle. This definition is further limited by definitions in section 2102 that relate to recreational boating safety and facility improvement programs.

Section 2101(37) defines a "steam vessel" as a vessel propelled by steam. However, steam vessels of not more than 40 feet that are used exclusively for pleasure are not included.

Section 2101(38) defines "tanker" as a self-propelled tank vessel that has been constructed or primarily adapted to carry oil or hazardous material in bulk in the cargo spaces. This vessel is a subclass of tank vessel, which is defined in section 2101(39). This subclass definition is necessary because certain statutory minimum requirements that are consistent with internationally accepted standards are solely applicable to these vessels.

Section 2101(39) defines a "tank vessel" as a vessel carrying oil or hazardous materials in bulk or residue including a tanker as defined in section 2101(38).

Section 2101(40) defines "towing vessel" as a vessel in commercial service that pushes, pulls, or tows alongside and includes what is traditionally known as a tug.

Section 2101(41) defines "undocumented" which, in part, facilitates the classification of vessels that may be numbered by the proper issuing authority in a State.

Section 2101(42) defines an "uninspected passenger vessel" as a vessel carrying six or less passengers.

Section 2101(43) defines an "uninspected vessel" as a vessel not subject to inspection and certification by the Coast Guard under section 3301. Recreational vessels and inland towing vessels are typical uninspected vessels.

Section 2101(44) defines "United States" to establish geographical boundaries for the applicability of the various maritime safety and environmental safety laws of this subtitle. This definition is further limited by definitions in section 2102 that relate to recreational boating safety and facility improvement programs.

Section 2101(45) makes it clear that "vessel" as used in this subtitle has the same meaning as is provided in section 3 of title 1, of the U.S.C.

Section 2101(46) defines "vessel of the United States" as a vessel that is documented or numbered under the laws of the United States. A documented vessel and those vessels that are numbered by a State or Federal authority are afforded the protection of the laws of the United States.


Editorial Notes

References in Text

Section 1 of title 14, referred to in par. (2), was redesignated section 101 of title 14 by Pub. L. 115–282, title I, §103(b), Dec. 4, 2018, 132 Stat. 4195, and references to section 1 of title 14 deemed to refer to such redesignated section, see section 123(b)(1) of Pub. L. 115–282, set out as a References to Sections of Title 14 as Redesignated by Pub. L. 115–282 note preceding section 101 of Title 14, Coast Guard.

Presidential Proclamation No. 5928, referred to in par. (23), is set out under section 1331 of Title 43, Public Lands.

Amendments

2018—Pub. L. 115–232 added undesignated par. defining "Commandant" after par. (4), substituted period for semicolon at end of par. (14), and redesignated pars. (1) to (48) as (1) to (54), respectively.

Par. (41). Pub. L. 115–282 designated existing provisions as subpar. (A), inserted "Subject to subparagraph (B)," before " 'scientific personnel' " and added subpar. (B).

2010—Par. (1)(B). Pub. L. 111–281, §618, as amended by Pub. L. 111–330, inserted "with the exception of emergency locator beacons for recreational vessels operating beyond 3 nautical miles from the baselines from which the territorial sea of the United States is measured or beyond 3 nautical miles from the coastline of the Great Lakes," before "does not include".

Par. (19). Pub. L. 111–281, §617(a)(1)(A), struck out "of more than 15 gross tons but less than 500 gross tons as measured under section 14502 of this title, or an alternate tonnage measured under section 14302 of this title as prescribed by the Secretary under section 14104 of this title" after "means a motor vessel".

2006—Pars. (2) to (3a). Pub. L. 109–304, §15(2)(A), struck out pars. (2), (3), and (3a), which defined "barge", "Boundary Line", and "citizen of the United States", respectively. See sections 102, 103, and 104 of this title.

Par. (6). Pub. L. 109–304, §15(2)(A), struck out par. (6) which read as follows: " 'consular officer' means an officer or employee of the United States Government designated under regulations to grant visas." See section 105 of this title.

Par. (8a). Pub. L. 109–304, §15(2)(B), inserted "Prevention" after "Abuse".

Pars. (10), (10a). Pub. L. 109–304, §15(2)(A), struck out pars. (10) and (10a) which defined "documented vessel" and "Exclusive Economic Zone", respectively. See sections 106 and 107 of this title.

Par. (10b). Pub. L. 109–241, §301(a), added par. (10b).

Par. (12). Pub. L. 109–304, §15(2)(A), struck out par. (12) which read as follows: " 'foreign vessel' means a vessel of foreign registry or operated under the authority of a country except the United States." See section 110 of this title.

Par. (17b). Pub. L. 109–304, §15(2)(A), struck out par. (17b) which read as follows: " 'numbered vessel' means a vessel for which a number has been issued under chapter 123 of this title." See section 111 of this title.

Par. (18). Pub. L. 109–304, §15(2)(C), struck out "those" after "including".

Par. (22)(D). Pub. L. 109–241, §301(b), added subpar. (D).

Par. (26a). Pub. L. 109–241, §312(b), added par. (26a).

Par. (34). Pub. L. 109–304, §15(2)(D), struck out ", except in part H," before "means" and substituted "Secretary of" for "head of".

Par. (35)(E). Pub. L. 109–241, §301(c), added subpar. (E).

Par. (36). Pub. L. 109–304, §15(2)(A), struck out par. (36) which read as follows: " 'State' means a State of the United States, Guam, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, American Samoa, the District of Columbia, the Northern Mariana Islands, and any other territory or possession of the United States." See section 112 of this title.

Par. (41). Pub. L. 109–304, §15(2)(A), struck out par. (41) which read as follows: " 'undocumented' means not having and not required to have a document issued under chapter 121 of this title." See section 113 of this title.

Pars. (44) to (46). Pub. L. 109–304, §15(2)(A), struck out pars. (44) to (46), which defined "United States", "vessel", and "vessel of the United States", respectively. See sections 114, 115, and 116 of this title.

2002—Par. (17). Pub. L. 107–217 substituted "section 558 of title 40" for "section 13 of the Coast Guard Authorization Act of 1986".

Par. (35). Pub. L. 107–295, §419(a), inserted "a wing-in-ground craft, regardless of tonnage, carrying at least one passenger for hire, and" after " 'small passenger vessel' means" in introductory provisions.

Par. (48). Pub. L. 107–295, §419(b), added par. (48).

1998—Pars. (17a), (17b). Pub. L. 105–383 added par. (17a) and redesignated former par. (17a) as (17b).

1996—Par. (13). Pub. L. 104–324, §709(1), inserted "as measured under section 14502 of this title, or an alternate tonnage measured under section 14302 of this title as prescribed by the Secretary under section 14104 of this title" after "15 gross tons".

Par. (13a). Pub. L. 104–324, §709(2), inserted "as measured under section 14502 of this title, or an alternate tonnage measured under section 14302 of this title as prescribed by the Secretary under section 14104 of this title" after "3,500 gross tons".

Par. (19). Pub. L. 104–324, §709(3), inserted "as measured under section 14502 of this title, or an alternate tonnage measured under section 14302 of this title as prescribed by the Secretary under section 14104 of this title" after "500 gross tons".

Par. (20a). Pub. L. 104–324, §1104(a)(2), added par. (20a). Former par. (20a) redesignated (20b).

Par. (20b). Pub. L. 104–324, §1104(a)(1), redesignated par. (20a) as (20b).

Par. (22). Pub. L. 104–324, §709(4), inserted "as measured under section 14502 of this title, or an alternate tonnage measured under section 14302 of this title as prescribed by the Secretary under section 14104 of this title" after "100 gross tons".

Par. (30)(A). Pub. L. 104–324, §709(5), inserted "as measured under section 14502 of this title, or an alternate tonnage measured under section 14302 of this title as prescribed by the Secretary under section 14104 of this title" after "500 gross tons".

Par. (32). Pub. L. 104–324, §709(6), inserted "as measured under section 14502 of this title, or an alternate tonnage measured under section 14302 of this title as prescribed by the Secretary under section 14104 of this title" after "100 gross tons".

Par. (33). Pub. L. 104–324, §709(7), inserted "as measured under section 14502 of this title, or an alternate tonnage measured under section 14302 of this title as prescribed by the Secretary under section 14104 of this title" after "300 gross tons".

Par. (35). Pub. L. 104–324, §709(8), inserted "as measured under section 14502 of this title, or an alternate tonnage measured under section 14302 of this title as prescribed by the Secretary under section 14104 of this title" after "100 gross tons".

Par. (42). Pub. L. 104–324, §709(9), inserted "as measured under section 14502 of this title, or an alternate tonnage measured under section 14302 of this title as prescribed by the Secretary under section 14104 of this title" after "100 gross tons" in subpars. (A) and (B).

1994—Par. (14)(C). Pub. L. 103–272 substituted "section 5103(a) of title 49" for "section 104 of the Hazardous Materials Transportation Act (49 App. U.S.C. 1803)".

1993—Par. (5a). Pub. L. 103–206, §507, added par. (5a).

Par. (19). Pub. L. 103–206, §508, inserted "individuals in addition to the crew," after "supplies," and struck out "and is not a small passenger vessel" after "resources".

Par. (21). Pub. L. 103–206, §502, amended par. (21) generally, substituting subpars. (A) to (D) defining "passenger" for former subpars. (A) to (F) defining "passenger".

Par. (21a). Pub. L. 103–206, §506, added par. (21a).

Par. (22). Pub. L. 103–206, §503, amended par. (22) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (22) read as follows: " 'passenger vessel' means a vessel of at least 100 gross tons carrying at least one passenger for hire."

Par. (30)(B). Pub. L. 103–206, §509, substituted "more than 6" for "at least 6".

Par. (35). Pub. L. 103–206, §504, amended par. (35) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (35) read as follows: " 'small passenger vessel' means a vessel of less than 100 gross tons carrying more than 6 passengers (as defined in clause (21)(B) and (C) of this section)."

Par. (37a). Pub. L. 103–206, §510, added par. (37a).

Par. (42). Pub. L. 103–206, §505, amended par. (42) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (42) read as follows: " 'uninspected passenger vessel' means an uninspected vessel carrying not more than 6 passengers."

1992—Par. (13a). Pub. L. 102–587 added par. (13a).

1990—Par. (8a). Pub. L. 101–380 added par. (8a).

Par. (14)(C). Pub. L. 101–595 substituted "(49 App. U.S.C. 1803)" for "(49 U.S.C. 1803)".

1989—Par. (17a). Pub. L. 101–225 added par. (17a).

1988—Par. (10a). Pub. L. 100–239 added par. (10a).

Par. (14a). Pub. L. 100–424 added par. (14a).

Par. (34). Pub. L. 100–710, §104(a)(1), inserted ", except in part H," before "means".

Par. (46). Pub. L. 100–710, §104(a)(2), inserted "or titled under the law of a State" before period at end.

1986—Par. (11b). Pub. L. 99–640, §10(b)(1), inserted "freezing,".

Par. (14)(C). Pub. L. 99–307, §1(1), substituted "Materials" for "Material".

Par. (15a). Pub. L. 99–640, §11(a), added par. (15a).

Par. (17). Pub. L. 99–640, §13(d), inserted "or an educational institution under section 13 of the Coast Guard Authorization Act of 1986".

Par. (20a). Pub. L. 99–509, §5102(b)(1)(A), added par. (20a).

Par. (21)(A)(ii). Pub. L. 99–307, §1(2)(A), inserted "or other individual engaged in the business of the vessel who has not contributed consideration for carriage on board the vessel" after "crewmember".

Par. (21)(B). Pub. L. 99–307, §1(2)(D), struck out "or a sailing school vessel," after "passenger vessel".

Par. (21)(B)(v) to (vii). Pub. L. 99–307, §1(2)(B), added cls. (v) and (vi) and struck out former cls. (v) to (vii) which read as follows:

"(v) a guest on board a vessel that is being operated only for pleasure, or a guest on board a sailing school vessel, who has not contributed consideration for carriage on board;

"(vi) an individual on board a towing vessel of at least 50 gross tons who has not contributed consideration for carriage on board; or

"(vii) a sailing school instructor or sailing school student."

Par. (21)(F). Pub. L. 99–307, §1(2)(C), added subpar. (F).

Par. (30)(D). Pub. L. 99–514 substituted "Internal Revenue Code of 1986" for "Internal Revenue Code of 1954".

Par. (47). Pub. L. 99–509, §5102(b)(1)(B), added par. (47).

1984—Par. (3a). Pub. L. 98–454 added par. (3a).

Par. (11). Pub. L. 98–364, §402(1)(A), substituted " 'fish' means finfish, mollusks, crustaceans, and all other forms of marine animal and plant lift, except marine mammals and birds" for " 'fisheries' includes planting, cultivating, catching, taking, or harvesting fish, shellfish, marine animals, pearls, shells, or marine vegetation at a place in the fishery conservation zone established by section 101 of the Magnuson Fishery Conservation and Management Act of 1976 (16 U.S.C. 1811)", which is now covered in section 12101 of this title.

Pars. (11a) to (11c). Pub. L. 98–364, §402(1)(B), added pars. (11a) to (11c).

Par. (21)(B). Pub. L. 98–557, §34(a)(1), inserted reference to a sailing school vessel in provisions preceding cl. (i).

Par. (21)(E). Pub. L. 98–364, §402(1)(C), added subpar. (E).

Par. (27). Pub. L. 98–557, §34(a)(2), designated existing provisions as subpar. (A) and added subpar. (B).


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Effective Date of 2010 Amendment

Pub. L. 111–330, §1, Dec. 22, 2010, 124 Stat. 3569, provided that the amendment made by section 1(9) is effective with the enactment of Pub. L. 111–281.

Effective Date of 1992 Amendment

Pub. L. 102–587, title V, §5208(c), (d), Nov. 4, 1992, 106 Stat. 5076, provided that:

"(c) For Great Lakes barges placed in operation after the date of enactment of this Act [Nov. 4, 1992], the amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 3301 of this title] take effect on the date of enactment of this Act.

"(d)(1) For Great Lakes barges in operation on the date of enactment of this Act, the amendments made by this section take effect one year after the date of enactment of this Act.

"(2) The Secretary of Transportation may impose reasonable interim requirements to assure safe operation of the barges affected by paragraph (1)."

Effective Date of 1990 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 101–380 applicable to incidents occurring after Aug. 18, 1990, see section 1020 of Pub. L. 101–380, set out as an Effective Date note under section 2701 of Title 33, Navigation and Navigable Waters.

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 100–710 effective Jan. 1, 1989, with certain exceptions and qualifications, see section 107 of Pub. L. 100–710, set out as an Effective Date note under section 31301 of this title.

Transfer of Functions

For transfer of authorities, functions, personnel, and assets of the Coast Guard, including the authorities and functions of the Secretary of Transportation relating thereto, to the Department of Homeland Security, and for treatment of related references, see sections 468(b), 551(d), 552(d), and 557 of Title 6, Domestic Security, and the Department of Homeland Security Reorganization Plan of November 25, 2002, as modified, set out as a note under section 542 of Title 6.

Fishing and Fish Tender Vessels

Pub. L. 103–206, title III, §321, Dec. 20, 1993, 107 Stat. 2427, provided that:

"(a) In this section, 'fish tender vessel', 'fishing vessel', and 'tank vessel' have the meanings given those terms under section 2101 of title 46, United States Code.

"(b) A fishing vessel or fish tender vessel of not more than 750 gross tons, when engaged only in the fishing industry, shall not be deemed to be a tank vessel for the purposes of any law.

"(c)(1) This section does not affect the authority of the Secretary of Transportation under chapter 33 of title 46, United States Code, to regulate the operation of the vessels listed in subsection (b) to ensure the safe carriage of oil and hazardous substances.

"(2) This section does not affect the requirement for fish tender vessels engaged in the Aleutian trade to comply with chapters 33, 45, 51, 81, and 87 of title 46, United States Code, as provided in the Aleutian Trade Act of 1990 (Public Law 101–595) [see Short Title of 1990 Amendment note set out under section 101 of this title]."

Applicability Date for Revised Regulations

Pub. L. 103–206, title V, §513, Dec. 20, 1993, 107 Stat. 2443, provided that:

"(a) Applicability Date for Certain Chartered Vessels.—Revised regulations governing small passenger vessels and passenger vessels (as the definitions of those terms in section 2101 of title 46, United States Code, are amended by this Act) shall not, before the date that is 6 months after the date of enactment of this Act [Dec. 20, 1993], apply to such vessels when chartered with no crew provided.

"(b) Extension of Period.—The Secretary of the department in which the Coast Guard is operating shall extend for up to 30 additional months or until issuance of a certificate of inspection, whichever occurs first, the period of inapplicability specified in subsection (a) if the owner of the vessel concerned carries out the provisions of subsection (c) to the satisfaction of the Secretary.

"(c) Conditions for Extension.—To receive an extension authorized by subsection (b), the owner of the vessel shall—

"(1) make application for inspection with the Coast Guard within 6 months after the date of enactment of this Act [Dec. 20, 1993];

"(2) make the vessel available for examination by the Coast Guard prior to the carriage of passengers;

"(3)(A) correct especially any hazardous conditions involving the vessel's structure, electrical system, and machinery installation, such as (i) grossly inadequate, missing, unsound, or severely deteriorated frames or major structural members; (ii) wiring systems or electrical appliances without proper grounding or overcurrent protection; and (iii) significant fuel or exhaust system leaks;

"(B) equip the vessel with lifesaving and fire fighting equipment, or the portable equivalent, required for the route and number of persons carried; and

"(C) verify through stability tests, calculations, or other practical means (which may include a history of safe operations) that the vessel's stability is satisfactory for the size, route, and number of passengers; and

"(4) develop a work plan approved by the Coast Guard to complete in a good faith effort all requirements necessary for issuance of a certificate of inspection as soon as practicable.

"(d) Operation of Vessel During Extension Period.—The owner of a vessel receiving an extension under this section shall operate the vessel under the conditions of route, service, number of passengers, manning, and equipment as may be prescribed by the Coast Guard for the extension period."

Tank Vessel Definition Clarification

Pub. L. 102–587, title V, §5209, Nov. 4, 1992, 106 Stat. 5076, as amended by Pub. L. 105–383, title IV, §422, Nov. 13, 1998, 112 Stat. 3439; Pub. L. 111–281, title VI, §617(a)(1)(B), Oct. 15, 2010, 124 Stat. 2972, provided that:

"(a) In this section, 'offshore supply vessel', 'fish tender vessel', 'fishing vessel', and 'tank vessel' have the meanings given those terms under section 2101 of title 46, United States Code.

"(b) The following vessels are deemed not to be a tank vessel for the purposes of any law:

"(1) An offshore supply vessel of less than 500 gross tons as measured under section 14502, or an alternate tonnage measured under section 14302 of such title as prescribed by the Secretary under section 14104 of such title.

"(2) A fishing or fish tender vessel of not more than 750 gross tons that transfers without charge to a fishing vessel owned by the same person.

"(3) A vessel—

"(A) configured, outfitted, and operated primarily for dredging operations; and

"(B) engaged in dredging operations which transfers fuel to other vessels engaged in the same dredging operations without charge.

"(c)(1) This section does not affect the authority of the Secretary of Transportation under chapter 33 of title 46, United States Code, to regulate the operation of the vessels listed in subsection (b) to ensure the safe carriage of oil and hazardous substances.

"(2) This section does not affect the requirement for fish tender vessels engaged in the Aleutian trade to comply with chapters 33, 45, 51, 81, and 87 of title 46, United States Code, as provided in the Aleutian Trade Act of 1990 ([title VI of] Public Law 101–595) [see Short Title of 1990 Amendment note set out under section 101 of this title].

"(d) Current regulations governing the vessels in subsection (b) remain in effect."

Definitions of Terms Used in Title II of Pub. L. 115–265

Pub. L. 115–265, title II, §203, Oct. 11, 2018, 132 Stat. 3745, provided that: "In this title [see section 201 of Pub. L. 115–265, set out as a Short Title of 2018 Amendment note under section 101 of this title]:

"(1) Commandant.—The term 'Commandant' means the Commandant of the Coast Guard.

"(2) Recognized organization.—The term 'recognized organization' has the meaning given that term in section 2.45–1 of title 46, Code of Federal Regulations, as in effect on the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 11, 2018].

"(3) Secretary.—The term 'Secretary' means the Secretary of the department in which the Coast Guard is operating."

1 See References in Text note below.

§2102. Limited definitions

In chapters 33, 45, 51, 81, and 87 of this title, "Aleutian trade" means the transportation of cargo (including fishery related products) for hire on board a fish tender vessel to or from a place in Alaska west of 153 degrees west longitude and east of 172 degrees east longitude, if that place receives weekly common carrier service by water, to or from a place in the United States (except a place in Alaska).

(Pub. L. 98–89, Aug. 26, 1983, 97 Stat. 505; Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title X, §1011(a), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 1013; Pub. L. 99–509, title V, §5102(b)(2), Oct. 21, 1986, 100 Stat. 1926; Pub. L. 101–595, title VI, §602(a), Nov. 16, 1990, 104 Stat. 2990; Pub. L. 109–304, §§15(3), 16(a), Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1702, 1705.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised sectionSource section (U.S. Code)
2102 46:1452(10)–(14)

Section 2102 contains a number of definitions that are limited to recreational vessels in Chapter 43 of Part B and the numbering of these vessels in Chapter 123 of Part H.


Editorial Notes

Amendments

2006—Pub. L. 109–304 redesignated subsec. (b) as entire section, substituted "west" for "West" and "east" for "East", and struck out subsec. (a) which defined "eligible State", "State", "United States", and "State recreational boating safety program" in chapters 37, 43, 51, and 123 of this title and part I of this subtitle.

1990—Pub. L. 101–595 designated existing provisions as subsec. (a) and added subsec. (b).

1986—Pub. L. 99–509 inserted reference to chapters 37 and 51.

1984—Par. (1). Pub. L. 98–369, §1011(a)(1), struck out "and facilities improvement" after "recreational boating safety".

Par. (3). Pub. L. 98–369, §1011(a)(2), (3), redesignated par. (5) as (3) and struck out former par. (3) which defined a State recreational boating facilities improvement program.

Par. (4). Pub. L. 98–369, §1011(a)(2), struck out par. (4) which defined State recreational boating safety and facilities improvement program.

Par. (5). Pub. L. 98–369, §1011(a)(3), redesignated par. (5) as (3).


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 98–369 effective Oct. 1, 1984, to apply with respect to fiscal years beginning after Sept. 30, 1984, see section 1013 of Pub. L. 98–369, set out as a note under section 13101 of this title.

§2103. Superintendence of the merchant marine

The Secretary has general superintendence over the merchant marine of the United States and of merchant marine personnel insofar as the enforcement of this subtitle is concerned and insofar as those vessels and personnel are not subject, under other law, to the supervision of another official of the United States Government. In the interests of marine safety and seamen's welfare, the Secretary shall enforce this subtitle and shall carry out correctly and uniformly administer this subtitle. The Secretary may prescribe regulations to carry out the provisions of this subtitle.

(Pub. L. 98–89, Aug. 26, 1983, 97 Stat. 506; Pub. L. 99–307, §9, May 19, 1986, 100 Stat. 447.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised sectionSource section (U.S. Code)
2103 46:2

46:372

46:689

Section 2103 provides the Secretary with the authority to superintend the merchant marine and those involved personnel insofar as the vessels and personnel are not subject, under other laws, to the supervision of another official. The Secretary has the duty to enforce the laws with respect to vessels and seamen and to carry out correctly and uniformly these laws and regulations. The term "superintendence" is used to indicate the Secretary's broad responsibility for overseeing maritime safety and seamen's welfare, including employment, shipping, navigation, and protection of the marine environment.


Editorial Notes

Amendments

1986—Pub. L. 99–307 substituted "subtitle. The Secretary may prescribe regulations to carry out the provisions of this subtitle" for "subtitle and regulations prescribed under this subtitle".

§2104. Delegation

(a) The Secretary may delegate the duties and powers conferred by this subtitle to any officer, employee, or member of the Coast Guard, and may provide for the subdelegation of those duties and powers.

(b) When this subtitle authorizes an officer or employee of the Customs Service to act in place of a Coast Guard official, the Secretary may designate that officer or employee subject to the approval of the Secretary of the Treasury.

(Pub. L. 98–89, Aug. 26, 1983, 97 Stat. 506.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised sectionSource section (U.S. Code)
2104 46:65v(1)

46:382b

46:416

46:543

46:689

Section 2104 provides the Secretary with authority to delegate duties and powers to others. It also contains the authority to designate an officer or employee of the United States Customs Service to act in the place of a Coast Guard official.


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Transfer of Functions

For transfer of authorities, functions, personnel, and assets of the Coast Guard, including the authorities and functions of the Secretary of Transportation relating thereto, to the Department of Homeland Security, and for treatment of related references, see sections 468(b), 551(d), 552(d), and 557 of Title 6, Domestic Security, and the Department of Homeland Security Reorganization Plan of November 25, 2002, as modified, set out as a note under section 542 of Title 6.

For transfer of functions, personnel, assets, and liabilities of the United States Customs Service of the Department of the Treasury, including functions of the Secretary of the Treasury relating thereto, to the Secretary of Homeland Security, and for treatment of related references, see sections 203(1), 551(d), 552(d), and 557 of Title 6, Domestic Security, and the Department of Homeland Security Reorganization Plan of November 25, 2002, as modified, set out as a note under section 542 of Title 6. For establishment of U.S. Customs and Border Protection in the Department of Homeland Security, treated as if included in Pub. L. 107–296 as of Nov. 25, 2002, see section 211 of Title 6, as amended generally by Pub. L. 114–125, and section 802(b) of Pub. L. 114–125, set out as a note under section 211 of Title 6.

§2105. Report

The Secretary shall provide for the investigation of the operation of this subtitle and of all laws related to marine safety, and shall require that a report be made to the Secretary annually about those matters that may require improvement or amendment.

(Pub. L. 98–89, Aug. 26, 1983, 97 Stat. 506.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised sectionSource section (U.S. Code)
2105 46:4

Section 2105 requires the Secretary to investigate the operation of this subtitle and all laws related to maritime safety and requires appropriate reports to ensure that the Secretary is attentive to all the shipping laws under the Secretary's superintendence.

§2106. Liability in rem

When a vessel is made liable in rem under this subtitle, the vessel may be libeled and proceeded against in the district court of the United States for any district in which the vessel is found.

(Pub. L. 98–89, Aug. 26, 1983, 97 Stat. 506; Pub. L. 109–304, §15(4), Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1702.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised sectionSource section (U.S. Code)
2106 46:170(14)
  46:216e(e)
  46:390d
  46:391a(14)(C)
  46:436
  46:462
  46:481(c)
  46:497
  46:526o
  46:672(j)
  46:1484(b)

Section 2106 provides that when a vessel is made liable in rem the vessel may be libeled and proceeded against in a United States district court.


Editorial Notes

Amendments

2006—Pub. L. 109–304 substituted "the district court of the United States for any district" for "a district court of the United States".

§2107. Civil penalty procedures

(a) After notice and an opportunity for a hearing, a person found by the Secretary to have violated this subtitle or subtitle VII or a regulation prescribed under this subtitle or subtitle VII for which a civil penalty is provided, is liable to the United States Government for the civil penalty provided. The amount of the civil penalty shall be assessed by the Secretary by written notice. In determining the amount of the penalty, the Secretary shall consider the nature, circumstances, extent, and gravity of the prohibited acts committed and, with respect to the violator, the degree of culpability, any history of prior offenses, ability to pay, and other matters that justice requires.

(b) The Secretary may compromise, modify, or remit, with or without consideration, a civil penalty under this subtitle or subtitle VII until the assessment is referred to the Attorney General.

(c) If a person fails to pay an assessment of a civil penalty after it has become final, the Secretary may refer the matter to the Attorney General for collection in an appropriate district court of the United States.

(Pub. L. 98–89, Aug. 26, 1983, 97 Stat. 506; Pub. L. 109–241, title III, §306(b), July 11, 2006, 120 Stat. 528.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised sectionSource section (U.S. Code)
2107 33:364

46:7

46:65u

46:216e(d)

46:391a(14)

46:526

o

46:526p

46:1484(c)

Section 2107 provides for standard procedures for the handling of civil penalties for infractions of law or regulation. Some changes were made to increase some antiquated and inadequate penalties.

The assessment of civil penalties under this section should not require an "on the record" hearing within the meaning of the Administrative Procedures Act (APA). It is intended that these civil penalties be assessed in a fair manner. However, the Committee recognizes that statutes passed in the last decade have involved the Coast Guard in tens of thousands of civil penalty enforcement cases and that it is necessary that the penalties be assessed efficiently. The Coast Guard's procedural regulations for assessing civil penalties ensure that the essential elements of due process, notice, and opportunity to be heard, are provided to alleged violators (see 33 CFR Subpart 1.07). The more rigid and time-consuming procedures applicable to APA adjudications are unwarranted in the case of Coast Guard civil penalty assessment procedures and would seriously hamper the orderly enforcement of these administrative penalties.


Editorial Notes

Amendments

2006—Pub. L. 109–241 substituted "this subtitle or subtitle VII" for "this subtitle" in two places in subsec. (a) and in one place in subsec. (b).

[§2108. Repealed. Pub. L. 109–304, §15(5), Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1702]

Section, Pub. L. 98–89, Aug. 26, 1983, 97 Stat. 507, related to refund of penalties unlawfully, improperly, or excessively imposed. See section 504 of this title.

§2109. Public vessels

Except as otherwise provided, this subtitle does not apply to a public vessel of the United States. However, this subtitle does apply to a vessel (except a Saint Lawrence Seaway Development Corporation vessel) owned or operated by the Department of Transportation or by any corporation organized or controlled by the Department.

(Pub. L. 98–89, Aug. 26, 1983, 97 Stat. 507; Pub. L. 99–509, title V, §5102(b)(3), Oct. 21, 1986, 100 Stat. 1927; Pub. L. 109–241, title IX, §902(e)(1), July 11, 2006, 120 Stat. 567; Pub. L. 111–281, title IX, §903(a)(5)(A), Oct. 15, 2010, 124 Stat. 3010.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised sectionSource section (U.S. Code)
2109 46:362

46:363

46:391a(4)

Section 2109 exempts public vessels from the applicability of the maritime safety and seamen's welfare laws of this subtitle although some public vessels are inspected under interagency voluntary agreements.


Editorial Notes

Amendments

2010—Pub. L. 111–281 amended directory language of Pub. L. 109–241, §902(e)(1). See 2006 Amendment note below.

2006—Pub. L. 109–241, §902(e)(1), as amended by Pub. L. 111–281, struck out "a Coast Guard or" after "(except".

1986—Pub. L. 99–509 substituted "Except as otherwise provided, this" for "This".


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Effective Date of 2010 Amendment

Pub. L. 111–281, title IX, §903(a), Oct. 15, 2010, 124 Stat. 3010, provided that the amendment by section 903(a)(5)(A) is effective with enactment of Pub. L. 109–241.

§2110. Fees

(a)(1) Except as otherwise provided in this title, the Secretary shall establish a fee or charge for a service or thing of value provided by the Secretary under this subtitle, in accordance with section 9701 of title 31.

(2) The Secretary may not establish a fee or charge under paragraph (1) for inspection or examination of a non-self-propelled tank vessel under part B of this subtitle that is more than $500 annually. The Secretary may not establish a fee or charge under paragraph (1) for inspection or examination of a small passenger vessel under this title that is more than $300 annually for such vessels under 65 feet in length, or more than $600 annually for such vessels 65 feet in length and greater. The Secretary may not establish a fee or charge under paragraph (1) for inspection or examination under this title for any publicly-owned ferry.

(3) The Secretary may, by regulation, adjust a fee or charge collected under this subsection to accommodate changes in the cost of providing a specific service or thing of value, but the adjusted fee or charge may not exceed the total cost of providing the service or thing of value for which the fee or charge is collected, including the cost of collecting the fee or charge.

(4) The Secretary may not collect a fee or charge under this subsection that is in conflict with the international obligations of the United States.

(5) The Secretary may not collect a fee or charge under this subsection for any search or rescue service.

(b)(1) In addition to the collection of fees and charges established under subsection (a), in providing a service or thing of value under this subtitle the Secretary may accept in-kind transportation, travel, and subsistence.

(2) The value of in-kind transportation, travel, and subsistence accepted under this paragraph may not exceed applicable per diem rates set forth in regulations prescribed under section 464 of title 37.

(c) In addition to the collection of fees and charges established under subsection (a), the Secretary may recover appropriate collection and enforcement costs associated with delinquent payments of the fees and charges.

(d)(1) The Secretary may employ any Federal, State, or local agency or instrumentality, or any private enterprise or business, to collect a fee or charge established under this section. A private enterprise or business selected by the Secretary to collect fees or charges—

(A) shall be subject to reasonable terms and conditions agreed to by the Secretary and the enterprise or business;

(B) shall provide appropriate accounting to the Secretary; and

(C) may not institute litigation as part of that collection.


(2) A Federal agency shall account for the agency's costs of collecting the fee or charge under this subsection as a reimbursable expense, and the costs shall be credited to the account from which expended.

(e) A person that violates this section by failing to pay a fee or charge established under this section is liable to the United States Government for a civil penalty of not more than $5,000 for each violation.

(f) When requested by the Secretary, the Secretary of Homeland Security shall deny the clearance required by section 60105 of this title to a vessel for which a fee or charge established under this section has not been paid until the fee or charge is paid or until a bond is posted for the payment.

(g) The Secretary may exempt a person from paying a fee or charge established under this section if the Secretary determines that it is in the public interest to do so.

(h) Fees and charges collected by the Secretary under this section shall be deposited in the general fund of the Treasury as offsetting receipts of the department in which the Coast Guard is operating and ascribed to Coast Guard activities.

(i) The collection of a fee or charge under this section does not alter or expand the functions, powers, responsibilities, or liability of the United States under any law for the performance of services or the provision of a thing of value for which a fee or charge is collected under this section.

(j) The Secretary may not establish or collect a fee or charge for the inspection under part B of this subtitle of training vessels operated by State maritime academies.

(Pub. L. 98–89, Aug. 26, 1983, 97 Stat. 507; Pub. L. 99–509, title V, §5102(b)(4), Oct. 21, 1986, 100 Stat. 1927; Pub. L. 100–710, title I, §104(a)(3), Nov. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 4749; Pub. L. 101–508, title X, §10401(a), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1388–397; Pub. L. 102–241, §53, Dec. 19, 1991, 105 Stat. 2232; Pub. L. 102–582, title V, §501(a), Nov. 2, 1992, 106 Stat. 4909; Pub. L. 102–587, title V, §5207, Nov. 4, 1992, 106 Stat. 5075; Pub. L. 104–324, title XI, §1112, Oct. 19, 1996, 110 Stat. 3970; Pub. L. 105–383, title II, §207, Nov. 13, 1998, 112 Stat. 3416; Pub. L. 107–295, title III, §344, Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2106; Pub. L. 109–304, §15(6), Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1702; Pub. L. 113–281, title III, §311(a), Dec. 18, 2014, 128 Stat. 3047; Pub. L. 115–232, div. C, title XXXV, §3546(a), Aug. 13, 2018, 132 Stat. 2326.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised sectionSource section (U.S. Code)
2110 46:331

Section 2110 prevents the assessment of user fees for certain maritime safety and seamen's welfare services unless otherwise provided for by law. These include:

Measurement of tonnage and certifying the same, except that the compensation and necessary travel and subsistence expenses of the officers so measuring or certifying such vessels at the request of the owners thereof at a place other than a port of entry or a customs station shall be paid by such owners; issuing of license or granting of certificate of registry, record, or enrollment, including all indorsements on the same and oath; indorsement of change of master; certifying and receiving manifest, including master's oath and permit; granting permit to vessels licensed for the fisheries to touch and trade; granting certificate of payment of tonnage dues; recording bill of sale, mortgage, hypothecation or conveyance, or the discharge of such mortgage or hypothecation; furnishing certificate of title; furnishing the crew list; certificate of protection to seamen; bill of health; shipping or discharging of seamen; apprenticing boys to the merchant service; inspecting, examining, and licensing steam vessels, including inspection certificate and copies thereof; and licensing of master, engineer, pilot, or mate of a vessel.


Editorial Notes

References in Text

The Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1990, referred to in subsec. (b)(5), is Pub. L. 101–508, Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1388. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Tables.

Amendments

2018—Subsec. (k). Pub. L. 115–232 struck out subsec. (k) which read as follows: "The Secretary may not plan, implement or finalize any regulation that would promulgate any new maritime user fee which was not implemented and collected prior to January 1, 1998, including a fee or charge for any domestic icebreaking service or any other navigational assistance service. This subsection expires on September 30, 2006."

2014—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 113–281, §311(a)(1), amended subsec. (b) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (b) related to fees and charges in fiscal years 1993 and 1994.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 113–281, §311(a)(2), substituted "subsection (a)," for "subsections (a) and (b),".

2006—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 109–304, §15(6)(A), substituted "part B of this subtitle" for "part B of this title".

Subsec. (b)(2)(A)(iii). Pub. L. 109–304, §15(6)(B), substituted "; and" for period at end.

Subsec. (b)(5). Pub. L. 109–304, §15(6)(C), substituted "The fee" for "The fees".

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 109–304, §15(6)(D), substituted "Secretary of Homeland Security shall deny the clearance required by section 60105 of this title" for "Secretary of the Treasury shall deny the clearance required by section 4197 of the Revised Statutes of the United States (46 App. U.S.C. 91)".

Subsec. (j). Pub. L. 109–304, §15(6)(E), substituted "State" for "state".

2002—Subsec. (k). Pub. L. 107–295 substituted "2006" for "2001".

1998—Subsec. (k). Pub. L. 105–383 added subsec. (k).

1996—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 104–324, §1112, which directed amendment of section 10401(g) of Pub. L. 101–508 by inserting "The Secretary may not establish a fee or charge under paragraph (1) for inspection or examination of a small passenger vessel under this title that is more than $300 annually for such vessels under 65 feet in length, or more than $600 annually for such vessels 65 feet in length and greater. The Secretary may not establish a fee or charge under paragraph (1) for inspection or examination under this title for any publicly-owned ferry." after "annually.", was executed by making insertion in subsec. (a)(2) of this section to reflect the probable intent of Congress, because section 10401(a) of Pub. L. 101–508 amended this section generally, and section 10401 of Pub. L. 101–508 did not contain a subsec. (g).

1992—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 102–582, §501(a)(1), substituted "1993 and 1994" for "1991, 1992, 1993, 1994, and 1995" and "to which paragraph (2) of this subsection applies" for "that is greater than 16 feet in length".

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 102–582, §501(a)(2), amended par. (2) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (2) read as follows: "The fee or charge established under paragraph (1) of this subsection is as follows:

"(A) for vessels greater than 16 feet in length but less than 20 feet, not more than $25;

"(B) for vessels of at least 20 feet in length but less than 27 feet, not more than $35;

"(C) for vessels of at least 27 feet in length but less than 40 feet, not more than $50; and

"(D) for vessels of at least 40 feet in length, not more than $100."

Subsec. (j). Pub. L. 102–587 added subsec. (j).

1991—Subsec. (b)(5). Pub. L. 102–241 added par. (5).

1990—Pub. L. 101–508, as amended by Pub. L. 104–324, substituted "Fees" for "Fees prohibited" as section catchline and amended text generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "Fees may not be charged or collected by the Secretary for services provided for in this subtitle related to the engagement and discharge of seamen, the inspection and examination of vessels under part B of this subtitle, and the licensing of masters, mates, pilots, and engineers, except when specifically provided for in this subtitle." See 1996 Amendment note above.

1988—Pub. L. 100–710 substituted "and the licensing of masters, mates, pilots, and engineers" for "the licensing of masters, mates, pilots, and engineers, and the documentation of vessels".

1986—Pub. L. 99–509 substituted "examination of vessels under part B of this subtitle" for "examination of vessels" and struck out "measurement or" before "documentation".


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Effective Date of 1992 Amendment

Pub. L. 102–582, title V, §501(b), Nov. 2, 1992, 106 Stat. 4910, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section] are effective October 1, 1992."

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 100–710 effective Jan. 1, 1989, with certain exceptions and qualifications, see section 107 of Pub. L. 100–710, set out as an Effective Date note under section 31301 of this title.

Transfer of Functions

For transfer of authorities, functions, personnel, and assets of the Coast Guard, including the authorities and functions of the Secretary of Transportation relating thereto, to the Department of Homeland Security, and for treatment of related references, see sections 468(b), 551(d), 552(d), and 557 of Title 6, Domestic Security, and the Department of Homeland Security Reorganization Plan of November 25, 2002, as modified, set out as a note under section 542 of Title 6.

Acceptance of Evidence of Payment of Coast Guard Fees

Pub. L. 102–587, title V, §5214, Nov. 4, 1992, 106 Stat. 5077, provided that: "The Secretary of Transportation may not issue a citation for failure to pay a fee or charge established under section 2110 of title 46, United States Code, to an owner or operator of a recreational vessel who provides reasonable evidence of prior payment of the fee or charge to a Coast Guard boarding officer."

§2111. Pay for overtime services

(a) The Secretary may prescribe a reasonable rate of extra pay for overtime services of civilian officers and employees of the Coast Guard required to remain on duty between 5 p.m. and 8 a.m., or on Sundays or holidays, to perform services related to—

(1) the inspection of vessels or their equipment;

(2) the engagement and discharge of crews of vessels;

(3) the measurement of vessels; and

(4) the documentation of vessels.


(b) Except for Sundays and holidays, the overtime rate provided under subsection (a) of this section is one-half day's additional pay for each 2 hours of overtime (or part of 2 hours of at least one hour). The total extra pay may be not more than 2 and one-half days' pay for any one period from 5 p.m. to 8 a.m.

(c) The overtime rate provided under subsection (a) of this section for Sundays and holidays is 2 additional days' pay.

(d) The owner, charterer, managing operator, agent, master, or individual in charge of the vessel shall pay the amount of the overtime pay provided under this section to the official designated by regulation. The official shall deposit the amount paid to the Treasury as miscellaneous receipts. Payment to the officer or employee entitled to the pay shall be made from the annual appropriations for salaries and expenses of the Coast Guard.

(e) The overtime pay provided under this section shall be paid if the authorized officers and employees have been ordered to report for duty and have reported, even if services requested were not performed.

(Pub. L. 98–89, Aug. 26, 1983, 97 Stat. 507.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised sectionSource section (U.S. Code)
2111 46:382b

Section 2111 provides for the payment of overtime rates for work performed by civilian officers and employees of the Coast Guard for certain specified activities.


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Transfer of Functions

For transfer of authorities, functions, personnel, and assets of the Coast Guard, including the authorities and functions of the Secretary of Transportation relating thereto, to the Department of Homeland Security, and for treatment of related references, see sections 468(b), 551(d), 552(d), and 557 of Title 6, Domestic Security, and the Department of Homeland Security Reorganization Plan of November 25, 2002, as modified, set out as a note under section 542 of Title 6.

§2112. Authority to change working hours

In a port at which the customary working hours begin before 8 a.m. or end after 5 p.m., the Secretary may regulate the working hours of the officers and employees referred to in section 2111 of this title so that those hours conform to the prevailing working hours of the port. However—

(1) the total period for which overtime pay may be required under section 2111 of this title may not be more than 15 hours between any 2 periods of ordinary working hours on other than Sundays and holidays;

(2) the length of the working day for the officers and employees involved may not be changed; and

(3) the rate of overtime pay may not be changed.

(Pub. L. 98–89, Aug. 26, 1983, 97 Stat. 508.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised sectionSource section (U.S. Code)
2112 46:382b

Section 2112 provides the Secretary with the authority to regulate the working hours of civilian officers and employees of the Coast Guard to conform with the prevailing working hours of a port.

§2113. Authority to exempt certain vessels

If the Secretary decides that the application of a provision of part B, C, F, or G of this subtitle is not necessary in performing the mission of the vessel engaged in excursions or an oceanographic research vessel, or not necessary for the safe operation of certain vessels carrying passengers, the Secretary by regulation may—

(1) for a vessel, issue a special permit specifying the conditions of operation and equipment;

(2) exempt an oceanographic research vessel from that provision under conditions the Secretary may specify;

(3) establish different operating and equipment requirements for vessels defined in section 2101(51)(A) of this title; and

(4) maintain different structural fire protection, manning, operating, and equipment requirements for vessels that satisfied requirements set forth in the Passenger Vessel Safety Act of 1993 (Public Law 103–206) before June 21, 1994.

(Pub. L. 98–89, Aug. 26, 1983, 97 Stat. 508; Pub. L. 103–206, title V, §511(a), Dec. 20, 1993, 107 Stat. 2441; Pub. L. 104–324, title VII, §710, Oct. 19, 1996, 110 Stat. 3935; Pub. L. 115–232, div. C, title XXXV, §§3541(b)(6), 3542(a), Aug. 13, 2018, 132 Stat. 2323, 2324.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised sectionSource section (U.S. Code)
2113 46:445

46:453

Section 2113 provides the Secretary with the authority to exempt certain vessels from the inspection and manning requirements of law when vessels are engaged in excursions or oceanographic research. This is the authority of the issuance of excursion permits when special circumstances justify the waiver of certain maritime safety and seamen's welfare laws for a short period of time. It also contains flexible exemption authority for regulation of oceanographic research vessels.


Editorial Notes

References in Text

The Passenger Vessel Safety Act of 1993, referred to in par. (4), is Pub. L. 103–206, title V, Dec. 20, 1993, 107 Stat. 2439. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title of 1993 Amendment note set out under section 101 of this title and Tables.

Amendments

2018—Par. (3). Pub. L. 115–232, §3541(b)(6), substituted "section 2101(51)(A)" for "section 2101(42)(A)".

Par. (4). Pub. L. 115–232, §3542(a), added par. (4) and struck out former par. (4) which related to establishing different structural fire protection, manning, operating, and equipment requirements for vessels between 100 gross tons and 300 gross tons.

Par. (5). Pub. L. 115–232, §3542(a)(2), struck out par. (5) which related to establishing different structural fire protection, manning, operating, and equipment requirements for former public vessels of the United States between 100 gross tons and 500 gross tons.

1996—Par. (4). Pub. L. 104–324, §710(1), inserted "as measured under section 14502 of this title, or an alternate tonnage measured under section 14302 of this title as prescribed by the Secretary under section 14104 of this title" after "less than 300 gross tons".

Par. (5). Pub. L. 104–324, §710(2), inserted "as measured under section 14502 of this title, or an alternate tonnage measured under section 14302 of this title as prescribed by the Secretary under section 14104 of this title" after "less than 500 gross tons".

1993—Pub. L. 103–206 amended section catchline and text generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "If the Secretary decides that the application of a provision of part B or F of this subtitle is not necessary in performing the mission of a vessel engaged in excursions or an oceanographic research vessel, the Secretary by regulation may—

"(1) for an excursion vessel, issue a special permit specifying the conditions of operation and equipment; and

"(2) exempt the oceanographic research vessel from that provision under conditions the Secretary may specify."


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Transfer of Functions

For transfer of authorities, functions, personnel, and assets of the Coast Guard, including the authorities and functions of the Secretary of Transportation relating thereto, to the Department of Homeland Security, and for treatment of related references, see sections 468(b), 551(d), 552(d), and 557 of Title 6, Domestic Security, and the Department of Homeland Security Reorganization Plan of November 25, 2002, as modified, set out as a note under section 542 of Title 6.

§2114. Protection of seamen against discrimination

(a)(1) A person may not discharge or in any manner discriminate against a seaman because—

(A) the seaman in good faith has reported or is about to report to the Coast Guard or other appropriate Federal agency or department that the seaman believes that a violation of a maritime safety law or regulation prescribed under that law or regulation has occurred;

(B) the seaman has refused to perform duties ordered by the seaman's employer because the seaman has a reasonable apprehension or expectation that performing such duties would result in serious injury to the seaman, other seamen, or the public;

(C) the seaman testified in a proceeding brought to enforce a maritime safety law or regulation prescribed under that law;

(D) the seaman notified, or attempted to notify, the vessel owner or the Secretary of a work-related personal injury or work-related illness of a seaman;

(E) the seaman cooperated with a safety investigation by the Secretary or the National Transportation Safety Board;

(F) the seaman furnished information to the Secretary, the National Transportation Safety Board, or any other public official as to the facts relating to any marine casualty resulting in injury or death to an individual or damage to property occurring in connection with vessel transportation; or

(G) the seaman accurately reported hours of duty under this part.


(2) The circumstances causing a seaman's apprehension of serious injury under paragraph (1)(B) must be of such a nature that a reasonable person, under similar circumstances, would conclude that there is a real danger of an injury or serious impairment of health resulting from the performance of duties as ordered by the seaman's employer.

(3) To qualify for protection against the seaman's employer under paragraph (1)(B), the employee must have sought from the employer, and been unable to obtain, correction of the unsafe condition.

(b) A seaman alleging discharge or discrimination in violation of subsection (a) of this section, or another person at the seaman's request, may file a complaint with respect to such allegation in the same manner as a complaint may be filed under subsection (b) of section 31105 of title 49. Such complaint shall be subject to the procedures, requirements, and rights described in that section, including with respect to the right to file an objection, the right of a person to file for a petition for review under subsection (c) of that section, and the requirement to bring a civil action under subsection (d) of that section.

(Added Pub. L. 98–557, §13(a), Oct. 30, 1984, 98 Stat. 2863; amended Pub. L. 107–295, title IV, §428, Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2127; Pub. L. 111–281, title VI, §611(a), Oct. 15, 2010, 124 Stat. 2969.)


Editorial Notes

Amendments

2010—Subsec. (a)(1)(C) to (G). Pub. L. 111–281, §611(a)(1)–(3), added subpars. (C) to (G).

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 111–281, §611(a)(4), amended subsec. (b) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (b) read as follows: "A seaman discharged or otherwise discriminated against in violation of this section may bring an action in an appropriate district court of the United States. In that action, the court may order any appropriate relief, including—

"(1) restraining violations of this section;

"(2) reinstatement to the seaman's former position with back pay;

"(3) an award of costs and reasonable attorney's fees to a prevailing plaintiff not exceeding $1,000; and

"(4) an award of costs and reasonable attorney's fees to a prevailing employer not exceeding $1,000 if the court finds that a complaint filed under this section is frivolous or has been brought in bad faith."

2002—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 107–295, §428(a), amended subsec. (a) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (a) read as follows: "An owner, charterer, managing operator, agent, master, or individual in charge of a vessel may not discharge or in any manner discriminate against a seaman because the seaman in good faith has reported or is about to report to the Coast Guard that the seaman believes that a violation of this subtitle, or a regulation issued under this subtitle, has occurred."

Subsec. (b)(3), (4). Pub. L. 107–295, §428(b), added pars. (3) and (4).


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Savings Provision

Pub. L. 111–281, title VI, §611(b), Oct. 15, 2010, 124 Stat. 2970, provided that: "This section [amending this section] shall not affect the application of section 2114(b) of title 46, United States Code, as in effect before the date of enactment of this Act [Oct. 15, 2010], to an action filed under that section before that date."

Transfer of Functions

For transfer of authorities, functions, personnel, and assets of the Coast Guard, including the authorities and functions of the Secretary of Transportation relating thereto, to the Department of Homeland Security, and for treatment of related references, see sections 468(b), 551(d), 552(d), and 557 of Title 6, Domestic Security, and the Department of Homeland Security Reorganization Plan of November 25, 2002, as modified, set out as a note under section 542 of Title 6.

§2115. Civil penalty to enforce alcohol and dangerous drug testing

Any person who fails to implement or conduct, or who otherwise fails to comply with the requirements prescribed by the Secretary for, chemical testing for dangerous drugs or for evidence of alcohol use, as prescribed under this subtitle or a regulation prescribed by the Secretary to carry out the provisions of this subtitle, is liable to the United States Government for a civil penalty of not more than $5,000 for each violation. Each day of a continuing violation shall constitute a separate violation.

(Added Pub. L. 104–324, title III, §303(a), Oct. 19, 1996, 110 Stat. 3917; amended Pub. L. 105–383, title III, §304(b), Nov. 13, 1998, 112 Stat. 3419.)


Editorial Notes

Amendments

1998—Pub. L. 105–383 substituted "$5,000" for "$1,000".

§2116. Marine safety strategy, goals, and performance assessments

(a) Long-Term Strategy and Goals.—In conjunction with existing federally required strategic planning efforts, the Secretary shall develop a long-term strategy for improving vessel safety and the safety of individuals on vessels. The strategy shall include the issuance of a triennial plan and schedule for achieving the following goals:

(1) Reducing the number and rates of marine casualties.

(2) Improving the consistency and effectiveness of vessel and operator enforcement and compliance programs.

(3) Identifying and targeting enforcement efforts at high-risk vessels and operators.

(4) Improving research efforts to enhance and promote vessel and operator safety and performance.


(b) Contents of Strategy and Triennial Plans.—

(1) Measurable goals.—The strategy and triennial plans shall include specific numeric or measurable goals designed to achieve the goals set forth in subsection (a). The purposes of the numeric or measurable goals are the following:

(A) To increase the number of safety examinations on all high-risk vessels.

(B) To eliminate the backlog of marine safety-related rulemakings.

(C) To improve the quality and effectiveness of marine safety information databases by ensuring that all Coast Guard personnel accurately and effectively report all safety, casualty, and injury information.

(D) To provide for a sufficient number of Coast Guard marine safety personnel, and provide adequate facilities and equipment to carry out the functions referred to in section 93(c) 1 of title 14.


(2) Resource needs.—The strategy and triennial plans shall include estimates of—

(A) the funds and staff resources needed to accomplish each activity included in the strategy and plans; and

(B) the staff skills and training needed for timely and effective accomplishment of each goal.


(c) Submission With the President's Budget.—Beginning with fiscal year 2020 and triennially thereafter, the Secretary shall submit to Congress the strategy and triennial plan not later than 60 days following the transmission of the President's budget submission under section 1105 of title 31.

(d) Achievement of Goals.—

(1) Progress assessment.—No less frequently than semiannually, the Commandant shall assess the progress of the Coast Guard toward achieving the goals set forth in subsection (b). The Commandant shall convey the Commandant's assessment to the employees of the marine safety workforce and shall identify any deficiencies that should be remedied before the next progress assessment.

(2) Report to congress.—The Secretary shall report triennially to the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate—

(A) on the performance of the marine safety program in achieving the goals of the marine safety strategy and annual plan under subsection (a) for the year covered by the report;

(B) on the program's mission performance in achieving numerical measurable goals established under subsection (b), including—

(i) the number of civilian and military Coast Guard personnel assigned to marine safety positions; and

(ii) an identification of marine safety positions that are understaffed to meet the workload required to accomplish each activity included in the strategy and plans under subsection (a); and


(C) recommendations on how to improve performance of the program.

(Added Pub. L. 111–281, title V, §522(a), Oct. 15, 2010, 124 Stat. 2956; amended Pub. L. 113–281, title II, §221(b)(1)(A), title III, §307(a), Dec. 18, 2014, 128 Stat. 3037, 3045; Pub. L. 115–232, div. C, title XXXV, §§3541(b)(7), 3546(b), Aug. 13, 2018, 132 Stat. 2323, 2326; Pub. L. 115–265, title II, §214, Oct. 11, 2018, 132 Stat. 3751.)


Editorial Notes

References in Text

Section 93 of title 14, referred to in subsec. (b)(1)(D), was redesignated section 504 of title 14 by Pub. L. 115–282, title I, §105(b), Dec. 4, 2018, 132 Stat. 4200, and references to section 93 of title 14 deemed to refer to such redesignated section, see section 123(b)(1) of Pub. L. 115–282, set out as a References to Sections of Title 14 as Redesignated by Pub. L. 115–282 note preceding section 101 of Title 14, Coast Guard.

Amendments

2018—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 115–265, §214(1), substituted "of a triennial" for "each year of an annual" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 115–265, §214(2), substituted "Triennial" for "Annual" in heading and "triennial" for "annual" in introductory provisions of pars. (1) and (2).

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 115–265, §214(3)(B), substituted "triennial plan" for "annual plan".

Pub. L. 115–265, §214(3)(A), which directed substitution of "fiscal year 2020 and triennially" for "fiscal year 2011 and each fiscal year", was executed by substituting "Beginning with fiscal year 2020 and triennially thereafter, the" for "The", to reflect the probable intent of Congress and the intervening amendment by Pub. L. 115–232, §3546(b). See below.

Pub. L. 115–232, §3546(b), substituted "The" for "Beginning with fiscal year 2011 and each fiscal year thereafter, the".

Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 115–232, §3541(b)(7), substituted "the Commandant shall assess" for "the Coast Guard Commandant shall assess".

Subsec. (d)(2). Pub. L. 115–265, §214(4), substituted "triennially" for "annually" in introductory provisions.

2014—Subsec. (b)(1)(D). Pub. L. 113–281, §307(a), substituted "section 93(c) of title 14" for "section 93(c)".

Subsec. (d)(2)(B). Pub. L. 113–281, §221(b)(1)(A), amended subpar. (B) generally. Prior to amendment, subpar. (B) read as follows: "on the program's mission performance in achieving numerical measurable goals established under subsection (b); and".


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Domestic Vessel Compliance

Pub. L. 115–265, title II, §204, Oct. 11, 2018, 132 Stat. 3745, provided that:

"(a) In General.—Not later than 60 days after the date on which the President submits to the Congress a budget each year pursuant to section 1105 of title 31, United States Code, the Commandant [of the Coast Guard] shall publish on a publicly accessible Website information documenting domestic vessel compliance with the requirements of subtitle II of title 46, United States Code.

"(b) Content.—The information required under subsection (a) shall—

"(1) include flag-State detention rates for each type of inspected vessel; and

"(2) identify any recognized organization that inspected or surveyed a vessel that was later subject to a Coast Guard-issued control action attributable to a major nonconformity that the recognized organization failed to identify in such inspection or survey."

[For definition of "recognized organization" as used in section 204 of Pub. L. 115–265, set out above, see section 203 of Pub. L. 115–265, set out as a note under section 2101 of this title.]

1 See References in Text note below.

§2117. Termination for unsafe operation

An individual authorized to enforce this title—

(1) may remove a certificate required by this title from a vessel that is operating in a condition that does not comply with the provisions of the certificate;

(2) may order the individual in charge of a vessel that is operating that does not have on board the certificate required by this title to return the vessel to a mooring and to remain there until the vessel is in compliance with this title; and

(3) may direct the individual in charge of a vessel to which this title applies to immediately take reasonable steps necessary for the safety of individuals on board the vessel if the official observes the vessel being operated in an unsafe condition that the official believes creates an especially hazardous condition, including ordering the individual in charge to return the vessel to a mooring and to remain there until the situation creating the hazard is corrected or ended.

(Added Pub. L. 111–281, title VI, §608(a), Oct. 15, 2010, 124 Stat. 2967.)

§2118. Establishment of equipment standards

(a) In establishing standards for approved equipment required on vessels subject to part B of this subtitle, the Secretary shall establish standards that are—

(1) based on performance using the best available technology that is economically achievable; and

(2) operationally practical.


(b) Using the standards established under subsection (a), the Secretary may also certify lifesaving equipment that is not required to be carried on vessels subject to part B of this subtitle to ensure that such equipment is suitable for its intended purpose.

(c) At least once every 10 years the Secretary shall review and revise the standards established under subsection (a) to ensure that the standards meet the requirements of this section.

(Added Pub. L. 111–281, title VI, §608(a), Oct. 15, 2010, 124 Stat. 2968; amended Pub. L. 114–120, title III, §306(a)(2), Feb. 8, 2016, 130 Stat. 54.)


Editorial Notes

Amendments

2016—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 114–120, §306(a)(2)(A), substituted "subtitle," for "title,".

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 114–120, §306(a)(2)(B), substituted "subtitle" for "title".

CHAPTER 23—OPERATION OF VESSELS GENERALLY

Sec.
2301.
Application.
2302.
Penalties for negligent operations and interfering with safe operation.
2303.
Duties related to marine casualty assistance and information.
2303a.
Post serious marine casualty alcohol testing.
2304.
Duty to provide assistance at sea.
2305.
Injunctions.
2306.
Vessel reporting requirements.
[2307.
Repealed.]

        

Historical and Revision Notes

Chapter 23 lists requirements that relate to the general operation of all vessels. These include penalties and injunctive relief for negligent operation of a vessel. It also provides penalties for failure to render assistance.


Editorial Notes

Amendments

2018Pub. L. 115–282, title IV, §402(d), Dec. 4, 2018, 132 Stat. 4264, struck out item 2307 "Limitation of liability for Coast Guard Vessel Traffic Service pilots and non-Federal vessel traffic service operators".

2012Pub. L. 112–213, title III, §302(b), Dec. 20, 2012, 126 Stat. 1563, substituted "Limitation of liability for Coast Guard Vessel Traffic Service pilots and non-Federal vessel traffic service operators" for "Limitation of liability for Coast Guard Vessel Traffic Service pilots" in item 2307.

2002Pub. L. 107–295, title IV, §431(b), Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2128, added item 2307.

1998Pub. L. 105–383, title III, §§302(b), 304(d)(2), Nov. 13, 1998, 112 Stat. 3418, 3420, added item 2302, struck out former item 2302 "Penalties for negligent operations", and added item 2303a.

1984Pub. L. 98–498, title II, §212(a)(1), Oct. 19, 1984, 98 Stat. 2305, added item 2306.

§2301. Application

Except as provided in sections 2304 and 2306 of this title, this chapter applies to a vessel operated on waters subject to the jurisdiction of the United States (including the territorial sea of the United States as described in Presidential Proclamation No. 5928 of December 27, 1988) and, for a vessel owned in the United States, on the high seas.

(Pub. L. 98–89, Aug. 26, 1983, 97 Stat. 508; Pub. L. 98–498, title II, §212(a)(2), Oct. 19, 1984, 98 Stat. 2305; Pub. L. 105–383, title III, §301(b)(2), Nov. 13, 1998, 112 Stat. 3417; Pub. L. 109–304, §15(7), Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1702.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised sectionSource section (U.S. Code)
2301 46:480

Section 2301 provides that this chapter is applicable to all vessels, including foreign flag vessels, when operating on waters subject to the jurisdiction of the United States. Any vessel owned in the United States while operating on the high seas would be included. By ownership the Committee means those vessels that are documented or numbered under United States laws and those other vessels that are neither documented or numbered but are of national origin and are not documented under the laws of a foreign nation. This chapter is applicable to a foreign flag vessel that is in innocent passage through territorial waters of the United States, presently 3 miles seaward, whether or not it is bound to or from a port subject to the jurisdiction of the United States.


Editorial Notes

References in Text

Presidential Proclamation No. 5928, referred to in text, is set out under section 1331 of Title 43, Public Lands.

Amendments

2006—Pub. L. 109–304 substituted "sections 2304 and" for "section".

1998—Pub. L. 105–383 inserted "(including the territorial sea of the United States as described in Presidential Proclamation No. 5928 of December 27, 1988)" after "of the United States".

1984—Pub. L. 98–498 substituted "Except as provided in section 2306 of this title, this chapter" for "This chapter".


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 98–498 effective 180 days after Oct. 19, 1984, see section 214 of Pub. L. 98–498, set out as an Effective Date note under section 2306 of this title.

§2302. Penalties for negligent operations and interfering with safe operation

(a) A person operating a vessel in a negligent manner or interfering with the safe operation of a vessel, so as to endanger the life, limb, or property of a person is liable to the United States Government for a civil penalty of not more than $5,000 in the case of a recreational vessel, or $25,000 in the case of any other vessel.

(b) A person operating a vessel in a grossly negligent manner that endangers the life, limb, or property of a person commits a class A misdemeanor.

(c) An individual who is under the influence of alcohol, or a dangerous drug in violation of a law of the United States when operating a vessel, as determined under standards prescribed by the Secretary by regulation—

(1) is liable to the United States Government for a civil penalty of not more than $5,000; or

(2) commits a class A misdemeanor.


(d) For a penalty imposed under this section, the vessel also is liable in rem unless the vessel is—

(1) owned by a State or a political subdivision of a State;

(2) operated principally for governmental purposes; and

(3) identified clearly as a vessel of that State or subdivision.


(e)(1) A vessel may not transport Government-impelled cargoes if—

(A) the vessel has been detained and determined to be substandard by the Secretary for violation of an international safety convention to which the United States is a party, and the Secretary has published notice of that detention and determination in an electronic form, including the name of the owner of the vessel; or

(B) the operator of the vessel has on more than one occasion had a vessel detained and determined to be substandard by the Secretary for violation of an international safety convention to which the United States is a party, and the Secretary has published notice of that detention and determination in an electronic form, including the name of the owner of the vessel.


(2) The prohibition in paragraph (1) expires for a vessel on the earlier of—

(A) 1 year after the date of the publication in electronic form on which the prohibition is based; or

(B) any date on which the owner or operator of the vessel prevails in an appeal of the violation of the relevant international convention on which the detention is based.


(3) As used in this subsection, the term "Government-impelled cargo" means cargo for which a Federal agency contracts directly for shipping by water or for which (or the freight of which) a Federal agency provides financing, including financing by grant, loan, or loan guarantee, resulting in shipment of the cargo by water.

(Pub. L. 98–89, Aug. 26, 1983, 97 Stat. 508; Pub. L. 98–557, §7(a), Oct. 30, 1984, 98 Stat. 2862; Pub. L. 101–380, title IV, §§4105(b)(2), 4302(a), Aug. 18, 1990, 104 Stat. 513, 537; Pub. L. 102–587, title V, §5102, Nov. 4, 1992, 106 Stat. 5071; Pub. L. 105–383, title III, §§302(a), 304(c), title IV, §408(a), Nov. 13, 1998, 112 Stat. 3417, 3419, 3430; Pub. L. 107–295, title III, §325, Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2105.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised sectionSource section (U.S. Code)
2302(a) 46:1461(d)

46:1484(b)

2302(b) 46:1461(d)

46:1483

2302(c) 46:1484(b)

Section 2302 states that the negligent operation of a vessel is prohibited. These acts are subject to civil and criminal penalties and the involved vessel is subject to an in rem action. The negligent operation provisions have their genesis in the Act of April 25, 1940, 54 Stat. 167, when Congress prescribed that no person shall operate any motorboat or any vessel in a reckless or negligent manner. This provision was directed at all vessels and not those solely engaged in recreational boating. When the Federal Boat Safety Act of 1971, P.L. 92–75, 85 Stat. 217 (46 U.S.C. 1461) was enacted it adopted the reckless or negligent operation provisions of the 1940 Act. It adopted for the first time a provision for assessing civil penalties in addition to criminal penalties. It dropped the word "reckless" because of redundancy. It also combined the two classes of vessels; "any motorboat or any vessel" into one class by using the word "vessel" and defined vessel as including every description of watercraft.


Editorial Notes

Amendments

2002—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 107–295 substituted "$5,000 in the case of a recreational vessel, or $25,000 in the case of any other vessel" for "$1,000"

1998—Pub. L. 105–383, §302(a)(1), substituted "Penalties for negligent operations and interfering with safe operation" for "Penalties for negligent operations" in section catchline.

Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 105–383, §302(a)(2), substituted "or interfering with the safe operation of a vessel, so as to endanger" for "that endangers".

Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 105–383, §304(c), substituted "$5,000; or" for "$1,000 for a first violation and not more than $5,000 for a subsequent violation; or".

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 105–383, §408(a), added subsec. (e).

1992—Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 102–587 substituted "$1,000 for a first violation and not more than $5,000 for a subsequent violation" for "$1,000".

1990—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 101–380, §4302(a)(1), substituted "commits a class A misdemeanor" for "shall be fined not more than $5,000, imprisoned for not more than one year, or both".

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 101–380, §§4105(b)(2), 4302(a)(2)(A), substituted "under the influence of alcohol, or a dangerous drug in violation of a law of the United States" for "intoxicated" and struck out ", shall be" after "by the Secretary by regulation".

Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 101–380, §4302(a)(2)(B), substituted "is liable" for "liable".

Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 101–380, §4302(a)(2)(C), amended par. (2) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (2) read as follows: "fined not more than $5,000, imprisoned for not more than one year, or both."

1984—Subsecs. (c), (d). Pub. L. 98–557 added subsec. (c) and redesignated former subsec. (c) as (d).


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Effective Date of 1998 Amendment

Pub. L. 105–383, title IV, §408(b), Nov. 13, 1998, 112 Stat. 3431, provided that: "The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] takes effect January 1, 1999."

Effective Date of 1990 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 101–380 applicable to incidents occurring after Aug. 18, 1990, see section 1020 of Pub. L. 101–380, set out as an Effective Date note under section 2701 of Title 33, Navigation and Navigable Waters.

§2303. Duties related to marine casualty assistance and information

(a) The master or individual in charge of a vessel involved in a marine casualty shall—

(1) render necessary assistance to each individual affected to save that affected individual from danger caused by the marine casualty, so far as the master or individual in charge can do so without serious danger to the master's or individual's vessel or to individuals on board; and

(2) give the master's or individual's name and address and identification of the vessel to the master or individual in charge of any other vessel involved in the casualty, to any individual injured, and to the owner of any property damaged.


(b) An individual violating this section or a regulation prescribed under this section shall be fined not more than $1,000 or imprisoned for not more than 2 years. The vessel also is liable in rem to the United States Government for the fine.

(c) An individual complying with subsection (a) of this section or gratuitously and in good faith rendering assistance at the scene of a marine casualty without objection by an individual assisted, is not liable for damages as a result of rendering assistance or for an act or omission in providing or arranging salvage, towage, medical treatment, or other assistance when the individual acts as an ordinary, reasonable, and prudent individual would have acted under the circumstances.

(Pub. L. 98–89, Aug. 26, 1983, 97 Stat. 509.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised sectionSource section (U.S. Code)
2303(a) 33:367

46:1465(a)

2303(b) 33:368
2303(c) 46:1465(b)

Section 2303 requires a master or anyone in charge of a vessel to provide assistance and render aid to those involved in a marine casualty and to exchange information in a manner similar to automobile accident cases. It also includes a "Good Samaritan" clause that exonerates anyone from liability when rendering assistance in an ordinary, reasonable, or prudent manner.

§2303a. Post serious marine casualty alcohol testing

(a) The Secretary shall establish procedures to ensure that after a serious marine casualty occurs, alcohol testing of crew members or other persons responsible for the operation or other safety-sensitive functions of the vessel or vessels involved in such casualty is conducted no later than 2 hours after the casualty occurs, unless such testing cannot be completed within that time due to safety concerns directly related to the casualty.

(b) The procedures in subsection (a) shall require that if alcohol testing cannot be completed within 2 hours of the occurrence of the casualty, such testing shall be conducted as soon thereafter as the safety concerns in subsection (a) have been adequately addressed to permit such testing, except that such testing may not be required more than 8 hours after the casualty occurs.

(Added Pub. L. 105–383, title III, §304(d)(1), Nov. 13, 1998, 112 Stat. 3419.)

§2304. Duty to provide assistance at sea

(a)(1) A master or individual in charge of a vessel shall render assistance to any individual found at sea in danger of being lost, so far as the master or individual in charge can do so without serious danger to the master's or individual's vessel or individuals on board.

(2) Paragraph (1) does not apply to a vessel of war or a vessel owned by the United States Government appropriated only to a public service.

(b) A master or individual violating this section shall be fined not more than $1,000, imprisoned for not more than 2 years, or both.

(Pub. L. 98–89, Aug. 26, 1983, 97 Stat. 509; Pub. L. 109–304, §15(8), Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1703.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised sectionSource section (U.S. Code)
2304 46:728

Section 2304 requires a master or individual in charge of a vessel to render assistance to those in danger at sea if able to do so without seriously endangering the vessel or crew.


Editorial Notes

Amendments

2006—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 109–304 designated existing provisions as par. (1) and added par. (2).

§2305. Injunctions

(a) The district courts of the United States have jurisdiction to enjoin the negligent operation of vessels prohibited by this chapter on the petition of the Attorney General for the United States Government.

(b) When practicable, the Secretary shall—

(1) give notice to any person against whom an action for injunctive relief is considered under this section an opportunity to present that person's views; and

(2) except for a knowing and willful violation, give the person a reasonable opportunity to achieve compliance.


(c) The failure to give notice and opportunity to present views under subsection (b) of this section does not preclude the court from granting appropriate relief.

(Pub. L. 98–89, Aug. 26, 1983, 97 Stat. 509.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised sectionSource section (U.S. Code)
2305 46:1485

Section 2305 provides injunctive authority to enjoin the negligent operation of vessels. This authority can also be used to enjoin the operation of foreign or domestic vessels on our waters when they are unsuitable for the voyage intended.

§2306. Vessel reporting requirements

(a)(1) An owner, charterer, managing operator, or agent of a vessel of the United States, having reason to believe (because of lack of communication with or nonappearance of a vessel or any other incident) that the vessel may have been lost or imperiled, immediately shall—

(A) notify the Coast Guard; and

(B) use all available means to determine the status of the vessel.


(2) When more than 48 hours have passed since the owner, charterer, managing operator, or agent of a vessel required to report to the United States Flag Merchant Vessel Location Filing System under authority of section 50113 of this title has received a communication from the vessel, the owner, charterer, managing operator, or agent immediately shall—

(A) notify the Coast Guard; and

(B) use all available means to determine the status of the vessel.


(3) A person notifying the Coast Guard under paragraph (1) or (2) of this subsection shall provide the name and identification number of the vessel, the names of individuals on board, and other information that may be requested by the Coast Guard. The owner, charterer, managing operator, or agent also shall submit written confirmation to the Coast Guard within 24 hours after nonwritten notification to the Coast Guard under those paragraphs.

(4) An owner, charterer, managing operator, or agent violating this subsection is liable to the United States Government for a civil penalty of not more than $5,000 for each day during which the violation occurs.

(b)(1) The master of a vessel of the United States required to report to the System shall report to the owner, charterer, managing operator, or agent at least once every 48 hours.

(2) A master violating this subsection is liable to the Government for a civil penalty of not more than $1,000 for each day during which the violation occurs.

(c) The Secretary may prescribe regulations to carry out this section.

(Added Pub. L. 98–498, title II, §212(a)(3), Oct. 19, 1984, 98 Stat. 2305; amended Pub. L. 109–304, §15(9), Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1703.)


Editorial Notes

Amendments

2006—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 109–304 substituted "section 50113 of this title" for "section 212(A) of the Merchant Marine Act, 1936 (46 App. U.S.C. 1122a),".


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Effective Date

Pub. L. 98–498, title II, §214, Oct. 19, 1984, 98 Stat. 2306, provided that: "Sections 211(a) and 212 of this subtitle [enacting this section and amending sections 2302, 3309, 6101, and 6103 of this title] are effective one hundred and eighty days after the date of enactment of this Act [Oct. 19, 1984]."

Transfer of Functions

For transfer of authorities, functions, personnel, and assets of the Coast Guard, including the authorities and functions of the Secretary of Transportation relating thereto, to the Department of Homeland Security, and for treatment of related references, see sections 468(b), 551(d), 552(d), and 557 of Title 6, Domestic Security, and the Department of Homeland Security Reorganization Plan of November 25, 2002, as modified, set out as a note under section 542 of Title 6.

[§2307. Repealed. Pub. L. 115–282, title IV, §402(d), Dec. 4, 2018, 132 Stat. 4264]

Section, added Pub. L. 107–295, title IV, §431(a), Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2128; amended Pub. L. 112–213, title III, §302(a), Dec. 20, 2012, 126 Stat. 1562, related to limitation of liability for Coast Guard Vessel Traffic Service pilots and non-Federal vessel traffic service operators.

Part B—Inspection and Regulation of Vessels

Historical and Revision Notes

Part B provides authority and responsibility for the inspection and regulation of vessels by the Coast Guard. This part specifies those vessels subject to inspection, those that are specifically exempt from inspection, and related inspection requirements and procedures. Due to the need for special requirements for the inspection and regulation of passenger vessels and those vessels carrying liquid bulk dangerous cargoes separate chapters have been developed. Additional chapters provide for recreational vessels and those other vessels that are regulated but are not subject to inspection and certification by the Coast Guard. It should also be noted that the United States is signatory to a number of international treaties on maritime safety and seamen's welfare, such as the various Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS) treaties, and that their provisions and requirements are part of United States maritime law and in many cases are quite extensive.

CHAPTER 31—GENERAL

Sec.
3101.
Authority to suspend inspection.
3102.
Immersion suits.
3103.
Use of reports, documents, and records.
3104.
Survival craft.
3105.
Electronic charts.

        

Editorial Notes

Amendments

2018Pub. L. 115–282, title IV, §402(a)(2), Dec. 4, 2018, 132 Stat. 4264, added item 3105.

2010Pub. L. 111–281, title VI, §609(b), Oct. 15, 2010, 124 Stat. 2968, added item 3104.

1996Pub. L. 104–324, title VI, §603(b), Oct. 19, 1996, 110 Stat. 3930, added item 3103.

1988Pub. L. 100–424, §8(a)(3), Sept. 9, 1988, 102 Stat. 1593, substituted "Immersion" for "Exposure" in item 3102.

1985Pub. L. 99–36, §2, May 15, 1985, 99 Stat. 68, repealed section 22 of Pub. L. 98–557 and the amendments made by that section, which added first identical item 3102, effective Nov. 8, 1984, thereby leaving Pub. L. 98–623 as the sole authority for the addition of item 3102. See 1984 Amendment note below.

1984Pub. L. 98–557, §22(a)(2), Oct. 30, 1984, 98 Stat. 2871, and Pub. L. 98–623, title VII, §701(a)(2), Nov. 8, 1984, 98 Stat. 3413, added identical item 3102. See 1985 Amendment note above.

§3101. Authority to suspend inspection

When the President decides that the needs of foreign commerce require, the President may suspend a provision of this part for a foreign-built vessel registered as a vessel of the United States on conditions the President may specify.

(Pub. L. 98–89, Aug. 26, 1983, 97 Stat. 510.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised sectionSource section (U.S. Code)
3101 46:82

Section 3101 provides the President with the authority to suspend the inspection laws for a foreign-built reflagged U.S. vessel when the needs of foreign commerce require this. For example, if a foreign-flag vessel is reflagged in the U.S. but does not meet the specific Coast Guard inspection requirements, the President could suspend these requirements.


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Effective Date

Pub. L. 98–89, §2(g)(1), Aug. 26, 1983, 97 Stat. 599, provided that: "Part B [chapters 31 to 43] of subtitle II and sections 7306 (related to able seaman sail) and 7311 of title 46 (as enacted by section 1 of this Act) take effect April 15, 1984, or when regulations for sailing school vessels under part B are effective, whichever is earlier." [Part B of subtitle II and sections 7306 (related to able seaman sail) and 7311 of title 46 effective Apr. 15, 1984, in absence of regulations for sailing school vessels under part B on that date.]


Executive Documents

Delegation of Functions

For delegation to Secretary of the Treasury of authority vested in President by this section, see Ex. Ord. No. 10289, Sept. 17, 1951, 16 F.R. 9499, set out as a note under section 301 of Title 3, The President.

§3102. Immersion suits

(a) The Secretary shall by regulation require immersion suits on vessels designated by the Secretary that operate in the Atlantic Ocean north of 32 degrees North latitude or south of 32 degrees South latitude and in all other waters north of 35 degrees North latitude or south of 35 degrees South latitude. The Secretary may not exclude a vessel from designation under this section only because that vessel carries other lifesaving equipment.

(b) The Secretary shall establish standards for an immersion suit required by this section, including standards to guarantee adequate thermal protection, buoyance, and flotation stability.

(c)(1) The owner, charterer, managing operator, agent, master, or individual in charge of a vessel violating this section or a regulation prescribed under this section is liable to the United States Government for a civil penalty of not more than $5,000. The vessel also is liable in rem for the penalty.

(2) The owner, charterer, managing operator, agent, master, or individual in charge of a vessel violating this section or a regulation prescribed under this section may be fined not more than $25,000, imprisoned for not more than 5 years, or both.

(Added Pub. L. 98–557, §22(a)(1), Oct. 30, 1984, 98 Stat. 2871; amended Pub. L. 98–623, title VII, §701(a)(1), Nov. 8, 1984, 98 Stat. 3413; Pub. L. 99–36, §2, May 15, 1985, 99 Stat. 68; Pub. L. 100–424, §8(a)(1), (2), Sept. 9, 1988, 102 Stat. 1592, 1593.)


Editorial Notes

Codification

Pub. L. 98–557 and Pub. L. 98–623 enacted identical section 3102 of this title. Section 22 of Pub. L. 98–557, which enacted first identical section 3102 of this title, was repealed by section 2 of Pub. L. 99–36, set out below as a Repeal of Duplicate Section note.

Amendments

1988—Pub. L. 100–424 substituted "Immersion" for "Exposure" in section catchline, and "immersion" for "exposure" in subsecs. (a) and (b).


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Repeal of Duplicate Section 3102; References Thereto and Regulations and Actions Thereunder

Pub. L. 99–36, §2, May 15, 1985, 99 Stat. 68, provided that: "Section 22 of the Coast Guard Authorization Act of 1984 (Public Law 98–557; 98 Stat. 2871), and the amendments made by such section [enacting first identical section 3102 of this title and provisions set out as a note under this section and amending the analysis of chapter 31 of this title], are repealed as of November 8, 1984. Regulations prescribed and actions taken under, and references to, such section and the amendments made by such section are deemed to be regulations prescribed and actions taken under, and references to, section 701 of the Act of November 8, 1984 (Public Law 98–623; 98 Stat. 3413), and the amendments made by such section 701 [enacting second identical section 3102 of this title and provisions set out as a note under this section and amending the analysis of chapter 31 of this title]."

Regulations

Pub. L. 98–623, title VII, §701(b), (c), Nov. 8, 1984, 98 Stat. 3413, provided:

"(b) Section 3102 of title 46, United States Code (as added by subsection (a) of this section), does not limit the authority of the Secretary of the department in which the Coast Guard is operating to prescribe regulations requiring exposure suits on vessels not required by section 3102 to have exposure suits.

"(c) The regulations prescribed under section 3102 of title 46, United States Code (as added by subsection (a) of this section), shall be effective not later than 60 days after the date of enactment of this title [Nov. 8, 1984]." [Regulations effective Dec. 30, 1984, see 49 F.R. 50722, Dec. 31, 1984.]

[For transfer of authorities, functions, personnel, and assets of the Coast Guard, including the authorities and functions of the Secretary of Transportation relating thereto, to the Department of Homeland Security, and for treatment of related references, see sections 468(b), 551(d), 552(d), and 557 of Title 6, Domestic Security, and the Department of Homeland Security Reorganization Plan of November 25, 2002, as modified, set out as a note under section 542 of Title 6.]

Similar provisions were contained in section 22(b), (c) of Pub. L. 98–557, which was repealed by section 2 of Pub. L. 99–36, set out above as a Repeal of Duplicate Section note.

§3103. Use of reports, documents, and records

The Secretary may rely, as evidence of compliance with this subtitle, on—

(1) reports, documents, and records of other persons who have been determined by the Secretary to be reliable; and

(2) other methods the Secretary has determined to be reliable.

(Added Pub. L. 104–324, title VI, §603(a), Oct. 19, 1996, 110 Stat. 3930.)

§3104. Survival craft

(a) Requirement To Equip.—The Secretary shall require that a passenger vessel be equipped with survival craft that ensures that no part of an individual is immersed in water, if—

(1) such vessel is built or undergoes a major conversion after January 1, 2016; and

(2) operates in cold waters as determined by the Secretary.


(b) Higher Standard of Safety.—The Secretary may revise part 117 or part 180 of title 46, Code of Federal Regulations, as in effect before January 1, 2016, if such revision provides a higher standard of safety than is provided by the regulations in effect on or before the date of the enactment of the Coast Guard Authorization Act of 2016.

(c) Innovative and Novel Designs.—The Secretary may, in lieu of the requirements set out in part 117 or part 180 of title 46, Code of Federal Regulations, as in effect on the date of the enactment of the Coast Guard Authorization Act of 2016, allow a passenger vessel to be equipped with a life-saving appliance or arrangement of an innovative or novel design that—

(1) ensures no part of an individual is immersed in water; and

(2) provides an equal or higher standard of safety than is provided by such requirements as in effect before such date of the enactment.


(d) Built Defined.—In this section, the term "built" has the meaning that term has under section 4503(d).

(Added Pub. L. 111–281, title VI, §609(a), Oct. 15, 2010, 124 Stat. 2968; amended Pub. L. 112–213, title III, §303, Dec. 20, 2012, 126 Stat. 1563; Pub. L. 114–120, title III, §301(a), Feb. 8, 2016, 130 Stat. 50; Pub. L. 114–328, div. C, title XXXV, §3503(a), Dec. 23, 2016, 130 Stat. 2775; Pub. L. 115–282, title V, §508(e), Dec. 4, 2018, 132 Stat. 4273.)


Editorial Notes

References in Text

The date of the enactment of the Coast Guard Authorization Act of 2016, referred to in subsecs. (b) and (c), is the date of enactment of Pub. L. 114–120, which was approved Feb. 8, 2016.

Amendments

2018—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 115–282 substituted "section 4503(d)" for "section 4503(e)".

2016—Pub. L. 114–120 amended section generally. Prior to amendment, section related to survival craft.

Subsecs. (b), (c). Pub. L. 114–328 substituted "Coast Guard Authorization Act of 2016" for "Coast Guard Authorization Act of 2015".

2012—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 112–213, §303(1), substituted "the date that is 30 months after the date on which the report described in subsection (c) is submitted" for "January 1, 2015" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 112–213, §303(2), added subsec. (c).


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Effective Date of 2016 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 114–328 effective as if included in the enactment of Pub. L. 114–120, see section 3503(e) of Pub. L. 114–328, set out as a note under section 315 of Title 14, Coast Guard.

Review; Revision of Regulations

Pub. L. 114–120, title III, §301(b), Feb. 8, 2016, 130 Stat. 50, provided that:

"(1) Review.—Not later than December 31, 2016, the Secretary of the department in which the Coast Guard is operating shall submit to the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate a review of—

"(A) the number of casualties for individuals with disabilities, children, and the elderly as a result of immersion in water, reported to the Coast Guard over the preceding 30-year period, by vessel type and area of operation;

"(B) the risks to individuals with disabilities, children, and the elderly as a result of immersion in water, by passenger vessel type and area of operation;

"(C) the effect that carriage of survival craft that ensure that no part of an individual is immersed in water has on—

"(i) passenger vessel safety, including stability and safe navigation;

"(ii) improving the survivability of individuals, including individuals with disabilities, children, and the elderly; and

"(iii) the costs, the incremental cost difference to vessel operators, and the cost effectiveness of requiring the carriage of such survival craft to address the risks to individuals with disabilities, children, and the elderly;

"(D) the efficacy of alternative safety systems, devices, or measures in improving survivability of individuals with disabilities, children, and the elderly; and

"(E) the number of small businesses and nonprofit vessel operators that would be affected by requiring the carriage of such survival craft on passenger vessels to address the risks to individuals with disabilities, children, and the elderly.

"(2) Scope.—In conducting the review under paragraph (1), the Secretary shall include an examination of passenger vessel casualties that have occurred in the waters of other nations.

"(3) Updates.—The Secretary shall update the review required under paragraph (1) every 5 years.

"(4) Revision.—Based on the review conducted under paragraph (1), including updates thereto, the Secretary shall revise regulations concerning the carriage of survival craft under section 3104(c) of title 46, United States Code."

§3105. Electronic charts

(a) System Requirements.—

(1) Requirements.—Subject to paragraph (2), the following vessels, while operating on the navigable waters of the United States, shall be equipped with and operate electronic charts under regulations prescribed by the Secretary of the department in which the Coast Guard is operating:

(A) A self-propelled commercial vessel of at least 65 feet overall length.

(B) A vessel carrying more than a number of passengers for hire determined by the Secretary.

(C) A towing vessel of more than 26 feet in overall length and 600 horsepower.

(D) Any other vessel for which the Secretary decides that electronic charts are necessary for the safe navigation of the vessel.


(2) Exemptions and waivers.—The Secretary may—

(A) exempt a vessel from paragraph (1), if the Secretary finds that electronic charts are not necessary for the safe navigation of the vessel on the waters on which the vessel operates; and

(B) waive the application of paragraph (1) with respect to operation of vessels on navigable waters of the United States specified by the Secretary, if the Secretary finds that electronic charts are not needed for safe navigation on those waters.


(b) Limitation on Application.—Except pursuant to an international treaty, convention, or agreement, to which the United States is a party, this section shall not apply to any foreign vessel that is not destined for, or departing from, a port or place subject to the jurisdiction of the United States and that is in—

(1) innocent passage through the territorial sea of the United States; or

(2) transit through the navigable waters of the United States that form a part of an international strait.

(Added and amended Pub. L. 115–282, title IV, §402(a)(1), Dec. 4, 2018, 132 Stat. 4263, 4264.)


Editorial Notes

Codification

Section, as added and amended by Pub. L. 115–282, is based on Pub. L. 92–340, §4A, as added Pub. L. 108–293, title IV, §410, Aug. 9, 2004, 118 Stat. 1045, which was formerly classified to section 1223a of Title 33, Navigation and Navigable Waters, before being transferred to this chapter and renumbered as this section.

Amendments

2018—Pub. L. 115–282, §402(a)(1)(A), transferred section 4A of Pub. L. 92–340 to this chapter and renumbered it as this section. See Codification note above.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 115–282, §402(a)(1)(B), added subsec. (b) and struck out former subsec. (b). Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "The Secretary of the department in which the Coast Guard is operating shall prescribe regulations implementing subsection (a) before January 1, 2007, including requirements for the operation and maintenance of the electronic charts required under subsection (a)."

CHAPTER 32—MANAGEMENT OF VESSELS

Sec.
3201.
Definitions.
3202.
Application.
3203.
Safety management system.
3204.
Implementation of safety management system.
3205.
Certification.

        

§3201. Definitions

In this chapter—

(1) "International Safety Management Code" has the same meaning given that term in chapter IX of the Annex to the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea, 1974;

(2) "responsible person" means—

(A) the owner of a vessel to which this chapter applies; or

(B) any other person that has—

(i) assumed the responsibility for operation of a vessel to which this chapter applies from the owner; and

(ii) agreed to assume with respect to the vessel responsibility for complying with all the requirements of this chapter and the regulations prescribed under this chapter.


(3) "vessel engaged on a foreign voyage" means a vessel to which this chapter applies—

(A) arriving at a place under the jurisdiction of the United States from a place in a foreign country;

(B) making a voyage between places outside the United States; or

(C) departing from a place under the jurisdiction of the United States for a place in a foreign country.

(Added Pub. L. 104–324, title VI, §602(a), Oct. 19, 1996, 110 Stat. 3928.)


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Safety Management System

Pub. L. 115–265, title II, §205, Oct. 11, 2018, 132 Stat. 3745, provided that:

"(a) In General.—The Comptroller General of the United States shall conduct an audit regarding the implementation and effectiveness of the Coast Guard's oversight and enforcement of safety management plans required under chapter 32 of title 46, United States Code.

"(b) Scope.—The audit conducted under subsection (a) shall include an evaluation of—

"(1) the effectiveness and implementation of safety management plans, including such plans for—

"(A) a range of vessel types and sizes; and

"(B) vessels that operate in a cross-section of regional operating areas; and

"(2) the effectiveness and implementation of safety management plans in addressing the impact of heavy weather.

"(c) Report.—Not later than 18 months after the date of enactment of this Act [Oct. 11, 2018], the Comptroller General shall submit to the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate and the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure of the House of Representatives a report detailing the results of the audit and providing recommendations related to such results, including ways to streamline and focus such plans on ship safety.

"(d) Marine Safety Alert.—Not later than 60 days after the date the report is submitted under subsection (c), the Commandant [of the Coast Guard] shall publish a Marine Safety Alert providing notification of the completion of the report and including a link to the report on a publicly accessible website.

"(e) Additional Actions.—

"(1) In general.—Upon completion of the report under subsection (c), the Commandant shall consider additional guidance or a rulemaking to address any deficiencies identified, and any additional actions recommended, in the report.

"(2) Report.—Not later than 1 year after the date the report is submitted under subsection (c), the Commandant shall submit to the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate and the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure of the House of Representatives a report on the actions the Commandant has taken to address any deficiencies identified, and any additional actions recommended, in the report submitted under subsection (c)."

Timely Weather Forecasts and Hazard Advisories for Merchant Mariners

Pub. L. 115–265, title II, §216, Oct. 11, 2018, 132 Stat. 3751, provided that: "Not later than 1 year after the date of enactment of this Act [Oct. 11, 2018], the Commandant [of the Coast Guard] shall seek to enter into negotiations through the International Maritime Organization to amend the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea to require that vessels subject to the requirements of such Convention receive—

"(1) timely synoptic and graphical chart weather forecasts; and

"(2) where available, timely hazard advisories for merchant mariners, including broadcasts of tropical cyclone forecasts and advisories, intermediate public advisories, and tropical cyclone updates to mariners via appropriate technologies."

Safety Management Code Report and Policy

Pub. L. 105–383, title III, §306, Nov. 13, 1998, 112 Stat. 3420, provided that:

"(a) Report on Implementation and Enforcement of the International Safety Management Code.—

"(1) The Secretary of Transportation (in this section referred to as the 'Secretary') shall conduct a study—

"(A) reporting on the status of implementation of the International Safety Management Code (hereafter referred to in this section as 'Code');

"(B) detailing enforcement actions involving the Code, including the role documents and reports produced pursuant to the Code play in such enforcement actions;

"(C) evaluating the effects the Code has had on marine safety and environmental protection, and identifying actions to further promote marine safety and environmental protection through the Code;

"(D) identifying actions to achieve full compliance with and effective implementation of the Code; and

"(E) evaluating the effectiveness of internal reporting and auditing under the Code, and recommending actions to ensure the accuracy and candidness of such reporting and auditing.

These recommended actions may include proposed limits on the use in legal proceedings of documents produced pursuant to the Code.

"(2) The Secretary shall provide opportunity for the public to participate in and comment on the study conducted under paragraph (1).

"(3) Not later than 18 months after the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 13, 1998], the Secretary shall submit to the Congress a report on the results of the study conducted under paragraph (1).

"(b) Policy.—

"(1) Not later than 9 months after submission of the report in subsection (a)(3), the Secretary shall develop a policy to achieve full compliance with and effective implementation of the Code. The policy may include—

"(A) enforcement penalty reductions and waivers, limits on the use in legal proceedings of documents produced pursuant to the Code, or other incentives to ensure accurate and candid reporting and auditing;

"(B) any other measures to achieve full compliance with and effective implementation of the Code; and

"(C) if appropriate, recommendations to Congress for any legislation necessary to implement one or more elements of the policy.

"(2) The Secretary shall provide opportunity for the public to participate in the development of the policy in paragraph (1).

"(3) Upon completion of the policy in paragraph (1), the Secretary shall publish the policy in the Federal Register and provide opportunity for public comment on the policy."

Vessel Management Methods Study

Pub. L. 104–324, title VI, §602(c), Oct. 19, 1996, 110 Stat. 3930, provided that:

"(1) In general.—The Secretary of the department in which the Coast Guard is operating shall conduct, in cooperation with the owners, charterers, and managing operators of vessels documented under chapter 121 of title 46, United States Code, and other interested persons, a study of the methods that may be used to implement and enforce the International Management Code for the Safe Operation of Ships and for Pollution Prevention under chapter IX of the Annex to the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea, 1974.

"(2) Report.—The Secretary shall submit to the Congress a report of the results of the study required under paragraph (1) before the earlier of—

"(A) the date that final regulations are prescribed under section 3203 of title 46, United States Code (as enacted by subsection (a)[)]; or

"(B) the date that is 1 year after the date of enactment of this Act [Oct. 19, 1996]."

International Convention for Safety of Life at Sea

For International Conventions for the Safety of Life at Sea to which the United States has been a party, see section 1602 of Title 33, Navigation and Navigable Waters, and notes thereunder.

§3202. Application

(a) Foreign Voyages an