[USC02] 46 USC Subtitle V: Merchant Marine
Result 1 of 1
   
 
46 USC Subtitle V: Merchant Marine
From Title 46—SHIPPING

Subtitle V—Merchant Marine

Part A—General

Chapter
Sec.
501.
Policy, Studies, and Reports
50101
503.
Administrative
50301
505.
Other General Provisions
50501

        

Part B—Merchant Marine Service

511.
General
51101
513.
United States Merchant Marine Academy
51301
515.
State Maritime Academy Support Program
51501
517.
Other Support for Merchant Marine Training
51701
519.
Merchant Marine Awards
51901
521.
Miscellaneous
52101

        

Part C—Financial Assistance Programs

531.
Maritime Security Fleet
53101
533.
Construction Reserve Funds
53301
535.
Capital Construction Funds
53501
537.
Loans and Guarantees
53701
539.
War Risk Insurance
53901
541.
Miscellaneous
54101

        

Part D—Promotional Programs

551.
Coastwise Trade
55101
553.
Passenger and Cargo Preferences
55301
555.
Miscellaneous
55501
556.
Short Sea Transportation
55601

        

Part E—Control of Merchant Marine Capabilities

561.
Restrictions on Transfers
56101
563.
Emergency Acquisition of Vessels
56301
565.
Essential Vessels Affected by Neutrality Act
56501

        

Part F—Government-Owned Merchant Vessels

571.
General Authority
57101
573.
Vessel Trade-In Program
57301
575.
Construction, Charter, and Sale of Vessels
57501

        

Part G—Restrictions and Penalties

581.
Restrictions and Penalties
58101

        

Amendments

2008Pub. L. 110–181, div. C, title XXXV, §3523(a)(6)(E), Jan. 28, 2008, 122 Stat. 600, added item for chapter 541.

2007Pub. L. 110–140, title XI, §1121(b), Dec. 19, 2007, 121 Stat. 1762, added item for chapter 556.

2006Pub. L. 109–304, §8(a), Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1555, amended subtitle analysis generally. Prior to amendment, analysis consisted of item for chapter 531 "Maritime Security Fleet".

Part A—General

CHAPTER 501—POLICY, STUDIES, AND REPORTS

Sec.
50101.
Objectives and policy.
50102.
Survey of merchant marine.
50103.
Determinations of essential services.
50104.
Studies of general maritime problems.
50105.
Studies and cooperation relating to the construction of vessels.
50106.
Studies on the operation of vessels.
50107.
Studies on marine insurance.
50108.
Studies on cargo carriage and cargo containers.
50109.
Miscellaneous studies.
50110.
Securing preference to vessels of the United States.
50111.
Submission of annual MARAD authorization request.
50112.
National Maritime Enhancement Institutes.
50113.
Use and performance reports by operators of vessels.

        

Amendments

2015Pub. L. 114–92, div. A, title X, §1074(c)(2), Nov. 25, 2015, 129 Stat. 997, substituted "Submission of annual MARAD authorization request" for "Reports to Congress" in item 50111.

§50101. Objectives and policy

(a) Objectives.—It is necessary for the national defense and the development of the domestic and foreign commerce of the United States that the United States have a merchant marine—

(1) sufficient to carry the waterborne domestic commerce and a substantial part of the waterborne export and import foreign commerce of the United States and to provide shipping service essential for maintaining the flow of the waterborne domestic and foreign commerce at all times;

(2) capable of serving as a naval and military auxiliary in time of war or national emergency;

(3) owned and operated as vessels of the United States by citizens of the United States;

(4) composed of the best-equipped, safest, and most suitable types of vessels constructed in the United States and manned with a trained and efficient citizen personnel; and

(5) supplemented by efficient facilities for building and repairing vessels.


(b) Policy.—It is the policy of the United States to encourage and aid the development and maintenance of a merchant marine satisfying the objectives described in subsection (a).

(Pub. L. 109–304, §8(b), Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1556; Pub. L. 111–84, div. C, title XXXV, §3511, Oct. 28, 2009, 123 Stat. 2722.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
50101 46 App.:861. June 5, 1920, ch. 250, §1, 41 Stat. 988; Exec. Order No. 6166, June 10, 1933, §12; June 29, 1936, ch. 858, title II, §204, title IX, §904, 49 Stat. 1987, 2016; Pub. L. 97–31, §12(33), Aug. 6, 1981, 95 Stat. 156.
  46 App.:891. May 22, 1928, ch. 675, §1, 45 Stat. 689.
  46 App.:1101. June 29, 1936, ch. 858, title I, §101, 49 Stat. 1985; Pub. L. 91–469, §1, Oct. 21, 1970, 84 Stat. 1018.

This section consolidates the source provisions to eliminate repetition.

Amendments

2009—Subsec. (a)(4). Pub. L. 111–84 inserted "constructed in the United States" after "vessels".

§50102. Survey of merchant marine

(a) In General.—The Secretary of Transportation shall survey the merchant marine of the United States to determine whether replacements and additions are required to carry out the objectives and policy of section 50101 of this title. The Secretary shall study, perfect, and adopt a long-range program for replacements and additions that will result, as soon as practicable, in—

(1) an adequate and well-balanced merchant fleet, including vessels of all types, that will provide shipping service essential for maintaining the flow of foreign commerce by vessels designed to be readily and quickly convertible into transport and supply vessels in a time of national emergency;

(2) ownership and operation of the fleet by citizens of the United States insofar as practicable;

(3) vessels designed to afford the best and most complete protection for passengers and crew against fire and all marine perils; and

(4) an efficient capacity for building and repairing vessels in the United States with an adequate number of skilled personnel to provide an adequate mobilization base.


(b) Cooperation With Secretary of Navy.—In carrying out subsection (a)(1), the Secretary of Transportation shall cooperate closely with the Secretary of the Navy as to national defense requirements.

(Pub. L. 109–304, §8(b), Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1557.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
50102 46 App.:1120. June 29, 1936, ch. 858, title II, §210, 49 Stat. 1989; Pub. L. 91–469, §§3, 35(a), Oct. 21, 1970, 84 Stat. 1018, 1035; Pub.L. 97–31, §12(67) (related to §210), Aug. 6, 1981, 95 Stat. 159.

§50103. Determinations of essential services

(a) Essential Services, Routes, and Lines.—

(1) In general.—The Secretary of Transportation shall investigate, determine, and keep current records of the ocean services, routes, and lines from ports in the United States, or in the territories and possessions of the United States, to foreign markets, which the Secretary determines to be essential for the promotion, development, expansion, and maintenance of the foreign commerce of the United States. In making such a determination, the Secretary shall consider and give due weight to—

(A) the cost of maintaining each line;

(B) the probability that a line cannot be maintained except at a heavy loss disproportionate to the benefit to foreign trade;

(C) the number of voyages and types of vessels that should be employed in a line;

(D) the intangible benefit of maintaining a line to the foreign commerce of the United States, the national defense, and other national requirements; and

(E) any other facts and conditions a prudent business person would consider when dealing with the person's own business.


(2) Saint lawrence seaway.—For purposes of paragraph (1), the Secretary shall establish services, routes, and lines that reflect the seasonal closing of the Saint Lawrence Seaway and provide for alternate routing of vessels through a different range of ports during that closing to maintain continuity of service on a year-round basis.


(b) Bulk Cargo Carrying Services.—The Secretary shall investigate, determine, and keep current records of the bulk cargo carrying services that should be provided by vessels of the United States (whether or not operating on particular services, routes, or lines) for the promotion, development, expansion, and maintenance of the foreign commerce of the United States and the national defense or other national requirements.

(c) Types of Vessels.—The Secretary shall investigate, determine, and keep current records of the type, size, speed, method of propulsion, and other requirements of the vessels, including express-liner or super-liner vessels, that should be employed in—

(1) the services, routes, or lines described in subsection (a), and the frequency and regularity of the voyages of the vessels, with a view to furnishing adequate, regular, certain, and permanent service; and

(2) the bulk cargo carrying services described in subsection (b).

(Pub. L. 109–304, §8(b), Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1557.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
50103(a)(1) 46 App.:1121(a). June 29, 1936, ch. 858, title II, §211(a)–(c), 49 Stat. 1989; Pub. L. 91–469, §§4, 35(a), (b), Oct. 21, 1970, 84 Stat. 1018, 1035; Pub. L. 97–31, §12(67), Aug. 6, 1981, 95 Stat. 159.
50103(a)(2) 46 App.:1213(a) (3d sentence related to 1121(a)). June 29, 1936, ch. 858, title VIII, §809(a) (3d sentence related to 211(a)), as added Pub. L. 97–35, title XVI, §1604, Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 751.
50103(b) 46 App.:1121(b).
50103(c) 46 App.:1121(c).

§50104. Studies of general maritime problems

The Secretary of Transportation shall study all maritime problems arising in carrying out the policy in section 50101 of this title.

(Pub. L. 109–304, §8(b), Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1558.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
50104 46 App.:1122(a). June 29, 1936, ch. 858, title II, §212(a), 49 Stat. 1990; Aug. 6, 1981, Pub. L. 97–31, §12(69), 95 Stat. 159.

§50105. Studies and cooperation relating to the construction of vessels

(a) Relative Costs and New Designs.—The Secretary of Transportation shall investigate, determine, and keep current records of—

(1) the relative cost of construction of comparable vessels in the United States and in foreign countries; and

(2) new designs, new methods of construction, and new types of equipment for vessels.


(b) Rules, Classifications, and Ratings.—The Secretary shall examine the rules under which vessels are constructed abroad and in the United States and the methods of classifying and rating the vessels.

(c) Collaboration With Owners and Builders.—The Secretary shall collaborate with vessel owners and shipbuilders in developing plans for the economical construction of vessels and their propelling machinery, of most modern economical types, giving thorough consideration to all well-recognized means of propulsion and taking into account the benefits from standardized production where practicable and desirable.

(d) Express-Liner and Super-Liner Vessels.—The Secretary shall study and cooperate with vessel owners in devising means by which there may be constructed, by or with the aid of the United States Government, express-liner or super-liner vessels comparable to those of other nations, especially with a view to their use in a national emergency, and the use of transoceanic aircraft service in connection with or in lieu of those vessels.

(Pub. L. 109–304, §8(b), Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1558.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
50105(a)(1) 46 App.:811 (1st sentence words before 1st comma). Sept. 7, 1916, ch. 451, §12 (1st sentence words before 1st comma, 2d sentence words before 2d comma), 39 Stat. 732; Ex. Ord. No. 6166, §12, eff. June 10, 1933; June 29, 1936, ch. 858, title II, §204, title IX, §904, 49 Stat. 1987, 2016; Pub. L. 97–31, §12(27), Aug. 6, 1981, 95 Stat. 155.
  46 App.:1121(d). June 29, 1936, ch. 858, title II, §211(d), (j) (words before 1st semicolon), 49 Stat. 1989; Pub. L. 91–469, §§4(2), 35(a), Oct. 21, 1970, 84 Stat. 1018, 1035; Pub. L. 97–31, §12(67), Aug. 6, 1981, 95 Stat. 159.
50105(a)(2) 46 App.:1121(j) (words before 1st semicolon).
50105(b) 46 App.:811 (2d sentence words before 2d comma).
50105(c) 46 App.:1122(c). June 29, 1936, ch. 858, title II, §212(b)(2), (c), 49 Stat. 1990; Pub. L. 97–31, §12(69), Aug. 6, 1981, 95 Stat. 159.
50105(d) 46 App.:1122(b)(2).

§50106. Studies on the operation of vessels

(a) Relative Costs.—The Secretary of Transportation shall investigate, determine, and keep current records of the relative cost of marine insurance, maintenance, repairs, wages and subsistence of officers and crews, and all other items of expense, in the operation of comparable vessels under the laws and regulations of the United States and those of the foreign countries whose vessels are substantial competitors of American vessels.

(b) Shipyards.—The Secretary shall investigate, determine, and keep current records of the number, location, and efficiency of shipyards in the United States.

(c) Navigation Laws.—The Secretary shall examine the navigation laws and regulations of the United States and make such recommendations to Congress as the Secretary considers proper for the amendment, improvement, and revision of those laws and for the development of the merchant marine of the United States.

(Pub. L. 109–304, §8(b), Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1559.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
50106(a) 46 App.:811 (1st sentence words after 1st comma). Sept. 7, 1916, ch. 451, §12 (1st sentence words after 1st comma, 3d sentence), 39 Stat. 732; Ex. Ord. No. 6166, §12, eff. June 10, 1933; June 29, 1936, ch. 858, title II, §204, title IX, §904, 49 Stat. 1987, 2016; Pub. L. 97–31, §12(27), Aug. 6, 1981, 95 Stat. 155.
  46 App.:1121(e). June 29, 1936, ch. 858, title II, §211(e), (g), 49 Stat. 1989; Pub. L. 91–469, §§4(2), 5, 35(a), Oct. 21, 1970, 84 Stat. 1018, 1035; Pub. L. 97–31, §12(67), Aug. 6, 1981, 95 Stat. 159.
50106(b) 46 App.:1121(g).
50106(c) 46 App.:811 (3d sentence).

In subsection (b), the words "existing on June 29, 1936, or thereafter built" are omitted as obsolete.

§50107. Studies on marine insurance

The Secretary of Transportation shall—

(1) examine into the subject of marine insurance, the number of companies in the United States, domestic and foreign, engaging in marine insurance, the extent of the insurance on hulls and cargoes placed or written in the United States, and the extent of reinsurance of American maritime risks in foreign companies; and

(2) ascertain what steps may be necessary to develop an ample marine insurance system as an aid in the development of the merchant marine of the United States.

(Pub. L. 109–304, §8(b), Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1559.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
50107 46 App.:811 (2d sentence words after 2d comma). Sept. 7, 1916, ch. 451, §12 (2d sentence words after 2d comma), 39 Stat. 732; Ex. Ord. No. 6166, §12, eff. June 10, 1933; June 29, 1936, ch. 858, title II, §204, title IX, §904, 49 Stat. 1987, 2016; Pub. L. 97–31, §12(27), Aug. 6, 1981, 95 Stat. 155.

§50108. Studies on cargo carriage and cargo containers

(a) Studies.—The Secretary of Transportation shall study—

(1) the methods of encouraging the development and implementation of new concepts for the carriage of cargo in the domestic and foreign commerce of the United States; and

(2) the economic and technological aspects of the use of cargo containers as a method of carrying out the policy in section 50101 of this title.


(b) Restriction.—In carrying out subsection (a) and the policy in section 50101 of this title, the United States Government may not give preference as between carriers based on the length, height, or width of cargo containers or the length, height, or width of cargo container cells. This restriction applies to all existing container vessels and any container vessel to be constructed or rebuilt.

(Pub. L. 109–304, §8(b), Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1559.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
50108 46 App.:1122(f). June 29, 1936, ch. 858, title II, §212(f); as added Pub. L. 90–268, §1, Mar. 16, 1968, 82 Stat. 49; Pub. L. 97–31, §12(69), Aug. 6, 1981, 95 Stat. 159; Pub. L. 98–237, §20(c), Mar. 20, 1984, 98 Stat. 90.

§50109. Miscellaneous studies

(a) Foreign Subsidies.—The Secretary of Transportation shall investigate, determine, and keep current records of the extent and character of the governmental aid and subsidies granted by foreign governments to their merchant marine.

(b) Laws Applicable to Aircraft.—The Secretary shall investigate, determine, and keep current records of the provisions of law relating to shipping that should be made applicable to aircraft engaged in foreign commerce to further the policy in section 50101 of this title, and any appropriate legislation in this regard.

(c) Aid for Cotton, Coal, Lumber, and Cement.—The Secretary shall investigate, determine, and keep current records of the advisability of enactment of suitable legislation authorizing the Secretary, in an economic or commercial emergency, to aid farmers and producers of cotton, coal, lumber, and cement in any section of the United States in the transportation and landing of their products in any foreign port, which products can be carried in dry-cargo vessels by reducing rates, by supplying additional tonnage to any American operator, or by operation of vessels directly by the Secretary, until the Secretary considers the special rate reduction and operation unnecessary for the benefit of those farmers and producers.

(d) Intercoastal and Inland Water Transportation.—The Secretary shall investigate, determine, and keep current records of intercoastal and inland water transportation, including their relation to transportation by land and air.

(e) Obsolete Tonnage and Tramp Service.—The Secretary shall make studies and reports to Congress on—

(1) the scrapping or removal from service of old or obsolete merchant tonnage owned by the United States Government or in use in the merchant marine; and

(2) tramp shipping service and the advisability of citizens of the United States participating in that service with vessels under United States registry.


(f) Mortgage Loans.—The Secretary shall investigate the legal status of mortgage loans on vessel property, with a view to the means of improving the security of those loans and of encouraging investment in American shipping.

(Pub. L. 109–304, §8(b), Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1559.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
50109(a) 46 App.:1121(f). June 29, 1936, ch. 858, title II, §211(f), (h), (i), (j) (words after 2d semicolon), 49 Stat. 1989; Pub. L. 91–469, §§4(2), 35(a), Oct. 21, 1970, 84 Stat. 1018, 1035; Pub. L. 97–31, §12(67), Aug. 6, 1981, 95 Stat. 159.
50109(b) 46 App.:1121(h).
50109(c) 46 App.:1121(i).
50109(d) 46 App.:1121(j) (words after 2d semicolon).
50109(e) 46 App.:1123. June 29, 1936, ch. 858, title II, §213, 49 Stat. 1991; Pub. L. 87–877, §2(c), (d), Oct. 24, 1962, 76 Stat. 1201; Pub. L. 94–273, §27, Apr. 21, 1976, 90 Stat. 380; Pub. L. 97–31, §12(71), Aug. 6, 1981, 95 Stat. 159; Pub. L. 105–85, div. C, title XXXVI, §3602, Nov. 18, 1997, 111 Stat. 2075.
50109(f) 46 App.:811 (4th sentence). Sept. 7, 1916, ch. 451, §12 (4th sentence), 39 Stat. 732; Ex. Ord. No. 6166, §12, eff. June 10, 1933; June 29, 1936, ch. 858, title II, §204, title IX, §904, 49 Stat. 1987, 2016; Pub. L. 97–31, §12(27), Aug. 6, 1981, 95 Stat. 155.

§50110. Securing preference to vessels of the United States

(a) Possibilities of Promoting Carriage.—The Secretary of Transportation shall investigate, determine, and keep current records of the possibilities of promoting the carriage of United States foreign trade in vessels of the United States.

(b) Inducements to Importers and Exporters.—The Secretary shall study and cooperate with vessel owners in devising means by which the importers and exporters of the United States can be induced to give preference to vessels of the United States.

(c) Liaison With Agencies and Organizations.—The Secretary shall establish and maintain liaison with such other agencies of the United States Government, and with such representative trade organizations throughout the United States, as may be concerned, directly or indirectly, with any movement of commodities in the waterborne export and import foreign commerce of the United States, for the purpose of securing preference to vessels of the United States in the shipment of those commodities.

(Pub. L. 109–304, §8(b), Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1560.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
50110(a) 46 App.:1121(j) (words between 1st and 2d semicolons). June 29, 1936, ch. 858, title II, §211(j) (words between 1st and 2d semicolons), 49 Stat. 1989; Pub. L. 91–469, §§4(2), 35(a), Oct. 21, 1970, 84 Stat. 1018, 1035; Pub. L. 97–31, §12(67), Aug. 6, 1981, 95 Stat. 159.
50110(b) 46 App.:1122(b)(1). June 29, 1936, ch. 858, title II, §212(b)(1), (d), 49 Stat. 1990; Pub. L. 97–31, §12(69), Aug. 6, 1981, 95 Stat. 159; Pub. L. 98–237, §20(c), Mar. 20, 1984, 98 Stat. 90.
50110(c) 46 App.:1122(d).

§50111. Submission of annual MARAD authorization request

(a) Submission of Legislative Proposal.—Not later than 30 days after the date on which the President submits to Congress a budget for a fiscal year pursuant to section 1105 of title 31, the Secretary of Transportation shall submit to the Committee on Armed Services and the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate the Maritime Administration authorization request for that fiscal year.

(b) Maritime Administration Request Defined.—In this section, the term "Maritime Administration authorization request" means a proposal for legislation that, for a fiscal year—

(1) recommends authorizations of appropriations for the Maritime Administration for that fiscal year, including with respect to matters described in subsection 1 109(j) of title 49 or authorized in subtitle V of this title; and

(2) addresses any other matter with respect to the Maritime Administration that the Secretary determines is appropriate.

(Pub. L. 109–304, §8(b), Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1560; Pub. L. 114–92, div. A, title X, §1074(c)(1), Nov. 25, 2015, 129 Stat. 996.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
50111(a) 46 App.:811 (last sentence). Sept. 7, 1916, ch. 451, §12 (last sentence), 39 Stat. 732; Ex. Ord. No. 6166, §12, eff. June 10, 1933; June 29, 1936, ch. 858, title II, §204, title IX, §904, 49 Stat. 1987, 2016; Pub. L. 97–31, §12(27), Aug. 6, 1981, 95 Stat. 155.
  46 App.:1118 (related to Secretary). June 29, 1936, ch. 858, title II, §208 (related to Secretary), 49 Stat. 1988; Pub. L. 94–273, §36, Apr. 21, 1976, 90 Stat. 380; Pub. L. 97–31, §12(65), Aug. 6, 1981, 95 Stat. 159.
  46 App.:1160(f). June 29, 1936, ch. 858, title V, §510(f), as added Aug. 4, 1939, ch. 417, §7, 53 Stat. 1184; Pub. L. 97–31, §12(91)(A)–(C), Aug. 6, 1981, 95 Stat. 161.
  46 App.:1291. June 29, 1936, ch. 858, title XII, §1211, as added Sept. 7, 1950, ch. 906, 64 Stat. 776; Pub. L. 89–348, §1(7), Nov. 8, 1965, 79 Stat. 1310.
50111(b) 46 App.:1118 note. Pub. L. 106–398, §1 [div. C, title XXXV, §3506], Oct. 30, 2000, 114 Stat. 1654, 1654A-494.
50111(c) 46 App.:1122(g). June 29, 1936, ch. 858, title II, §212(g), 49 Stat. 1990; Pub. L. 90–268, §1, Mar. 16, 1968, 82 Stat. 49; Pub. L. 97–31, §12(69), Aug. 6, 1981, 95 Stat. 159; Pub. L. 98–237, §20(c), Mar. 20, 1984, 98 Stat. 90.

In subsection (a), the words "on or before the 1st day of December in each year" in 46 App. U.S.C. 811 (last sentence) are omitted for consistency with the April 1 date in 46 App.:1118. The words "and of the operations of any corporation in which the United States is a stockholder, and the names and compensation of all persons employed by the Secretary of Transportation" in 46 App. U.S.C. 811 (last sentence) are omitted because the provision originally applied to the United States Shipping Board (which was abolished in 1933) and presumably is not intended to apply to the Secretary.

Amendments

2015Pub. L. 114–92 amended section generally. Prior to amendment, section related to annual reports to Congress.

1 So in original. Probably should be "section".

§50112. National Maritime Enhancement Institutes

(a) Designation.—The Secretary of Transportation may designate National Maritime Enhancement Institutes.

(b) Activities.—Activities undertaken by an institute may include—

(1) conducting research about methods to improve the performance of maritime industries;

(2) enhancing the competitiveness of domestic maritime industries in international trade;

(3) forecasting trends in maritime trade;

(4) assessing technological advancements;

(5) developing management initiatives and training;

(6) analyzing economic and operational impacts of regulatory policies and international negotiations or agreements pending before international bodies;

(7) assessing the compatibility of domestic maritime infrastructure systems with overseas transport systems;

(8) fostering innovations in maritime transportation pricing; and

(9) improving maritime economics and finance.


(c) Application for Designation.—An institution seeking designation as a National Maritime Enhancement Institute shall submit an application under regulations prescribed by the Secretary.

(d) Criteria for Designation.—The Secretary shall designate an institute under this section on the basis of the following criteria:

(1) The demonstrated research and extension resources available to the applicant for carrying out the activities specified in subsection (b).

(2) The ability of the applicant to provide leadership in making national and regional contributions to the solution of both long-range and immediate problems of the domestic maritime industry.

(3) The existence of an established program of the applicant encompassing research and training directed to enhancing maritime industries.

(4) The demonstrated ability of the applicant to assemble and evaluate pertinent information from national and international sources and to disseminate results of maritime industry research and educational programs through a continuing education program.

(5) The qualification of the applicant as a nonprofit institution of higher learning.


(e) Financial Awards.—The Secretary may make awards on an equal matching basis to an institute designated under subsection (a) from amounts appropriated. The aggregate annual amount of the Federal share of the awards by the Secretary may not exceed $500,000.

(f) University Transportation Research Funds.—The Secretary may make a grant under section 5505 of title 49 to an institute designated under subsection (a) for maritime and maritime intermodal research under that section as if the institute were a university transportation center. In making a grant, the Secretary, through the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Research and Technology of the Department of Transportation, shall advise the Maritime Administration on the availability of funds for the grants and consult with the Administration on making the grants.

(Pub. L. 109–304, §8(b), Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1561; Pub. L. 113–76, div. L, title I, Jan. 17, 2014, 128 Stat. 574.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
50112 46 App.:1121–2. Pub. L. 101–115, §8, Oct. 13, 1989, 103 Stat. 694; Pub. L. 101–595, title VII, §702, Nov. 16, 1990, 104 Stat. 2994; Pub. L. 102–241, §47, Dec. 19, 1991, 105 Stat. 2227; Pub. L. 106–398, §1 [div. C, title XXXV, §3504], Oct. 30, 2000, 114 Stat. 1654, 1654A-493; Pub. L. 108–426, Nov. 30, 2004, §2(c)(4), 118 Stat. 2424.

Change of Name

"Office of the Assistant Secretary for Research and Technology of the Department of Transportation" substituted for "Research and Innovative Technology Administration" in subsec. (f) on authority of title I of div. L of Pub. L. 113–76, set out in part as a note under former section 112 of Title 49, Transportation.

§50113. Use and performance reports by operators of vessels

(a) Filing Requirement.—The Secretary of Transportation by regulation may require the operator of a vessel in the waterborne foreign commerce of the United States to file such report, account, record, or memorandum on the use and performance of the vessel as the Secretary considers desirable to assist in carrying out this subtitle. The report, account, record, or memorandum shall be signed and verified, and be filed at the times and in the manner, as provided by regulation.

(b) Civil Penalty.—An operator not filing a report, account, record, or memorandum required by the Secretary under this section is liable to the United States Government for a civil penalty of $50 for each day of the violation. A penalty imposed under this section on the operator of a vessel constitutes a lien on the vessel involved in the violation. A civil action in rem to enforce the lien may be brought in the district court of the United States for any district in which the vessel is found. The Secretary may remit or mitigate any penalty imposed under this section.

(Pub. L. 109–304, §8(b), Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1562.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
50113 46 App.:1122a. June 29, 1936, ch. 858, title II, §212(A), as added June 25, 1956, ch. 437, 70 Stat. 332; Aug. 6, 1981, Pub. L. 97–31, §12(70), 95 Stat. 159.

CHAPTER 503—ADMINISTRATIVE

Sec.
50301.
Vessel Operations Revolving Fund.
50302.
Port development.
50303.
Operating property and extending term of notes.
50304.
Sale and transfer of property.
50305.
Appointment of trustee or receiver and operation of vessels.
50306.
Requiring testimony and records in investigations.
50307.
Maritime environmental and technical assistance program.

        

Amendments

2012Pub. L. 112–213, title IV, §403(b), Dec. 20, 2012, 126 Stat. 1570, added item 50307.

§50301. Vessel Operations Revolving Fund

(a) In General.—There is a "Vessel Operations Revolving Fund" for use by the Secretary of Transportation in carrying out duties and powers related to vessel operations, including charter, operation, maintenance, repair, reconditioning, and improvement of merchant vessels under the jurisdiction of the Secretary. The Fund has a working capital of $20,000,000, to remain available until expended.

(b) Relationship to Other Laws.—Notwithstanding any other law, rates for shipping services provided under the Fund shall be prescribed by the Secretary and the Fund shall be credited with receipts from vessel operations conducted under the Fund. Sections 1(a) and (c), 3(c), and 4 of the Act of March 24, 1943 (50 App. U.S.C. 1291(a), (c), 1293(c), 1294),1 apply to those operations and to seamen employed through general agents as employees of the United States Government. Notwithstanding any other law on the employment of persons by the Government, the seamen may be employed in accordance with customary commercial practices in the maritime industry.

(c) Advancements.—With the approval of the Director of the Office of Management and Budget, the Secretary may advance amounts the Secretary considers necessary, but not more than 2 percent of vessel operating expenses, from the Fund to the appropriation "Salaries and Expenses" in carrying out duties and powers related to vessel operations, without regard to the limitations on amounts stated in that appropriation.

(d) Transfers.—The unexpended balances of working funds or of allocation accounts established after January 1, 1951, for the activities provided for in subsection (a), and receipts received from those activities, may be transferred to the Fund, which shall be available for the purposes of those working funds or allocation accounts.

(e) Limitation.—

(1) In general.—Amounts made available to the Secretary for maritime activities by this section or any other law may not be used to pay for a vessel described in paragraph (2) unless the compensation to be paid is computed under section 56303 of this title as that section is interpreted by the Comptroller General.

(2) Applicable vessels.—Paragraph (1) applies to a vessel—

(A) the title to which is acquired by the Government by requisition or purchase;

(B) the use of which is taken by requisition or agreement; or

(C) lost while insured by the Government.


(3) Nonapplicable vessels.—Paragraph (1) does not apply to a vessel under a construction-differential subsidy contract.


(f) Availability for Additional Purposes.—The Fund is available for—

(1) necessary expenses incurred in the protection, preservation, maintenance, acquisition, or use of vessels involved in mortgage foreclosure or forfeiture proceedings instituted by the Government, including payment of prior claims and liens, expenses of sale, or other related charges;

(2) necessary expenses incident to the redelivery and lay-up, in the United States, of vessels chartered as of June 20, 1956, under agreements not calling for their return to the Government;

(3) the activation, repair, and deactivation of merchant vessels chartered for limited emergency purposes during fiscal year 1957 under the jurisdiction of the Secretary; and

(4) payment of expenses of custody and maintenance of Government-owned vessels not in the National Defense Reserve Fleet.


(g) Expenses and Receipts Related to Charter Operations.—The Fund is available for expenses incurred in activating, repairing, and deactivating merchant vessels chartered under the jurisdiction of the Secretary. Receipts from charter operations of Government-owned vessels under the jurisdiction of the Secretary shall be credited to the Fund.

(Pub. L. 109–304, §8(b), Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1562.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
50301(a) 46 App.:1241a (1st sentence). June 2, 1951, ch. 121 (pars. under heading "Vessel Operations Revolving Fund"), 65 Stat. 59; Pub. L. 97–31, §12(128), Aug. 6, 1981, 95 Stat. 165; Pub. L. 108–271, §8(b), July 7, 2004, 118 Stat. 814.
50301(b) 46 App.:1241a (2d sentence words before 2d proviso).
50301(c) 46 App.:1241a (2d sentence 2d proviso).
50301(d) 46 App.:1241a (2d sentence last proviso).
50301(e) 46 App.:1241a (last sentence).
50301(f) 46 App.:1241b. June 20, 1956, ch. 415, title I, §101 (4th complete par. on p. 319), 70 Stat. 319; Pub. L. 97–31, §12(129), Aug. 6, 1981, 95 Stat. 165.
  46 App.:1241b note.
50301(g) 46 App.:1241c. Aug. 1, 1956, ch. 846, 70 Stat. 897; Pub. L. 97–31, §12(130), Aug. 6, 1981, 95 Stat. 165.

In subsection (c), the words "Director of the Office of Management and Budget" are substituted for "Bureau of the Budget" in the Act of June 2, 1951 (ch. 121, 65 Stat. 59), because of sections 101 and 102 of Reorganization Plan No. 2 of 1970 (5 App. U.S.C.) and 31 U.S.C. ch. 5. The words "for the purposes of that appropriation" are omitted for clarity and for consistency in the subsection.

In subsection (d), the words "notwithstanding any other provisions of law" and "and consolidated with" are omitted as unnecessary.

In subsection (e), in paragraph (1), the words "Comptroller General" are substituted for "Government Accountability Office" for consistency in the revised title. Paragraph (3) is substituted for "(except in cases where section 1212 of this Appendix is applicable)" because section 1212 applies to all vessels under a construction-differential subsidy contract.

In subsection (f), the words "On and after June 20, 1956", and the last proviso in the 4th complete par. at 70 Stat. 319 (46 App. U.S.C. 1241b note), are omitted as obsolete.

In subsection (g), the words "beginning July 1, 1956" and "after July 1, 1956" are omitted as obsolete.

References in Text

Sections 1(a) and (c), 3(c), and 4 of the Act of March 24, 1943 (50 App. U.S.C. 1291(a), (c), 1293(c), 1294), referred to in subsec. (b), are sections 1(a) and (c), 3(c), and 4 of act Mar. 24, 1943, ch. 26, 57 Stat. 45, 47, 49, 51, which were formerly classified to sections 1291(a), (c), 1293(c), and 1294 of the former Appendix to Title 50, War and National Defense, prior to editorial reclassification as sections 4701(a), (c), 4703(c), and 4704, respectively, of Title 50.

1 See References in Text note below.

§50302. Port development

(a) General Requirements.—With the objective of promoting, encouraging, and developing ports and transportation facilities in connection with water commerce over which the Secretary of Transportation has jurisdiction, the Secretary, in cooperation with the Secretary of the Army, shall—

(1) investigate territorial regions and zones tributary to ports, taking into consideration the economies of transportation by rail, water, and highway and the natural direction of the flow of commerce;

(2) investigate the causes of congestion of commerce at ports and applicable remedies;

(3) investigate the subject of water terminals, including the necessary docks, warehouses, and equipment, to devise and suggest the types most appropriate for different locations and for the most expeditious and economical transfer or interchange of passengers or property between water carriers and rail carriers;

(4) consult with communities on the appropriate location and plan of construction of wharves, piers, and water terminals;

(5) investigate the practicability and advantages of harbor, river, and port improvements in connection with foreign and coastwise trade; and

(6) investigate any other matter that may tend to promote and encourage the use by vessels of ports adequate to care for the freight that naturally would pass through those ports.


(b) Submission of Findings to Surface Transportation Board.—After an investigation under subsection (a), if the Secretary of Transportation believes that the rates or practices of a rail carrier subject to the jurisdiction of the Surface Transportation Board are detrimental to the objective specified in subsection (a), or that new rates or practices, new or additional port terminal facilities, or affirmative action by a rail carrier is necessary to promote that objective, the Secretary may submit findings to the Board for action the Board considers appropriate under existing law.

(c) Port Infrastructure Development Program.—

(1) Establishment of program.—The Secretary of Transportation, through the Maritime Administrator, shall establish a port infrastructure development program for the improvement of port facilities as provided in this subsection.

(2) Authority of the administrator.—In order to carry out any project under the program established under paragraph (1), the Administrator may—

(A) receive funds provided for the project from Federal, non-Federal, and private entities that have a specific agreement or contract with the Administrator to further the purposes of this subsection;

(B) coordinate with other Federal agencies to expedite the process established under the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq.) for the improvement of port facilities to improve the efficiency of the transportation system, to increase port security, or to provide greater access to port facilities;

(C) seek to coordinate all reviews or requirements with appropriate local, State, and Federal agencies; and

(D) provide such technical assistance and financial assistance, including grants, to port authorities or commissions or their subdivisions and agents as needed for project planning, design, and construction.


(3) Port infrastructure development fund.—

(A) Establishment.—There is a Port Infrastructure Development Fund for use by the Administrator in carrying out projects under the port infrastructure development program. The Fund shall be available to the Administrator—

(i) to administer and carry out projects under the program;

(ii) to receive Federal, non-Federal, and private funds from entities which have specific agreements or contracts with the Administrator; and

(iii) to make refunds for projects that will not be completed.


(B) Credits.—There may be deposited into the Fund—

(i) funds from Federal, non-Federal, and private entities which have agreements or contracts with the Administrator and which shall remain in the Fund until expended or refunded; and

(ii) such amounts as may be appropriated or transferred, subject to subparagraph (C), to the Fund under this subsection.


(C) Transfers.—

(i) In general.—Subject to clauses (ii) and (iii), amounts appropriated or otherwise made available for any fiscal year for a marine facility or intermodal facility that includes maritime transportation may be transferred, at the option of the recipient of such amounts, to the Fund and administered by the Administrator as a component of a project under the program.

(ii) Prohibition on transfers.—Except as provided in clause (iii), no funds appropriated or made available under title 23 or chapter 53 of title 49, United States Code, including funds from the Highway Trust Fund (section 9503(c) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986), funds from the Mass Transit Account of the Highway Trust Fund (section 9503(e) of Internal Revenue Code of 1986), and funds provided for public transportation programs within the mass transit category (as defined in section 250(c)(4)(C) of the Balanced Budget and Emergency Deficit Control Act of 1985), shall be transferred into the Fund.

(iii) Exception.—

(I) In general.—Amounts described in subclause (II) are eligible for transfer into the Fund if—

(aa) the recipient of the amounts has a specific agreement or contract with the Administrator;

(bb) the Department of Transportation agency that administers the amounts to be transferred has granted project approval for each component of the project that is to be funded using such amounts;

(cc) the Department of Transportation agency that administers the amounts to be transferred and the Maritime Administration agree to the transfer through a signed Memorandum of Understanding; and

(dd) the amounts will be used only to carry out the project for which funds were approved, and in accordance with any conditions governing the amounts under title 23 or chapter 53 of title 49, United States Code.


(II) Amounts described.—The amounts referred to in subclause (I) are amounts appropriated or made available—

(aa) for loans, loan guarantees, or lines of credit under chapter 6 of title 23, United States Code, for a project eligible under such chapter to facilitate direct intermodal exchange, transfer, and access into and out of a port as defined under section 601(a)(8)(D)(iii) of such title, as in effect on the date of enactment of this subsection; or

(bb) for projects under title XII of division A of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Public Law 111–5).


(D) Limitation on statutory construction.—Nothing in this section shall be construed to alter or otherwise affect existing authorities to conduct port infrastructure programs in Hawaii (as authorized by section 9008 of Public Law 109–59), Alaska (as authorized by section 10205 of Public Law 109–59), or Guam (as authorized by section 3512 of Public Law 110–417).


(4) Authorization of appropriations.—There are authorized to be appropriated to the Fund such sums as may be necessary to carry out the program, taking into account amounts received under paragraph (3)(A)(ii).

(Pub. L. 109–304, §8(b), Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1564; Pub. L. 111–84, div. C, title XXXV, §3512, Oct. 28, 2009, 123 Stat. 2722; Pub. L. 113–66, div. C, title XXXV, §3505(b), Dec. 26, 2013, 127 Stat. 1086.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
50302(a) 46 App.:867 (words before proviso). June 5, 1920, ch. 250, §8, 41 Stat. 992; Exec. Order No. 6166, June 10, 1933, §12; June 29, 1936, ch. 858, title II, §204, title IX, §904, 49 Stat. 1987, 2016; Pub. L. 97–31, §12(40), Aug. 6, 1981, 95 Stat. 156; Pub. L. 104–88, §321(1), Dec. 29, 1995, 109 Stat. 949.
50302(b) 46 App.:867 (proviso).

In subsection (a), before paragraph (1), the words "Secretary of the Army" are substituted for "Secretary of War" in section 8 of the Merchant Marine Act, 1920 (ch. 250, 41 Stat. 992) because of section 205(a) of the National Security Act of 1947 (ch. 343, 61 Stat. 501). See 10 U.S.C. 3011 et seq. In paragraph (3), the words "apparatus" and "appliances" are omitted as unnecessary. In paragraph (4), the words "consult with" are substituted for "advise with" as being more grammatical.

In subsection (b), the words "rates or practices" are substituted for "rates, charges, rules, or regulations" for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the United States Code.

References in Text

The National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, referred to in subsec. (c)(2)(B), is Pub. L. 91–190, Jan. 1, 1970, 83 Stat. 852, which is classified generally to chapter 55 (§4321 et seq.) of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 4321 of Title 42 and Tables.

Section 9503 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, referred to in subsec. (c)(3)(C)(ii), is classified to section 9503 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

Section 250 of the Balanced Budget and Emergency Deficit Control Act of 1985, referred to in subsec. (c)(3)(C)(ii), is classified to section 900 of Title 2, The Congress.

The date of enactment of this subsection, referred to in subsec. (c)(3)(C)(iii)(II)(aa), is the date of enactment of Pub. L. 111–84, which was approved Oct. 28, 2009.

The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009, referred to in subsec. (c)(3)(C)(iii)(II)(bb), is Pub. L. 111–5, Feb. 17, 2009, 123 Stat. 115. The provisions of title XII of div. A of the Act making appropriations are not classified to the Code. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title of 2009 Amendment note set out under section 1 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code, and Tables.

Section 9008 of Public Law 109–59, referred to in subsec. (c)(3)(D), is section 9008 of Pub. L. 109–59, title IX, Aug. 10, 2005, 119 Stat. 1926, which is not classified to the Code.

Section 10205 of Public Law 109–59, referred to in subsec. (c)(3)(D), is section 10205 of Pub. L. 109–59, title X, Aug. 10, 2005, 119 Stat. 1934, which is not classified to the Code.

Section 3512 of Public Law 110–417, referred to in subsec. (c)(3)(D), is classified to section 1421r of Title 48, Territories and Insular Possessions.

Amendments

2013—Subsec. (c)(2)(D). Pub. L. 113–66 inserted "and financial assistance, including grants," after "technical assistance".

2009—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 111–84 added subsec. (c).

Strategic Seaports

Pub. L. 113–66, div. C, title XXXV, §3505(a), Dec. 26, 2013, 127 Stat. 1086, provided that:

"(1) In general.—Under the port infrastructure development program established under section 50302(c) of title 46, United States Code, the Maritime Administrator, in consultation with the Secretary of Defense, may give priority to providing funding to strategic seaports in support of national security requirements.

"(2) Strategic seaport defined.—In this subsection the term 'strategic seaport' means a military port or and [sic] commercial port that is subject to a port planning order or Basic Ordering Agreement (or both) that is projected to be used for the deployment of forces and shipment of ammunition or sustainment supplies in support of military operations."

§50303. Operating property and extending term of notes

(a) General Authority.—The Secretary of Transportation may—

(1) operate or lease docks, wharves, piers, vessels, or real property under the Secretary's control, except that the prior consent of the Secretary of Defense for such use shall be required with respect to any vessel in the Ready Reserve Force or in the National Defense Reserve Fleet which is maintained in a retention status for the Department of Defense; and

(2) make extensions and accept renewals of—

(A) promissory notes and other evidences of indebtedness on property; and

(B) mortgages and other contracts securing the property.


(b) Terms of Transactions.—A transaction under subsection (a) shall be on terms the Secretary considers necessary to carry out the purposes of this subtitle, but consistent with sound business practice.

(c) Availability of Amounts.—Amounts received by the Secretary from a transaction under this section are available for expenditure by the Secretary as provided in this subtitle.

(Pub. L. 109–304, §8(b), Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1564; Pub. L. 110–181, div. C, title XXXV, §3512, Jan. 28, 2008, 122 Stat. 594.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
50303 46 App.:1112. June 29, 1936, ch. 858, title II, §202, 49 Stat. 1986; Aug. 26, 1937, ch. 822, §1, 50 Stat. 839; June 23, 1938, ch. 600, §1, 52 Stat. 953; Pub. L. 97–31, §12(60), Aug. 6, 1981, 95 Stat. 158.

In subsection (a), the words "Notwithstanding any other provision of law" are omitted as unnecessary. In paragraph (1), the word "lands" is omitted as included in "real property". In paragraph (2)(A), the word "promissory" is added for clarity. The words "hereby transferred", referring to the transfer under the first sentence of section 202 of the Merchant Marine Act, 1936 (repealed by section 12(60)(A) of Public Law 97–31), are omitted as obsolete.

Subsection (b) is substituted for "in accordance with good business methods and on such terms and conditions as he determines to effectuate the policy of this chapter" and "upon such terms and conditions as he may prescribe in accordance with sound business practice" for consistency and to eliminate unnecessary words.

Amendments

2008—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 110–181 inserted "vessels," after "piers," and substituted "control, except that the prior consent of the Secretary of Defense for such use shall be required with respect to any vessel in the Ready Reserve Force or in the National Defense Reserve Fleet which is maintained in a retention status for the Department of Defense;" for "control;".

§50304. Sale and transfer of property

(a) Authority To Sell.—The Secretary of Transportation may sell property (other than vessels transferred under section 4 of the Merchant Marine Act, 1920 (ch. 250, 41 Stat. 990)) on terms the Secretary considers appropriate.

(b) Transfers From Military to Civilian Control.—When the President considers it in the interest of the United States, the President may transfer to the Secretary of Transportation possession and control of property described in the second paragraph of section 17 of the Merchant Marine Act, 1920 (ch. 250, 41 Stat. 994), as originally enacted, that is possessed and controlled by the Secretary of a military department.

(c) Transfers From Civilian to Military Control.—When the President considers it necessary, the President by executive order may transfer to the Secretary of a military department possession and control of property described in section 17 of the Merchant Marine Act, 1920 (ch. 250, 41 Stat. 994), as originally enacted, that is possessed and controlled by the Secretary of Transportation. The President's order shall state the need for the transfer and the period of the need. When the President decides that the need has ended, the possession and control shall revert to the Secretary of Transportation. The property may not be sold except as provided by law.

(d) Vessel Charters to Other Departments.—On a reimbursable or nonreimbursable basis, as determined by the Secretary of Transportation, the Secretary may charter or otherwise make available a vessel under the jurisdiction of the Secretary to any other department, upon the request by the Secretary of the Department that receives the vessel. The prior consent of the Secretary of Defense for such use shall be required with respect to any vessel in the Ready Reserve Force or in the National Defense Reserve Fleet which is maintained in a retention status for the Department of Defense.

(Pub. L. 109–304, §8(b), Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1565; Pub. L. 110–181, div. C, title XXXV, §3515, Jan. 28, 2008, 122 Stat. 595.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
50304(a) 46 App.:872. June 5, 1920, ch. 250, §§13, 17, 41 Stat. 993, 994; Exec. Order No. 6166, June 10, 1933, §12; June 29, 1936, ch. 858, title II, §204, title IX, §904, 49 Stat. 1987, 2016; Pub. L. 97–31, §12(44), (45), Aug. 6, 1981, 95 Stat. 157.
50304(b) 46 App.:875 (1st par.).
50304(c) 46 App.:875 (last par.).

In subsections (b) and (c), the words "property described in the second paragraph of section 17 of the Merchant Marine Act, 1920 (ch. 250, 41 Stat. 994), as originally enacted" are substituted for "such other docks, piers, warehouses, wharves and terminal equipment and facilities or parts thereof, including all leasehold easements, rights of way, riparian rights and other rights, estates or interests therein or appurtenant thereto which were acquired . . . for military or naval purposes during the war emergency", and the words "property described in section 17 of the Merchant Marine Act, 1920 (ch. 250, 41 Stat. 994), as originally enacted" are substituted for "property taken over by or transferred to . . . under this section", because the first paragraph of section 17 of the Merchant Marine Act, 1920, was repealed in 1981 and reference to that paragraph is necessary for a complete understanding of these provisions. The words "Secretary of a military department" are substituted for "War Department or the Navy Department" and "Department of the Army, Department of the Air Force, or Department of the Navy" for consistency with other titles of the United States Code. For redesignation of the Department of War to the Department of the Army, and for transfer of certain functions to newly established Department of the Air Force, see sections 205(a) and 207(a) and (f) of the National Security Act of 1947 (ch. 343, 61 Stat. 501, 502, 503).

In subsection (b), the words "possessed and controlled by" are substituted for "acquired by" for clarity and for consistency in the section. The word "best" is omitted as unnecessary.

References in Text

Section 4 of the Merchant Marine Act, 1920, referred to in subsec. (a), is section 4 of act June 5, 1920, ch. 250, 41 Stat. 990, which was classified to section 863 of former Title 46, Shipping, and was repealed by Pub. L. 100–710, title II, §202(4), Nov. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 4753.

Section 17 of the Merchant Marine Act, 1920 (ch. 250, 41 Stat. 994), as originally enacted, referred to in subsecs. (b) and (c), is section 17 of act June 5, 1920, ch. 250, 41 Stat. 994, which was classified to section 875 of the former Appendix to this title, was subsequently amended, and as amended, was repealed and restated in subsecs. (b) and (c) of this section by Pub. L. 109–304, §§8(b), 19, Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1556, 1710.

Amendments

2008—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 110–181 added subsec. (d).

§50305. Appointment of trustee or receiver and operation of vessels

(a) Appointment of Trustees and Receivers.—

(1) Appointment of secretary.—In a proceeding in a court of the United States in which a trustee or receiver may be appointed for a corporation operating a vessel of United States registry between the United States and a foreign country, on which the United States Government holds a mortgage, the court may appoint the Secretary of Transportation as the sole trustee or receiver (subject to the direction of the court) if—

(A) the court finds that the appointment will—

(i) inure to the advantage of the estate and the parties in interest; and

(ii) tend to carry out the purposes of this subtitle; and


(B) the Secretary expressly consents to the appointment.


(2) Appointment of other person.—The appointment of another person as trustee or receiver without a hearing becomes effective when ratified by the Secretary, but the Secretary may demand a hearing.


(b) Operation of Vessels.—

(1) In general.—If the court is unwilling to allow the trustee or receiver to operate the vessel in foreign commerce without financial aid from the Government pending termination of the proceeding, and the Secretary certifies to the court that the continued operation of the vessel is essential to the foreign commerce of the United States and is reasonably calculated to carry out the purposes of this subtitle, the court may allow the Secretary to operate the vessel, either directly or through a managing agent or operator employed by the Secretary. The Secretary must agree to comply with terms imposed by the court sufficient to protect the parties in interest. The Secretary also must agree to pay all operating losses resulting from the operation. The operation shall be for the account of the trustee or receiver.

(2) Payment of operating losses and other amounts.—The Secretary has no claim against the corporation, its estate, or its assets for operating losses paid by the Secretary, but the Secretary may pay amounts for depreciation the Secretary considers reasonable and other amounts the court considers just. The payment of operating losses and the other amounts and compliance with terms imposed by the court shall be in satisfaction of any claim against the Secretary resulting from the operation of the vessel.

(3) Deemed operation by government.—A vessel operated by the Secretary under this subsection is deemed to be a vessel operated by the United States under chapter 309 of this title.

(Pub. L. 109–304, §8(b), Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1565.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
50305 46 App.:1247. June 29, 1936, ch. 858, title IX, §908, as added Pub. L. 95–598, title III, §334, Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2680; Pub. L. 97–31, §12(134), Aug. 6, 1981, 95 Stat. 165.

In subsection (a)(1), before subparagraph (A), the words "Notwithstanding any other provision of law" and "bankruptcy, equity, or admiralty" are omitted as unnecessary.

In subsection (a)(2), the words "but the Secretary may demand a hearing" are substituted for "unless the Secretary shall deem a hearing necessary" for clarity.

In subsection (b)(1), the words "subject to the orders of the court" and "comply with the terms imposed by the court" are omitted as unnecessary.

In subsection (b)(2), the words "operating losses paid by the Secretary" are substituted for "the amount of such payments" for clarity.

In subsection (b)(3), the words "vessel operated by the United States" are substituted for "vessel of the United States" for clarity and consistency with chapter 309.

§50306. Requiring testimony and records in investigations

(a) In General.—In conducting an investigation that the Secretary of Transportation considers necessary and proper to carry out this subtitle, the Secretary may administer oaths, take evidence, and subpoena persons to testify and produce documents relevant to the matter under investigation. Persons may be required to attend or produce documents from any place in the United States at any designated place of hearing.

(b) Fees and Mileage.—Persons subpoenaed by the Secretary under subsection (a) shall be paid the same fees and mileage paid to witnesses in the courts of the United States.

(c) Enforcement of Subpoenas.—If a person disobeys a subpoena issued under subsection (a), the Secretary may seek an order enforcing the subpoena from the district court of the United States for the district in which the person resides or does business. Process may be served in the judicial district in which the person resides or is found. The court may issue an order to obey the subpoena and punish a refusal to obey as a contempt of court.

(Pub. L. 109–304, §8(b), Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1566.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
50306 46 App.:1124. June 29, 1936, ch. 858, title II, §214, 49 Stat. 1991; June 23, 1938, ch. 600, §3, 52 Stat. 954; Pub. L. 91–452, title II, §241, Oct. 15, 1970, 84 Stat. 930; Pub. L. 97–31, §12(72), Aug. 6, 1981, 95 Stat. 159; Pub. L. 98–237, §20(a), Mar. 20, 1984, 98 Stat. 89; Pub. L. 98–595, §2, Oct. 30, 1984, 98 Stat. 3132.

In subsection (a), the word "affirmations" is omitted as unnecessary because of the definition of "oath" in 1 U.S.C. 1. The words "or any territory, district, or possession thereof" are omitted as unnecessary because of the definition of "United States" in chapter 1 of the revised title.

Subsection (c) is substituted for the source provision to eliminate unnecessary words.

§50307. Maritime environmental and technical assistance program

(a) In General.—The Secretary of Transportation may engage in the environmental study, research, development, assessment, and deployment of emerging marine technologies and practices related to the marine transportation system through the use of public vessels under the control of the Maritime Administration or private vessels under United States registry, and through partnerships and cooperative efforts with academic, public, private, and nongovernmental entities and facilities.

(b) Components.—Under this section, the Secretary of Transportation may—

(1) identify, study, evaluate, test, demonstrate, or improve emerging marine technologies and practices that are likely to achieve environmental improvements by—

(A) reducing air emissions, water emissions, or other ship discharges;

(B) increasing fuel economy or the use of alternative fuels and alternative energy (including the use of shore power); or

(C) controlling aquatic invasive species; and


(2) coordinate with the Environmental Protection Agency, the Coast Guard, and other Federal, State, local, or tribal agencies, as appropriate.


(c) Coordination.—Coordination under subsection (b)(2) may include—

(1) activities that are associated with the development or approval of validation and testing regimes; and

(2) certification or validation of emerging technologies or practices that demonstrate significant environmental benefits.


(d) Assistance.—The Secretary of Transportation may accept gifts, or enter into cooperative agreements, contracts, or other agreements with academic, public, private, and nongovernmental entities and facilities to carry out the activities authorized under subsection (a).

(Added Pub. L. 112–213, title IV, §403(a), Dec. 20, 2012, 126 Stat. 1569.)

CHAPTER 505—OTHER GENERAL PROVISIONS

Sec.
50501.
Entities deemed citizens of the United States.
50502.
Applicability to receivers, trustees, successors, and assigns.
50503.
Oceanographic research vessels.
50504.
Sailing school vessels.

        

§50501. Entities deemed citizens of the United States

(a) In General.—In this subtitle, a corporation, partnership, or association is deemed to be a citizen of the United States only if the controlling interest is owned by citizens of the United States. However, if the corporation, partnership, or association is operating a vessel in the coastwise trade, at least 75 percent of the interest must be owned by citizens of the United States.

(b) Additional Requirements for Corporations.—In this subtitle, a corporation is deemed to be a citizen of the United States only if, in addition to satisfying the requirements in subsection (a)—

(1) it is incorporated under the laws of the United States or a State;

(2) its chief executive officer, by whatever title, and the chairman of its board of directors are citizens of the United States; and

(3) no more of its directors are noncitizens than a minority of the number necessary to constitute a quorum.


(c) Determination of Controlling Corporate Interest.—The controlling interest in a corporation is owned by citizens of the United States under subsection (a) only if—

(1) title to the majority of the stock in the corporation is vested in citizens of the United States free from any trust or fiduciary obligation in favor of a person not a citizen of the United States;

(2) the majority of the voting power in the corporation is vested in citizens of the United States;

(3) there is no contract or understanding by which the majority of the voting power in the corporation may be exercised, directly or indirectly, in behalf of a person not a citizen of the United States; and

(4) there is no other means by which control of the corporation is given to or permitted to be exercised by a person not a citizen of the United States.


(d) Determination of 75 Percent Corporate Interest.—At least 75 percent of the interest in a corporation is owned by citizens of the United States under subsection (a) only if—

(1) title to at least 75 percent of the stock in the corporation is vested in citizens of the United States free from any trust or fiduciary obligation in favor of a person not a citizen of the United States;

(2) at least 75 percent of the voting power in the corporation is vested in citizens of the United States;

(3) there is no contract or understanding by which more than 25 percent of the voting power in the corporation may be exercised, directly or indirectly, in behalf of a person not a citizen of the United States; and

(4) there is no other means by which control of more than 25 percent of any interest in the corporation is given to or permitted to be exercised by a person not a citizen of the United States.

(Pub. L. 109–304, §8(b), Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1566.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
50501(a) 46 App.:802(a) (words before 3d comma and after 11th comma). Sept. 7, 1916, ch. 451, §2(a)–(c), 39 Stat. 729; July 15, 1918, ch. 152, §2, 40 Stat. 900; June 5, 1920, ch. 250, §38, 41 Stat. 1008; Pub. L. 86–327, §3, Sept. 21, 1959, 73 Stat. 597; Pub. L. 105–383, title IV, §421, Nov. 13, 1998, 112 Stat. 3439.
  46 App.:1244(c). June 29, 1936, ch. 858, title IX, §905(c), 49 Stat. 2016; June 23, 1938, ch. 600, §39(b), 52 Stat. 964; Pub. L. 86–327, §4, Sept. 21, 1959, 73 Stat. 597.
50501(b) 46 App.:802(a) (words between 3d and 11th commas).
50501(c) 46 App.:802(b).
50501(d) 46 App.:802(c).

In subsection (a), the words "and with respect to a corporation under subchapter VI of this chapter, all directors of the corporation are citizens of the United States" in 46 App. U.S.C. 1244(c) are omitted because part A of subchapter VI contains the operating-differential subsidy program which, under 46 App. U.S.C. 1185a, is being phased out, and part B of subchapter VI contains the Maritime Security Fleet program which is being repealed (effective October 1, 2005) and replaced by chapter 531 of title 46 as enacted by the Maritime Security Act of 2003. Thus, subchapter VI is being omitted from the revised title and will instead appear as a note under section 53101. The words "and, in the case of a corporation, partnership, or association operating a vessel on the Great Lakes, or on bays, sounds, rivers, harbors, or inland lakes of the United States the amount of interest required to be owned by a citizen of the United States shall be not less than 75 per centum" in 46 App. U.S.C. 1244(c) are omitted as covered by the 75 percent ownership requirement for operation in the coastwise trade.

In subsection (b)(1), the words "Territory, District, or possession thereof" are omitted because of the definition of "State" in chapter 1 of the revised title.

§50502. Applicability to receivers, trustees, successors, and assigns

This subtitle applies to receivers, trustees, successors, and assigns of any person to whom this subtitle applies.

(Pub. L. 109–304, §8(b), Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1567.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
50502 46 App.:803. Sept. 7, 1916, ch. 451, §2(d), 39 Stat. 729; June 5, 1920, ch. 250, §38, 41 Stat. 1008.

§50503. Oceanographic research vessels

An oceanographic research vessel (as defined in section 2101 of this title) is deemed not to be engaged in trade or commerce.

(Pub. L. 109–304, §8(b), Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1567.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
50503 46 App.:441. Pub. L. 89–99, §§1, 3, 4, July 30, 1965, 79 Stat. 424.
  46 App.:443.
  46 App.:444.

The definitions of "oceanographic research vessel" and "scientific personnel" in 46 App. U.S.C. 441 are omitted because substantially the same definitions are already in 46 U.S.C. 2101.

The text of 46 App. U.S.C. 444 is omitted because section 10101(3) of title 46, which defines "seaman" for purposes of part G of subtitle II of title 46, already contains an exception for scientific personnel. Title 53 of the Revised Statutes, referred to [in] 46 App. U.S.C. 444, was previously codified principally in part G of subtitle II of title 46.

§50504. Sailing school vessels

(a) Definitions.—In this section, the terms "sailing school instructor", "sailing school student", and "sailing school vessel" have the meaning given those terms in section 2101 of this title.

(b) Not Seamen.—A sailing school student or sailing school instructor is deemed not to be a seaman under—

(1) parts B, F, and G of subtitle II of this title; or

(2) the maritime law doctrines of maintenance and cure or warranty of seaworthiness.


(c) Not Merchant Vessel or Engaged in Trade or Commerce.—A sailing school vessel is deemed not to be—

(1) a merchant vessel under section 11101(a)–(c) of this title; or

(2) a vessel engaged in trade or commerce.


(d) Evidence of Financial Responsibility.—The owner or charterer of a sailing school vessel shall maintain evidence of financial responsibility to meet liability for death or injury to sailing school students and sailing school instructors on a voyage on the vessel. The amount of financial responsibility shall be at least $50,000 for each student and instructor. Financial responsibility under this subsection may be evidenced by insurance or other adequate financial resources.

(Pub. L. 109–304, §8(b), Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1568.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
50504(a) 46 App.:446c. Pub. L. 97–322, title II, §§204, 205, 207, Oct. 15, 1982, 96 Stat. 1589.
50504(b) 46 App.:446.
50504(c) 46 App.:446b. Pub. L. 97–322, title II, §206, Oct. 15, 1982, 96 Stat. 1590; Pub. L. 98–557, §34(b), Oct. 30, 1984, 98 Stat. 2876.
50504(d) 46 App.:446a.

In subsection (b)(1), the words "parts B, F, and G of subtitle II of this title" are substituted for "the provisions of titles 52 and 53 of the Revised Statutes of the United States and any Act amendatory thereof or supplementary thereto" because the relevant provisions of titles 52 and 53 of the Revised Statutes were previously codified in parts B, F, and G of subtitle II of title 46.

In subsection (c), references to 46 App. U.S.C. 291 and 883 are omitted for consistency with section 50503 of the revised title.

Part B—Merchant Marine Service

CHAPTER 511—GENERAL

Sec.
51101.
Policy.
51102.
Definitions.
51103.
General authority of Secretary of Transportation.
51104.
General authority of Secretary of the Navy.

        

§51101. Policy

It is the policy of the United States that merchant marine vessels of the United States should be operated by highly trained and efficient citizens of the United States and that the United States Navy and the merchant marine of the United States should work closely together to promote the maximum integration of the total seapower forces of the United States.

(Pub. L. 109–304, §8(b), Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1568.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
51101 46 App.:1126–1(a) (1st sentence). Pub. L. 94–361, title VI, §603(a) (1st sentence), July 14, 1976, 90 Stat. 929.
  46 App.:1295 (1st sentence). June 29, 1936, ch. 858, title XIII, §1301 (1st sentence), as added Pub. L. 96–453, §2, Oct. 15, 1980, 94 Stat. 1997.

§51102. Definitions

In this part:

(1) Academy.—The term "Academy" means the United States Merchant Marine Academy located at Kings Point, New York, and maintained under chapter 513 of this title.

(2) Cost of education provided.—The term "cost of education provided" means the financial costs incurred by the United States Government for providing training or financial assistance to students at the Academy and the State maritime academies, including direct financial assistance, room, board, classroom academics, and other training activities.

(3) Merchant marine officer.—The term "merchant marine officer" means an individual issued a license by the Coast Guard authorizing service as—

(A) a master, mate, or pilot on a documented vessel that—

(i) is of at least 1,000 gross tons as measured under section 14502 of this title or an alternate tonnage measured under section 14302 of this title as prescribed by the Secretary under section 14104 of this title; and

(ii) operates on the oceans or the Great Lakes; or


(B) an engineer officer on a documented vessel propelled by machinery of at least 4,000 horsepower.


(4) State maritime academy.—The term "State maritime academy" means—

(A) a State maritime academy or college sponsored by a State and assisted under chapter 515 of this title; and

(B) a regional maritime academy or college sponsored by a group of States and assisted under chapter 515 of this title.

(Pub. L. 109–304, §8(b), Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1568.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
51102 46 App.:1295a. June 29, 1936, ch. 858, title XIII, §1302, as added Pub. L. 96–453, §2, Oct. 15, 1980, 94 Stat. 1997; Pub. L. 97–31, §12(143), Aug. 6, 1981, 95 Stat. 166; Pub. L. 104–324, title VII, §708, Oct. 19, 1996, 110 Stat. 3934; Pub. L. 108–136, title XXXV, §3515(a), Nov. 24, 2003, 117 Stat. 1792.

The definition of "Secretary" is omitted as unnecessary because the full title is used the first time the term appears in each section.

In the definition of "merchant marine office", the words "documented vessel" are substituted for "vessel . . . which is documented under the laws of the United States" because of the definition of "documented vessel" in 46 U.S.C. 2101, which is being moved to chapter 1 of the revised title.

In the definition of "State maritime academy", the words "or territory of the United States" and "or territories of the United States" are omitted as unnecessary because of the definition of "State" in chapter 1 of the revised title.

§51103. General authority of Secretary of Transportation

(a) Education and Training.—The Secretary of Transportation may provide for the education and training of citizens of the United States for the safe and efficient operation of the merchant marine of the United States at all times, including operation as a naval and military auxiliary in time of war or national emergency.

(b) Property for Instructional Purposes.—

(1) In general.—The Secretary may cooperate with and assist the institutions named in paragraph (2) by making vessels, fuel, shipboard equipment, and other marine equipment, owned by the United States Government and determined by the entity having custody and control of such property to be excess or surplus, available to those institutions for instructional purposes, by gift, loan, sale, lease, or charter on terms and conditions the Secretary considers appropriate. The consent of the Secretary of the Navy shall be obtained with respect to any property from National Defense Reserve Fleet vessels, if such vessels are either Ready Reserve Force vessels or other National Defense Reserve Fleet vessels determined to be of sufficient value to the Navy to warrant their further preservation and retention.

(2) Institutions.—The institutions referred to in paragraph (1) are—

(A) the United States Merchant Marine Academy;

(B) a State maritime academy; and

(C) a nonprofit training institution or a training institution that is an instrumentality of a State, the District of Columbia, a territory or possession of the United States, or a unit of local government thereof jointly approved by the Secretary of Transportation and the Secretary of the department in which the Coast Guard is operating as offering training courses that meet Federal regulations for maritime training.


(c) Assistance From Other Agencies.—

(1) In general.—The Secretary of Transportation may secure directly from an agency, on a reimbursable basis, information, facilities, and equipment necessary to carry out this part.

(2) Detailing personnel.—At the request of the Secretary, the head of an agency (including a military department) may detail, on a reimbursable basis, personnel from the agency to the Secretary to assist in carrying out this part.


(d) Academy Personnel.—To carry out this part, the Secretary may—

(1) employ an individual as a professor, lecturer, or instructor at the Academy, without regard to the provisions of title 5 governing appointments in the competitive service; and

(2) pay the individual without regard to chapter 51 and subchapter III of chapter 53 of title 5.


(e) Donation for Historical Purposes.—

(1) In general.—The Secretary may convey the right, title, and interest of the United States Government in any property administered by the Maritime Administration, except real estate or vessels, if—

(A) the Secretary determines that such property is not needed by the Maritime Administration; and

(B) the recipient—

(i) is a nonprofit organization, a State, or a political subdivision of a State;

(ii) agrees to hold the Government harmless for any claims arising from exposure to hazardous materials, including asbestos, polychlorinated biphenyls, or lead paint, after conveyance of the property;

(iii) provides a description and explanation of the intended use of the property to the Secretary for approval;

(iv) has provided to the Secretary proof, as determined by the Secretary, of resources sufficient to accomplish the intended use provided under clause (iii) and to maintain the property;

(v) agrees that when the recipient no longer requires the property, the recipient shall—

(I) return the property to the Secretary, at the recipient's expense and in the same condition as received except for ordinary wear and tear; or

(II) subject to the approval of the Secretary, retain, sell, or otherwise dispose of the property in a manner consistent with applicable law; and


(vi) agrees to any additional terms the Secretary considers appropriate.


(2) Reversion.—The Secretary shall include in any conveyance under this subsection terms under which all right, title, and interest conveyed by the Secretary shall revert to the Government if the Secretary determines the property has been used other than as approved by the Secretary under paragraph (1)(B)(iii).

(Pub. L. 109–304, §8(b), Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1569; Pub. L. 112–213, title IV, §404, Dec. 20, 2012, 126 Stat. 1570; Pub. L. 113–281, title III, §302, Dec. 18, 2014, 128 Stat. 3042.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
51103(a) 46 App.:1295 (last sentence cl. (1)). June 29, 1936, ch. 858, title XIII, §1301 (last sentence cl. (1)), as added Pub. L. 96–453, §2, Oct. 15, 1980, 94 Stat. 1997; Pub. L. 97–31, §12(142)(A), Aug. 6, 1981, 95 Stat. 166.
51103(b) 46 App.:1295g(b). June 29, 1936, ch. 858, title XIII, §1308(b)–(d), as added Pub. L. 96–453, §2, Oct. 15, 1980, 94 Stat. 2007.
51103(c) 46 App.:1295g(c).
51103(d) 46 App.:1295g(d).

In subsection (c), the word "department" is omitted as unnecessary because of the definition of "agency" in chapter 1 of the revised title.

Amendments

2014—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 113–281 added subsec. (e).

2012—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 112–213, §404(1), struck out "Surplus" before "Property" in heading.

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 112–213, §404(2), amended par. (1) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "The Secretary may cooperate with and assist the institutions named in paragraph (2) by making vessels, shipboard equipment, and other marine equipment, owned by the United States Government and determined to be excess or surplus, available to those institutions for instructional purposes, by gift, loan, sale, lease, or charter on terms the Secretary considers appropriate."

Subsec. (b)(2)(C). Pub. L. 112–213, §404(3), inserted "or a training institution that is an instrumentality of a State, the District of Columbia, a territory or possession of the United States, or a unit of local government thereof" after "a nonprofit training institution".

§51104. General authority of Secretary of the Navy

The Secretary of the Navy, in cooperation with the Maritime Administrator and the head of each State maritime academy, shall ensure that—

(1) the training of future merchant marine officers at the United States Merchant Marine Academy and at State maritime academies includes programs for naval science training in the operation of merchant vessels as a naval and military auxiliary; and

(2) naval officer training programs for future officers, insofar as possible, are maintained at designated maritime academies consistent with Navy standards and needs.

(Pub. L. 109–304, §8(b), Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1570.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
51104 46 App.:1126–1(a) (last sentence), (b). Pub. L. 94–361, title VI, §603(a) (last sentence), (b), July 14, 1976, 90 Stat. 929; Pub. L. 97–31, §12(76), Aug. 6, 1981, 95 Stat. 160.
  46 App.:1295 (last sentence cl. (2)). June 29, 1936, ch. 858, title XIII, §1301 (last sentence cl. (2)), as added Pub. L. 96–453, §2, Oct. 15, 1980, 94 Stat. 1997; Pub. L. 97–31, §12(142)(B), Aug. 6, 1981, 95 Stat. 166.

CHAPTER 513—UNITED STATES MERCHANT MARINE ACADEMY

Sec.
51301.
Maintenance of the Academy.
51302.
Nomination and competitive appointment of cadets.
51303.
Non-competitive appointments.
51304.
Additional appointments from particular areas.
51305.
Prohibited basis for appointment.
51306.
Cadet commitment agreements.
51307.
Places of training.
51308.
Uniforms, textbooks, and transportation allowances.
51309.
Academic degree.
51310.
Deferment of service obligation under cadet commitment agreements.
51311.
Midshipman status in the Navy Reserve.
51312.
Board of Visitors.
51313.
Advisory Board.
51314.
Limitation on charges and fees for attendance.
51315.
Gifts to the Merchant Marine Academy.
51316.
Temporary appointments to the Academy.
51317.
Adjunct professors.
51318.
Policy on sexual harassment, dating violence, domestic violence, sexual assault, and stalking.
51319.
Sexual assault response coordinators and sexual assault victim advocates.
51320.
Acceptance of guarantees with gifts for major projects.
51321.
Grants for scientific and educational research.
51322.
Protection of cadets from sexual assault onboard vessels.

        

Amendments

2017Pub. L. 115–91, div. C. title XXXV, §§3510(b), 3512(b), 3514(d)(2), 3516(b), Dec. 12, 2017, 131 Stat. 1918, 1919, 1923, 1928, added items 51318 and 51320 to 51322 and struck out former item 51318 "Policy on sexual harassment and sexual assault".

2016Pub. L. 114–328, div. C, title XXXV, §§3510(b), 3511(b), Dec. 23, 2016, 130 Stat. 2785, 2786, added items 51318 and 51319.

2011Pub. L. 111–383, div. A, title X, §1075(d)(25), Jan. 7, 2011, 124 Stat. 4374, amended Pub. L. 111–84, §3503(b)(1). See 2009 Amendment note below.

2009Pub. L. 111–84, div. C, title XXXV, §3503(b)(1), Oct. 28, 2009, 123 Stat. 2719, as amended by Pub. L. 111–383, div. A, title X, §1075(d)(25), Jan. 7, 2011, 124 Stat. 4374, added item 51317.

2008Pub. L. 110–417, div. C, title XXXV, §3506(g)(2), (h)(2), Oct. 14, 2008, 122 Stat. 4765, added items 51315 and 51316.

Pub. L. 110–181, div. C, title XXXV, §3523(a)(1), Jan. 28, 2008, 122 Stat. 598, substituted "Navy Reserve" for "Naval Reserve" in item 51311.

§51301. Maintenance of the Academy

(a) In General.—The Secretary of Transportation shall maintain the United States Merchant Marine Academy as an institution of higher education to provide instruction to individuals to prepare them for service in the merchant marine of the United States, to conduct research with respect to maritime-related matters, and to provide such other appropriate academic support, assistance, training, and activities in accordance with the provisions of this chapter as the Secretary may authorize.

(b) Recruitment.—The Secretary of Transportation may, subject to the availability of appropriations, expend funds available for United States Merchant Marine Academy operating expenses for recruiting activities, including advertising, in order to obtain recruits for the Academy and cadet applicants.

(c) Superintendent.—

(1) In general.—The immediate command of the United States Merchant Marine Academy shall be in the Superintendent of the Academy, subject to the direction of the Maritime Administrator under the general supervision of the Secretary of Transportation.

(2) Appointment.—The Secretary of Transportation shall appoint as the Superintendent—

(A) an individual who has—

(i) attained a general or flag officer rank in the Navy, Army, Air Force, Marine Corps, Coast Guard, or National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration; and

(ii) served at sea in any rank;


(B) an individual who has—

(i)(I) served at sea in the Navy, Army, Air Force, Marine Corps, Coast Guard, or National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration; or

(II) held a valid Coast Guard merchant mariner credential; and

(ii) demonstrated exemplary leadership in the education of individuals in the Armed Forces or United States merchant marine; or


(C) if a qualified individual described in subparagraph (A) or (B) does not apply for the position, an individual who has—

(i) attained the grade of captain or above in the Navy, Coast Guard, or National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration or colonel or above in the Army, Air Force, or Marine Corps; and

(ii) served at sea in any grade.


(3) Rule of construction.—Notwithstanding paragraph (2), the Secretary of Transportation may appoint an individual who is the best qualified candidate, even if such individual does not fully meet the criteria described in paragraph (2).

(Pub. L. 109–304, §8(b), Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1570; Pub. L. 111–383, div. C, title XXXV, §3504, Jan. 7, 2011, 124 Stat. 4518; Pub. L. 112–81, div. C, title XXXV, §3503, Dec. 31, 2011, 125 Stat. 1716; Pub. L. 112–239, div. A, title X, §1076(i), Jan. 2, 2013, 126 Stat. 1955; Pub. L. 114–328, div. C, title XXXV, §3506(a), Dec. 23, 2016, 130 Stat. 2777.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
51301 46 App.:1295b(a). June 29, 1936, ch. 858, title XIII, §1303(a), as added Pub. L. 96–453, §2, Oct. 15, 1980, 94 Stat. 1998.

Amendments

2016—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 114–328 added subsec. (c).

2013—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 112–239 substituted "In General" for "IN General" in heading.

2011Pub. L. 112–81 designated existing provisions as subsec. (a), inserted heading, and added subsec. (b).

Pub. L. 111–383 inserted "as an institution of higher education" after "Academy" and substituted "States, to conduct research with respect to maritime-related matters, and to provide such other appropriate academic support, assistance, training, and activities in accordance with the provisions of this chapter as the Secretary may authorize." for "States."

Savings Clause

Pub. L. 114–328, div. C, title XXXV, §3506(b), Dec. 23, 2016, 130 Stat. 2777, provided that: "Nothing in this section [amending this section] may be construed to require any change to the current leadership of the United States Merchant Marine Academy."

Concurrent Jurisdiction

Pub. L. 115–232, div. C, title XXXV, §3506, Aug. 13, 2018, 132 Stat. 2309, provided that: "Notwithstanding any other law, the Secretary of Transportation may relinquish, at the Secretary's discretion, to the State of New York, such measure of legislative jurisdiction over the lands constituting the United States Merchant Marine Academy in King's Point, New York, as is necessary to establish concurrent jurisdiction between the Federal Government and the State of New York. Such partial relinquishment of legislative jurisdiction shall be accomplished—

"(1) by filing with the Governor of New York a notice of relinquishment to take effect upon acceptance thereof; or

"(2) as the laws of that State may provide."

Class Profiles

Pub. L. 114–328, div. C, title XXXV, §3516(b), Dec. 23, 2016, 130 Stat. 2789, provided that:

"(1) In general.—Not later than August 31 of each year, the Superintendent of the United States Merchant Marine Academy shall post on the Academy's public website a profile of each class at the Academy.

"(2) Contents.—Each profile posted under paragraph (1) shall include, for the incoming class of the Academy and for the 4 classes that preceded that class at the Academy, the number and percentage of students by—

"(A) State;

"(B) country;

"(C) gender;

"(D) race and ethnicity; and

"(E) prior military service."

§51302. Nomination and competitive appointment of cadets

(a) Requirements.—An individual may be nominated for a competitive appointment as a cadet at the United States Merchant Marine Academy only if the individual—

(1) is a citizen or national of the United States; and

(2) meets the minimum requirements that the Secretary of Transportation shall establish.


(b) Nominators.—Nominations for competitive appointments for the positions allocated under subsection (c) may be made as follows:

(1) A Senator may nominate residents of the State represented by that Senator.

(2) A Member of the House of Representatives may nominate residents of the State in which the congressional district represented by that Member is located.

(3) A Delegate to the House of Representatives from the District of Columbia, the Virgin Islands, Guam, the Northern Mariana Islands, or American Samoa may nominate residents of the jurisdiction represented by that Delegate.

(4) The Resident Commissioner to the United States from Puerto Rico may nominate residents of Puerto Rico.

(5) The Panama Canal Commission may nominate—

(A) residents, or sons or daughters of residents, of an area or installation in Panama and made available to the United States under the Panama Canal Treaty of 1977, the agreements relating to and implementing that Treaty, signed September 7, 1977, and the Agreement Between the United States of America and the Republic of Panama Concerning Air Traffic Control and Related Services, concluded January 8, 1979; and

(B) sons or daughters of personnel of the United States Government and the Panama Canal Commission residing in Panama.


(c) Allocation of Positions.—Positions for competitive appointments shall be allocated each year as follows:

(1) Positions shall be allocated for residents of each State nominated by the Members of Congress from that State in proportion to the representation in Congress from that State.

(2) Four positions shall be allocated for residents of the District of Columbia nominated by the Delegate to the House of Representatives from the District of Columbia.

(3) One position each shall be allocated for residents of the Virgin Islands, Guam, and American Samoa nominated by the Delegates to the House of Representatives from the Virgin Islands, Guam, and American Samoa, respectively.

(4) One position shall be allocated for a resident of Puerto Rico nominated by the Resident Commissioner to the United States from Puerto Rico.

(5) One position shall be allocated for a resident of the Northern Mariana Islands nominated by the Governor of the Northern Mariana Islands.

(6) Two positions shall be allocated for individuals nominated by the Panama Canal Commission.


(d) Competitive System for Appointment.—

(1) Establishment of system.—The Secretary shall establish a competitive system for selecting individuals nominated under subsection (b) to fill the positions allocated under subsection (c). The system must determine the relative merit of each individual based on competitive examinations, an assessment of the individual's academic background, and other effective indicators of motivation and probability of successful completion of training at the Academy.

(2) Appointments by jurisdiction.—The Secretary shall appoint individuals to fill the positions allocated under subsection (c) for each jurisdiction in the order of merit of the individuals nominated from that jurisdiction.

(3) Remaining unfilled positions.—If positions remain unfilled after the appointments are made under paragraph (2), the Secretary shall appoint individuals to fill the positions in the order of merit of the remaining individuals nominated from all jurisdictions.


(e) Congressional Notification in Advance of Appointments.—When a nominee of a Senator, Representative, or Delegate is selected for appointment as a cadet, the Senator, Representative, or Delegate shall be notified at least 48 hours before the official notification or announcement of the appointment is made.

(Pub. L. 109–304, §8(b), Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1570; Pub. L. 111–383, div. C, title XXXV, §3503, Jan. 7, 2011, 124 Stat. 4518; Pub. L. 114–328, div. A, title V, §566(d), Dec. 23, 2016, 130 Stat. 2139.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
51302(a) 46 App.:1295b(b) (1)(A). June 29, 1936, ch. 858, title XIII, §1303(b)(1)–(3)(A), as added Pub. L. 96–453, §2, Oct. 15, 1980, 94 Stat. 1998; Pub. L. 101–595, title VII, §708(1), (2), Nov. 16, 1990, 104 Stat. 2995.
  46 App.:1295b(b)(2) (A) (related to nominations).
51302(b) 46 App.:1295b(b)(1) (less cl. (A)).
  46 App.:1295b(b)(3) (A)(ii) (related to who may be nominated).
51302(c) 46 App.:1295b(b)(3) (A) (less (ii) (related to who may be nominated)).
51302(d) 46 App.:1295b(b)(2) (A) (related to selection), (B), (3)(B), (C).

In subsection (b)(6)(A), the words "residents, or sons or daughters of residents, of an area or installation" are substituted for "a resident of the area or installation" in 46 App. U.S.C. 1295b(b)(1)(B) and "sons or daughters of residents of any area or installation" in 46 App. U.S.C. 1295b(b)(3)(A)(ii) to resolve an inconsistency in the source law and to conform to the probable intent of Congress. Although 46 App. U.S.C. 1295b(b)(1)(B) provides that a nominee must be a resident, 46 App. U.S.C. 1295b(b)(3)(A)(ii) allocates positions only for sons or daughters of residents.

Amendments

2016—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 114–328 added subsec. (e).

2011—Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 111–383, §3503(1), inserted "the Northern Mariana Islands," after "Guam,".

Subsec. (b)(5), (6). Pub. L. 111–383, §3503(2), redesignated par. (6) as (5) and struck out former par. (5) which read as follows: "The Governor of the Northern Mariana Islands may nominate residents of the Northern Mariana Islands."

Effective Date of 2016 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 114–328 applicable with respect to the appointment of cadets and midshipmen to the United States Military Academy, the United States Naval Academy, the United States Air Force Academy, and the United States Merchant Marine Academy for classes entering these service academies after Jan. 1, 2018, see section 566(e) of Pub. L. 114–328, set out as a note under section 4342 of Title 10, Armed Forces.

§51303. Non-competitive appointments

The Secretary of Transportation may appoint each year without competition as cadets at the United States Merchant Marine Academy not more than 50 qualified individuals with qualities the Secretary considers to be of special value to the Academy. In making these appointments, the Secretary shall try to achieve a national demographic balance at the Academy.

(Pub. L. 109–304, §8(b), Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1572; Pub. L. 114–328, div. C, title XXXV, §3516(a), Dec. 23, 2016, 130 Stat. 2789.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
51303 46 App.:1295b(b) (3)(D). June 29, 1936, ch. 858, title XIII, §1303(b)(3)(D), as added Pub. L. 96–453, §2, Oct. 15, 1980, 94 Stat. 1999.

Amendments

2016Pub. L. 114–328 substituted "50" for "40".

§51304. Additional appointments from particular areas

(a) Other Countries in Western Hemisphere.—The President may appoint individuals from countries in the Western Hemisphere other than the United States to receive instruction at the United States Merchant Marine Academy. Not more than 12 individuals may receive instruction under this subsection at the same time, and not more than 2 individuals from the same country may receive instruction under this subsection at the same time.

(b) Other Countries Generally.—

(1) Appointment.—The Secretary of Transportation, with the approval of the Secretary of State, may appoint individuals from countries other than the United States to receive instruction at the Academy. Not more than 30 individuals may receive instruction under this subsection at the same time.

(2) Reimbursement.—The Secretary of Transportation shall ensure that the country from which an individual comes under this subsection will reimburse the Secretary for the cost (as determined by the Secretary) of the instruction and allowances received by the individual.


(c) Panama.—

(1) Appointment.—The Secretary of Transportation, with the approval of the Secretary of State, may appoint individuals from Panama to receive instruction at the Academy. Individuals appointed under this subsection are in addition to those appointed under any other provision of this chapter.

(2) Reimbursement.—The Secretary of Transportation shall be reimbursed for the cost (as determined by the Secretary) of the instruction and allowances received by an individual appointed under this subsection.


(d) Allowances and Regulations.—Individuals receiving instruction under this section are entitled to the same allowances and are subject to the same regulations on admission, attendance, discipline, resignation, discharge, dismissal, and graduation, as cadets at the Academy appointed from the United States.

(Pub. L. 109–304, §8(b), Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1572.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
51304(a) 46 App.:1295b(b) (5)(A), (B). June 29, 1936, ch. 858, title XIII, §1303(b)(5)–(7), as added Pub. L. 96–453, §2, Oct. 15, 1980, 94 Stat. 1999; Pub. L. 99–368, §5, Aug. 1, 1986, 100 Stat. 776; Pub. L. 101–595, title VII, §708(3), Nov. 16, 1990, 104 Stat. 2995.
51304(b) 46 App.:1295b(b) (6)(A)–(C).
51304(c) 46 App.:1295b(b) (7)(A), (B).
51304(d) 46 App.:1295b(b) (5)(C), (6)(D), (7)(C).

The word "appoint" is substituted for "designate" and "permit" for consistency in the chapter.

§51305. Prohibited basis for appointment

Preference may not be given to an individual for appointment as a cadet at the United States Merchant Marine Academy because one or more members of the individual's immediate family are alumni of the Academy.

(Pub. L. 109–304, §8(b), Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1572.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
51305 46 App.:1295b(b) (3)(E). June 29, 1936, ch. 858, title XIII, §1303(b)(3)(E), as added Pub. L. 96–453, §2, Oct. 15, 1980, 94 Stat. 1999.

§51306. Cadet commitment agreements

(a) Agreement Requirements.—A citizen of the United States appointed as a cadet at the United States Merchant Marine Academy shall sign, as a condition of the appointment, an agreement to—

(1) complete the course of instruction at the Academy;

(2) obtain a merchant mariner license, unlimited as to horsepower or tonnage, issued by the Coast Guard as an officer in the merchant marine of the United States, accompanied by the appropriate national and international endorsements and certifications required by the Coast Guard for service aboard vessels on domestic and international voyages, without limitation, before graduation from the Academy;

(3) for at least 6 years after graduation from the Academy, maintain—

(A) a valid merchant mariner license, unlimited as to horsepower or tonnage, issued by the Coast Guard as an officer in the merchant marine of the United States, accompanied by the appropriate national and international endorsements and certifications required by the Coast Guard for service aboard vessels on domestic and international voyages, without limitation;

(B) a valid transportation worker identification credential; and

(C) a Coast Guard medical certificate;


(4) apply for, and accept if tendered, an appointment as a commissioned officer in the Navy Reserve (including the Strategic Sealift Officer Program, Navy Reserve), the Coast Guard Reserve, or any other reserve component of an armed force of the United States, and, if tendered the appointment, to serve, meet the participation requirements, and maintain active status in good standing, as determined by the program manager of the appropriate military service, for at least 8 years after the date of commissioning;

(5) serve the foreign and domestic commerce and the national defense of the United States for at least 5 years after graduation from the Academy—

(A) as a merchant marine officer on a documented vessel or a vessel owned and operated by the United States Government or by a State;

(B) as an employee in a United States maritime-related industry, profession, or marine science (as determined by the Secretary of Transportation), if the Secretary determines that service under subparagraph (A) is not available to the individual;

(C) as a commissioned officer on active duty in an armed force of the United States, as a commissioned officer in the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, or in other maritime-related Federal employment which serves the national security interests of the United States, as determined by the Secretary; or

(D) by a combination of the service alternatives referred to in subparagraphs (A)–(C); and


(6) report to the Secretary on compliance with this subsection.


(b) Failure To Complete Course of Instruction.—

(1) Active duty.—If the Secretary of Transportation determines that an individual who has attended the Academy for at least 2 years has failed to fulfill the part of the agreement described in subsection (a)(1), the individual may be ordered by the Secretary of Defense to serve on active duty in one of the armed forces of the United States for a period of not more than 2 years. In cases of hardship as determined by the Secretary of Transportation, the Secretary of Transportation may waive this paragraph in whole or in part.

(2) Recovery of cost.—If the Secretary of Defense is unable or unwilling to order an individual to serve on active duty under paragraph (1), or if the Secretary of Transportation determines that reimbursement of the cost of education provided would better serve the interests of the United States, the Secretary of Transportation may recover from the individual the cost of education provided by the Government.


(c) Failure To Carry Out Other Requirements.—

(1) Active duty.—If the Secretary of Transportation determines that an individual has failed to fulfill any part of the agreement described in subsection (a)(2)–(6), the individual may be ordered to serve on active duty for a period of at least 3 years but not more than the unexpired period (as determined by the Secretary) of the service required by subsection (a)(5). The Secretary of Transportation, in consultation with the Secretary of Defense, shall determine in which service the individual shall serve. In cases of hardship as determined by the Secretary of Transportation, the Secretary of Transportation may waive this paragraph in whole or in part.

(2) Recovery of cost.—If the Secretary of Defense is unable or unwilling to order an individual to serve on active duty under paragraph (1), or if the Secretary of Transportation determines that reimbursement of the cost of education provided would better serve the interests of the United States, the Secretary of Transportation may recover from the individual the cost of education provided. The Secretary may reduce the amount to be recovered to reflect partial performance of service obligations and other factors the Secretary determines merit a reduction.


(d) Actions To Recover Cost.—To aid in the recovery of the cost of education provided by the Government under a commitment agreement under this section, the Secretary of Transportation may—

(1) request the Attorney General to bring a civil action against the individual; and

(2) make use of the Federal debt collection procedures in chapter 176 of title 28 or other applicable administrative remedies.


(e) Alternative Service.—

(1) Service as commissioned officer.—An individual who, for the 5-year period following graduation from the Academy, serves as a commissioned officer on active duty in an armed force of the United States or as a commissioned officer of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration or the Public Health Service shall be excused from the requirements of paragraphs (3) through (5) of subsection (a).

(2) Modification or waiver.—The Secretary may modify or waive any of the terms and conditions set forth in subsection (a) through the imposition of alternative service requirements.


(f) Service Obligation Performance Reporting Requirement.—

(1) In general.—Subject to any otherwise applicable restrictions on disclosure in section 552a of title 5, the Secretary of Defense, the Secretary of the department in which the Coast Guard is operating, the Administrator of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and the Surgeon General of the Public Health Service—

(A) shall report the status of obligated service of an individual graduate of the Academy upon request of the Secretary; and

(B) may, in their discretion, notify the Secretary of any failure of the graduate to perform the graduate's duties, either on active duty or in the Ready Reserve component of their respective service, or as a commissioned officer of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration or the Public Health Service, respectively.


(2) Information to be provided.—A report or notice under paragraph (1) shall identify any graduate determined to have failed to comply with service obligation requirements and provide all required information as to why such graduate failed to comply.

(3) Considered as in default.—Upon receipt of such a report or notice, such graduate may be considered to be in default of the graduate's service obligations by the Secretary, and subject to all remedies the Secretary may have with respect to such a default.

(Pub. L. 109–304, §8(b), Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1572; Pub. L. 109–163, div. A, title V, §515(g)(2)(A), Jan. 6, 2006, 119 Stat. 3236; Pub. L. 109–364, div. C, title XXXV, §§3505(a), 3506(a), Oct. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 2516, 2517; Pub. L. 110–181, div. C, title XXXV, §§3523(a)(1), (b), 3526(b)(1), (c)(1), (g), Jan. 28, 2008, 122 Stat. 598, 600-602; Pub. L. 114–92, div. C, title XXXV, §3506, Nov. 25, 2015, 129 Stat. 1220.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
51306(a) 46 App.:1295b(e)(1). June 29, 1936, ch. 858, title XIII, §1303(e)(1)–(4), as added Pub. L. 96–453, §2, Oct. 15, 1980, 94 Stat. 2000; Pub. L. 97–31, §12(144)(A), Aug. 6, 1981, 95 Stat. 166; Pub. L. 101–595, title VII, §707(a), Nov. 16, 1990, 104 Stat. 2995; Pub. L. 108–136, title XXXV, §3515(b), Nov. 24, 2003, 117 Stat. 1792.
51306(b) 46 App.:1295b(e)(2).
51306(c) 46 App.:1295b(e)(3).
51306(d) 46 App.:1295b(e)(4).

In subsection (a), before paragraph (1), the words "after the date occurring 6 months after October 1, 1981" are omitted as obsolete. In paragraph (2), the words "before graduating" are substituted for "on or before the date of graduation" to eliminate unnecessary words. In paragraph (5)(A), the words "or territories" are omitted as unnecessary because of the definition of "State" in chapter 1 of the revised title.

In subsection (d), the words "bring a civil action" are substituted for "begin court proceedings" for consistency in the revised title and with rule 2 of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure (28 App. U.S.C.).

Amendments

2015—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 114–92, §3506(1), substituted "shall sign" for "must sign" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 114–92, §3506(2), amended par. (2) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (2) read as follows: "fulfill the requirements for a license as an officer in the merchant marine of the United States before graduation from the Academy;".

Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 114–92, §3506(3), amended par. (3) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (3) read as follows: "maintain a valid license as an officer in the merchant marine of the United States for at least 6 years after graduation from the Academy, accompanied by the appropriate national and international endorsements and certification required by the Coast Guard for service aboard vessels on domestic and international voyages;".

Subsec. (a)(4). Pub. L. 114–92, §3506(4), amended par. (4) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (4) read as follows: "apply for, and accept if tendered, an appointment as a commissioned officer in the Navy Reserve (including the Merchant Marine Reserve, Navy Reserve), the Coast Guard Reserve, or any other reserve unit of an armed force of the United States, and, if tendered the appointment, to serve for at least 6 years after graduation from the Academy;".

2008Pub. L. 110–181, §3526(g), repealed Pub. L. 109–364, §§3505(a) and 3506(a). See 2006 Amendment note below.

Pub. L. 110–181, §3523(b), repealed Pub. L. 109–163, §515(g)(2)(A). See 2006 Amendment note below.

Subsec. (a)(4). Pub. L. 110–181, §3523(a)(1), incorporated the substance of the amendment by Pub. L. 109–163, §515(g)(2)(A), into this section by substituting "Navy Reserve" for "Naval Reserve" in two places. See 2006 Amendment note below and section 18(a) of Pub. L. 109–304, set out as a Legislative Purpose and Construction note preceding section 101 of this title.

Subsecs. (e), (f). Pub. L. 110–181, §3526(b)(1), (c)(1), incorporated the substance of the amendments by Pub. L. 109–364, §§3505(a), 3506(a), into this section by adding subsecs. (e) and (f). See 2006 Amendment note below and section 18(a) of Pub. L. 109–304, set out as a Legislative Purpose and Construction note preceding section 101 of this title.

2006Pub. L. 109–364, §§3505(a), 3506(a), which directed the amendment of section 1295b(e) of the former Appendix to this title from which this section was derived, were repealed by Pub. L. 110–181, §3526(g). See 2008 Amendment note for subsecs. (e) and (f) and Historical and Revision notes above.

Pub. L. 109–163, §515(g)(2)(A), which directed the amendment of section 1295b of the former Appendix to this title from which this section was derived, was repealed by Pub. L. 110–181, §3523(b). See 2008 Amendment note for subsec. (a)(4) and Historical and Revision notes above.

Effective Date of 2008 Amendment

Pub. L. 110–181, div. C, title XXXV, §3526(b)(2), Jan. 28, 2008, 122 Stat. 601, provided that: "Section 51306(e) of title 46, United States Code, as added by paragraph (1), applies only to an individual who enrolls as a cadet at the United States Merchant Marine Academy, and signs an agreement under section 51306(a) of title 46, after October 17, 2006."

Pub. L. 110–181, div. C, title XXXV, §3526(c)(2), Jan. 28, 2008, 122 Stat. 602, provided that: "Section 51306(f) of title 46, United States Code, as added by paragraph (1), does not apply with respect to an agreement entered into under section 51306(a) of title 46, United States Code, before October 17, 2006."

Effective Date of 2006 Amendment

Pub. L. 109–364, div. C, title XXXV, §3505(b), Oct. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 2517, which provided that par. (6) of section 1295b(e) of the former Appendix to this title from which this section was derived, applied only to an individual who enrolled as a cadet at the United States Merchant Marine Academy and signed an agreement under par. (1) of that section after Oct. 17, 2006, was repealed by Pub. L. 110–181, div. C, title XXXV, §3526(g), Jan. 28, 2008, 122 Stat. 602.

Pub. L. 109–364, div. C, title XXXV, §3506(b), Oct. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 2517, which provided that the enactment of par. (7) of section 1295b(e) of the former Appendix to this title from which this section was derived, did not apply with respect to an agreement entered into under section 1295b(e) before Oct. 17, 2006, was repealed by Pub. L. 110–181, div. C, title XXXV, §3526(g), Jan. 28, 2008, 122 Stat. 602.

§51307. Places of training

(a) In General.—The Secretary of Transportation may provide for the training of cadets at the United States Merchant Marine Academy—

(1) on vessels owned, subsidized by, or contracted with the United States Government;

(2) on other documented vessels, with the permission of the owner;

(3) in shipyards or plants and with industrial or educational organizations; and

(4) on any other vessel considered by the Secretary to be necessary or appropriate or in the national interest.


(b) Maritime Security Program Vessels.—The Secretary shall require an operator of a vessel participating in the Maritime Security Program under chapter 531 of this title to carry on each Maritime Security Program vessel 2 United States Merchant Marine Academy cadets, if available, on each voyage.

(c) Military Sealift Command Vessels.—

(1) In general.—Except as provided in paragraph (2), the Commander of the Military Sealift Command shall require an operator of a vessel in the United States Navy's Military Sealift Command to carry on each such vessel 2 United States Merchant Marine Academy cadets, if available, on each voyage, if the vessel—

(A) is flagged in the United States; and

(B) is rated at 10,000 gross tons or higher.


(2) Waiver.—The Commander of the Military Sealift Command may waive the requirement under paragraph (1) at any time if the Commander determines that carrying a cadet from the United States Merchant Marine Academy would place an undue burden on the vessel or the operator of the vessel.


(d) Definition of Operator.—In this section, the term "operator" includes a government operator and a non-government operator.

(e) Savings Clause.—Nothing in this section may be construed as affecting—

(1) the discretion of the Secretary to determine whether to place a United States Merchant Marine Academy cadet on a vessel;

(2) the authority of the Coast Guard regarding a vessel security plan approved under section 70103; or

(3) the discretion of the master of the vessel to ensure the safety of all crew members.

(Pub. L. 109–304, §8(b), Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1574; Pub. L. 109–241, title III, §307, July 11, 2006, 120 Stat. 528; Pub. L. 110–181, div. C, title XXXV, §3525(a)(3), (b), Jan. 28, 2008, 122 Stat. 600, 601; Pub. L. 115–232, div. C, title XXXV, §3512, Aug. 13, 2018, 132 Stat. 2311.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
51307 46 App.:1295b(f). June 29, 1936, ch. 858, title XIII, §1303(f), as added Pub. L. 96–453, §2, Oct. 15, 1980, 94 Stat. 2002.

In paragraph (2), the words "with the permission of the owner" are substituted for "if the owner . . . cooperates in such use" for clarity.

Amendments

2018Pub. L. 115–232, §3512(1), (3), designated existing provisions as subsec. (a), inserted heading, and added subsecs. (b) to (e).

Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 115–232, §3512(2), substituted "owned, subsidized by, or contracted with" for "owned or subsidized by".

2008Pub. L. 110–181, §3525(b), repealed Pub. L. 109–241, §307. See 2006 Amendment note below.

Par. (4). Pub. L. 110–181, §3525(a)(3), incorporated the substance of the amendment by Pub. L. 109–241, §307, into this section by adding par. (4). See 2006 Amendment note below and section 18(a) of Pub. L. 109–304, set out as a Legislative Purpose and Construction note preceding section 101 of this title.

2006Pub. L. 109–241, §307, which directed the amendment of section 1295b(f) of the former Appendix to this title from which this section was derived, was repealed by Pub. L. 110–181, §3525(b). See 2008 Amendment note for par. (4) and Historical and Revision notes above.

§51308. Uniforms, textbooks, and transportation allowances

The Secretary of Transportation shall provide cadets at the United States Merchant Marine Academy—

(1) all required uniforms and textbooks; and

(2) allowances for transportation (including reimbursement of traveling expenses) when traveling under orders as a cadet.

(Pub. L. 109–304, §8(b), Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1574.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
51308 46 App.:1295b(d). June 29, 1936, ch. 858, title XIII, §1303(d), as added Pub. L. 96–453, §2, Oct. 15, 1980, 94 Stat. 2000.

§51309. Academic degree

(a) Bachelor's Degree.—

(1) In general.—The Superintendent of the United States Merchant Marine Academy may confer the degree of bachelor of science on an individual who—

(A) has met the conditions prescribed by the Secretary of Transportation; and

(B) if a citizen of the United States, has passed the examination for a merchant marine officer's license.


(2) Effect of physical disqualification.—An individual not allowed to take the examination for a merchant marine officer's license only because of physical disqualification may not be denied a degree for not taking the examination.


(b) Master's Degree.—The Superintendent of the Academy may confer a master's degree on an individual who has met the conditions prescribed by the Secretary. A master's degree program may be funded through non-appropriated funds. To maintain the appropriate academic standards, the program shall be accredited by the appropriate accreditation body. Nonappropriated funds received for this purpose shall be credited to the Maritime Administration's Operations and Training appropriation, to remain available until expended, for those expenses directly related to the purpose of such receipts. The Superintendent shall maintain a separate and detailed accounting of nonappropriated fund receipts and all associated expenses. The Secretary may prescribe regulations necessary to administer such a program.

(c) Graduation Not Entitlement To Hold License.—Graduation from the Academy does not entitle an individual to hold a license authorizing service on a merchant vessel.

(Pub. L. 109–304, §8(b), Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1574; Pub. L. 111–84, div. C, title XXXV, §3514, Oct. 28, 2009, 123 Stat. 2724.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
51309(a) 46 App.:1295b(g)(1). June 29, 1936, ch. 858, title XIII, §1303(g), as added Pub. L. 96–453, §2, Oct. 15, 1980, 94 Stat. 2002; restated Pub. L. 108–136, title XXXV, §3515(c), Nov. 24, 2003, 117 Stat. 1794.
51309(b) 46 App.:1295b(g)(2).
51309(c) 46 App.:1295b(b)(8). June 29, 1936, ch. 858, title XIII, §1303(b)(8), as added Pub. L. 96–453, §2, Oct. 15, 1980, 94 Stat. 1997; Pub. L. 99–368, §5, Aug. 1, 1986, 100 Stat. 776.

Amendments

2009—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 111–84 inserted before last sentence "Nonappropriated funds received for this purpose shall be credited to the Maritime Administration's Operations and Training appropriation, to remain available until expended, for those expenses directly related to the purpose of such receipts. The Superintendent shall maintain a separate and detailed accounting of nonappropriated fund receipts and all associated expenses."

§51310. Deferment of service obligation under cadet commitment agreements

The Secretary of Transportation may defer the service commitment of an individual under section 51306(a)(5) of this title (as specified in the cadet commitment agreement) for not more than 2 years if the individual is engaged in a graduate course of study approved by the Secretary. However, deferment of service as a commissioned officer under section 51306(a)(5) must be approved by the Secretary of the military department that has jurisdiction over the service or by the Secretary of Commerce for service with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.

(Pub. L. 109–304, §8(b), Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1575.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
51310 46 App.:1295b(e)(5). June 29, 1936, ch. 858, title XIII, §1303(e)(5), as added Pub. L. 96–453, §2, Oct. 15, 1980, 94 Stat. 2001; Pub. L. 97–31, §12(144)(B), Aug. 6, 1981, 95 Stat. 166; Pub. L. 108–136, title XXXV, §3515(b)(6), Nov. 24, 2003, 117 Stat. 1793.

§51311. Midshipman status in the Navy Reserve

(a) Application Requirement.—Before being appointed as a cadet at the United States Merchant Marine Academy, a citizen of the United States must agree to apply for midshipman status in the Navy Reserve (including the Merchant Marine Reserve, Navy Reserve).

(b) Appointment.—

(1) In general.—A citizen of the United States appointed as a cadet at the Academy shall be appointed by the Secretary of the Navy as a midshipman in the Navy Reserve (including the Merchant Marine Reserve, Navy Reserve).

(2) Rights and privileges.—The Secretary of the Navy shall provide for cadets of the Academy who are midshipmen in the United States Navy Reserve to be—

(A) issued an identification card (referred to as a "military ID card"); and

(B) entitled to all rights and privileges in accordance with the same eligibility criteria as apply to other members of the Ready Reserve of the reserve components of the armed forces.


(3) Coordination.—The Secretary of the Navy shall carry out paragraphs (1) and (2) in coordination with the Secretary of Transportation.

(Pub. L. 109–304, §8(b), Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1575; Pub. L. 109–163, div. A, title V, §515(g)(2), Jan. 6, 2006, 119 Stat. 3236; Pub. L. 110–181, div. C, title XXXV, §3523(a)(1), (b), Jan. 28, 2008, 122 Stat. 598, 600.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
51311(a) 46 App.:1295b(b) (3)(F). June 29, 1936, ch. 858, title XIII, §1303(b)(3)(F), (c), as added Pub. L. 96–453, §2, Oct. 15, 1980, 94 Stat. 1999, 2000; Pub. L. 105–261, div. A, title V, §568, Oct. 17, 1998, 112 Stat. 2031; Pub. L. 106–65, div. A, title X, §1066(b)(5), Oct. 5, 1999, 113 Stat. 772.
51311(b) 46 App.:1295b(c).

Amendments

2008Pub. L. 110–181, §3523(b), repealed Pub. L. 109–163, §515(g)(2). See 2006 Amendment note below.

Subsecs. (a), (b)(1), (2). Pub. L. 110–181, §3523(a)(1), incorporated the substance of the amendment by Pub. L. 109–163, §515(g)(2), into this section by substituting "Navy Reserve" for "Naval Reserve" wherever appearing in section catchline and text. See 2006 Amendment note below and section 18(a) of Pub. L. 109–304, set out as a Legislative Purpose and Construction note preceding section 101 of this title.

2006Pub. L. 109–163, §515(g)(2), which directed the amendment of section 1295b of the former Appendix to this title from which this section was derived, was repealed by Pub. L. 110–181, §3523(b). See 2008 Amendment note for subsecs. (a), (b)(1), (2) and Historical and Revision notes above.

§51312. Board of Visitors

(a) In General.—There shall be a Board of Visitors to the United States Merchant Marine Academy (referred to in this section as the "Board" and the "Academy", respectively) to provide independent advice and recommendations on matters relating to the United States Merchant Marine Academy.

(b) Membership.—

(1) In general.—The Board shall be composed of—

(A) 2 Senators appointed by the Chairman of the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate in consultation with the ranking member of such Committee;

(B) 3 Members of the House of Representatives appointed by the Chairman of the Committee on Armed Services of the House of Representatives in consultation with the ranking member of such Committee;

(C) 1 Senator appointed by the Vice President, who shall be a member of the Committee on Appropriations of the Senate;

(D) 2 Members of the House of Representatives appointed by the Speaker of the House of Representatives, in consultation with the Minority Leader, at least 1 of whom shall be a member of the Committee on Appropriations of the House of Representatives;

(E) 5 individuals appointed by the President; and

(F) as ex officio members—

(i) the Commander of the Military Sealift Command;

(ii) the Deputy Commandant for Operations of the Coast Guard;

(iii) the chairman of the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate;

(iv) the chairman of the Committee on Armed Services of the House of Representatives;

(v) the chairman of the Advisory Board to the Academy established under section 51313; and

(vi) the Member of the House of Representatives for the congressional district in which the Academy is located, as a nonvoting member, unless such Member of the House of Representatives is appointed as a voting member of the Board under subparagraph (B) or (D).


(2) Presidential appointees.—Of the individuals appointed by the President under paragraph (1)(E)—

(A) at least 2 shall be graduates of the Academy;

(B) at least 1 shall be a senior corporate officer from a United States maritime shipping company that participates in the Maritime Security Program, or in any Maritime Administration program providing incentives for companies to register their vessels in the United States, and this appointment shall rotate biennially among such companies; and

(C) 1 or more may be a Senate-confirmed Presidential appointee, a member of the Senior Executive Service, or an officer of flag-rank who from 1 the Coast Guard, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, or any of the military services that commission graduates of the Academy, other than the individuals who are members of the Board under clauses (i) and (ii) of paragraph (1)(F).


(3) Term of service.—

(A) In general.—Except as provided in subparagraph (B), each member of the Board, other than an ex officio member under paragraph (1)(F), shall serve for a term of 2 years commencing at the beginning of each Congress.

(B) Continuation of service.—Any member described in subparagraph (A) whose term on the Board has expired, other than a member appointed under any of subparagraphs (A) through (D) of paragraph (1) who is no longer a Member of Congress, shall continue to serve until a successor is appointed.


(4) Vacancies.—If a member of the Board is no longer able to serve on the Board or resigns, the Designated Federal Officer selected under subsection (g)(2) shall immediately notify the person who appointed such member. Not later than 60 days after that notification, such person shall designate a replacement to serve the remainder of such member's term.

(5) Designation and responsibility of substitute board members.—

(A) Authority to designate.—A member of the Board under clause (i) or (ii) of paragraph (1)(F) or appointed under subparagraph (B) or (C) of paragraph (2) may, if unable to attend or participate in an activity described in subsection (d), (e), or (f), designate another individual to serve as a substitute member of the Board, on a temporary basis, to attend or participate in such activity.

(B) Requirements.—A substitute member of the Board designated under subparagraph (A) shall be—

(i) an individual serving in a position for which the individual was appointed by the President and confirmed by the Senate;

(ii) a member of the Senior Executive Service; or

(iii) an officer of flag-rank who is employed by—

(I) the Coast Guard; or

(II) the Military Sealift Command.


(C) Participation.—A substitute member of the Board designated under subparagraph (A)—

(i) shall be permitted by the Board to fully participate in the proceedings and activities of the Board;

(ii) shall report to the member that designated the substitute member on the Board's activities not later than 15 days following the substitute member's participation in such activities; and

(iii) shall be permitted by the Board to participate in the preparation of reports described in paragraph 2 (j) related to any proceedings or activities of the Board in which such substitute member participates.


(c) Chairperson.—

(1) In general.—On a biennial basis and subject to paragraph (2), the Board shall select from among its members a Member of the House of Representatives or a Senator to serve as the Chairperson.

(2) Rotation.—A Member of the House of Representatives and a Member of the Senate shall alternately be selected as the Chairperson of the Board.

(3) Term.—An individual may not serve as Chairperson for consecutive terms.


(d) Meetings.—

(1) In general.—The Board shall meet as provided for in the Charter adopted under paragraph (2)(B), including at least 1 meeting held at the Academy.

(2) Chairperson and charter.—The Designated Federal Officer selected under subsection (g)(2) shall organize a meeting of the Board for the purposes of—

(A) selecting a Chairperson under subsection (c); and

(B) adopting an official Charter for the Board, which shall establish the schedule of meetings of the Board.


(e) Visiting the Academy.—

(1) Annual visit.—The Board shall visit the Academy annually on a date selected by the Board, in consultation with the Secretary of Transportation and the Superintendent of the Academy.

(2) Other visits.—In cooperation with the Superintendent, the Board or its members may make other visits to the Academy in connection with the duties of the Board.

(3) Access.—While visiting the Academy under this subsection, members of the Board shall have reasonable access to the grounds, facilities, midshipmen, faculty, staff, and other personnel of the Academy for the purpose of carrying out the duties of the Board.


(f) Responsibility.—The Board shall inquire into the state of morale and discipline, the curriculum, instruction, physical equipment, fiscal affairs, and academic methods of the Academy, and other matters relating to the Academy that the Board decides to consider.

(g) Department of Transportation Support.—The Secretary of Transportation shall—

(1) provide support as deemed necessary by the Board for the performance of the Board's functions;

(2) select a Designated Federal Officer to support the performance of the Board's functions; and

(3) in cooperation with the Maritime Administrator and the Superintendent of the Academy, advise the Board of any institutional issues, consistent with applicable laws concerning the disclosure of information.


(h) Staff.—Each of the chairman of the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate and the chairman of the Committee on Armed Services of the House of Representatives may designate staff members of such Committee to serve, without additional reimbursement (except as provided in subsection (i)), as staff for the Board.

(i) Travel Expenses.—While serving away from his or her home or regular place of business, a member of the Board or a staff member designated under subsection (h) shall be allowed travel expenses, including per diem in lieu of subsistence, as authorized under section 5703 of title 5, United States Code.

(j) Reports.—

(1) Annual report.—Not later than 60 days after each annual visit required under subsection (e)(1), the Board shall submit to the President a written report of its actions, views, and recommendations pertaining to the Academy.

(2) Other reports.—If the members of the Board visit the Academy under subsection (e)(2), the Board may—

(A) prepare a report on such visit; and

(B) if approved by a majority of the members of the Board, submit such report to the President not later than 60 days after the date of the approval.


(3) Advisors.—The Board may call in advisers—

(A) for consultation regarding the execution of the Board's responsibility under subsection (f); or

(B) to assist in the preparation of a report described in paragraph (1) or (2).


(4) Submission.—A report submitted to the President under paragraph (1) or (2) shall be concurrently submitted to—

(A) the Secretary of Transportation;

(B) the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate; and

(C) the Committee on Armed Services of the House of Representatives.

(Pub. L. 109–304, §8(b), Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1575; Pub. L. 113–291, div. C, title XXXV, §3504(a), Dec. 19, 2014, 128 Stat. 3905.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
51312 46 App.:1295b(h). June 29, 1936, ch. 858, title XIII, §1303(h), as added Pub. L. 96–453, §2, Oct. 15, 1980, 94 Stat. 2002; Pub. L. 97–35, title XVI, §1607, Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 752; Pub. L. 101–595, title VII, §703, Nov. 16, 1990, 104 Stat. 2994.

The words "Committee on Armed Services" are substituted for "Committee on Merchant Marine and Fisheries" to reflect changes in committee structure made by the 104th Congress.

Amendments

2014Pub. L. 113–291 amended section generally. Prior to amendment, section related to the Board of Visitors and consisted of subsecs. (a) to (d) relating to establishment of the Board, appointment of board members, designation of staff members to the board, and travel expenses, respectively.

Deadlines; Continuation of Service

Pub. L. 113–291, div. C, title XXXV, §3504(b), (c), Dec. 19, 2014, 128 Stat. 3909, provided that:

"(b) Deadlines.—

"(1) Selection of designated federal officer.—The Secretary of Transportation shall select a Designated Federal Officer under subsection (g)(2) of section 51312 of title 46, United States Code, as amended by this Act, by not later than 30 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 19, 2014].

"(2) Appointment of members.—Appointments under subsection (b)(1) of such section shall be completed by not later than 60 days after the date of the enactment of this Act.

"(3) Organization of first meeting.—Such Designated Federal Officer shall organize a meeting of the Board under section (d)(2) of such section by not later than 60 days after the date of the enactment of this Act.

"(c) Continuation of Service of Current Members.—Each member of the Board of Visitors serving as a member of the Board on the date of the enactment of this Act shall continue to serve on the Board for the remainder of such member's term."

1 So in original.

2 So in original. Probably should be "subsection".

§51313. Advisory Board

(a) In General.—An Advisory Board to the United States Merchant Marine Academy shall be established to visit the Academy at least once during each academic year, for the purpose of examining the course of instruction and management of the Academy and advising the Maritime Administrator and the Superintendent of the Academy.

(b) Appointment and Terms.—The Board shall be composed of not more than 7 individuals appointed by the Secretary of Transportation. The individuals must be distinguished in education and other fields related to the Academy. Members of the Board shall be appointed for terms of not more than 3 years and may be reappointed. The Secretary shall designate one of the members as chairman.

(c) Travel Expenses.—When serving away from home or regular place of business, a member of the Board shall be allowed travel expenses, including per diem in lieu of subsistence, as authorized by section 5703 of title 5.

(d) Relationship to Other Law.—The Federal Advisory Committee Act (5 App. U.S.C.) does not apply to the Board.

(Pub. L. 109–304, §8(b), Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1576.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
51313 46 App.:1295b(i). June 29, 1936, ch. 858, title XIII, §1303(i), as added Pub. L. 96–453, §2, Oct. 15, 1980, 94 Stat. 2002; Pub. L. 97–31, §12(144)(C), Aug. 6, 1981, 95 Stat. 166.

References in Text

The Federal Advisory Committee Act, referred to in subsec. (d), is Pub. L. 92–463, Oct. 6, 1972, 86 Stat. 770, which is set out in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

§51314. Limitation on charges and fees for attendance

(a) Prohibition.—Except as provided in subsection (b), no charge or fee for tuition, room, or board for attendance at the United States Merchant Marine Academy may be imposed unless the charge or fee is specifically authorized by a law enacted after October 5, 1994.

(b) Exception.—The prohibition specified in subsection (a) does not apply with respect to any item or service provided to cadets for which a charge or fee is imposed as of October 5, 1994, or for calculators, computers, personal and academic supplies, midshipman services such as barber, tailor, or laundry services, and Coast Guard license fees. The Secretary of Transportation shall present at the next meeting of the Board of Visitors, and post on a publicly available website, any change made by the Academy in the amount of a charge or fee authorized under this subsection. Such fees shall be credited to the Maritime Administration's Operations and Training appropriation, to remain available until expended, for those expenses directly related to the purposes of the fees. Fees collected in excess of actual expenses may be refunded to the Midshipmen through a mechanism approved by the Secretary. The Academy shall maintain a separate and detailed accounting of fee revenue and all associated expenses.

(Pub. L. 109–304, §8(b), Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1576; Pub. L. 111–84, div. C, title XXXV, §3510, Oct. 28, 2009, 123 Stat. 2722; Pub. L. 111–117, div. A, title I, §176, Dec. 16, 2009, 123 Stat. 3068; Pub. L. 115–420, §2, Jan. 3, 2019, 132 Stat. 5444.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
51314 46 App.:1295b(j). June 29, 1936, ch. 858, title XIII, §1303(j), as added Pub. L. 108–375, Oct. 28, 2004, div. A, title V, §545(e), 118 Stat. 1909.

Amendments

2019—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 115–420 substituted "shall present at the next meeting of the Board of Visitors, and post on a publicly available website," for "shall notify Congress of".

2009—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 111–117 inserted at end "Such fees shall be credited to the Maritime Administration's Operations and Training appropriation, to remain available until expended, for those expenses directly related to the purposes of the fees. Fees collected in excess of actual expenses may be refunded to the Midshipmen through a mechanism approved by the Secretary. The Academy shall maintain a separate and detailed accounting of fee revenue and all associated expenses."

Pub. L. 111–84 substituted "1994, or for calculators, computers, personal and academic supplies, midshipman services such as barber, tailor, or laundry services, and Coast Guard license fees." for "1994."

§51315. Gifts to the Merchant Marine Academy

(a) In General.—The Maritime Administrator may accept and use conditional or unconditional gifts of money or property for the benefit of the United States Merchant Marine Academy, including acceptance and use for non-appropriated fund instrumentalities of the Merchant Marine Academy. The Maritime Administrator may accept a gift of services in carrying out the Administrator's duties and powers. Property accepted under this section and proceeds from that property must be used, as nearly as possible, in accordance with the terms of the gift.

(b) Establishment of Academy Gift Fund.—There is established in the Treasury a fund, to be known as the "Academy Gift Fund". Disbursements from the Fund shall be made on order of the Maritime Administrator. Unless otherwise specified by the terms of the gift, the Maritime Administrator may use monies in the Fund for appropriated or non-appropriated purposes at the Academy. The Fund consists of—

(1) gifts of money;

(2) income from donated property accepted under this section;

(3) proceeds from the sale of donated property; and

(4) income from securities under subsection (c) of this section.


(c) Investment of Fund Balances.—On request of the Maritime Administrator, the Secretary of the Treasury may invest and reinvest amounts in the Fund in securities of, or in securities the principal and interest of which is guaranteed by, the United States Government.

(d) Disbursement Authority.—There are hereby authorized to be disbursed from the Fund such sums as may be on deposit, to remain available until expended.

(e) Deductibility of Gifts.—Gifts accepted under this section are a gift to or for the use of the Government under the Internal Revenue Code of 1986.

(f) Payment of Expenses.—The Maritime Administrator may pay all necessary expenses in connection with the conveyance or transfer of a gift, devise, or bequest accepted under this section.

(Added Pub. L. 110–417, div. C, title XXXV, §3506(g)(1), Oct. 14, 2008, 122 Stat. 4764; amended Pub. L. 115–91, div. C, title XXXV, §3511, Dec. 12, 2017, 131 Stat. 1918.)

References in Text

The Internal Revenue Code of 1986, referred to in subsec. (e), is classified generally to Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

Amendments

2017—Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 115–91 added subsec. (f).

§51316. Temporary appointments to the Academy

Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the Maritime Administrator may appoint any present employee of the United States Merchant Marine Academy non-appropriated fund instrumentality to a position on the General Schedule of comparable pay. Eligible personnel shall be engaged in work permissibly funded by annual appropriations, and such appointments to the Civil Service shall be without regard to competition, for a term not to exceed 2 years.

(Added Pub. L. 110–417, div. C, title XXXV, §3506(h)(1), Oct. 14, 2008, 122 Stat. 4765.)

References in Text

The General Schedule, referred to in text, is set out under section 5332 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

§51317. Adjunct professors

(a) In General.—The Maritime Administrator may establish a program for the purpose of contracting with individuals as personal services contractors to provide services as adjunct professors at the Academy, if the Maritime Administrator determines that there is a need for adjunct professors and the need is not of permanent duration.

(b) Contract Requirements.—Each contract under the program—

(1) must be approved by the Maritime Administrator;

(2) shall be for a duration, including options, of not to exceed one year unless the Maritime Administrator finds that exceptional circumstances justify an extension of up to one additional year; and

(3) shall be subject to the availability of appropriations.

(Added Pub. L. 111–84, div. C, title XXXV, §3503(a), Oct. 28, 2009, 123 Stat. 2719; amended Pub. L. 115–91, div. C, title XXXV, §3509, Dec. 12, 2017, 131 Stat. 1916.)

Amendments

2017—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 115–91, §3509(1)(A), struck out "and" at end.

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 115–91, §3509(1)(B), substituted "; and" for period at end.

Subsecs. (c), (d). Pub. L. 115–91, §3509(2), struck out subsecs. (c) and (d) which related to limitation on number of contractors and reporting requirements, respectively.

§51318. Policy on sexual harassment, dating violence, domestic violence, sexual assault, and stalking

(a) Required Policy.—

(1) In general.—The Secretary of Transportation shall direct the Superintendent of the United States Merchant Marine Academy to prescribe a policy on sexual harassment, dating violence, domestic violence, sexual assault, and stalking applicable to the cadets and other personnel of the Academy.

(2) Matters to be specified in policy.—The policy on sexual harassment, dating violence, domestic violence, sexual assault, and stalking prescribed under this subsection shall include—

(A) a program to promote awareness and prevention of the incidence of rape, acquaintance rape, domestic violence, dating violence, stalking, and other sexual offenses of a criminal nature that involve cadets or other Academy personnel;

(B) procedures for documenting, tracking, and maintaining the data required to conduct the annual assessments to determine the effectiveness of the policies, procedures, and training program of the Academy with respect to sexual harassment, dating violence, domestic violence, sexual assault, and stalking involving cadets or other Academy personnel, as required by subsection (c);

(C) procedures that a cadet or other Academy personnel should follow in the case of an occurrence of sexual harassment, dating violence, domestic violence, sexual assault, or stalking, including—

(i) specifying the person or persons to whom an alleged occurrence of sexual harassment, dating violence, domestic violence, sexual assault, or stalking should be reported by the victim and the options for confidential reporting;

(ii) specifying any other person whom the victim should contact; and

(iii) procedures on the preservation of evidence potentially necessary for proof of a criminal sexual offense;


(D) procedures for investigating sexual harassment, dating violence, domestic violence, sexual assault, or stalking involving a cadet or other Academy personnel to determine whether disciplinary action is necessary;

(E) a procedure for disciplinary action in cases of alleged criminal sexual assault involving a cadet or other Academy personnel;

(F) any other sanction authorized to be imposed in a substantiated case of sexual harassment, dating violence, domestic violence, sexual assault, or stalking involving a cadet or other Academy personnel in rape, acquaintance rape, or any other criminal sexual offense, whether forcible or nonforcible;

(G) procedures through which—

(i) questions regarding sexual harassment, dating violence, domestic violence, sexual assault, or stalking can be confidentially asked and confidentially answered;

(ii) victims can report incidents of sexual harassment, dating violence, domestic violence, sexual assault, or stalking confidentially; and

(iii) the privacy of victims of sexual harassment, dating violence, domestic violence, sexual assault, or stalking will be protected; and


(H) required training on the policy for all cadets and other Academy personnel, including the specific training required for personnel who process allegations of sexual harassment, dating violence, domestic violence, sexual assault, or stalking involving Academy personnel.


(3) Minimum training requirements for certain individuals regarding sexual harassment, dating violence, domestic violence, sexual assault, and stalking.—

(A) Requirement.—The Maritime Administrator shall direct the Superintendent of the United States Merchant Marine Academy to develop a mandatory training program at the Academy for each individual who is involved in implementing the Academy's student disciplinary grievance procedures, including each individual who is responsible for—

(i) resolving complaints of reported sexual harassment, dating violence, domestic violence, sexual assault, and stalking;

(ii) resolving complaints of reported violations of the sexual misconduct policy of the Academy; or

(iii) conducting an interview with a victim of sexual harassment, dating violence, domestic violence, sexual assault, or stalking.


(B) Consultation.—The Superintendent shall develop the training program described in subparagraph (A) in consultation with national, State, or local sexual assault, dating violence, domestic violence, or stalking victim advocacy, victim services, or prevention organizations.

(C) Elements.—The training required by subparagraph (A) shall include the following:

(i) Information on working with and interviewing persons subjected to sexual harassment, dating violence, domestic violence, sexual assault, or stalking.

(ii) Information on particular types of conduct that would constitute sexual harassment, dating violence, domestic violence, sexual assault, or stalking, regardless of gender, including same-sex sexual harassment, dating violence, domestic violence, sexual assault, or stalking.

(iii) Information on consent and the effect that drugs or alcohol may have on an individual's ability to consent.

(iv) Information on the effects of trauma, including the neurobiology of trauma.

(v) Training regarding the use of trauma-informed interview techniques, which means asking questions of an individual who has been a victim of sexual harassment, dating violence, domestic violence, sexual assault, or stalking in a manner that is focused on the experience of the victim, does not judge or blame the victim, and is informed by evidence-based research on the neurobiology of trauma.

(vi) Training on cultural awareness regarding how dating violence, domestic violence, sexual assault, or stalking may impact midshipmen differently depending on their cultural background.

(vii) Information on sexual assault dynamics, sexual assault perpetrator behavior, and barriers to reporting.


(D) Implementation.—

(i) Development and approval schedule.—The training program required by subparagraph (A) shall be developed not later than 90 days after the date of the enactment of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2018.

(ii) Completion of training.—Each individual who is required to complete the training described in subparagraph (A) shall complete such training not later than—

(I) 270 days after the date of the enactment of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2018; or

(II) 180 days after starting a position with responsibilities that include the activities described in clause (i), (ii), or (iii) of subparagraph (A).


(4) Availability of policy.—The Secretary shall ensure that the policy developed under this subsection is available to—

(A) all cadets and employees of the Academy; and

(B) the public.


(5) Consultation and assistance.—In developing the policy under this subsection, the Secretary may consult with or receive assistance from such Federal, State, local, and national organizations and subject matter experts as the Secretary considers appropriate.

(6) Consistency with the higher education act of 1965.—The Secretary shall ensure that the policy developed under this subsection meets the requirements set out in section 485(f)(8) of the Higher Education Act of 1965 (20 U.S.C. 1092(f)(8)).


(b) Development Program.—

(1) In general.—The Maritime Administrator shall ensure that the development program of the Academy includes a section that—

(A) describes the relationship between honor, respect, and character development and the prevention of sexual harassment, dating violence, domestic violence, sexual assault, and stalking at the Academy;

(B) includes a brief history of the problem of sexual harassment, dating violence, domestic violence, sexual assault, and stalking in the merchant marine, in the Armed Forces, and at the Academy; and

(C) includes information relating to reporting sexual harassment, dating violence, domestic violence, sexual assault, and stalking, victims' rights, and dismissal for offenders.


(2) Minimum requirements to combat retaliation.—

(A) Requirement for plan.—Not later than 90 days after the date of the enactment of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2018, the Maritime Administrator shall direct the Superintendent of the United States Merchant Marine Academy to implement and maintain a plan to combat retaliation against cadets at the Academy and other Academy personnel who report sexual harassment, dating violence, domestic violence, sexual assault, or stalking.

(B) Violation of code of conduct.—The Superintendent shall consider an act of retaliation against a cadet at the Academy who reports sexual harassment, dating violence, domestic violence, sexual assault, or stalking as a Class I violation of the Midshipman Regulations of the Academy or equivalent code of conduct.

(C) Retaliation definition.—The Superintendent shall work with the sexual assault prevention and response staff of the Academy to define "retaliation" for purposes of this subsection.


(3) Minimum resource requirements.—

(A) In general.—The Maritime Administrator shall ensure the staff at the Academy are provided adequate and appropriate sexual harassment, dating violence, domestic violence, sexual assault, and stalking prevention and response training materials and resources. Such resources shall include staff as follows:

(i) Sexual assault response coordinator.

(ii) Prevention educator.

(iii) Civil rights officer.

(iv) Staff member to oversee Sea Year.


(B) Communication.—The Director of the Office of Civil Rights of the Maritime Administration shall create and maintain a direct line of communication to the sexual assault response staff of the Academy that is outside of the chain of command of the Academy.


(4) Minimum training requirements.—The Superintendent shall ensure that all cadets receive training on the sexual harassment, dating violence, domestic violence, sexual assault, and stalking prevention and response sections of the development program of the Academy, as described in paragraph (1), as follows:

(A) An initial training session, which shall occur not later than 7 days after a cadet's initial arrival at the Academy.

(B) Additional training sessions, which shall occur biannually following the cadet's initial training session until the cadet graduates or leaves the Academy.


(c) Annual Assessment.—

(1) In general.—The Secretary, in cooperation with the Superintendent, shall conduct an assessment at the Academy, during each Academy program year, to determine the effectiveness of the policies, procedures, and training program of the Academy with respect to sexual harassment and sexual assault involving cadets or other Academy personnel.

(2) Biennial survey.—For each assessment of the Academy under paragraph (1) during an Academy program year that begins in an odd-numbered calendar year, the Secretary shall conduct a survey of cadets and other Academy personnel—

(A) to measure—

(i) the incidence, during that program year, of sexual harassment and sexual assault events involving cadets or other Academy personnel, on or off the Academy campus, that have been reported to officials of the Academy; and

(ii) the incidence, during that program year, of sexual harassment and sexual assault events involving cadets or other Academy personnel, on or off the Academy campus, that have not been reported to officials of the Academy; and


(B) to assess the perceptions of cadets and other Academy personnel on—

(i) the policies, procedures, and training programs of the Academy on sexual harassment and sexual assault involving cadets or other Academy personnel;

(ii) the enforcement of the policies described in clause (i);

(iii) the incidence of sexual harassment and sexual assault involving cadets or other Academy personnel; and

(iv) any other issues relating to sexual harassment and sexual assault involving cadets or other Academy personnel.


(3) Focus groups for years when survey not required.—In any year in which the Secretary is not required to conduct the survey described in paragraph (2), the Secretary shall conduct focus groups at the Academy for the purposes of ascertaining information relating to sexual assault and sexual harassment issues at the Academy.


(d) Annual Report.—

(1) In general.—For each Academy program year, the Superintendent shall submit to the Secretary a report that provides information about sexual harassment and sexual assault involving cadets or other Academy personnel.

(2) Contents.—Each report submitted under paragraph (1) shall include, for the Academy program year covered by the report—

(A) the number of sexual assaults, rapes, and other sexual offenses, including sexual harassment, involving cadets or other Academy personnel that have been reported to Academy officials;

(B) the number of the reported cases described in subparagraph (A) that have been substantiated;

(C) the policies, procedures, and training implemented by the Superintendent and the leadership of the Academy in response to incidents of sexual harassment and sexual assault involving cadets and other Academy personnel; and

(D) a plan for the actions that will be taken in the following Academy program year regarding prevention of, and response to, incidents of sexual harassment and sexual assault involving cadets and other Academy personnel.


(3) Survey and focus group results.—

(A) Survey results.—Each report under paragraph (1) for an Academy program year that begins in an odd-numbered calendar year shall include the results of the survey conducted in that program year under subsection (c)(2).

(B) Focus group results.—Each report under paragraph (1) for an Academy program year in which the Secretary is not required to conduct the survey described in subsection (c)(2) shall include the results of the focus group conducted in that program year under subsection (c)(3).


(4) Reporting requirement.—

(A) By the superintendent.—For each incident of sexual harassment or sexual assault reported to the Superintendent, the Superintendent shall provide to the Secretary and the Board of Visitors of the Academy a report that includes—

(i) the facts surrounding the incident, except for any details that would reveal the identities of the people involved; and

(ii) the Academy's response to the incident.


(B) By the secretary.—Not later than January 15 of each year, the Secretary shall submit a copy of each report received under subparagraph (A) and the Secretary's comments on the report to the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate and the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure of the House of Representatives.


(e) Data for Aggregate Reporting.—

(1) In general.—No requirement related to confidentiality in this section or section 51319 of this title may be construed to prevent a sexual assault response coordinator from providing information for any report required by law regarding sexual harassment, dating violence, domestic violence, sexual assault, or stalking.

(2) Identity protection.—Any information provided for a report referred to in paragraph (1) shall be provided in a manner that protects the identity of the victim or witness.


(f) Definitions.—In this section and section 51319 of this title:

(1) Dating violence; domestic violence; stalking.—The terms "dating violence", "domestic violence", and "stalking" have the meanings given those terms is 1 section 40002(a) of the Violence Against Women Act of 1994 (42 U.S.C. 13925(a)).2

(2) Sexual assault.—The term "sexual assault" means an offense classified as a forcible or nonforcible sex offense under the uniform crime reporting system of the Federal Bureau of Investigation.

(Added Pub. L. 114–328, div. C, title XXXV, §3510(a), Dec. 23, 2016, 130 Stat. 2782; amended Pub. L. 115–91, div. C, title XXXV, §3514(a)–(d)(1), Dec. 12, 2017, 131 Stat. 1920–1923; Pub. L. 115–232, div. C, title XXXV, §3507(a), Aug. 13, 2018, 132 Stat. 2309.)

References in Text

The date of the enactment of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2018, referred to in subsecs. (a)(3)(D)(i), (ii)(I) and (b)(2)(A), is the date of enactment of Pub. L. 115–91, which was approved Dec. 12, 2017.

Section 40002 of the Violence Against Women Act of 1994, referred to in subsec. (f)(1), is section 40002 of title IV of Pub. L. 103–322, which was classified as section 13925 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as section 12291 of Title 34, Crime Control and Law Enforcement.

Amendments

2018—Subsec. (a)(2)(A). Pub. L. 115–232, §3507(a)(1)(A), inserted "and prevention" after "awareness".

Subsec. (a)(2)(B), (C). Pub. L. 115–232, §3507(a)(1)(B), (C), added subpar. (B) and redesignated former subpar. (B) as (C). Former subpar. (C) redesignated (E).

Subsec. (a)(2)(D) to (H). Pub. L. 115–232, §3507(a)(1)(B), (D), added subpar. (D) and redesignated former subpars. (C) to (F) as (E) to (H), respectively.

Subsec. (b)(2)(A). Pub. L. 115–232, §3507(a)(2), inserted "and other Academy personnel" after "cadets at the Academy".

Subsec. (d)(2)(A). Pub. L. 115–232, §3507(a)(3)(A), inserted ", including sexual harassment," after "sexual assaults, rapes, and other sexual offenses".

Subsec. (d)(4)(B). Pub. L. 115–232, §3507(a)(3)(B), substituted "Not later than January 15 of each year, the Secretary" for "The Secretary".

2017Pub. L. 115–91, §3514(d)(1), substituted "Policy on sexual harassment, dating violence, domestic violence, sexual assault, and stalking" for "Policy on sexual harassment and sexual assault" in section catchline.

Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 115–91, §3514(a)(1), substituted "harassment, dating violence, domestic violence, sexual assault, and stalking" for "harassment and sexual assault".

Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 115–91, §3514(a)(2)(A), substituted "harassment, dating violence, domestic violence, sexual assault, and stalking" for "harassment and sexual assault" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (a)(2)(A). Pub. L. 115–91, §3514(a)(2)(B), inserted "domestic violence, dating violence, stalking," after "acquaintance rape,".

Subsec. (a)(2)(B). Pub. L. 115–91, §3514(a)(2)(C)(i), substituted "harassment, dating violence, domestic violence, sexual assault, or stalking," for "harassment or sexual assault," in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (a)(2)(B)(i). Pub. L. 115–91, §3514(a)(2)(C)(ii), substituted "harassment, dating violence, domestic violence, sexual assault, or stalking" for "harassment or sexual assault".

Subsec. (a)(2)(B)(iii). Pub. L. 115–91, §3514(a)(2)(C)(iii), substituted "a criminal sexual offense" for "criminal sexual assault".

Subsec. (a)(2)(D). Pub. L. 115–91, §3514(a)(2)(D), substituted "harassment, dating violence, domestic violence, sexual assault, or stalking" for "harassment or sexual assault".

Subsec. (a)(2)(E)(i). Pub. L. 115–91, §3514(a)(2)(E)(i), substituted "harassment, dating violence, domestic violence, sexual assault, or stalking" for "harassment or sexual assault".

Subsec. (a)(2)(E)(ii). Pub. L. 115–91, §3514(a)(2)(E)(ii), substituted "sexual harassment, dating violence, domestic violence, sexual assault, or stalking" for "sexual assault".

Subsec. (a)(2)(E)(iii). Pub. L. 115–91, §3514(a)(2)(E)(iii), substituted "harassment, dating violence, domestic violence, sexual assault, or stalking" for "harassment and sexual assault".

Subsec. (a)(2)(F). Pub. L. 115–91, §3514(a)(2)(F), substituted "harassment, dating violence, domestic violence, sexual assault, or stalking" for "harassment or sexual assault".

Subsec. (a)(3) to (5). Pub. L. 115–91, §3514(a)(3), (4), added par. (3) and redesignated former pars. (3) and (4) as (4) and (5), respectively.

Subsec. (a)(6). Pub. L. 115–91, §3514(a)(5), added par. (6).

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 115–91, §3514(b), amended subsec. (b) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (b) related to development program and minimum training requirements regarding the prevention of sexual harassment and sexual assault.

Subsecs. (e), (f). Pub. L. 115–91, §3514(c), added subsecs. (e) and (f).

Implementation

Pub. L. 115–232, div. C, title XXXV, §3507(b), Aug. 13, 2018, 132 Stat. 2310, provided that: "The Superintendent of the United States Merchant Marine Academy may implement the amendment to subsection (b)(2)(A) of section 51318 of title 46, United States Code, made by subsection (a)(2), by updating an existing plan issued pursuant to the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2018 (Public Law 115–91)."

Access of Academy Cadets to DOD SAFE or Equivalent Helpline

Pub. L. 115–91, div. C, title XXXV, §3515(b), Dec. 12, 2017, 131 Stat. 1926, provided that:

"(1) In general.—The Secretary of Transportation shall arrange for cadets at the United States Merchant Marine Academy to have access to, and use of, the Department of Defense SAFE Helpline or an equivalent helpline to report incidents of sexual harassment, dating violence, domestic violence, sexual assault, or stalking.

"(2) Training.—The training provided to personnel of the helpline to which cadets at the Academy are given access shall include training on the resources available to cadets at the Academy in connection with sexual assault, sexual harassment, domestic violence, dating violence, and stalking.

"(3) Definitions.—In this section, the terms 'dating violence', 'domestic violence', 'sexual assault', and 'stalking' have the meanings given those terms in section 51318 of title 46, United States Code."

Sea Year Compliance

Pub. L. 114–328, div. C, title XXXV, §3514, Dec. 23, 2016, 130 Stat. 2788, as amended by Pub. L. 115–91, div. C, title XXXV, §3513, Dec. 12, 2017, 131 Stat. 1919; Pub. L. 115–232, div. C, title XXXV, §3515(a), Aug. 13, 2018, 132 Stat. 2312, provided that:

"(a) Vessel Operator Requirements.—

"(1) In general.—Not later than 90 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 23, 2016], the Maritime Administrator, in consultation with operators of commercial vessels of the United States, shall establish—

"(A) criteria that vessel operators must meet in order to participate in the Sea Year program of the United States Merchant Marine Academy that addresses sexual harassment, sexual assault, and other inappropriate conduct; and

"(B) a process for verifying compliance with the criteria.

"(2) Noncommercial vessels.—For the purposes of this section, vessels operated by any of the following entities shall not be considered commercial vessels:

"(A) Any entity or agency of the United States.

"(B) The government of a State or territory.

"(C) Any political subdivision of a State or territory.

"(D) Any other municipal organization.

"(b) Provision of Satellite Phone.—

"(1) In general.—The Maritime Administrator shall ensure that each cadet from the United States Merchant Marine Academy who is participating in the Sea Year program is provided a functional satellite communication device. A cadet may not be denied from using the device whenever the student determines that use of the device is necessary to prevent or report sexual harassment or sexual assault.

"(2) Check-in.—Not less often than once each week during a cadet's participation in the Sea Year program, the cadet shall check-in with designated personnel at the Academy via the satellite communication device provided under paragraph (1). A text message sent via the satellite device shall meet the requirement for a weekly check-in for purposes of this paragraph."

Actions To Address Sexual Harassment and Violence at the United States Merchant Marine Academy

Pub. L. 110–417, div. C, title XXXV, §3507, Oct. 14, 2008, 122 Stat. 4765, provided that:

"(a) Required Policy.—The Secretary of Transportation shall direct the Superintendent of the United States Merchant Marine Academy to prescribe a policy on sexual harassment and sexual violence applicable to the cadets and other personnel of the Academy.

"(b) Matters To Be Specified in Policy.—The policy on sexual harassment and sexual violence prescribed under this section shall include—

"(1) a program to promote awareness of the incidence of rape, acquaintance rape, and other sexual offenses of a criminal nature that involve cadets or other Academy personnel;

"(2) procedures that a cadet should follow in the case of an occurrence of sexual harassment or sexual violence, including—

"(A) a specification of the person or persons to whom an alleged occurrence of sexual harassment or sexual violence should be reported by a cadet and the options for confidential reporting;

"(B) a specification of any other person whom the victim should contact; and

"(C) procedures on the preservation of evidence potentially necessary for proof of criminal sexual assault;

"(3) a procedure for disciplinary action in cases of alleged criminal sexual assault involving a cadet or other Academy personnel;

"(4) any other sanction authorized to be imposed in a substantiated case of sexual harassment or sexual violence involving a cadet or other Academy personnel in rape, acquaintance rape, or any other criminal sexual offense, whether forcible or nonforcible; and

"(5) required training on the policy for all cadets and other Academy personnel, including the specific training required for personnel who process allegations of sexual harassment or sexual violence involving Academy personnel.

"(c) Annual Assessment.—

"(1) The Secretary shall direct the Superintendent to conduct an assessment at the Academy during each Academy program year, to be administered by the Department of Transportation, to determine the effectiveness of the policies, training, and procedures of the Academy with respect to sexual harassment and sexual violence involving Academy personnel.

"(2) For the assessment at the Academy under paragraph (1) with respect to an Academy program year that begins in an odd-numbered calendar year, the Superintendent shall conduct a survey, to be administered by the Department, of Academy personnel—

"(A) to measure—

"(i) the incidence, during that program year, of sexual harassment and sexual violence events, on or off the Academy reservation, that have been reported to officials of the Academy; and

"(ii) the incidence, during that program year, of sexual harassment and sexual violence events, on or off the Academy reservation, that have not been reported to officials of the Academy; and

"(B) to assess the perceptions of Academy personnel of—

"(i) the policies, training, and procedures on sexual harassment and sexual violence involving Academy personnel;

"(ii) the enforcement of such policies;

"(iii) the incidence of sexual harassment and sexual violence involving Academy personnel; and

"(iv) any other issues relating to sexual harassment and sexual violence involving Academy personnel.

"(d) Annual Report.—

"(1) The Secretary shall direct the Superintendent of the Academy to submit to the Secretary a report on sexual harassment and sexual violence involving cadets or other personnel at the Academy for each Academy program year.

"(2) Each report under paragraph (1) shall include, for the Academy program year covered by the report, the following:

"(A) The number of sexual assaults, rapes, and other sexual offenses involving cadets or other Academy personnel that have been reported to Academy officials during the program year and, of those reported cases, the number that have been substantiated.

"(B) The policies, procedures, and processes implemented by the Superintendent and the leadership of the Academy in response to sexual harassment and sexual violence involving cadets or other Academy personnel during the program year.

"(C) A plan for the actions that are to be taken in the following Academy program year regarding prevention of and response to sexual harassment and sexual violence involving cadets or other Academy personnel.

"(3) Each report under paragraph (1) for an Academy program year that begins in an odd-numbered calendar year shall include the results of the survey conducted in that program year under subsection (c)(2).

"(4)(A) The Superintendent shall transmit to the Secretary, and to the Board of Visitors of the Academy, each report received by the Superintendent under this subsection, together with the Superintendent's comments on the report.

"(B) The Secretary shall transmit each such report, together with the Secretary's comments on the report, to the Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation and the House of Representatives Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure."

1 So in original. Probably should be "in".

2 See References in Text note below.

§51319. Sexual assault response coordinators and sexual assault victim advocates

(a) Sexual Assault Response Coordinators.—

(1) Requirement for coordinators.—The United States Merchant Marine Academy shall employ or contract with at least 1 full-time sexual assault response coordinator who shall reside at or near the Academy. The Secretary of Transportation may assign additional full-time or part-time sexual assault response coordinators at the Academy as necessary.

(2) Selection criteria.—Each sexual assault response coordinator shall be selected based on—

(A) experience and a demonstrated ability to effectively provide victim services related to sexual harassment, dating violence, domestic violence, sexual assault, and stalking; and

(B) protection of the individual under applicable law to provide privileged communication.


(3) Confidentiality.—A sexual assault response coordinator shall, to the extent authorized under applicable law, provide confidential services to a cadet at the Academy who reports being a victim of, or witness to, sexual harassment, dating violence, domestic violence, sexual assault, or stalking.

(4) Training.—

(A) Verification.—Not later than 90 days after the date of the enactment of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2018, the Maritime Administrator, in consultation with the Director of the Maritime Administration Office of Civil Rights, shall develop a process to verify that each sexual assault response coordinator has completed proper training.

(B) Training requirements.—The training referred to in subparagraph (A) shall include training in—

(i) working with victims of sexual harassment, dating violence, domestic violence, sexual assault, and stalking;

(ii) the policies, procedures, and resources of the Academy related to responding to sexual harassment, dating violence, domestic violence, sexual assault, and stalking; and

(iii) national, State, and local victim services and resources available to victims of sexual harassment, dating violence, domestic violence, sexual assault, and stalking.


(C) Completion of training.—A sexual assault response coordinator shall complete the training referred to in subparagraphs (A) and (B) not later than—

(i) 270 days after enactment of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2018; or

(ii) 180 days after starting in the role of sexual assault response coordinator.


(5) Duties.—A sexual assault response coordinator shall—

(A) confidentially receive a report from a victim of sexual harassment, dating violence, domestic violence, sexual assault, or stalking;

(B) inform the victim of—

(i) the victim's rights under applicable law;

(ii) options for reporting an incident of sexual harassment, dating violence, domestic violence, sexual assault, or stalking to the Academy and law enforcement;

(iii) how to access available services, including emergency medical care, medical forensic or evidentiary examinations, legal services, services provided by rape crisis centers and other victim service providers, services provided by the volunteer sexual assault victim advocates at the Academy, and crisis intervention counseling and ongoing counseling;

(iv) such coordinator's ability to assist in arranging access to such services, with the consent of the victim;

(v) available accommodations, such as allowing the victim to change living arrangements and obtain accessibility services;

(vi) such coordinator's ability to assist in arranging such accommodations, with the consent of the victim;

(vii) the victim's rights and the Academy's responsibilities regarding orders of protection, no contact orders, restraining orders, or similar lawful orders issued by the Academy or a criminal, civil, or tribal court; and

(viii) privacy limitations under applicable law;


(C) represent the interests of any cadet at the Academy who reports being a victim of sexual harassment, dating violence, domestic violence, sexual assault, or stalking, even if such interests are in conflict with the interests of the Academy;

(D) advise the victim of, and provide written materials regarding, the information described in subparagraph (B);

(E) liaise with appropriate staff at the Academy, with the victim's consent, to arrange reasonable accommodations through the Academy to allow the victim to change living arrangements, obtain accessibility services, or access other accommodations;

(F) maintain the privacy and confidentiality of the victim, and shall not notify the Academy or any other authority of the identity of the victim or the alleged circumstances surrounding the reported incident unless—

(i) otherwise required by applicable law;

(ii) requested to do so by the victim who has been fully and accurately informed about what procedures shall occur if the information is shared; or

(iii) notwithstanding clause (i) or clause (ii), there is risk of imminent harm to other individuals;


(G) assist the victim in contacting and reporting an incident of sexual harassment, dating violence, domestic violence, sexual assault, or stalking to the Academy or law enforcement, if requested to do so by the victim who has been fully and accurately informed about what procedures shall occur if information is shared; and

(H) submit to the Director of the Maritime Administration Office of Civil Rights an annual report summarizing how the resources supplied to the coordinator were used during the prior year, including the number of victims assisted by the coordinator.


(b) Oversight.—

(1) In general.—

(A) Reporting.—Each sexual assault response coordinator shall—

(i) report directly to the Superintendent; and

(ii) have concurrent reporting responsibility to the Executive Director of the Maritime Administration on matters related to the Maritime Administration and the Department of Transportation and upon belief that the Academy leadership is acting inappropriately regarding sexual assault prevention and response matters.


(B) Support.—The Maritime Administration Office of Civil Rights shall provide support to the sexual assault response coordinator at the Academy on all sexual harassment, dating violence, domestic violence, sexual assault, or stalking prevention matters.


(2) Prohibition on investigation by the academy.—Any request by a victim for an accommodation, as described in subsection (a)(5)(E), made by a sexual assault response coordinator shall not trigger an investigation by the Academy, even if such coordinator deals only with matters relating to sexual harassment, dating violence, domestic violence, sexual assault, or stalking.

(3) Prohibition on retaliation.—A sexual assault response coordinator, victim advocate, or companion may not be disciplined, penalized, or otherwise retaliated against by the Academy for representing the interests of the victim, even if such interests are in conflict with the interests of the Academy.


(c) Volunteer Sexual Assault Victim Advocates.—

(1) In general.—The Secretary, acting through the Superintendent of the Academy, shall designate from among volunteers 1 or more permanent employees of the Academy to serve as advocates for victims of sexual assaults involving cadets of the Academy or other Academy personnel.

(2) Training; other duties.—Each victim advocate designated under this subsection shall—

(A) have or receive training in matters relating to sexual assault and the comprehensive policy developed under section 51318; and

(B) serve as a victim advocate voluntarily, in addition to the individual's other duties as an employee of the Academy.


(3) Primary duties.—While performing the duties of a victim advocate under this subsection, a designated employee shall—

(A) support victims of sexual assault by informing them of the rights and resources available to them as victims;

(B) identify additional resources to ensure the safety of victims of sexual assault; and

(C) connect victims of sexual assault to companions, as described in paragraph (4).


(4) Companions.—

(A) In general.—At least 1 victim advocate designated under this subsection, or a sexual assault response coordinator designated under subsection (a), while performing the duties of a victim advocate, shall act as a companion to a victim described in paragraph (1) in navigating investigative, medical, mental, and emotional health, and recovery processes relating to sexual assault.

(B) Alternate victim advocates.—If requested by the victim, an alternate victim advocate shall be designated under this subsection to act as a companion to the victim, as described in subparagraph (A).


(5) Formal relationships with other entities.—The Secretary may enter into formal relationships with other entities to make available additional victim advocates or to implement paragraphs (3) and (4).

(Added Pub. L. 114–328, div. C, title XXXV, §3511(a), Dec. 23, 2016, 130 Stat. 2785; amended Pub. L. 115–91, div. C, title XXXV, §3515(a), (c), Dec. 12, 2017, 131 Stat. 1924, 1927.)

References in Text

The date of the enactment of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2018 and enactment of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2018, referred to in subsec. (a)(4)(A), (C)(i), are the date of enactment of Pub. L. 115–91, which was approved Dec. 12, 2017.

Amendments

2017—Subsecs. (a) to (c). Pub. L. 115–91, §3515(a), added subsecs. (a) and (b), redesignated former subsec. (b) as (c), and struck out former subsec. (a) which read as follows: "Sexual Assault Response Coordinators.—The United States Merchant Marine Academy shall employ or contract with at least 1 full-time sexual assault response coordinator who shall reside at or near the Academy. The Secretary of Transportation may assign additional full-time or part-time sexual assault response coordinators at the Academy as necessary."

Subsec. (c)(5), (6). Pub. L. 115–91, §3515(c), redesignated par. (6) as (5), substituted "paragraphs (3) and (4)" for "paragraphs (3), (4), and (5)", and struck out former par. (5) which read as follows: "Hotline.—The Secretary shall establish a 24-hour hotline through which the victim of a sexual assault described in paragraph (1) can receive victim support services."

§51320. Acceptance of guarantees with gifts for major projects

(a) Definitions.—In this section:

(1) Major project.—The term "major project" means a project estimated to cost at least $1,000,000 for—

(A) the purchase or other procurement of real or personal property; or

(B) the construction, renovation, or repair of real or personal property.


(2) Major united states commercial bank.—The term "major United States commercial bank" means a commercial bank that—

(A) is an insured bank (as defined in section 3(h) of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act (12 U.S.C. 1813(h)));

(B) is headquartered in the United States; and

(C) has total net assets of an amount considered by the Maritime Administrator to qualify the bank as a major bank.


(3) Major united states investment management firm.—The term "major United States investment management firm" means—

(A) any broker or dealer (as such terms are defined in section 3 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (15 U.S.C. 78c));

(B) any investment adviser or provider of investment supervisory services (as such terms are defined in section 202 of the Investment Advisers Act of 1940 (15 U.S.C. 80b–2)); or

(C) a major United States commercial bank that—

(i) is headquartered in the United States; and

(ii) holds for the account of others investment assets in a total amount considered by the Maritime Administrator to qualify the bank as a major investment management firm.


(4) Qualified guarantee.—The term "qualified guarantee", with respect to a major project, means a guarantee that—

(A) is made by 1 or more persons in connection with a donation for the project of a total amount in cash or securities that the Maritime Administrator determines is sufficient to defray a substantial portion of the total cost of the project;

(B) is made to facilitate or expedite the completion of the project in reasonable anticipation that other donors will contribute sufficient funds or other resources in amounts sufficient to pay for completion of the project;

(C) is set forth as a written agreement providing that the donor will furnish in cash or securities, in addition to the donor's other gift or gifts for the project, any additional amount that may become necessary for paying the cost of completing the project by reason of a failure to obtain from other donors or sources funds or other resources in amounts sufficient to pay the cost of completing the project; and

(D) is accompanied by—

(i) an irrevocable and unconditional standby letter of credit for the benefit of the United States Merchant Marine Academy that is in the amount of the guarantee and is issued by a major United States commercial bank; or

(ii) a qualified account control agreement.


(5) Qualified account control agreement.—The term "qualified account control agreement", with respect to a guarantee of a donor, means an agreement among the donor, the Maritime Administrator, and a major United States investment management firm that—

(A) ensures the availability of sufficient funds or other financial resources to pay the amount guaranteed during the period of the guarantee;

(B) provides for the perfection of a security interest in the assets of the account for the United States for the benefit of the United States Merchant Marine Academy with the highest priority available for liens and security interests under applicable law;

(C) requires the donor to maintain in an account with the investment management firm assets having a total value that is not less than 130 percent of the amount guaranteed; and

(D) requires the investment management firm, whenever the value of the account is less than the value required to be maintained under subparagraph (C), to liquidate any noncash assets in the account and reinvest the proceeds in Treasury bills issued under section 3104 of title 31.


(b) Acceptance Authority.—Subject to subsection (d), the Maritime Administrator may accept a qualified guarantee from a donor or donors for the completion of a major project for the benefit of the United States Merchant Marine Academy.

(c) Obligation Authority.—The amount of a qualified guarantee accepted under this section shall be considered as contract authority to provide obligation authority for purposes of Federal fiscal and contractual requirements. Funds available for a project for which such a guarantee has been accepted may be obligated and expended for the project without regard to whether the total amount of funds and other resources available for the project (not taking into account the amount of the guarantee) is sufficient to pay for completion of the project.

(d) Notice.—The Maritime Administrator may not accept a qualified guarantee under this section for the completion of a major project until 30 days after the date on which a report of the facts concerning the proposed guarantee is submitted to Congress.

(e) Prohibition on Commingling Funds.—The Maritime Administrator may not enter into any contract or other transaction involving the use of a qualified guarantee and appropriated funds in the same contract or transaction.

(Added Pub. L. 115–91, div. C, title XXXV, §3510(a), Dec. 12, 2017, 131 Stat. 1916.)

§51321. Grants for scientific and educational research

(a) Defined Term.—In this section, the term "qualifying research grant" is a grant that—

(1) is awarded on a competitive basis by the Federal Government (except for the Department of Transportation), a State, a corporation, a fund, a foundation, an educational institution, or a similar entity that is organized and operated primarily for scientific or educational purposes; and

(2) is to be used to carry out a research project with a scientific or educational purpose.


(b) Acceptance of Qualifying Research Grants.—The United States Merchant Marine Academy may compete for and accept qualifying research grants if the work under the grant is to be carried out by a professor or instructor of the United States Merchant Marine Academy.

(c) Administration of Grant Funds.—

(1) Establishment of account.—The Maritime Administrator shall establish a separate account for administering funds received from research grants under this section.

(2) Use of grant funds.—The Superintendent shall use grant funds deposited into the account established pursuant to paragraph (1) in accordance with applicable regulations and the terms and conditions of the respective grants.


(d) Related Expenses.—Subject to such limitations as may be provided in appropriations Acts, appropriations available for the United States Merchant Marine Academy may be used to pay expenses incurred by the Academy in applying for, and otherwise pursuing, a qualifying research grant.

(Added Pub. L. 115–91, div. C, title XXXV, §3512(a), Dec. 12, 2017, 131 Stat. 1918.)

§51322. Protection of cadets from sexual assault onboard vessels

(a) Riding Gangs.—

(1) Certification of compliance.—The Maritime Administrator shall require the owner or operator of any commercial vessel that is carrying a cadet from the United States Merchant Marine Academy to certify compliance of the vessel with the International Convention for Safety of Life at Sea, 1974 (32 UST 47) and section 8106 of this title.

(2) Information for cadets.—The Maritime Administrator shall ensure that the Academy informs cadets preparing for Sea Year of the obligations that vessel owners and operators have to provide for the security of individuals aboard a vessel under United States law, including chapter 81 and section 70103(c) of this title.


(b) Checks of Commercial Vessels.—

(1) Requirement.—Not less frequently than biennially, staff of the Academy or staff of the Maritime Administration shall conduct both random and targeted unannounced checks of not less than 10 percent of the commercial vessels that host a cadet from the Academy.

(2) Removal of students.—If staff of the Academy or staff of the Maritime Administration determine that a commercial vessel is in violation of the sexual assault policy developed by the Academy through a check conducted under paragraph (1), the staff may—

(A) remove any cadet of the Academy from the vessel; and

(B) report the violation to the owner or operator of the vessel.


(c) Maintenance of Sexual Assault Training Records.—The Maritime Administrator shall require the owner or operator of a commercial vessel, or the seafarer union for a commercial vessel, to maintain records of sexual assault training for any person required to have such training.

(d) Sea Year Survey.—

(1) Requirement.—The Maritime Administrator shall require each cadet from the Academy, upon completion of the cadet's Sea Year, to complete a survey regarding the environment and conditions during the Sea Year of the vessel to which the cadet was assigned.

(2) Availability.—The Maritime Administrator shall make available to the public for each year—

(A) the questions used in the survey required by paragraph (1); and

(B) the aggregated data received from such surveys.

(Added Pub. L. 115–91, div. C, title XXXV, §3516(a), Dec. 12, 2017, 131 Stat. 1927; amended Pub. L. 115–232, div. C, title XXXV, §3515(b), Aug. 13, 2018, 132 Stat. 2312.)

Amendments

2018—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 115–232 amended subsec. (c) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "The Maritime Administrator shall require the owner or operator of a commercial vessel, or the seafarer union for a commercial vessel, to maintain records of sexual assault training for the crew and passengers of any vessel hosting a cadet from the Academy."

CHAPTER 515—STATE MARITIME ACADEMY SUPPORT PROGRAM

Sec.
51501.
General support program.
51502.
Detailing of personnel.
51503.
Regional maritime academies.
51504.
Use of training vessels.
51505.
Annual payments for maintenance and support.
51506.
Conditions to receiving payments and use of vessels.
51507.
Places of training.
51508.
Allowances for students.
51509.
Student incentive payment agreements.
51510.
Deferment of service obligation under student incentive payment agreements.
51511.
Midshipman status in the Navy Reserve.

        

Amendments

2008Pub. L. 110–181, div. C, title XXXV, §3523(a)(1), Jan. 28, 2008, 122 Stat. 598, substituted "Navy Reserve" for "Naval Reserve" in item 51511.

§51501. General support program

(a) Assistance to State Maritime Academies.—The Secretary of Transportation shall cooperate with and assist State maritime academies in providing instruction to individuals to prepare them for service in the merchant marine of the United States.

(b) Course Development.—The Secretary shall provide to each State maritime academy guidance and assistance in developing courses on the operation and maintenance of new vessels, on equipment, and on innovations being introduced to the merchant marine of the United States.

(Pub. L. 109–304, §8(b), Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1577.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
51501(a) 46 App.:1295c(a). June 29, 1936, ch. 858, title XIII, §1304(a), (d)(2), as added Pub. L. 96–453, §2, Oct. 15, 1980, 94 Stat. 2003, 2004.
51501(b) 46 App.:1295c(d)(2).

§51502. Detailing of personnel

At the request of the Governor of a State, the President may detail, without reimbursement, personnel of the Navy, the Coast Guard, and the Maritime Service to a State maritime academy to serve as a superintendent, professor, lecturer, or instructor at the academy.

(Pub. L. 109–304, §8(b), Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1577.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
51502 46 App.:1295c(e). June 29, 1936, ch. 858, title XIII, §1304(e), as added Pub. L. 96–453, §2, Oct. 15, 1980, 94 Stat. 2004.

The reference to territories is omitted as unnecessary because of the definition of "State" in chapter 1 of the revised title.

§51503. Regional maritime academies

The Governors of the States cooperating to sponsor a regional maritime academy shall designate in writing one of those States to conduct the affairs of that academy. A regional maritime academy is eligible for assistance from the United States Government on the same basis as a State maritime academy sponsored by a single State.

(Pub. L. 109–304, §8(b), Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1577.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
51503 46 App.:1295c(b). June 29, 1936, ch. 858, title XIII, §1304(b), as added Pub. L. 96–453, §2, Oct. 15, 1980, 94 Stat. 2003.

The reference to territories is omitted as unnecessary because of the definition of "State" in chapter 1 of the revised title.

§51504. Use of training vessels

(a) Applications To Use Vessels.—The Governor of a State sponsoring a State maritime academy (or the Governor of the State designated to conduct the affairs of a regional maritime academy) may apply in writing to the Secretary of Transportation to obtain the use of a training vessel for the academy. A vessel provided under this section remains the property of the United States Government.

(b) General Authority.—Subject to subsection (c), the Secretary may provide to a State maritime academy, for use as a training vessel, a suitable vessel under the control of the Secretary or made available to the Secretary under subsection (e). If a suitable vessel is not available, the Secretary may build and provide a suitable vessel.

(c) Approval Requirements.—The Secretary may provide a vessel under this section only if—

(1) an application has been made under subsection (a);

(2) the State maritime academy satisfies section 51506(a) of this title; and

(3) a suitable port will be available for the safe mooring of the vessel while the academy is using the vessel.


(d) Preparation and Maintenance.—A vessel provided under this section shall be—

(1) repaired, reconditioned, and equipped (with all apparel, charts, books, and instruments of navigation) as necessary for use as a training vessel; and

(2) maintained in good repair by the Secretary.


(e) Agency Vessels.—An agency may provide to the Secretary, for use by a State maritime academy, a vessel (including equipment) that—

(1) is suitable for training purposes; and

(2) can be provided without detriment to the service to which the vessel is assigned.


(f) Fuel Costs.—

(1) In general.—Subject to the availability of appropriations, the Secretary shall pay to each State maritime academy the costs of fuel used by a vessel provided under this section while used for training.

(2) Maximum amounts.—The amount of the payment to a State maritime academy under paragraph (1) may not exceed—

(A) $100,000 for fiscal year 2006;

(B) $200,000 for fiscal year 2007; and

(C) $300,000 for fiscal year 2008 and each fiscal year thereafter.


(g) Vessel Sharing.—

(1) In general.—Not later than 90 days after the date of enactment of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2019, the Secretary, acting through the Maritime Administrator, shall upon consultation with the maritime academies, and to the extent feasible with the consent of the maritime academies, implement a program of training vessel sharing, requiring maritime academies to share training vessel 1 provided by the Secretary among maritime academies, as necessary to ensure that training needs of each academy are met.

(2) Program of vessel sharing.—For purposes of this subsection, a program of vessel sharing shall include—

(A) ways to maximize the available underway training available in the fleet of training vessels;

(B) coordinating the dates and duration of training cruises with the academic calendars of maritime academies;

(C) coordinating academic programs designed to be implemented aboard training vessels among maritime academies; and

(D) identifying ways to minimize costs.


(3) Additional funding.—Subject to the availability of appropriations, the Maritime Administrator may provide additional funding to State maritime academies during periods of limited training vessel capacity, for costs associated with training vessel sharing.

(4) Evaluation.—Not later than 30 days after the beginning of each fiscal year, the Secretary, acting through the Maritime Administrator, shall evaluate the vessel sharing program under this subsection to determine the optimal utilization of State maritime training vessels, and modify the program as necessary to improve utilization.

(Pub. L. 109–304, §8(b), Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1577; Pub. L. 109–163, div. C, title XXXV, §3502(b), Jan. 6, 2006, 119 Stat. 3548; Pub. L. 110–181, div. C, title XXXV, §3523(a)(2), (b), Jan. 28, 2008, 122 Stat. 599, 600; Pub. L. 115–232, div. C, title XXXV, §3505, Aug. 13, 2018, 132 Stat. 2308.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
51504(a) 46 App.:1295c(c)(1) (A)(ii), (v). June 29, 1936, ch. 858, title XIII, §1304(c)(1), (2), as added Pub. L. 96–453, §2, Oct. 15, 1980, 94 Stat. 2003.
51504(b) 46 App.:1295c(c)(1) (A) (1st sentence words before "meeting the requirements").
51504(c)(1) 46 App.:1295c(c)(1) (A)(ii).
51504(c)(2) 46 App.:1295c(c)(1) (A) (1st sentence words beginning with "meeting the requirements").
51504(c)(3) 46 App.:1295c(c)(1) (A)(iii).
51504(d)(1) 46 App.:1295c(c)(1) (A)(i).
51504(d)(2) 46 App.:1295c(c)(1) (A)(iv).
51504(e) 46 App.:1295c(c)(1) (B).
51504(f) 46 App.:1295c(c)(2).
51504(g) 46 App.:1295c note. Pub. L. 101–115, §4, Oct. 13, 1989, 103 Stat. 692; Pub. L. 101–595, title VII, §705, Nov. 16, 1990, 104 Stat. 2994.

In subsection (a), the reference to territories is omitted as unnecessary because of the definition of "State" in chapter 1 of the revised title.

In subsection (e), before paragraph (1), the word "agency" is substituted for "department or agency of the United States" because of the definition of "agency" in chapter 1 of the revised title.

In subsection (g), the 1st–3d sentences of section 4 of Public Law 101–115 are omitted as obsolete.

References in Text

The date of enactment of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2019, referred to in subsec. (g)(1), is the date of enactment of Pub. L. 115–232, which was approved Aug. 13, 2018.

Amendments

2018—Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 115–232 amended subsec. (g) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (g) related to removing vessels from service and vessel sharing.

2008Pub. L. 110–181, §3523(b), repealed Pub. L. 109–163, §3502(b). See 2006 Amendment note below.

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 110–181, §3523(a)(2), incorporated the substance of the amendment by Pub. L. 109–163, §3502(b), by amending heading and text of subsec. (f) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "The Secretary may pay to a State maritime academy the costs of fuel used by a vessel provided under this section while used for training." See 2006 Amendment note below and section 18(a) of Pub. L. 109–304, set out as a Legislative Purpose and Construction note preceding section 101 of this title.

2006Pub. L. 109–163, §3502(b), which directed the amendment of section 1295c(c)(2) of the former Appendix to this title from which subsec. (f) of this section was derived, was repealed by Pub. L. 110–181, §3523(b). See 2008 Amendment note for subsec. (f) and Historical and Revision notes above.

1 So in original. Probably should be "vessels".

§51505. Annual payments for maintenance and support

(a) Payment Agreements.—The Secretary of Transportation may make an agreement (effective for not more than 4 years) with the following academies to provide annual payments to those academies for their maintenance and support:

(1) One State maritime academy in each State that satisfies section 51506(a) of this title.

(2) Each regional maritime academy that satisfies section 51506(a) of this title.


(b) Payments.—

(1) In general.—Subject to paragraph (2), an annual payment to an academy under subsection (a) shall be at least equal to the amount given to the academy for its maintenance and support by the State in which it is located, or, for a regional maritime academy, by all States cooperating to sponsor the academy.

(2) Maximum.—The amount under paragraph (1) may not be more than $25,000, unless the academy satisfies section 51506(b) of this title.

(Pub. L. 109–304, §8(b), Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1578; Pub. L. 109–163, div. C, title XXXV, §3502(a), Jan. 6, 2006, 119 Stat. 3547; Pub. L. 110–181, div. C, title XXXV, §3523(a)(3), (b), Jan. 28, 2008, 122 Stat. 599, 600; Pub. L. 115–232, div. C, title XXXV, §3515(d), Aug. 13, 2018, 132 Stat. 2313.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
51505 46 App.:1295c(d)(1). June 29, 1936, ch. 858, title XIII, §1304(d)(1), as added Pub. L. 96–453, §2, Oct. 15, 1980, 94 Stat. 2004; Pub. L. 101–115, §5, Oct. 13, 1989, 103 Stat. 693.

In subsection (b)(1), the reference to territories is omitted as unnecessary because of the definition of "State" in chapter 1 of the revised title.

Amendments

2018—Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 115–232 amended par. (2) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "The amount under paragraph (1) may not be more than $25,000. However, if the academy satisfies section 51506(b) of this title, the amount shall be—

"(A) $100,000 for a State maritime academy; and

"(B) $300,000 for fiscal year 2006, $400,000 for fiscal year 2007, and $500,000 for fiscal year 2008 and each fiscal year thereafter for a regional maritime academy."

2008Pub. L. 110–181, §3523(b), repealed Pub. L. 109–163, §3502(a). See 2006 Amendment note below.

Subsec. (b)(2)(B). Pub. L. 110–181, §3523(a)(3), incorporated the substance of the amendment by Pub. L. 109–163, §3502(a), into this section by substituting "$300,000 for fiscal year 2006, $400,000 for fiscal year 2007, and $500,000 for fiscal year 2008 and each fiscal year thereafter" for "$200,000". See 2006 Amendment note below and section 18(a) of Pub. L. 109–304, set out as a Legislative Purpose and Construction note preceding section 101 of this title.

2006Pub. L. 109–163, §3502(a), which directed the amendment of section 1295c(d)(1) of the former Appendix to this title from which this section was derived, was repealed by Pub. L. 110–181, §3523(b). See 2008 Amendment note for subsec. (b)(2)(B) and Historical and Revision notes above.

§51506. Conditions to receiving payments and use of vessels

(a) General Conditions.—As conditions of receiving an annual payment or the use of a vessel under this chapter, a State maritime academy shall—

(1) provide courses of instruction on navigation, marine engineering (including steam and diesel propulsion), the operation and maintenance of new vessels and equipment, and innovations being introduced to the merchant marine of the United States;

(2) agree in writing to conform to the standards for courses, training facilities, admissions, and instruction that the Secretary of Transportation may establish after consultation with the superintendents of State maritime academies;

(3) agree in writing to require, as a condition for graduation, that each individual who is a citizen of the United States and who is attending the academy in a merchant marine officer preparation program pass the examination required for the issuance of a license under section 7101 of this title; and

(4) agree that any individual enrolled at such State maritime academy in a merchant marine officer preparation program—

(A) shall, not later than 9 months after such individual's date of enrollment, pass an examination in form and substance satisfactory to the Secretary that demonstrates that such individual meets the medical and physical requirements—

(i) required for the issuance of an original license under section 7101; or

(ii) set by the Coast Guard for issuing merchant mariners' documentation under section 7302, with no limit to the individual's operational authority;


(B) following passage of the examination under subparagraph (A), shall continue to meet the requirements described in subparagraph (A) throughout the remainder of the individual's enrollment at the State maritime academy; and

(C) if the individual has a medical or physical condition that disqualifies the individual from meeting the requirements referred to in subparagraph (A), shall be transferred to a program other than a merchant marine officer preparation program, or otherwise appropriately disenrolled from such State maritime academy, until the individual demonstrates to the Secretary that the individual meets such requirements.


(b) Additional Condition to Payments of More Than $25,000.—As a condition of receiving an annual payment of more than $25,000 under section 51505 of this title, a State maritime academy also must agree to admit each year a number of citizens of the United States who meet its admission requirements and reside in a State not supporting that academy. The Secretary shall determine the number of individuals to be admitted by each academy under this subsection. The number may not be more than one-third of the total number of individuals attending the academy at any time.

(c) Secretarial Waiver Authority.—The Secretary may modify or waive any of the terms set forth in subsection (a)(4) with respect to any individual or State maritime academy.

(Pub. L. 109–304, §8(b), Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1579; Pub. L. 114–328, div. C, title XXXV, §3515, Dec. 23, 2016, 130 Stat. 2788.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
51506 46 App.:1295c(f). June 29, 1936, ch. 858, title XIII, §1304(f), as added Pub. L. 96–453, §2, Oct. 15, 1980, 94 Stat. 2004; Pub. L. 101–115, §3(a), Oct. 13, 1989, 103 Stat. 692.

In subsection (a)(3), the words "administered by the Coast Guard" are omitted as unnecessary.

Amendments

2016—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 114–328, §3515(1)(A), substituted "shall" for "must" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (a)(4). Pub. L. 114–328, §3515(1)(B)–(D), added par. (4).

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 114–328, §3515(2), added subsec. (c).

§51507. Places of training

The Secretary of Transportation may provide for the training of students attending a State maritime academy—

(1) on vessels owned or subsidized by the United States Government;

(2) on other documented vessels, with the permission of the owner; and

(3) in shipyards or plants and with industrial or educational organizations.

(Pub. L. 109–304, §8(b), Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1579.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
51507 46 App.:1295c(c) (3)(A). June 29, 1936, ch. 858, title XIII, §1304(c)(3)(A), as added Pub. L. 96–453, §2, Oct. 15, 1980, 94 Stat. 2003.

In paragraph (2), the words "with the permission of the owner" are substituted for "if the owner . . . cooperates in such use" for clarity.

§51508. Allowances for students

Under regulations prescribed by the Secretary of Transportation, a student at a State maritime academy shall receive from the Secretary allowances for transportation (including reimbursement of traveling expenses) when traveling under orders to receive training under section 51507 of this title.

(Pub. L. 109–304, §8(b), Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1579.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
51508 46 App.:1295c(c) (3)(B). June 29, 1936, ch. 858, title XIII, §1304(c)(3)(B), as added Pub. L. 96–453, §2, Oct. 15, 1980, 94 Stat. 2004.

§51509. Student incentive payment agreements

(a) General Authority.—If a State maritime academy has an agreement with the Secretary of Transportation under section 51505 of this title, the Secretary may make an agreement with a student at the academy who is a citizen of the United States to make student incentive payments to the individual. An agreement with a student may not be effective for more than 4 academic years. The Secretary shall allocate payments under this section among the various State maritime academies in an equitable manner.

(b) Payments.—

(1) In general.—Except as provided in paragraph (2), payments under an agreement under this section shall be equal to $8,000 each academic year and be paid in such installments as the Secretary shall determine while the individual is attending the academy, as prescribed by the Secretary.

(2) Exception.—The Secretary may modify the payments made to an individual under paragraph (1), but the total amount of payments to that individual may not exceed $32,000.

(3) Authorized uses.—The payments shall be used for uniforms, tuition, books, and subsistence.


(c) Enlisted Reserve Status.—An agreement under this section shall require the student to accept enlisted reserve status in the Navy Reserve (including the Strategic Sealift Officer Program, Navy Reserve) or the Coast Guard Reserve before receiving any payments under the agreement.

(d) Agreement Requirements.—An agreement under this section shall require the student to—

(1) complete the course of instruction at the academy the individual is attending;

(2) obtain a merchant mariner license, without limitation as to tonnage or horsepower, from the Coast Guard as an officer in the merchant marine of the United States, accompanied by the appropriate national and international endorsements and certification required by the Coast Guard for service aboard vessels on domestic and international voyages, without limitation, within three months of completion of the course of instruction at the academy the individual is attending;

(3) for at least 6 years after graduation from the academy, maintain—

(A) a valid merchant mariner license, unlimited as to horsepower or tonnage, issued by the Coast Guard as an officer in the merchant marine of the United States, accompanied by the appropriate national and international endorsements and certifications required by the Coast Guard for service aboard vessels on domestic and international voyages, without limitation;

(B) a valid transportation worker identification credential; and

(C) a Coast Guard medical certificate;


(4) apply for, and accept, if tendered, an appointment as a commissioned officer in the Navy Reserve (including the Strategic Sealift Officer Program, Navy Reserve), the Coast Guard Reserve, or any other reserve component of an armed force of the United States, and, if tendered the appointment, to serve and meet the participation requirements and to maintain active status in good standing, as determined by the program manager of the appropriate military service, for at least 8 years after the date of commissioning;

(5) serve the foreign and domestic commerce and the national defense of the United States for at least 3 years after graduation from the academy—

(A) as a merchant marine officer on a documented vessel or a vessel owned and operated by the United States Government or by a State;

(B) as an employee in a United States maritime-related industry, profession, or marine science (as determined by the Secretary), if the Secretary determines that service under subparagraph (A) is not available to the individual;

(C) as a commissioned officer on active duty in an armed force of the United States, as a commissioned officer in the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, or in other maritime-related Federal employment which serves the national security interests of the United States, as determined by the Secretary; or

(D) by a combination of the service alternatives referred to in subparagraphs (A)–(C); and


(6) report to the Secretary on compliance with this subsection.


(e) Failure To Complete Course of Instruction.—

(1) Active duty.—

(A) In general.—The Secretary of Defense may order an individual to serve on active duty in the armed forces of the United States for a period of not more than 2 years if—

(i) the individual has attended an academy under this section for more than 2 academic years, but less than 3 academic years;

(ii) the individual has accepted the payments described in subsection (b) in an amount totaling at least $8,000; and

(iii) the Secretary of Transportation has determined that the individual has failed to fulfill the part of the agreement described in subsection (d)(1).


(B) 3 or more years.—The Secretary of Defense may order an individual to serve on active duty in the armed forces of the United States for a period of not more than 3 years if—

(i) the individual has attended an academy under this section for 3 or more academic years;

(ii) the individual has accepted the payments described in subsection (b) in an amount totaling at least $16,000; and

(iii) the Secretary of Transportation has determined that the individual has failed to fulfill the part of the agreement described in subsection (d)(1).


(C) Hardship waiver.—In cases of hardship as determined by the Secretary of Transportation, the Secretary of Transportation may waive this paragraph in whole or in part.


(2) Recovery of cost.—If the Secretary of Defense is unable or unwilling to order an individual to serve on active duty under paragraph (1), or if the Secretary of Transportation determines that reimbursement of the cost of education provided would better serve the interests of the United States, the Secretary of Transportation may recover from the individual the amount of student incentive payments, plus interest and attorney fees. The Secretary may reduce the amount to be recovered to reflect partial performance of service obligations and other factors the Secretary determines merit a reduction.


(f) Failure To Carry Out Other Requirements.—

(1) Active duty.—If the Secretary of Transportation determines that an individual has failed to fulfill any part of the agreement described in subsection (d)(2)–(6), the individual may be ordered to serve on active duty for a period of at least 2 years but not more than the unexpired period (as determined by the Secretary) of the service required by subsection (d)(5). The Secretary of Transportation, in consultation with the Secretary of Defense, shall determine in which service the individual shall serve. In cases of hardship as determined by the Secretary of Transportation, the Secretary of Transportation may waive this paragraph in whole or in part.

(2) Recovery of cost.—If the Secretary of Defense is unable or unwilling to order an individual to serve on active duty under paragraph (1), or if the Secretary of Transportation determines that reimbursement of the cost of education provided would better serve the interests of the United States, the Secretary of Transportation may recover from the individual the amount of student incentive payments, plus interest and attorney fees. The Secretary may reduce the amount to be recovered to reflect partial performance of service obligations and other factors the Secretary determines merit a reduction.


(g) Actions To Recover Cost.—To aid in the recovery of the cost of education provided by the Government under a commitment agreement under this section, the Secretary of Transportation may—

(1) request the Attorney General to bring a civil action against the individual; and

(2) make use of the Federal debt collection procedures in chapter 176 of title 28 or other applicable administrative remedies.


(h) Alternative Service.—

(1) Service as commissioned officer.—An individual who, for the 5-year period following graduation from an academy, serves as a commissioned officer on active duty in an armed force of the United States or as a commissioned officer of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration or the Public Health Service shall be excused from the requirements of paragraphs (3) through (5) of subsection (d).

(2) Modification or waiver.—The Secretary may modify or waive any of the terms and conditions set forth in subsection (d) through the imposition of alternative service requirements.

(Pub. L. 109–304, §8(b), Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1579; Pub. L. 109–163, div. A, title V, §515(g)(2)(A), Jan. 6, 2006, 119 Stat. 3236; Pub. L. 109–364, div. C, title XXXV, §3508, Oct. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 2517; Pub. L. 110–181, div. C, title XXXV, §§3523(a)(1), (b), 3526(d), (g), Jan. 28, 2008, 122 Stat. 598, 600, 602; Pub. L. 110–417, div. C, title XXXV, §3503, Oct. 14, 2008, 122 Stat. 4762; Pub. L. 111–8, div. I, title I, §177, Mar. 11, 2009, 123 Stat. 944; Pub. L. 111–84, div. C, title XXXV, §3507, Oct. 28, 2009, 123 Stat. 2721; Pub. L. 114–92, div. C, title XXXV, §3507, Nov. 25, 2015, 129 Stat. 1221.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
51509(a) 46 App.:1295c(g)(1) (words before 5th comma, cl. (A)), (8). June 29, 1936, ch. 858, title XIII, §1304(g)(1)–(5), (8), as added Pub. L. 96–453, §2, Oct. 15, 1980, 94 Stat. 2004, 2006; Pub. L. 97–31, §12(145)(A), Aug. 6, 1981, 95 Stat. 166; Pub. L. 101–115, §2(a)–(d), Oct. 13, 1989, 103 Stat. 691; Pub. L. 102–587, title VI, §6201(a)(1), (b), (c), Nov. 4, 1992, 106 Stat. 5093; Pub. L. 108–136, title XXXV, §3515(d), Nov. 24, 2003, 117 Stat. 1794.
51509(b) 46 App.:1295c(g)(1) (words between 5th comma and dash, cls. (B), (C)).
51509(c) 46 App.:1295c(g)(2)
51509(d) 46 App.:1295c(g)(3)
51509(e) 46 App.:1295c(g)(4)
51509(f) 46 App.:1295c(g)(5)
51509(g) 46 App.:1295c(g)(6)

In subsection (a), the text of 46 App. U.S.C. 1295c(g)(8) is omitted as obsolete.

In subsection (g), the words "bring a civil action" are substituted for "begin court proceedings" for consistency in the revised title and with rule 2 of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure (28 App. U.S.C.).

Amendments

2015—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 114–92, §3507(1), designated first sentence as par. (1) and last sentence as par. (3), inserted headings, realigned margins, in par. (1), substituted "Except as provided in paragraph (2), payments" for "Payments", and added par. (2).

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 114–92, §3507(2), substituted "Strategic Sealift Officer Program" for "Merchant Marine Reserve".

Subsec. (d)(2). Pub. L. 114–92, §3507(3)(A), amended par. (2) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (2) read as follows: "take the examination for a license as an officer in the merchant marine of the United States before graduation from the academy and fulfill the requirements for such a license within 3 months after graduation from the academy;".

Subsec. (d)(3). Pub. L. 114–92, §3507(3)(B), amended par. (3) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (3) read as follows: "maintain a valid license as an officer in the merchant marine of the United States for at least 6 years after graduation from the academy, accompanied by the appropriate national and international endorsements and certification required by the Coast Guard for service aboard vessels on domestic and international voyages;".

Subsec. (d)(4). Pub. L. 114–92, §3507(3)(C), amended par. (4) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (4) read as follows: "accept, if tendered, an appointment as a commissioned officer in the Navy Reserve (including the Merchant Marine Reserve, Navy Reserve), the Coast Guard Reserve, or any other reserve unit of an armed force of the United States, and, if tendered the appointment, to serve for at least 6 years after graduation from the academy;".

Subsec. (e)(1). Pub. L. 114–92, §3507(4), amended par. (1) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "If the Secretary of Transportation determines that an individual who has accepted the payments described in subsection (b) for a minimum of 2 academic years has failed to fulfill the part of the agreement described in subsection (d)(1), the individual may be ordered by the Secretary of Defense to serve on active duty in the armed forces of the United States for a period of not more than 2 years. In cases of hardship as determined by the Secretary of Transportation, the Secretary of Transportation may waive this paragraph in whole or in part."

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 114–92, §3507(5), added subsec. (h).

2009Pub. L. 111–84, §3507(a), substituted "and be paid in such installments as the Secretary shall determine" for "and be paid before the start of each academic year, as prescribed by the Secretary," and "academy, as prescribed by the Secretary." for "academy.".

Pub. L. 111–8, §177, which directed amendment identical to that made by Pub. L. 110–417, §3503(1), (2), was repealed by Pub. L. 111–84, §3507(b), with Pub. L. 111–8, §177, to have no force or effect. See 2008 Amendment note below.

2008Pub. L. 110–181, §3526(g), repealed Pub. L. 109–364, §3508. See 2006 Amendment note below.

Pub. L. 110–181, §3523(b), repealed Pub. L. 109–163, §515(g)(2)(A). See 2006 Amendment note below.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 110–417, §3503(3), inserted "before the start of each academic year" after "and be paid".

Pub. L. 110–417, §3503(1), (2), substituted "$8,000" for "$4,000" and inserted "tuition," after "uniforms,".

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 110–181, §3526(d), incorporated the substance of the amendments by Pub. L. 109–364, §3508, into this section by striking out "Midshipman and" before "Enlisted" in heading and "midshipman and" before "enlisted" in text and inserting "or the Coast Guard Reserve" after "Reserve)". See 2006 Amendment note below and section 18(a) of Pub. L. 109–304, set out as a Legislative Purpose and Construction note preceding section 101 of this title.

Pub. L. 110–181, §3523(a)(1), incorporated the substance of the amendments by Pub. L. 109–163, §515(g)(2)(A), into this section by substituting "Navy Reserve" for "Naval Reserve" in two places. See 2006 Amendment note below and section 18(a) of Pub. L. 109–304, set out as a Legislative Purpose and Construction note preceding section 101 of this title.

Subsec. (d)(4). Pub. L. 110–181, §3523(a)(1), incorporated the substance of the amendments by Pub. L. 109–163, §515(g)(2)(A), into this section by substituting "Navy Reserve" for "Naval Reserve" in two places. See 2006 Amendment note below and section 18(a) of Pub. L. 109–304, set out as a Legislative Purpose and Construction note preceding section 101 of this title.

2006Pub. L. 109–364, §3508, which directed the amendment of section 1295c(g)(2) of the former Appendix to this title from which subsec. (c) of this section was derived, was repealed by Pub. L. 110–181, §3526(g). See 2008 Amendment note for subsec. (c) and Historical and Revision notes above.

Pub. L. 109–163, §515(g)(2)(A), which directed the amendment of section 1295c of the former Appendix to this title from which this section was derived, was repealed by Pub. L. 110–181, §3523(b). See 2008 Amendment notes for subsecs. (c) and (d)(4) and Historical and Revision notes above.

§51510. Deferment of service obligation under student incentive payment agreements

The Secretary of Transportation may defer the service commitment of an individual under section 51509(d)(5) of this title (as specified in the agreement under section 51509) for not more than 2 years if the individual is engaged in a graduate course of study approved by the Secretary. However, deferment of service as a commissioned officer on active duty must be approved by the Secretary of the affected military department (or the Secretary of Commerce, for service with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration).

(Pub. L. 109–304, §8(b), Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1581.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
51510 46 App.:1295c(g)(7). June 29, 1936, ch. 858, title XIII, §1304(g)(7), as added Pub. L. 96–453, §2, Oct. 15, 1980, 94 Stat. 2006; Pub. L. 97–31, §12(145)(B), Aug. 6, 1981, 95 Stat. 166; Pub. L. 108–136, title XXXV, §3515(d)(7), Nov. 24, 2003, 117 Stat. 1795.

The words "affected military department" are substituted for "military department . . . which has jurisdiction over such service" for clarity and to eliminate unnecessary words.

§51511. Midshipman status in the Navy Reserve

A citizen of the United States attending a State maritime academy may be appointed by the Secretary of the Navy as a midshipman in the Navy Reserve (including the Merchant Marine Reserve, Navy Reserve).

(Pub. L. 109–304, §8(b), Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1582; Pub. L. 109–163, div. A, title V, §515(g)(2), Jan. 6, 2006, 119 Stat. 3236; Pub. L. 110–181, div. C, title XXXV, §3523(a)(1), (b), Jan. 28, 2008, 122 Stat. 598, 600.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
51511 46 App.:1295c(h). June 29, 1936, ch. 858, title XIII, §1304(h), as added Pub. L. 96–453, §2, Oct. 15, 1980, 94 Stat. 2006.

Amendments

2008Pub. L. 110–181, §3523(b), repealed Pub. L. 109–163, §515(g)(2). See 2006 Amendment note below.

Pub. L. 110–181, §3523(a)(1), incorporated the substance of the amendment by Pub. L. 109–163, §515(g)(2), into this section by substituting "Navy Reserve" for "Naval Reserve" wherever appearing in section catchline and text. See 2006 Amendment note below and section 18(a) of Pub. L. 109–304, set out as a Legislative Purpose and Construction note preceding section 101 of this title.

2006Pub. L. 109–163, §515(g)(2), which directed the amendment of section 1295c of the former Appendix to this title from which this section was derived, was repealed by Pub. L. 110–181, §3523(b). See 2008 Amendment notes and Historical and Revision notes above.

CHAPTER 517—OTHER SUPPORT FOR MERCHANT MARINE TRAINING

Sec.
51701.
United States Maritime Service.
51702.
Civilian nautical schools.
51703.
Additional training.
51704.
Training for maritime oil pollution prevention, response, and clean-up.
51705.
Training program for use of force against piracy.1

        

Amendments

2012Pub. L. 112–213, title V, §502(c), Dec. 20, 2012, 126 Stat. 1575, added item 51705.

1 So in original. Does not conform to section catchline.

§51701. United States Maritime Service

(a) General Authority.—The Secretary of Transportation may establish and maintain a voluntary organization, to be known as the United States Maritime Service, for the training of citizens of the United States to serve on merchant vessels of the United States and to perform functions to assist the United States merchant marine, as determined necessary by the Secretary.

(b) Specific Authority.—The Secretary may—

(1) determine the number of individuals to be enrolled for training and reserve purposes in the Service;

(2) fix the rates of pay and allowances of the individuals without regard to chapter 51 or subchapter III of chapter 53 of title 5;

(3) prescribe the course of study and the periods of training for the Service; and

(4) prescribe the uniform of the Service and the rules on providing and wearing the uniform.


(c) Ranks, Grades, and Ratings.—The ranks, grades, and ratings for personnel of the Service shall be the same as those prescribed for personnel of the Coast Guard.

(d) Medals and Awards.—The Secretary may establish and maintain a medals and awards program to recognize distinguished service, superior achievement, professional performance, and other commendable achievement by personnel of the Service.

(Pub. L. 109–304, §8(b), Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1582; Pub. L. 109–163, div. C, title XXXV, §3509, Jan. 6, 2006, 119 Stat. 3557; Pub. L. 109–364, div. C, title XXXV, §3510(d)(1), Oct. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 2520; Pub. L. 110–181, div. C, title XXXV, §3523(a)(4), (b), Jan. 28, 2008, 122 Stat. 599, 600.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
51701 46 App.:1295e. June 29, 1936, ch. 858, title XIII, §1306, as added Pub. L. 96–453, §2, Oct. 15, 1980, 94 Stat. 2006; Pub. L. 108–136, title XXXV, §3515(e), Nov. 24, 2003, 117 Stat. 1795.

Amendments

2008Pub. L. 110–181, §3523(b), repealed Pub. L. 109–163, §3509. See 2006 Amendment note below.

Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 110–181, §3523(a)(4), incorporated the substance of the amendment by Pub. L. 109–163, §3509, into this section by substituting "of the United States and to perform functions to assist the United States merchant marine, as determined necessary by the Secretary." for "of the United States." See 2006 Amendment note below and section 18(a) of Pub. L. 109–304, set out as a Legislative Purpose and Construction note preceding section 101 of this title.

2006Pub. L. 109–163, §3509, as amended by Pub. L. 109–364, §3510(d)(1), which directed the amendment of section 1295e(a) of the former Appendix to this title from which subsec. (a) of this section was derived, was repealed by Pub. L. 110–181, §3523(b). See 2008 Amendment note for subsec. (a) and Historical and Revision notes above.

Effective Date of 2006 Amendment

Pub. L. 109–364, div. C, title XXXV, §3510(d)(2), Oct. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 2521, provided that: "This subsection [amending section 3509 of Pub. L. 109–163 which had amended section 1295e(a) of the former Appendix to this title, from which subsec. (a) of this section is derived] shall be effective immediately after section 3509 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2006 (119 Stat. 3557) [Pub. L. 109–163] takes effect [Jan. 6, 2006]."

§51702. Civilian nautical schools

(a) Definition.—In this section, the term "civilian nautical school" means a school operated in the United States (except the United States Merchant Marine Academy, a State maritime academy, or another school operated by the United States Government) that offers instruction to individuals quartered on a vessel primarily to train them for service in the merchant marine.

(b) Inspection.—Each civilian nautical school is subject to inspection by the Secretary of Transportation.

(c) Rating and Certification.—The Secretary may, under regulations the Secretary may prescribe, provide for the rating and certification of civilian nautical schools as to the adequacy of their course of instruction, the competence of their instructors, and the suitability of the equipment used in their course of instruction.

(Pub. L. 109–304, §8(b), Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1582.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
51702 46 App.:1295f. June 29, 1936, ch. 858, title XIII, §1307, as added Pub. L. 96–453, §2, Oct. 15, 1980, 94 Stat. 2007; Pub. L. 98–89, §4(b), Aug. 26, 1983, 97 Stat. 603.

The text of 46 App. U.S.C. 1295f(d) is omitted because it apparently was intended to apply to former 46 App. U.S.C. 1295f(c), which was repealed in 1983.

§51703. Additional training

(a) General Authority.—The Secretary of Transportation may provide additional training on maritime subjects to supplement other training opportunities and make the training available to the personnel of the merchant marine of the United States and individuals preparing for a career in the merchant marine of the United States.

(b) Equipment, Supplies, and Contracts.—The Secretary may—

(1) prepare or buy equipment or supplies required for the additional training; and

(2) without regard to section 6101(b) to (d) of title 41, make contracts for services the Secretary considers necessary to prepare the equipment and supplies and to supervise and administer the additional training.

(Pub. L. 109–304, §8(b), Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1583; Pub. L. 111–350, §5(n), Jan. 4, 2011, 124 Stat. 3853.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
51703 46 App.:1295d(a), (b). June 29, 1936, ch. 858, title XIII, §1305(a), (b), as added Pub. L. 96–453, §2, Oct. 15, 1980, 94 Stat. 2006.

In subsection (a), before paragraph (1), the words "as the Secretary deems necessary" are omitted as unnecessary.

In subsection (b), the words "with any person, partnership, firm, association, or corporation" and "the performance of" are omitted as unnecessary.

Amendments

2011—Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 111–350 substituted "section 6101(b) to (d) of title 41" for "section 3709 of the Revised Statutes (41 U.S.C. 5)".

§51704. Training for maritime oil pollution prevention, response, and clean-up

(a) Assistance in Establishing Program.—The Secretary of Transportation shall assist maritime training institutions approved by the Secretary in establishing a training program for maritime oil pollution prevention, response, and clean-up.

(b) Providing Training Vessels.—Subject to subsection (c), the Secretary may provide, with title free of all liens, to maritime training institutions that have a program established under subsection (a), offshore supply vessels and tug/supply vessels that were built in the United States and are in the possession of the Maritime Administration because of a default on a loan guaranteed under chapter 537 of this title.

(c) Requirements.—In addition to any other requirements the Secretary considers appropriate, the following requirements apply to vessels provided under this section:

(1) The vessel shall be offered to the institution at a location selected by the Secretary.

(2) The institution shall use the vessel to train students and appropriate maritime industry personnel in oil spill prevention, response, clean-up, and related skills.

(3) The institution shall make the vessel and qualified students available to appropriate Federal, State, and local oil spill response authorities when there is a maritime oil spill.

(4) The institution may not sell, trade, charter, donate, scrap, or in any way alter or dispose of the vessel without prior approval of the Secretary.

(5) The institution may not use the vessel in competition with a privately-owned vessel documented under chapter 121 of this title or titled under the law of a State, unless necessary to carry out this section.

(6) When the institution can no longer use the vessel for its training program, the institution shall return the vessel to the Secretary. The Secretary shall take possession at the institution and thereafter may provide the vessel to another institution under this section or dispose of the vessel.

(Pub. L. 109–304, §8(b), Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1583.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
51704(a) 46 App.:1295d(c)(1). June 29, 1936, ch. 858, title XIII, §1305(c), as added Pub. L. 101–595, title VII, §712, Nov. 16, 1990, 104 Stat. 2998.
51704(b) 46 App.:1295d(c) (2)(A), (4).
51704(c) 46 App.:1295d(c) (2)(B), (3).

In subsection (c)(5), the words "or titled under the law of a State" are substituted for "documented under the laws of . . . any State" for consistency with the terminology in 46 U.S.C. 2101(46) (which is being moved to chapter 1 of the revised title) and 46 U.S.C. ch. 125.

§51705. Training for use of force against piracy

The Secretary of Transportation, in consultation with the Secretary of Defense and the Secretary of the department in which the Coast Guard is operating, shall certify a training curriculum for United States mariners on the use of force against pirates. The curriculum shall include—

(1) information on waters designated as high-risk waters by the Commandant of the Coast Guard;

(2) information on current threats and patterns of attack by pirates;

(3) tactics for defense of a vessel, including instruction on the types, use, and limitations of security equipment;

(4) standard rules for the use of force for self-defense as developed by the Secretary of the department in which the Coast Guard is operating under section 912(c) of the Coast Guard Authorization Act of 2010 (Public Law 111–281; 46 U.S.C. 8107 note), including instruction on firearm safety for crewmembers of vessels carrying cargo under section 55305 of this title; and

(5) procedures to follow to improve crewmember survivability if captured and taken hostage by pirates.

(Added Pub. L. 112–213, title V, §502(a), Dec. 20, 2012, 126 Stat. 1574.)

Deadline

Pub. L. 112–213, title V, §502(b), Dec. 20, 2012, 126 Stat. 1575, provided that: "The Secretary of Transportation shall certify the curriculum required under the amendment made by subsection (a) [enacting this section] not later than 270 days after the date of enactment of this Act [Dec. 20, 2012]."

CHAPTER 519—MERCHANT MARINE AWARDS

Sec.
51901.
Awards for individual acts or service.
51902.
Gallant Ship Award.
51903.
Multiple awards.
51904.
Presentation to representatives.
51905.
Flags and grave markers.
51906.
Special certificates for civilian service to armed forces.
51907.
Provision of decorations, medals, and replacements 1

        

51908.
Prohibition against unauthorized manufacture, sale, possession, or display of awards.

        

Amendments

2008Pub. L. 110–181, div. C, title XXXV, §3523(a)(5)(B), Jan. 28, 2008, 122 Stat. 599, substituted "Provision of decorations, medals, and replacements" for "Manufacture and sale of awards and replacements." in item 51907.

1 So in original. Probably should be followed by a period.

§51901. Awards for individual acts or service

(a) General Authority.—The Secretary of Transportation may award decorations and medals of appropriate design (including ribbons, ribbon bars, emblems, rosettes, miniature facsimiles, plaques, citations, or other suitable devices or insignia) for individual acts or service in the merchant marine of the United States. The design may be similar to the design of a decoration or medal authorized for members of the armed forces for similar acts or service.

(b) Specific Authority.—The Secretary may award—

(1) a Merchant Marine Distinguished Service Medal to an individual for outstanding acts, conduct, or valor beyond the line of duty;

(2) a Merchant Marine Meritorious Service Medal to an individual for meritorious acts, conduct, or valor in the line of duty, but not of the outstanding character that would warrant the award of the Merchant Marine Distinguished Service Medal;

(3) a decoration or medal to an individual for service during a war, national emergency proclaimed by the President or Congress, or operations by the armed forces outside the continental United States under conditions of danger to life and property; and

(4) a decoration or medal to an individual for other acts or service of conspicuous gallantry, intrepidity, and extraordinary heroism under conditions of danger to life and property that would warrant a similar decoration or medal for a member of the armed forces.

(Pub. L. 109–304, §8(b), Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1584.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
51901(a) 46 App.:2001. Pub. L. 100–324, §§2, 3, 5(d), May 30, 1988, 102 Stat. 576, 577.
  46 App.:2004(d).
51901(b) 46 App.:2002.

§51902. Gallant Ship Award

(a) Awards to Vessels.—The Secretary of Transportation may award a Gallant Ship Award and a citation to a vessel (including a foreign vessel) participating in outstanding or gallant action in a marine disaster or other emergency to save life or property at sea. The Secretary may award a plaque to the vessel, and a replica of the plaque may be preserved as a permanent historical record.

(b) Awards to Crews.—The Secretary of Transportation may award an appropriate citation ribbon bar to the master and each individual serving, at the time of the action, on a vessel issued an award under subsection (a).

(c) Consultation.—The Secretary of Transportation shall consult with the Secretary of State before awarding an award or citation to a foreign vessel or its crew under this section.

(Pub. L. 109–304, §8(b), Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1584.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
51902 46 App.:2003. Pub. L. 100–324, §4, May 30, 1988, 102 Stat. 576.

In subsection (a), the words "a vessel (including a foreign vessel)" are substituted for "a United States vessel or to a foreign-flag vessel" to eliminate unnecessary words.

§51903. Multiple awards

An individual may not be awarded more than one of any type of decoration or medal under this chapter. For each succeeding act or service justifying the same decoration or medal, a suitable device may be awarded to be worn with the decoration or medal.

(Pub. L. 109–304, §8(b), Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1585.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
51903 46 App.:2004(a). Pub. L. 100–324, §5(a), May 30, 1988, 102 Stat. 576.

§51904. Presentation to representatives

If an individual to be issued an award under this chapter is unable to accept the award personally, the Secretary of Transportation may present the award to an appropriate representative.

(Pub. L. 109–304, §8(b), Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1585.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
51904 46 App.:2004(b). Pub. L. 100–324, §5(b), May 30, 1988, 102 Stat. 577.

§51905. Flags and grave markers

Except as authorized under another law, the Secretary of Transportation may issue, at no cost, a flag of the United States and a grave marker to the family or personal representative of a deceased individual who served in the merchant marine of the United States in support of the armed forces of the United States or its allies during a war or national emergency.

(Pub. L. 109–304, §8(b), Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1585.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
51905 46 App.:2005. Pub. L. 100–324, §6, May 30, 1988, 102 Stat. 577.

§51906. Special certificates for civilian service to armed forces

(a) General Authority.—The Maritime Administrator may issue a special certificate to an individual, or the personal representative of an individual, in recognition of service of that individual in the merchant marine of the United States, if the service has been determined to be active duty under section 401 of the GI Bill Improvement Act of 1977 (Public Law 95–202; 38 U.S.C. 106 note).

(b) Relationship to Other Laws.—Issuance of a certificate under subsection (a) does not entitle an individual to any rights, privileges, or benefits under a law of the United States.

(Pub. L. 109–304, §8(b), Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1585.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
51906 46 App.:2006. Pub. L. 100–324, §7, May 30, 1988, 102 Stat. 577.

§51907. Provision of decorations, medals, and replacements

The Secretary of Transportation may provide—

(1) the decorations and medals authorized by this chapter and replacements for those decorations and medals; and

(2) replacements for decorations and medals issued under a prior law.

(Pub. L. 109–304, §8(b), Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1585; Pub. L. 109–163, div. C, title XXXV, §3510, Jan. 6, 2006, 119 Stat. 3557; Pub. L. 110–181, div. C, title XXXV, §3523(a)(5)(A), (b), Jan. 28, 2008, 122 Stat. 599, 600.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
51907 46 App.:2004(c). Pub. L. 100–324, §5(c), May 30, 1988, 102 Stat. 577.

The Secretary's authority to provide decorations and medals at cost, or to authorize the sale of decorations and medals at reasonable prices, is restated to apply only to replacement awards because Congress probably did not intend that recipients being honored would pay for their decorations and medals.

Amendments

2008Pub. L. 110–181, §3523(b), repealed Pub. L. 109–163, §3510. See 2006 Amendment note below.

Pub. L. 110–181, §3523(a)(5)(A), incorporated the substance of the amendment by Pub. L. 109–163, §3510, into this section by amending section catchline and text generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "The Secretary of Transportation may—

"(1) authorize private persons to manufacture decorations and medals authorized under this chapter or a prior law; and

"(2) provide at cost, or authorize private persons to sell at reasonable prices, replacements for those decorations and medals."

See 2006 Amendment note below and section 18(a) of Pub. L. 109–304, set out as a Legislative Purpose and Construction note preceding section 101 of this title.

2006Pub. L. 109–163, §3510, which directed the amendment of section 2004(c) of the former Appendix to this title from which this section was derived, was repealed by Pub. L. 110–181, §3523(b). See 2008 Amendment notes and Historical and Revision notes above.

§51908. Prohibition against unauthorized manufacture, sale, possession, or display of awards

(a) Prohibition.—Except as authorized by this chapter or the Secretary of Transportation, a person may not manufacture, sell, possess, or display a decoration or medal provided for in this chapter.

(b) Civil Penalty.—A person violating this section is liable to the United States Government for a civil penalty of not more than $2,000.

(Pub. L. 109–304, §8(b), Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1585; Pub. L. 109–364, div. C, title XXXV, §3510(b), Oct. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 2520; Pub. L. 110–181, div. C, title XXXV, §3526(e), (g), Jan. 28, 2008, 122 Stat. 602.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
51908 46 App.:2007. Pub. L. 100–324, §8, May 30, 1988, 102 Stat. 577.

In subsection (b), the words "not more than" are added for clarity and for consistency in the revised title.

Amendments

2008Pub. L. 110–181, §3526(g), repealed Pub. L. 109–364, §3510(b). See 2006 Amendment note below.

Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 110–181, §3526(e), incorporated the substance of the amendment by Pub. L. 109–364, §3510(b), into this section by substituting "by this chapter or the Secretary of Transportation" for "under this chapter". See 2006 Amendment note below and section 18(a) of Pub. L. 109–304, set out as a Legislative Purpose and Construction note preceding section 101 of this title.

2006Pub. L. 109–364, §3510(b), which directed the amendment of section 2007 of the former Appendix to this title from which this section was derived, was repealed by Pub. L. 110–181, §3526(g). See 2008 Amendment note for subsec. (a) and Historical and Revision notes above.

CHAPTER 521—MISCELLANEOUS

Sec.
52101.
Reemployment rights for certain merchant seamen.

        

§52101. Reemployment rights for certain merchant seamen

(a) In General.—An individual who is certified by the Secretary of Transportation under subsection (c) shall be entitled to reemployment rights and other benefits substantially equivalent to the rights and benefits provided for by chapter 43 of title 38 for any member of a reserve component of the armed forces of the United States who is ordered to active duty.

(b) Time for Application.—An individual may submit an application for certification under subsection (c) to the Secretary not later than 45 days after the date the individual completes a period of employment described in subsection (c)(1)(A) with respect to which the application is submitted.

(c) Certification Determination.—Not later than 20 days after the date the Secretary receives from an individual an application for certification under this subsection, the Secretary shall—

(1) determine whether the individual—

(A) was employed in the activation or operation of a vessel—

(i) in the National Defense Reserve Fleet maintained under section 57100 in a period in which the vessel was in use or being activated for use under subsection (b) of that section;

(ii) requisitioned or purchased under chapter 563 of this title; or

(iii) owned, chartered, or controlled by the United States Government and used by the Government for a war, armed conflict, national emergency, or maritime mobilization need (including for training purposes or testing for readiness and suitability for mission performance); and


(B) during the period of that employment, possessed a valid license, certificate of registry, or merchant mariner's document issued under chapter 71 or 73 of this title; and


(2) if the Secretary makes affirmative determinations under subparagraphs (A) and (B) of paragraph (1), certify that individual under this subsection.


(d) Equivalence to Military Selective Service Act Certificate.—For purposes of reemployment rights and benefits provided by this section, a certification under subsection (c) shall be considered to be the equivalent of a certificate described in section 9(a) of the Military Selective Service Act (50 U.S.C. 3808(a)).

(Pub. L. 109–304, §8(b), Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1585; Pub. L. 115–91, div. C, title XXXV, §3502(b)(4), Dec. 12, 2017, 131 Stat. 1910; Pub. L. 115–232, div. C, title XXXV, §3546(m), Aug. 13, 2018, 132 Stat. 2327.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
52101 46 App.:1132. June 29, 1936, ch. 858, title III, §302, as added Pub. L. 104–239, §10(a), Oct. 8, 1996, 110 Stat. 3133.

In subsection (c)(1)(B), the words "(as applicable)" are omitted as unnecessary.

In subsection (d), the words "certificate described in section 9(a) of the Military Selective Service Act (50 App. U.S.C. 459(a))" are substituted for "certificate referred to in paragraph (1) of section 4301(a) of title 38" because section 4301 of title 38 was amended generally by section 2(a) of Public Law 103–353, and before the amendment section 4301(a)(1) referred to a certificate described in section 9(a) of the Military Selective Service Act (50 App. U.S.C. 459(a)).

Amendments

2018—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 115–232 substituted "(50 U.S.C. 3808(a))" for "(50 App. U.S.C. 459(a))".

2017—Subsec. (c)(1)(A)(i). Pub. L. 115–91 substituted "section 57100" for "section 11 of the Merchant Ship Sales Act of 1946 (50 App. U.S.C. 1744)".

Part C—Financial Assistance Programs

Amendments

2006Pub. L. 109–304, §8(b), Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1586, inserted "Part C—Financial Assistance Programs".

CHAPTER 531—MARITIME SECURITY FLEET

Sec.
53101.
Definitions.
53102.
Establishment of Maritime Security Fleet.
53103.
Award of operating agreements.
53104.
Effectiveness of operating agreements.
53105.
Obligations and rights under operating agreements.
53106.
Payments.
53107.
National security requirements.
53108.
Regulatory relief.
[53109.
Repealed.]
53110.
Regulations.
53111.
Authorization of appropriations.

        

Amendments

2018Pub. L. 115–232, div. C, title XXXV, §3546(n), Aug. 13, 2018, 132 Stat. 2327, struck out item 53109 "Special rule regarding age of participating fleet vessel".

§53101. Definitions

In this chapter:

(1) Bulk cargo.—The term "bulk cargo" means cargo that is loaded and carried in bulk without mark or count.

(2) Contractor.—The term "contractor" means an owner or operator of a vessel that enters into an operating agreement for the vessel with the Secretary under section 53103.

(3) Fleet.—The term "Fleet" means the Maritime Security Fleet established under section 53102(a).

(4) Foreign commerce.—The term "foreign commerce" means—

(A) commerce or trade between the United States, its territories or possessions, or the District of Columbia, and a foreign country; and

(B) commerce or trade between foreign countries.


(5) Participating fleet vessel.—The term "participating fleet vessel" means any vessel that—

(A) on October 1, 2015—

(i) meets the requirements of paragraph (1), (2), (3), or (4) of section 53102(c); and

(ii) is less than 20 years of age if the vessel is a tank vessel, or is less than 25 years of age for all other vessel types; and


(B) on December 31, 2014, is covered by an operating agreement under this chapter.


(6) Person.—The term "person" includes corporations, partnerships, and associations existing under or authorized by the laws of the United States, or any State, Territory, District, or possession thereof, or of any foreign country.

(7) Product tank vessel.—The term "product tank vessel" means a double hulled tank vessel capable of carrying simultaneously more than 2 separated grades of refined petroleum products.

(8) Secretary.—The term "Secretary" means the Secretary of Transportation.

(9) Tank vessel.—The term "tank vessel" has the meaning that term has under section 2101 of this title.

(10) United states.—The term "United States" includes the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Northern Mariana Islands, Guam, American Samoa, the Virgin Islands.

(11) United states citizen trust.—(A) Subject to subparagraph (C), the term "United States citizen trust" means a trust that is qualified under this paragraph.

(B) A trust is qualified under this paragraph with respect to a vessel only if—

(i) each of the trustees is a citizen of the United States; and

(ii) the application for documentation of the vessel under chapter 121 of this title includes the affidavit of each trustee stating that the trustee is not aware of any reason involving a beneficiary of the trust that is not a citizen of the United States, or involving any other person that is not a citizen of the United States, as a result of which the beneficiary or other person would hold more than 25 percent of the aggregate power to influence or limit the exercise of the authority of the trustee with respect to matters involving any ownership or operation of the vessel that may adversely affect the interests of the United States.


(C) If any person that is not a citizen of the United States has authority to direct or participate in directing a trustee for a trust in matters involving any ownership or operation of the vessel that may adversely affect the interests of the United States or in removing a trustee for a trust without cause, either directly or indirectly through the control of another person, the trust is not qualified under this paragraph unless the trust instrument provides that persons who are not citizens of the United States may not hold more than 25 percent of the aggregate authority to so direct or remove a trustee.

(D) This paragraph shall not be considered to prohibit a person who is not a citizen of the United States from holding more than 25 percent of the beneficial interest in a trust.

(12) United states-documented vessel.—The term "United States-documented vessel" means a vessel documented under chapter 121 of this title.

(Added Pub. L. 108–136, div. C, title XXXV, §3531(a), Nov. 24, 2003, 117 Stat. 1803; amended Pub. L. 112–239, div. C, title XXXV, §3508(a), Jan. 2, 2013, 126 Stat. 2223.)

Amendments

2013—Par. (4). Pub. L. 112–239, §3508(a)(1), amended par. (4) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (4) defined "foreign commerce".

Par. (5). Pub. L. 112–239, §3508(a)(4), amended par. (5) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (5) defined "participating fleet vessel".

Pub. L. 112–239, §3508(a)(2), (3), redesignated par. (6) as (5) and struck out former par. (5). Prior to amendment, text of par. (5) read as follows: "The term 'LASH vessel' means a lighter aboard ship vessel."

Pars. (6) to (13). Pub. L. 112–239, §3508(a)(3), redesignated pars. (7) to (13) as (6) to (12), respectively. Former par. (6) redesignated (5).

Effective Date of 2013 Amendment

Pub. L. 112–239, div. C, title XXXV, §3508(j), Jan. 2, 2013, 126 Stat. 2226, provided that: "The amendments made by—

"(1) paragraphs (2), (3), and (4) of subsection (a) [amending this section] take effect on December 31, 2014; and

"(2) subsection (f)(2) [amending section 53106 of this title] take effect on December 31, 2014."

Effective Date

Pub. L. 108–136, div. C, title XXXV, §3537, Nov. 24, 2003, 117 Stat. 1819, provided that:

"(a) In General.—Except as provided in subsections (b) and (c), this subtitle [subtitle C (§§3531–3537) of title XXXV of div. C of Pub. L. 108–136, enacting this chapter, amending section 12102 of this title and sections 808 and 1162 of the former Appendix to this title, repealing sections 1187 to 1187e and 1222 of the former Appendix to this title, enacting provisions set out as a note under section 53110 of this title, and amending provisions set out as a note under section 53102 of this title] shall take effect October 1, 2004."

"(b) Repeals and Conforming Amendments.—Section 3534 [amending section 12102 of this title, repealing sections 1187 to 1187e and 1222 of the former Appendix to this title, and amending provisions set out as a note under section 1187 of the former Appendix to this title] shall take effect October 1, 2005."

"(c) Other Provisions.—Sections 3533 [enacting provisions set out as a note under section 53110 of this title], 3535 [not classified to the Code], and this section shall take effect on the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 24, 2003]."

Temporary Program Authorizing Contracts With Adjunct Professors at the United States Merchant Marine Academy and for Other Purposes

Pub. L. 110–417, div. C, title XXXV, §3506(a)–(f), Oct. 14, 2008, 122 Stat. 4763, 4764, which authorized establishment of a temporary program for the purpose of contracting with not more than 25 individuals as personal services contractors to provide services as adjunct professors at the United States Merchant Marine Academy, was repealed by Pub. L. 111–84, div. C, title XXXV, §3503(b)(2), Oct. 28, 2009, 123 Stat. 2719. See section 51317 of this title.

Assistance for Small Shipyards and Maritime Communities

Pub. L. 109–163, div. C, title XXXV, §3506, Jan. 6, 2006, 119 Stat. 3553, formerly set out as a note under this section, was transferred to and renumbered as section 54101 of this title by Pub. L. 110–181, div. C, title XXXV, §3523(a)(6)(B), Jan. 28, 2008, 122 Stat. 599. Later, Pub. L. 110–417, div. C, title XXXV, §3508(b), Oct. 14, 2008, 122 Stat. 4769, directed repeal of section 3506 of Pub. L. 109–163. Pub. L. 110–417, §3508(b), was itself amended generally by Pub. L. 111–84, div. A, title X, §1073(c)(14), Oct. 28, 2009, 123 Stat. 2475, effective Oct. 14, 2008, and as if included in Pub. L. 110–417 as enacted, and, as so amended, Pub. L. 110–417, §3508(b), no longer directed the repeal of section 3506 of Pub. L. 109–163. Section 3506 of Pub. L. 109–163 was subsequently repealed by Pub. L. 111–383, div. A, title X, §1075(m), Jan. 7, 2011, 124 Stat. 4378.

Maintenance and Repair Reimbursement Pilot Program

Pub. L. 108–136, div. C, title XXXV, §3517, Nov. 24, 2003, 117 Stat. 1796, as amended by Pub. L. 109–163, div. C, title XXXV, §3503, Jan. 6, 2006, 119 Stat. 3548; Pub. L. 110–417, div. C, title XXXV, §3505, Oct. 14, 2008, 122 Stat. 4763, provided that:

"(a) Authority to Enter Agreements.—

"(1) In general.—The Secretary of Transportation shall carry out a pilot program under which the Secretary shall enter into an agreement with 1 or more contractors under chapter 531 of title 46, United States Code, regarding maintenance and repair of 1 or more vessels that are subject to an operating agreement under that chapter.

"(2) Requirement of agreement.—The Secretary shall, subject to the availability of appropriations, require 1 or more persons to enter into an agreement under this section as a condition of awarding an operating agreement to the person under chapter 531 of title 46, United States Code, for 1 or more vessels that normally make port calls in the United States.

"(3) Existing operating agreements.—The Secretary of Transportation shall, subject to the availability of appropriations, seek to enter into an agreement under this section with one or more contractors under an operating agreement under that chapter that is in effect on the date of the enactment of this paragraph [Oct. 14, 2008], regarding maintenance and repair of all vessels that are subject to the operating agreement.

"(b) Terms of Agreement.—An agreement under this section—

"(1) shall require that except as provided in subsection (c), all qualified maintenance or repair on the vessel shall be performed in the United States;

"(2) shall require that the Secretary shall reimburse the contractor in accordance with subsection (d) for the costs of qualified maintenance or repair performed in the United States; and

"(3) shall apply to qualified maintenance or repair performed during the 5-year period beginning on the date the vessel begins operating under the operating agreement under chapter 531 of title 46, United States Code.

"(c) Exception to Requirement to Perform Work in the United States.—A contractor shall not be required to have qualified maintenance or repair work performed in the United States under this section if—

"(1) the Secretary determines that there is no facility capable of meeting all technical requirements of the qualified maintenance or repair in the United States located in the geographic area in which the vessel normally operates available to perform the work in the time required by the contractor to maintain its regularly scheduled service;

"(2) the Secretary determines that there are insufficient funds to pay reimbursement under subsection (d) with respect to the work; or

"(3) the Secretary fails to make the certification described in subsection (e)(2).

"(d) Reimbursement.—

"(1) In general.—The Secretary shall, subject to the availability of appropriations, reimburse a contractor for costs incurred by the contractor for qualified maintenance or repair performed in the United States under this section.

"(2) Amount.—The amount of reimbursement shall be equal to the difference between—

"(A) the fair and reasonable cost of obtaining the qualified maintenance or repair in the United States; and

"(B) the fair and reasonable cost of obtaining the qualified maintenance or repair outside the United States, in the country in which the contractor would otherwise undertake the qualified maintenance or repair.

"(3) Determination of fair and reasonable costs.—The Secretary shall determine fair and reasonable costs for purposes of paragraph (2).

"(e) Notification Requirements.—

"(1) Notification by contractor.—The Secretary is not required to pay reimbursement to a contractor under this section for qualified maintenance or repair, unless the contractor—

"(A) notifies the Secretary of the intent of the contractor to obtain the qualified maintenance or repair, by not later than 90 days before the date of the performance of the qualified maintenance or repair; and

"(B) includes in such notification—

"(i) a description of all qualified maintenance or repair that the contractor should reasonably expect may be performed;

"(ii) a description of the vessel's normal route and port calls in the United States;

"(iii) an estimate of the cost of obtaining the qualified maintenance or repair described under clause (i) in the United States; and

"(iv) an estimate of the cost of obtaining the qualified maintenance or repair described under clause (i) outside the United States, in the country in which the contractor otherwise would undertake the qualified maintenance or repair.

"(2) Certification by secretary.—

"(A) Not later than 30 days after the date of receipt of notification under paragraph (1), the Secretary shall certify to the contractor—

"(i) whether the cost estimates provided by the contractor are fair and reasonable;

"(ii) if the Secretary determines that such cost estimates are not fair and reasonable, the Secretary's estimate of fair and reasonable costs for such work;

"(iii) whether there are available to the Secretary sufficient funds to pay reimbursement under subsection (d) with respect to such work; and

"(iv) that the Secretary commits such funds to the contractor for such reimbursement, if such funds are available for that purpose.

"(B) If the contractor notification described in paragraph (1) does not include an estimate of the cost of obtaining qualified maintenance and repair in the United States, then not later than 30 days after the date of receipt of such notification, the Secretary shall—

"(i) certify to the contractor whether there is a facility capable of meeting all technical requirements of the qualified maintenance and repair in the United States located in the geographic area in which the vessel normally operates available to perform the qualified maintenance and repair described in the notification by the contractor under paragraph (1) in the time period required by the contractor to maintain its regularly scheduled service; and

"(ii) if there is such a facility, require the contractor to resubmit such notification with the required cost estimate for such facility.

"(f) Regulations.—

"(1) Requirement to issue notice of proposed rule making.—The Secretary shall—

"(A) by not later than 30 days after the effective date of this subsection [probably means effective date of Pub. L. 109–163, Jan. 6, 2006], issue a notice of proposed rule making to implement this section;

"(B) in such notice, solicit the submission of comments by the public regarding rules to implement this section; and

"(C) provide a period of at least 30 days for the submission of such comments.

"(2) Interim rules.—Upon expiration of the period for submission of comments pursuant to paragraph (1)(C), the Secretary may prescribe interim rules necessary to carry out the Secretary's responsibilities under this section. For this purpose, the Secretary is excepted from compliance with the notice and comment requirements of section 553 of title 5, United States Code. At the time interim rules are issued, the Secretary shall solicit comments on the interim rules from the public and other interested persons. Such period for comment shall not be less than 90 days. All interim rules prescribed under the authority of this subsection that are not earlier superseded by final rules shall expire no later than 270 days after the effective date of this subsection.

"(g) Qualified Maintenance or Repair Defined.—In this section the term 'qualified maintenance or repair'—

"(1) except as provided in paragraph (2), means—

"(A) any inspection of a vessel that is—

"(i) required under chapter 33 of title 46, United States Code; and

"(ii) performed in the period in which the vessel is subject to an agreement under this section;

"(B) any maintenance or repair of a vessel that is determined, in the course of an inspection referred to in subparagraph (A), to be necessary; and

"(C) any additional maintenance or repair the contractor intends to undertake at the same time as the work described in subparagraph (B); and

"(2) does not include—

"(A) maintenance or repair not agreed to by the contractor to be undertaken at the same time as the work described in paragraph (1); or

"(B) any emergency work that is necessary to enable a vessel to return to a port in the United States.

"(h) Annual Report.—The Secretary shall submit to the Congress by not later than September 30 each year a report on the program under this section. The report shall include a listing of future inspection schedules for all vessels included in the Maritime Security Fleet under section 53102 of title 46, United States Code.

"(i) Authorization of Appropriations.—In addition to the other amounts authorized by this title [see Short Title of 2003 Amendment note set out under section 101 of this title], for reimbursement of costs of qualified maintenance or repair under this section there is authorized to be appropriated to the Secretary of Transportation $19,500,000 for each of fiscal years 2006 through 2011."

National Defense Tank Vessel Construction Assistance

Pub. L. 108–136, div. C, title XXXV, subtitle D, Nov. 24, 2003, 117 Stat. 1820, as amended by Pub. L. 108–375, div. C, title XXXV, §3503, Oct. 28, 2004, 118 Stat. 2195; Pub. L. 109–163, div. C, title XXXV, §3504, Jan. 6, 2006, 119 Stat. 3551; Pub. L. 109–364, div. C, title XXXV, §3502(b)(2), Oct. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 2516, provided that:

"SEC. 3541. NATIONAL DEFENSE TANK VESSEL CONSTRUCTION PROGRAM.

"The Secretary of Transportation shall establish a program for the provision of financial assistance for the construction in the United States of a fleet of up to 5 privately owned product tank vessels—

"(1) to be operated in commercial service in foreign commerce; and

"(2) to be available for national defense purposes in time of war or national emergency pursuant to an Emergency Preparedness Plan approved by the Secretary of Defense pursuant to section 3543(e).

"SEC. 3542. APPLICATION PROCEDURE.

"(a) Request for Proposals.—Within 90 days after the date of the enactment of this subtitle [Nov. 24, 2003], and on an as-needed basis thereafter, the Secretary, in consultation with the Secretary of Defense, shall publish in the Federal Register a request for competitive proposals for the construction of new product tank vessels necessary to meet the commercial and national security needs of the United States and to be built with assistance under this subtitle.

"(b) Qualification.—Any citizen of the United States or any shipyard in the United States may submit a proposal to the Secretary of Transportation for purposes of constructing a product tank vessel with assistance under this subtitle.

"(c) Requirement.—The Secretary, with the concurrence of the Secretary of Defense, may enter into an agreement with the submitter of a proposal for assistance under this subtitle if the Secretary determines that—

"(1) the plans and specifications call for construction of a new product tank vessel of not less than 35,000 deadweight tons and not greater than 60,000 deadweight tons, that—

"(A) will meet the requirements of foreign commerce;

"(B) is capable of carrying militarily useful petroleum products, and will be suitable for national defense or military purposes in time of war, national emergency, or other military contingency; and

"(C) will meet the construction standards necessary to be documented under the laws of the United States;

"(2) the shipyard in which the vessel will be constructed has the necessary capacity and expertise to successfully construct the proposed number and type of product tank vessels in a reasonable period of time as determined by the Secretary of Transportation, taking into consideration the recent prior commercial shipbuilding history of the proposed shipyard in delivering a vessel or series of vessels on time and in accordance with the contract price and specifications; and

"(3) the person proposed to be the operator of the proposed vessel possesses the ability, experience, financial resources, and any other qualifications determined to be necessary by the Secretary for the operation and maintenance of the vessel.

"(d) Priority.—The Secretary—

"(1) subject to paragraph (2), shall give priority consideration to a proposal submitted by a person that is a citizen of the United States under section 2 of the Shipping Act, 1916 ([former] 46 U.S.C. App. 802) [see 46 U.S.C. 50501]; and

"(2) may give priority to consideration of proposals that provide the best value to the Government, taking into consideration—

"(A) the costs of vessel construction;

"(B) the commercial and national security needs of the United States; and

"(C) with respect to any proposal for financial assistance to be provided from amounts appropriated for a fiscal year after fiscal year 2005, acceptance of the vessel to be constructed with the assistance for participation in the Shipboard Technology Evaluation Program as outlined in Navigation and Vessel Inspection Circular 01–04, issued by the Commandant of the United States Coast Guard on January 2, 2004.

"SEC. 3543. AWARD OF ASSISTANCE.

"(a) In General.—If after review of a proposal, the Secretary determines that the proposal fulfills the requirements under this subtitle, the Secretary may enter into a contract with the proposed purchaser and the proposed shipyard for the construction of a product tank vessel with assistance under this subtitle.

"(b) Amount of Assistance.—The contract shall provide that the Secretary shall pay, subject to the availability of appropriations, the actual construction cost of the vessel, but in no case more than $50,000,000 per vessel.

"(c) Construction in United States.—A contract under this section shall require that construction of a vessel with assistance under this subtitle shall be performed in a shipyard in the United States.

"(d) Documentation of Vessel.—

"(1) Contract requirement.—A contract under this section shall require that, upon delivery of a vessel constructed with assistance under the contract, the vessel shall be documented under chapter 121 of title 46, United States Code, with a registry endorsement only.

"(2) Restriction on coastwise endorsement.—A vessel constructed with assistance under this subtitle shall not be eligible for a certificate of documentation with a coastwise endorsement.

"(3) Authority to reflag not applicable.—Section 9(g) [probably should be 9(e)] of the Shipping Act, 1916, ([former] 46 U.S.C. App. 808(g) [probably should be 808(e)]) [now 46 U.S.C. 56101(c)] shall not apply to a vessel constructed with assistance under this subtitle.

"(e) Emergency Preparedness Agreement.—

"(1) In general.—A contract under this section shall require that the person who will be the operator of a vessel constructed with assistance under the contract shall enter into an Emergency Preparedness Agreement for the vessel under section 53107 of title 46, United States Code, as amended by this Act.

"(2) Treatment as contractor.—For purposes of the application, under paragraph (1), of section 53107 of title 46, United States Code, to a vessel constructed with assistance under this subtitle, the term 'contractor' as used in that section means the person who will be the operator of a vessel constructed with assistance under this subtitle.

"(f) Additional Terms.—The Secretary shall incorporate in the contract the requirements set forth in this subtitle, and may incorporate in the contract any additional terms the Secretary considers necessary.

"SEC. 3544. PRIORITY FOR TITLE XI ASSISTANCE.

[Amended section 1273 of the former Appendix to this title.]

"SEC. 3545. DEFINITIONS.

"In this subtitle the definitions set forth in section 53101 of title 46, United States Code, as amended by this Act, shall apply.

"SEC. 3546. AUTHORIZATION OF APPROPRIATIONS.

"There are authorized to be appropriated to the Secretary to carry out this subtitle a total of $250,000,000 for fiscal years after fiscal year 2004."

Sale of Inactive Passenger Vessels Under Operating-Differential Subsidy to Foreign Ownership

Pub. L. 92–296, §1, May 16, 1972, 86 Stat. 140; Pub. L. 97–31, §12(38), Aug. 6, 1981, 95 Stat. 156, provided that:

"Notwithstanding any other provision of law or of prior contract with the United States, any vessel heretofore operated as a passenger vessel, as defined in section 613(a) of the Merchant Marine Act, 1936, as amended [act June 29, 1936, ch. 858, set out below], under an operating-differential subsidy contract with the United States and now in inactive or layup status, except the steamship Independence and the steamship United States, may be sold and transferred to foreign ownership, registry, and flag, with the prior approval of the Secretary of Transportation. Such approval shall require (1) approval of the purchaser; (2) payment of existing debt and private obligations related to the vessel; (3) approval of the price, including terms of payment, for the sale of the vessel; (4) the seller to enter into an agreement with the Secretary whereby an amount equal to the net proceeds received from such sale in excess of existing obligations and expenses incident to the sale shall within a reasonable period not to exceed twelve months of receipt be committed and thereafter be used as equity capital for the construction of new vessels which the Secretary determines are built to effectuate the purposes and policy of the Merchant Marine Act, 1936, as amended [former 46 U.S.C. App. 1101 et seq., see Disposition Table preceding section 101 of this title]; and (5) the purchaser to enter into an agreement with the Secretary, binding upon such purchaser and any later owner of the vessel and running with title to the vessel, that (a) the vessel will not carry passengers or cargo in competition, as determined by the Secretary, with any United States-flag passenger vessel for a period of two years from the date the transferred vessel goes into operation; (b) the vessel will be made available to the United States in time of emergency and just compensation for title or use, as the case may be, shall be paid in accordance with section 902 of the Merchant Marine Act, 1936, as amended (46 App. U.S.C. 1242) [now 46 U.S.C. 56301 et seq.]; (c) the purchaser will comply with such further conditions as the Secretary may impose as authorized by sections 9, 37, and 41 of the Shipping Act, 1916, as amended ([former] 46 U.S.C. [App.] 808, 835, and 839) [see 46 U.S.C. 56101 to 56104 and 57109]; and (d) the purchaser will furnish a surety bond in an amount and with a surety satisfactory to the Secretary to secure performance of the foregoing agreements.

"In addition to any other provision such agreements may contain for enforcement of (4) and (5) above, the agreements therein required may be specifically enforced by decree for specific performance or injunction in any district court of the United States. In the agreement with the Secretary the purchaser shall irrevocably appoint a corporate agent within the United States for service of process upon such purchaser in any action to enforce the agreement."

Off-Season Cruises Additional to Voyages on Regular Service, Route, or Line

Pub. L. 87–45, §7, May 27, 1961, 75 Stat. 91, provided that: "The cruises authorized by section 613 [of act June 29, 1936, ch. 858, set out below] shall be in addition to and not in derogation of the right of an operator to make voyages on his regular service, route or line, including approved deviations within the general area of his essential service. There shall be no adjustment of subsidy in the event of such deviations if they are without prejudice to the adequacy of service."

Minimum Manning, Wage Scales, and Working Conditions on Subsidized Vessels

Act June 29, 1936, ch. 858, title III, §301, 49 Stat. 1992; June 23, 1938, ch. 600, §§5, 6, 52 Stat. 955; 1946 Reorg. Plan No. 3, §§101–104, eff. July 16, 1946, 11 F.R. 7875, 60 Stat. 1097; Pub. L. 97–31, §12(82), Aug. 6, 1981, 95 Stat. 160; Pub. L. 109–163, div. A, title V, §515(g)(2)(A), Jan. 6, 2006, 119 Stat. 3236, provided that:

"(a) The Secretary of Transportation is authorized and directed to investigate the employment and wage conditions in ocean-going shipping and, after making such investigation and after appropriate hearings, to incorporate in the contracts authorized under titles VI and VII of this Act [former 46 U.S.C. App. 1171 et seq., 1191 et seq., see Disposition Table preceding section 101 of this title] minimum manning scales and minimum wage scales, and minimum working conditions for all officers and crews employed on all types of vessels receiving an operating-differential subsidy. After such minimum manning and wage scales, and working conditions shall have been adopted by the Secretary of Transportation, no change shall be made therein by the Secretary of Transportation except upon public notice of the hearing to be had, and a hearing by the Secretary of Transportation of all interested parties, under such rules as the Secretary of Transportation shall prescribe. The duly elected representatives of the organizations certified as the proper collective bargaining agencies shall have the right to represent the employees who are members of their organizations at any such hearings. Every contractor receiving an operating-differential subsidy shall post and keep posted in a conspicuous place on each such vessel operated by such contractor a printed copy of the minimum manning and wage scales, and working conditions prescribed by his contract and applicable to such vessel: Provided, however, That any increase in the operating expenses of the subsidized vessel occasioned by any change in the wage or manning scales or working conditions as provided in this section shall be added to the operating-differential subsidy previously authorized for the vessel.

"(b) Every contract executed under authority of titles VI and VII of this Act shall require—

"(1) Insofar as is practicable, officers' living quarters shall be kept separate and apart from those furnished for members of the crew;

"(2) Licensed officers and unlicensed members of the crew shall be entitled to make complaints or recommendations to the Secretary of Transportation providing they file such complaint or recommendation directly with the Secretary of Transportation, or with their immediate superior officer who shall be required to forward such complaint or recommendation with his remarks to the Secretary of Transportation, or with the authorized representatives of the respective collective bargaining agencies;

"(3) Licensed officers who are members of the United States Navy Reserve shall wear on their uniforms such special distinguishing insignia as may be approved by the Secretary of the Navy; officers being those men serving under licenses issued by the Bureau of Marine Inspection and Navigation or the Coast Guard;

"(4) The uniform stripes, decoration, or other insignia shall be of gold braid or woven gold or silver material, to be worn by officers, and no member of the ship's crew other than licensed officers shall be allowed to wear any uniform with such officer's identifying insignia;

"(5) No discrimination shall be practiced against licensed officers, who are otherwise qualified, because of their failure to qualify as members of the United States Navy Reserve."

Construction-Differential Subsidy

Act June 29, 1936, ch. 858, title V, 49 Stat. 1995, as amended, provided as follows:

Subsidy Authorized for Vessels To Be Operated in Foreign Trade

"Sec. 501. (a) Any proposed ship purchaser who is a citizen of the United States or any shipyard of the United States may make application to the Secretary of Transportation for a construction-differential subsidy to aid in the construction of a new vessel to be used in the foreign commerce of the United States. No such application shall be approved by the Secretary of Transportation unless he determines that (1) the plans and specifications call for a new vessel which will meet the requirements of the foreign commerce of the United States, will aid in the promotion and development of such commerce, and be suitable for use by the United States for national defense or military purposes in time of war or national emergency; (2) if the applicant is the proposed ship purchaser, the applicant possesses the ability, experience, financial resources, and other qualifications necessary for the operation and maintenance of the proposed new vessel, and (3) the granting of the aid applied for is reasonably calculated to carry out effectively the purposes and policy of this Act [former 46 U.S.C. App. 1101 et seq., see Disposition Table preceding section 101 of this title]. The contract of sale, and the mortgage given to secure the payment of the unpaid balance of the purchase price shall not restrict the lawful or proper use or operation of the vessel except to the extent expressly required by law. The Secretary of Transportation may give preferred consideration to applications that will tend to reduce construction-differential subsidies and that propose the construction of ships of higher transport capability and productivity.

"(b) The Secretary of Transportation shall submit the plans and specifications for the proposed vessel to the Navy Department for examination thereof and suggestions for such changes therein as may be deemed necessary or proper in order that such vessel shall be suitable for economical and speedy conversion into a naval or military auxiliary, or otherwise suitable for the use of the United States Government in time of war or national emergency. If the Secretary of the Navy approves such plans and specifications as submitted, or as modified, in accordance with the provisions of this subsection, he shall certify such approval to the Secretary of Transportation.

"(c) Any citizen of the United States or any shipyard of the United States may make application to the Secretary of Transportation for a construction-differential subsidy to aid in reconstructing or reconditioning any vessel that is to be used in the foreign commerce of the United States. If the Secretary of Transportation, in the exercise of his discretion, shall determine that the granting of the financial aid applied for is reasonably calculated to carry out effectively the purposes and policy of this Act, the Secretary of Transportation may approve such application and enter into a contract or contracts with the applicant therefor providing for the payment by the United States of a construction-differential subsidy that is to be ascertained, determined, controlled, granted, and paid, subject to all the applicable conditions and limitations of this title and under such further conditions and limitations as may be prescribed in the rules and regulations of the Secretary of Transportation has adopted as provided in section 204(b) of this Act [former 46 U.S.C. App. 1114(b), repealed by Pub. L. 109–304, §19, Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1710]; but the financial aid authorized by this subsection shall be extended to reconstruction or reconditioning only in exceptional cases and after a thorough study and a formal determination by the Secretary of Transportation that the proposed reconstruction or reconditioning is consistent with the purposes and policy of this Act."

(As amended June 23, 1938, ch. 600, §8, 52 Stat. 955; July 17, 1952, ch. 939, §§1, 2, 66 Stat. 760, 761; Pub. L. 91–469, §§6, 35(a), (c), (d), Oct. 21, 1970, 84 Stat. 1019, 1035; Pub. L. 91–603, §4(a), Dec. 31, 1970, 84 Stat. 1675; Pub. L. 97–31, §12(84), Aug. 6, 1981, 95 Stat. 161.)

Construction of Vessels; Bids; Subsidies

"Sec. 502. (a) If the Secretary of the Navy certifies his approval under section 501(b) of this Act, and the Secretary of Transportation approves the application, he may secure bids for the construction of the proposed vessel according to the approved plans and specifications. If the bid of the shipbuilder who is the lowest responsible bidder is determined by the Secretary of Transportation to be fair and reasonable, the Secretary of Transportation may approve such bid, and if such approved bid is accepted by the proposed ship purchaser, the Secretary of Transportation is authorized to enter into a contract with the successful bidder for the construction, outfitting, and equipment of the proposed vessel, and for the payment by the Secretary of Transportation to the shipbuilder, on terms to be agreed upon in the contract, of the contract price of the vessel, out of the construction fund hereinbefore referred to, or out of other available funds. Notwithstanding the provisions of the first sentence of section 505 of this Act with respect to competitive bidding, the Secretary of Transportation is authorized to accept a price for the construction of the ship which has been negotiated between a shipyard and proposed ship purchaser if (1) the proposed ship purchaser and the shipyard submit backup cost details and evidence that the negotiated price is fair and reasonable; (2) the Secretary of Transportation finds that the negotiated price is fair and reasonable; and (3) the shipyard agrees that the Comptroller General of the United States or any of his duly authorized representatives shall, until the expiration of three years after final payment have access to and the right to examine any pertinent books, documents, papers, and records of the shipyard or any of its subcontractors related to the negotiation or performance of any contract or subcontract negotiated under this subsection and will include in its subcontracts a provision to that effect. Concurrently with entering into such contract with the shipbuilder, the Secretary of Transportation is authorized to enter into a contract for the sale of such vessel upon its completion, to the applicant if he is the proposed ship purchaser and if not to another citizen of the United States, if the Secretary of Transportation determines that such citizen possesses the ability, experience, financial resources, and other qualifications necessary for the operation and maintenance of the vessel at a price corresponding to the estimated cost, as determined by the Secretary of Transportation pursuant to the provisions of this Act [former 46 U.S.C. App. 1101 et seq., see Disposition Table preceding section 101 of this title], of building such vessel in a foreign shipyard.

"(b) The amount of the reduction in selling price which is herein termed 'construction differential subsidy' shall equal, but not exceed, the excess of the bid of the shipbuilder constructing the proposed vessel (excluding the cost of any features incorporated in the vessel for national defense uses, which shall be paid by the Secretary in addition to the subsidy), over the fair and reasonable estimate of cost, as determined by the Secretary, of the construction of that type vessel if it were constructed under similar plans and specifications (excluding national defense features as above provided) in a foreign shipbuilding center which is deemed by the Secretary to furnish a fair and representative example for the determination of the estimated foreign cost of construction of vessels of the type proposed to be constructed. The Secretary of Transportation shall recompute such estimated foreign cost annually unless, in the opinion of the Secretary, there has been a significant change in shipbuilding market conditions. The Secretary shall publish notice of his intention to compute or recompute such estimated foreign cost and shall give interested persons, including but not limited to shipyards and shipowners and associations thereof, an opportunity to file written statements. The Secretary's consideration shall include, but not be limited to, all relevant matter so filed, and his determination shall include or be accompanied by a concise explanation of the basis of his determination. The construction differential approved and paid by the Secretary shall not exceed 50 per centum of the cost of constructing, reconstructing, or reconditioning the vessel (excluding the cost of national defense features). If the Secretary finds that the construction differential exceeds, in any case, the foregoing percentage of such cost, the Secretary may negotiate with any bidder (whether or not such person is the lowest bidder) and may contract with such bidder (notwithstanding the first sentence of section 505) for the construction, reconstruction, or reconditioning of the vessel involved in a domestic shipyard at a cost which will reduce the construction differential to such percentage or less. In the event that the Secretary has reason to believe that the bidding in any instance is collusive, he shall report all of the evidence on which he acted (1) to the Attorney General of the United States, and (2) to the President of the Senate and to the Speaker of the House of Representatives if the Congress shall be in session or if the Congress shall not be in session, then to the Secretary of the Senate and Clerk of the House, respectively.

"(c) In such contract of sale between the purchaser and the Secretary of Transportation, the purchaser shall be required to make cash payments to the Secretary of Transportation of not less than 25 per centum of the price at which the vessel is sold to the purchaser. The cash payments shall be made at the time and in the same proportion as provided for the payments on account of the construction cost in the contract between the shipbuilder and the Secretary of Transportation. The purchaser shall pay, not less frequently than annually, interest on those portions of the Secretary of Transportation's payments as made to the shipbuilder which are chargeable to the purchaser's portion of the price of the vessel (after deduction of the purchaser's cash payments) at a rate not less than (i) a rate determined by the Secretary of the Treasury, taking into consideration the current average market yield on outstanding marketable obligations of the United States with remaining periods to maturity comparable to the average maturities of such loans, adjusted to the nearest one-eighth of 1 per centum, plus (ii) an allowance adequate in the judgment of the Secretary of Transportation to cover administrative costs. The balance of such purchase price shall be paid by the purchaser, within twenty-five years after delivery of the vessel and in not to exceed twenty-five equal annual installments, the first of which shall be payable one year after the delivery of the vessel by the Secretary of Transportation to the purchaser. Interest at the rate per annum applicable to payments that are chargeable to the purchaser's portion of the price of the vessel shall be paid on all such installments of the purchase price remaining unpaid.

"(d) [Repealed. Pub. L. 87–877, §2(a), Oct. 24, 1962, 76 Stat. 1200.]

"(e) If no bids are received for the construction, outfitting, or equipping of such vessel, or if it appears to the Secretary of Transportation that the bids received from privately owned shipyards of the United States are collusive, excessive, or unreasonable, and if a citizen of the United States agrees to purchase said vessel as provided in this section, then, to provide employment for citizens of the United States, the Secretary of Transportation may have such vessel constructed, outfitted, or equipped at not in excess of the actual cost thereof in a navy yard of the United States under such regulations as may be promulgated by the Secretary of the Navy and the Secretary of Transportation. In such event the Secretary of Transportation is authorized to pay for any such vessel so constructed from his construction fund. The Secretary of Transportation is authorized to sell any vessel so constructed, outfitted, or equipped in a navy yard to a citizen of the United States for the fair and reasonable value thereof, but at not less than the cost thereof less the equivalent to the construction differential subsidy determined as provided by subsection (b), such sale to be in accordance with all the provisions of this title.

"(f) The Secretary of Transportation, with the advice of and in coordination with the Secretary of the Navy, shall at least once each year, as required for purposes of this Act, survey the existing privately owned shipyards capable of merchant ship construction, or review available data on such shipyards if deemed adequate, to determine whether their capabilities for merchant ship construction, including facilities and skilled personnel, provide an adequate mobilization base at strategic points for purposes of national defense and national emergency. The Secretary of Transportation, in connection with ship construction, reconstruction, reconditioning, or remodeling under titles V and VII [former 46 U.S.C. App. 1191 et seq., see Disposition Table preceding section 101 of this title], upon a basis of a finding that the award of the proposed construction, reconstruction, reconditioning, or remodeling work will remedy an existing or impending inadequacy in such mobilization base as to the capabilities and capacities of a shipyard or shipyards at a strategic point, and after taking into consideration the benefits accruing from standardized construction, the conditions of unemployment, and the needs and reasonable requirements of all shipyards, may allocate such construction, reconstruction, reconditioning, or remodeling to such yard or yards in such manner as he may determine to be fair, just, and reasonable to all sections of the country, subject to the provisions of this subsection. In the allocation of construction work to such yards as herein provided, the Secretary of Transportation may, after first obtaining competitive bids for such work in compliance with the provisions of this Act, negotiate with the bidders and with other shipbuilders concerning the terms and conditions of any contract for such work, and is authorized to enter into such contract at a price deemed by the Secretary of Transportation to be fair and reasonable. Any contract entered into by the Secretary of Transportation under the provisions of this subsection shall be subject to all of the terms and conditions of this Act, excepting those pertaining to the awarding of contracts to the lowest bidder which are inconsistent with the provisions of this subsection. In the event that a contract is made providing for a price in excess of the lowest responsible bid which otherwise would be accepted, such excess shall be paid by the Secretary of Transportation as a part of the cost of national defense, and shall not be considered as a part of the construction-differential subsidy. In the event that a contract is made providing for a price lower than the lowest responsible bid which otherwise would be accepted, the construction-differential subsidy shall be computed on the contract price in lieu of such bid.

"If, as a result of allocation under this subsection, the purchaser incurs expenses for inspection and supervision of the vessel during construction and for the delivery voyage of the vessel in excess of the estimated expenses for the same services that he would have incurred if the vessel had been constructed by the lowest responsible bidder the Secretary of Transportation (with respect to construction under title V, except section 509) shall reimburse the purchaser for such excess, less one-half of any gross income the purchaser receives that is allocable to the delivery voyage minus one-half of the extra expenses incurred to produce such gross income, and such reimbursement shall not be considered part of the construction-differential subsidy: Provided, That no interest shall be paid on any refund authorized under this Act. If the vessel is constructed under section 509 the Secretary of Transportation shall reduce the price of the vessel by such excess, less one-half of any gross income (minus one-half of the extra expenses incurred to produce such gross income) the purchaser receives that is allocable to the delivery voyage. In the case of a vessel that is not to receive operating-differential subsidy, the delivery voyage shall be deemed terminated at the port where the vessel begins loading. In the case of a vessel that is to receive operating-differential subsidy, the delivery voyage shall be deemed terminated when the vessel begins loading at a United States port in an essential service. In either case, however, the vessel owner shall not be compensated for excess vessel delivery costs in an amount greater than the expenses that would have been incurred in delivering the vessel from the shipyard at which it was built to the shipyard of the lowest responsible bidder. If as a result of such allocation, the expenses the purchaser incurs with respect to such services are less than the expenses he would have incurred for such services if the vessel had been constructed by the lowest responsible bidder, the purchaser shall pay to the Secretary of Transportation an amount equal to such reduction and, if the vessel was built with the aid of construction-differential subsidy, such payment shall not be considered a reduction of the construction-differential subsidy.

"(g) Upon the application of any citizen of the United States to purchase any vessel acquired by the Secretary of Transportation under the provisions of section 215 [former 46 U.S.C. App. 1125, see 46 U.S.C. 57105], the Secretary of Transportation is authorized to sell such vessel to the applicant for the fair and reasonable value thereof, but at not less than the cost thereof to the Secretary of Transportation less depreciation at the rate of 4 per centum per annum from the date of completion, excluding the cost of national-defense features added by the Secretary of Transportation, less the equivalent of any applicable construction-differential subsidy as provided by subsection (b), such sale to be in accordance with all the provisions of this title. Such vessel shall thereupon be eligible for an operating-differential subsidy under title VI of this Act [former 46 U.S.C. App. 1171 et seq., see Disposition Table preceding section 101 of this title], notwithstanding the provisions of section 601(a)(1), and section 610(1) [set out below], or any other provision of law.

"(h) The Secretary of Transportation is authorized to construct, purchase, lease, acquire, store, maintain, sell, or otherwise dispose of national defense features intended for installation on vessels. The Secretary of Transportation is authorized to install or remove such national defense features on any vessel (1) which is in the National Defense Reserve Fleet as defined by section 11(a) of the Merchant Ship Sales Act of 1946 [former 50 U.S.C. 4405(a), now 46 U.S.C. 57100(a)], (2) which is requisitioned, purchased, or chartered under section 902 of the Merchant Marine Act, 1936 [former 46 U.S.C. App. 1242, now 46 U.S.C. 56301 et seq.], (3) which serves as security for the guarantee of an obligation by the Secretary of Transportation under title XI of this Act [former 46 U.S.C. App. 1271 et seq., see 46 U.S.C. 53701 et seq.], or (4) which is the subject of an agreement between the owner of such vessel and the Secretary of Transportation to install or remove such national defense features. Title to such national defense features which the Secretary of Transportation determines are not to be permanently incorporated in a vessel shall not be affected by such installation or removal unless otherwise transferred in accordance with the provisions of this title V.

"(i) The Secretary of Transportation shall submit the plans and specifications for such national defense features and the proposals for their acquisition, storage, utilization, or disposition to the Navy Department for examination thereof and suggestion for such changes therein as may be deemed necessary or proper in order that such features shall be suitable for the use of the United States Government in time of war or national emergency. If the Secretary of the Navy approves such plans, specifications, or proposals as submitted, or as modified in accordance with the provisions of this subsection, he shall certify such approval to the Secretary of Transportation."

(As amended June 23, 1938, ch. 600, §§9–14, 52 Stat. 955–957; Aug. 4, 1939, ch. 417, §6, 53 Stat. 1183; July 26, 1956, ch. 737, 70 Stat. 657; Pub. L. 86–518, §§1, 2, June 12, 1960, 74 Stat. 216; Pub. L. 86–607, §1, July 7, 1960, 74 Stat. 362; Pub. L. 87–877, §§1, 2(a), (e), (f), Oct. 24, 1962, 76 Stat. 1200, 1201; Pub. L. 88–370, July 11, 1964, 78 Stat. 313; Pub. L. 88–410, §1, Aug. 10, 1964, 78 Stat. 385; Pub. L. 89–127, Aug. 14, 1965, 79 Stat. 519; Pub. L. 89–589, Sept. 19, 1966, 80 Stat. 811; Pub. L. 90–572, Oct. 12, 1968, 82 Stat. 1004; Pub. L. 91–40, July 8, 1969, 83 Stat. 44; Pub. L. 91–469, §§7, 35(a), (e)–(g), Oct. 21, 1970, 84 Stat. 1019, 1035, 1036; Pub. L. 91–603, §4(b), Dec. 31, 1970, 84 Stat. 1675; Pub. L. 93–71, July 10, 1973, 87 Stat. 169; Pub. L. 94–372, §§2, 3, July 31, 1976, 90 Stat. 1042; Pub. L. 96–210, Mar. 17, 1980, 94 Stat. 100; Pub. L. 96–387, §3, Oct. 7, 1980, 94 Stat. 1545; Pub. L. 97–31, §12(84), (85), Aug. 6, 1981, 95 Stat. 161.)

Documentation of Completed Vessel Under Laws of United States; Delivery to Purchaser; First Mortgage to Secure Deferred Payments

"Sec. 503. Upon completion of the construction of any vessel in respect to which a construction-differential subsidy is to be allowed under this title and its delivery by the shipbuilder to the Secretary of Transportation, the vessel shall be documented under the laws of the United States, and concurrently therewith, or as soon thereafter as practicable, the vessel shall be delivered with a bill of sale to the purchaser with warranty against liens, pursuant to the contract of sale between the purchaser and the Secretary of Transportation. The vessel shall remain documented under the laws of the United States for not less than twenty-five years, or so long as there remains due the United States any principal or interest on account of the purchaser price, whichever is the longer period. At the time of delivery of the vessel the purchaser shall execute and deliver a first-preferred mortgage to the United States to secure payment of any sums due from the purchaser in respect to said vessel: Provided, That notwithstanding any other provisions of law, the payment of any sums due in respect to a passenger vessel purchased under section 4(b) of the Merchant Ship Sales Act of 1946 [former 50 U.S.C. App. 1737(b)], reconverted or restored for normal operation in commercial services, or in respect to a passenger vessel purchased under title V of this Act, which is delivered subsequent to March 8, 1946, and which (i) is of not less than ten thousand gross tons, (ii) has a designed speed approved by the Secretary of Transportation but not less than eighteen knots, (iii) has accommodations for not less than two hundred passengers, and, (iv) is approved by the Secretary of Defense as being desirable for national defense purposes, may, with the approval of the Secretary of Transportation be secured only by a first-preferred mortgage on said vessel. With the approval of the Secretary of Transportation, such preferred mortgage may provide that the sole recourse against the purchaser of such a passenger vessel under such mortgage, and any of the notes secured thereby, shall be limited to repossession of the vessel by the United States and the assignment of insurance claims, if the purchaser shall have complied with all provisions of the mortgage other than those relating to the payment of principal and interest when due, and the obligation of the purchaser shall be satisfied and discharged by the surrender of the vessel, and all right, title, and interest therein to the United States. Such vessel upon surrender shall be (i) free and clear of all liens and encumbrances whatsoever, except the lien of the preferred mortgage, (ii) in class, and (iii) in as good order and condition, ordinary wear and tear excepted, as when acquired by the purchaser, except that any deficiencies with respect to freedom from encumbrances, condition, and class, may, to the extent covered by valid policies of insurance, be satisfied by the assignment to the United States of claims of the purchaser under such policies of insurance. The purchaser shall also comply with all the provisions of section 9 of the Merchant Marine Act, 1920 [former 46 U.S.C. App. 868, repealed by Pub. L. 109–304, §19, Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1710]."

(As amended June 23, 1938, ch. 600, §15, 52 Stat. 957; July 17, 1952, ch. 939, §3, 66 Stat. 761; Pub. L. 86–518, §1, June 12, 1960, 74 Stat. 216; Pub. L. 91–469, §§8, 35(a), Oct. 21, 1970, 84 Stat. 1021, 1035; Pub. L. 97–31, §12(84), Aug. 6, 1981, 95 Stat. 161.)

Purchase of Vessel Constructed in Accordance With Application for Subsidy; Bid or Negotiated Price Basis for Subsidy and Payments for Cost of National Defense Features; Documentation

"Sec. 504. If a qualified purchaser under the terms of this title desires to purchase a vessel to be constructed in accordance with an application for construction-differential subsidy under this title, the Secretary of Transportation may, in lieu of contracting to pay the entire cost of the vessel under section 502, contract to pay only construction-differential subsidy and the cost of national defense features to the shipyard constructing such vessel. The construction-differential subsidy and payments for the cost of national defense features shall be based upon the lowest responsible domestic bid unless the vessel is constructed at a negotiated price as provided by section 502(a) or under a contract negotiated by the Secretary of Transportation as provided in section 502(b) in which event the construction-differential subsidy and payments for the cost of national defense features shall be based upon such negotiated price. No construction-differential subsidy, as provided in this section, shall be paid unless the said contract or contracts or other arrangements contain such provisions as are provided in this title to protect the interests of the United States as the Secretary of Transportation deems necessary. Such vessel shall be documented under the laws of the United States as provided in section 503 of this title. The contract of sale, and the mortgage given to secure the payment of the unpaid balance of the purchase price, shall not restrict the lawful or proper use or operation of the vessel, except to the extent expressly required by law."

(As amended June 23, 1938, ch. 600, §16, 52 Stat. 958; July 17, 1952, ch. 939, §4, 66 Stat. 761; Pub. L. 91–469, §§9, 35(a), Oct. 21, 1970, 84 Stat. 1021, 1035; Pub. L. 97–31, §12(84), Aug. 6, 1981, 95 Stat. 161.)

Eligible Shipyards; Materials; Conditions of Contracts; Limitation to American Shipyards; American Materials, Waiver; Ability of Bidders; Filing Bids and Data

"Sec. 505. All construction in respect of which a construction-differential subsidy is allowed under this title shall be performed in a shipyard of the United States as the result of competitive bidding, after due advertisement, with the right reserved in the Secretary of Transportation to disapprove, any or all bids. In all such construction the shipbuilder, subcontractors, materialmen, or suppliers shall use, so far as practicable, only articles, materials, and supplies of the growth, production, or manufacture of the United States as defined in paragraph K of section 401 of the Tariff Act of 1930 [now 19 U.S.C. 1401(h)]; Provided, however, That with respect to other than major components of the hull, superstructure, and any material used in the construction thereof, (1) if the Secretary of Transportation determines that the requirements of this sentence will unreasonably delay completion of any vessel beyond its contract delivery date, and (2) if such determination includes or is accompanied by a concise explanation of the basis therefor, then the Secretary of Transportation may waive such requirements to the extent necessary to prevent such delay. No shipbuilder shall be deemed a responsible bidder unless he possesses the ability, experience, financial resources, equipment, and other qualifications necessary properly to perform the proposed contract. Each bid submitted to the Secretary of Transportation shall be accompanied by all detailed estimates upon which it is based. The Secretary of Transportation may require that the bids of any subcontractors, or other pertinent data, accompany such bid. All such bids and data relating thereto shall be kept on file until disposed of as provided by law. For the purposes of this title V, the term 'shipyard of the United States' means shipyards within any of the United States and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico."

(As amended June 23, 1938, ch. 600, §§17, 40(a), 52 Stat. 958, 964; Oct. 25, 1951, ch. 562, §3(4), 65 Stat. 639; Pub. L. 86–624, §35(a), July 12, 1960, 74 Stat. 421; Pub. L. 91–469, §§10, 35(a), Oct. 21, 1970, 84 Stat. 1022, 1035; Pub. L. 97–31, §12(84), Aug. 6, 1981, 95 Stat. 161.)

Operation of Subsidy Constructed Vessel Limited to Foreign Trade; Repayments to Secretary for Deviations

"Sec. 506. Every owner of a vessel for which a construction-differential subsidy has been paid shall agree that the vessel shall be operated exclusively in foreign trade, or on a round-the-world voyage, or on a round voyage from the west coast of the United States to a European port or ports which includes intercoastal ports of the United States, or a round voyage from the Atlantic coast of the United States to the Orient which includes intercoastal ports of the United States, or on a voyage in foreign trade on which the vessel may stop at the State of Hawaii, or an island possession or island territory of the United States, and that if the vessel is operated in the domestic trade on any of the above-enumerated services, he will pay annually to the Secretary of Transportation that proportion of one-twenty-fifth of the construction-differential subsidy paid for such vessel as the gross revenue derived from the domestic trade bears to the gross revenue derived from the entire voyages completed during the preceding year. The Secretary may consent in writing to the temporary transfer of such vessel to service other than the service covered by such agreement for periods not exceeding six months in any year, whenever the Secretary may determine that such transfer is necessary or appropriate to carry out the purposes of this Act [former 46 U.S.C. App. 1101 et seq., see Disposition Table preceding section 101 of this title]. Such consent shall be conditioned upon the agreement by the owner to pay to the Secretary, upon such terms and conditions as he may prescribe, an amount which bears the same proportion to the construction-differential subsidy paid by the Secretary as such temporary period bears to the entire economic life of the vessel. No operating-differential subsidy shall be paid for the operation of such vessel for such temporary period."

(As amended June 23, 1938, ch. 600, §18, 52 Stat. 958; Mar. 18, 1959, Pub. L. 86–3, §18(b)(1), 73 Stat. 12; Pub. L. 86–518, §3, June 12, 1960, 74 Stat. 216; Pub. L. 97–31, §12(87), Aug. 6, 1981, 95 Stat. 161.)

Construction of New Vessel to Replace Obsolete; Purchase of Old Vessel by Secretary; Bond of Seller Against Liens

"Sec. 507. If a contract is made by the Secretary of Transportation under authority of this title for the construction and sale of a new vessel to replace a vessel then operated in foreign trade or domestic trade, which in the judgment of the Secretary of Transportation should be replaced because it is obsolete or inadequate for successful operation in such trade, the Secretary of Transportation is authorized, in his discretion, to buy such replaced vessel from the owner at a fair and reasonable valuation, which valuation shall not exceed the cost to the owner or any former owner plus the actual cost previously expended thereon for reconditioning, and less a reasonable and proper depreciation, based upon not more than twenty-five-year life of the vessel, and apply the purchase price agreed upon to that portion of the construction cost of such new vessel which is to be borne by the purchaser thereof: Provided, That the owner of such replaced vessel shall execute a bond, with one or more approved sureties, conditioned upon indemnifying the United States from all loss resulting from any existing lien against such vessel: And provided further, That such vessel has been documented under the laws of the United States for a period of at least ten years prior to the date of its purchase by the United States."

(As amended June 23, 1938, ch. 600, §19, 52 Stat. 959; July 17, 1952, ch. 939, §5, 66 Stat. 761; Pub. L. 86–518, §1, June 12, 1960, 74 Stat. 216; Pub. L. 97–31, §12(88), Aug. 6, 1981, 95 Stat. 161.)

Disposition of Vessels Transferred to Maritime Administration of Department of Transportation

[Section 508 was classified to section 1158 of the former Appendix to this title and was repealed and restated as sections 57102 and 57103 of this title by Pub. L. 109–304, §§8(c), 19, Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1586, 1710.]

Vessels To Be Operated in Domestic Trade; Terms and Conditions of Construction Aid and Sale to Purchaser

"Sec. 509. Any citizen of the United States may make application to the Secretary of Transportation for aid in the construction of a new vessel to be operated in the foreign or domestic trade (excepting vessels engaged solely in the transportation of property on inland rivers and canals exclusively). If such application is approved by the Secretary of Transportation, the vessel may be constructed under the terms and conditions of this title, but no construction-differential subsidy shall be allowed. The Secretary of Transportation shall pay for the cost of national-defense features incorporated in such vessel. In case the vessel is designed to be of not less than three thousand five hundred gross tons and to be capable of sustained speed of not less than ten knots, or in the case of a passenger vessel operating solely on the inland rivers and waterways which is designed to be of not less than one thousand gross tons and to be capable of sustained speed of not less than eight knots, or in the case of a ferry operating solely in point-to-point transportation which is designed to be of not less than seventy-five gross tons and to be capable of a sustained speed of not less than eight knots, in the case of an oceangoing tug of more than two thousand five hundred horsepower or oceangoing barge of more than two thousand five hundred gross tons, or in the case of a vessel of more than two thousand five hundred horsepower designed to be capable of sustained speed of not less than forty knots, the purchaser shall be required to pay the Secretary of Transportation not less than 12½ per centum of the cost of such vessel, and in the case of any other vessel the purchaser shall be required to pay the Secretary of Transportation not less than 25 per centum of the cost of such vessel (excluding from such cost, in either case, the cost of national defense features); and the balance of such purchase price shall be paid by the purchaser within twenty-five years in not to exceed twenty-five equal annual installments, with interest at a rate not less than (i) a rate determined by the Secretary of the Treasury, taking into consideration the current average market yield on outstanding marketable obligations of the United States with remaining periods to maturity comparable to the average maturities of such loans, adjusted to the nearest one-eighth of 1 per centum, plus (ii) an allowance adequate in the judgment of the Secretary of Transportation to cover administrative costs, the balance of such purchase price being secured by a preferred mortgage on the vessel sold and otherwise secured as the Secretary of Transportation may determine: Provided, That, notwithstanding any other provisions of law, the balance of the purchase price of a passenger vessel constructed under this section which is delivered subsequent to March 8, 1946, and which has the tonnage, speed, passenger accommodations, and other characteristics set forth in section 503 of this Act, may, with the approval of the Secretary of Transportation, be secured as provided in such section, and the obligation of the purchaser of such a vessel shall be satisfied and discharged as provided in such section."

(As amended June 23, 1938, ch. 600, §20, 52 Stat. 959; June 6, 1939, ch. 186, 53 Stat. 810; July 17, 1952, ch. 939, §6, 66 Stat. 761; Pub. L. 86–518, §1, June 12, 1960, 74 Stat. 216; Pub. L. 87–877, §2(b), Oct. 24, 1962, 76 Stat. 1200; Pub. L. 90–183, Dec. 10, 1967, 81 Stat. 559; Pub. L. 90–214, Dec. 18, 1967, 81 Stat. 660; Pub. L. 91–469, §11, Oct. 21, 1970, 84 Stat. 1022; Pub. L. 92–374, Aug. 10, 1972, 86 Stat. 528; Pub. L. 95–173, §8, Nov. 12, 1977, 91 Stat. 1360; Pub. L. 95–505, Oct. 24, 1978, 92 Stat. 1755; Pub. L. 97–31, §12(90), Aug. 6, 1981, 95 Stat. 161.)

Acquisition of Obsolete Vessels

[Section 510 was classified to section 1160 of the former Appendix to this title and was primarily repealed and restated in subtitle V of this title by Pub. L. 109–304, §§8(b), (c), 19, Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1556, 1586, 1710. For disposition of sections of the former Appendix to this title, see Disposition Table preceding section 101 of this title.]

Reserve Funds for Construction or Acquisition of Vessels; Taxation

[Section 511 was classified to section 1161 of the former Appendix to this title and was primarily repealed and restated as chapter 533 of this title by Pub. L. 109–304, §§8(c), 19, Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1586, 1710. For disposition of sections of the former Appendix to this title, see Disposition Table preceding section 101 of this title.]

Limitation on Restrictions

"Sec. 512. (a) Except as provided in subsection (b), notwithstanding any other provision of law or contract, all restrictions and requirements under sections 503, 506, and 802 [set out below] applicable to a liner vessel constructed, reconstructed, or reconditioned with the aid of construction-differential subsidy shall terminate upon the expiration of the 25-year period beginning on the date of the original delivery of the vessel from the shipyard.

"(b)(1) Except as provided in paragraph (2), the restrictions and requirements of section 506 shall terminate upon the expiration of the 20-year period beginning on the date of the original delivery of the vessel from the shipyard for operation of a vessel in any domestic trade in which it has operated at any time since 1996.

"(2) Paragraph (1) shall not affect any requirement to make payments under section 506."

(As added Pub. L. 104–239, §7, Oct. 8, 1996, 110 Stat. 3133; amended Pub. L. 108–136, div. C, title XXXV, §3532(b), Nov. 24, 2003, 117 Stat. 1818.)

[Title V of act June 29, 1936, ch. 858, comprising this note, consisted of sections 501 to 512 which were classified to sections 1151 to 1162, respectively, of the former Appendix to this title, prior to the enactment of Pub. L. 109–304 and elimination of that Appendix. For complete disposition of those sections, see Disposition Table preceding section 101 of this title.]

[Pub. L. 87–877, §5, Oct. 24, 1962, 76 Stat. 1202, provided that: "The amendment made by the first section of this Act [amending section 502 of act June 29, 1936, ch. 858, set out above] shall be effective only with respect to contracts entered into with respect to (a) the construction of a vessel the keel of which was laid after June 30, 1959, or (b) the reconstruction or reconditioning of a vessel the shipyard contract for which was entered into after June 30, 1959, and the Secretary may, with the consent of the parties thereto, modify any such contract entered into prior to the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 24, 1962] to the extent authorized by the amendment made by this Act."]

[Pub. L. 86–607, §2, July 7, 1960, 74 Stat. 362, as amended by Pub. L. 87–222, Sept. 13, 1961, 75 Stat. 494, provided that: "The amendment made by this Act [amending section 502 of act June 29, 1936, ch. 858, set out above] shall be effective only with respect to any contract entered into not later than two years after the date of enactment of this Act [July 7, 1960] under the provisions of section 502 of the Merchant Marine Act, 1936 [act June 29, 1936, ch. 858], with respect to (a) the construction of a vessel the keel of which was laid, or (b) the reconstruction or reconditioning of a vessel the shipyard contract for which was entered into after June 30, 1959, and the Federal Maritime Board may, with the consent of the parties thereto, modify any such contract entered into prior to the date of enactment of the first amendment to Public Law 86–607 (74 Stat. 362) [Sept. 13, 1961], to the extent authorized by the amendment made by this Act, as amended."]

[Pub. L. 86–518, §8(a), June 12, 1960, 74 Stat. 216, provided that: "The amendments made by this Act [amending sections 502, 503, 506, 507, 509, 605, and 611 of act June 29, 1936, ch. 858, set out above and below] shall apply only to vessels delivered by the shipbuilder on or after January 1, 1946, and with respect to such vessels shall become effective on January 1, 1960. With respect to vessels delivered by the shipbuilder before January 1, 1946, the provisions of the Merchant Marine Act, 1936 [act June 29, 1936, ch. 858, see Tables for classification], existing immediately before the date of enactment of this Act [June 12, 1960] shall continue in effect."]

Operating-Differential Subsidy

Act June 29, 1936, ch. 858, title VI, 49 Stat. 2001, as amended, was repealed by Pub. L. 114–120, title III, §313(a), Feb. 8, 2016, 130 Stat. 58.

[Subtitle A—Operating-Differential Subsidy Program]

Section 601, amended Pub. L. 87–45, §2, May 27, 1961, 75 Stat. 90; Pub. L. 91–469, §§14, 35(a), (h), Oct. 21, 1970, 84 Stat. 1023, 1035, 1036; Pub. L. 91–603, §4(c), (d), Dec. 31, 1970, 84 Stat. 1675; Pub. L. 97–31, §12(93), Aug. 6, 1981, 95 Stat. 161, related to subsidy authorized for operation of vessels in foreign trade or in off-season cruises.

Section 602, amended June 23, 1938, ch. 600, §40(b), 52 Stat. 964; Pub. L. 87–45, §3, May 27, 1961, 75 Stat. 91; Pub. L. 91–469, §35(a), Oct. 21, 1970, 84 Stat. 1035; Pub. L. 97–31, §12(94), Aug. 6, 1981, 95 Stat. 161, related to determination of necessity of subsidy to meet competition.

Section 603, amended Aug. 4, 1939, ch. 417, §8, 53 Stat. 1185; Pub. L. 87–45, §4, May 27, 1961, 75 Stat. 91; Pub. L. 87–243, Sept. 14, 1961, 75 Stat. 513; Pub. L. 91–469, §§15–17, 35(a), (i), Oct. 21, 1970, 84 Stat. 1023, 1024, 1035, 1036; Pub. L. 97–31, §12(94), Aug. 6, 1981, 95 Stat. 161, related to contracts for payment of subsidy.

Section 604, amended June 23, 1938, ch. 600, §21, 52 Stat. 959; Aug. 4, 1939, ch. 417, §9, 53 Stat. 1185; Pub. L. 97–31, §12(95), Aug. 6, 1981, 95 Stat. 162, related to authorization of additional subsidy.

Section 605, amended July 17, 1952, ch. 939, §15, 66 Stat. 764; Pub. L. 86–3, §18(b)(2), Mar. 18, 1959, 73 Stat. 12; Pub. L. 86–518, §1, June 12, 1960, 74 Stat. 216; Pub. L. 89–348, §1(9), Nov. 8, 1965, 79 Stat. 1310; Pub. L. 91–469, §§18, 19, 26(b), 35(a), (j), Oct. 21, 1970, 84 Stat. 1025, 1026, 1034-1036; Pub. L. 97–31, §12(96), Aug. 6, 1981, 95 Stat. 162; Pub. L. 104–239, §3(a), Oct. 8, 1996, 110 Stat. 3126, related to vessels excluded from subsidy.

Section 606, amended June 23, 1938, ch. 600, §22, 52 Stat. 960; July 17, 1952, ch. 939, §16, 66 Stat. 764; May 10, 1956, ch. 247, §1, 70 Stat. 148; Pub. L. 86–624, §35(b), July 12, 1960, 74 Stat. 421; Pub. L. 87–45, §5, May 27, 1961, 75 Stat. 91; Pub. L. 91–469, §§20, 35(a), (k), Oct. 21, 1970, 84 Stat. 1026, 1035, 1036; Pub. L. 97–31, §12(96), Aug. 6, 1981, 95 Stat. 162, related to readjustments, change in service, withdrawal from service, payment of excess profits, wages, etc., and American materials.

Section 607 was classified to section 1177 of the former Appendix to this title and was primarily repealed and restated as chapter 535 of this title by Pub. L. 109–304, §§8(c), 19, Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1586, 1710. For disposition of sections of the former Appendix to this title, see Disposition Table preceding section 101 of this title.

Section 608, amended Pub. L. 97–31, §12(98), Aug. 6, 1981, 95 Stat. 162, related to sale or assignment of contract, consent of Secretary, purchaser subject to terms of contract, and rescinding contract on transfer without consent.

Section 609, amended June 23, 1938, ch. 600, §29, 52 Stat. 961; Pub. L. 97–31, §12(99), Aug. 6, 1981, 95 Stat. 162, related to withholding payment to defaulting contractor.

Section 610, amended Pub. L. 97–31, §12(99), Aug. 6, 1981, 95 Stat. 162, related to vessels eligible for subsidy.

Section 611, added June 23, 1938, ch. 600, §30, 52 Stat. 961; and amended Pub. L. 85–791, §17, Aug. 28, 1958, 72 Stat. 947; Pub. L. 86–518, §4, June 12, 1960, 74 Stat. 216; Pub. L. 97–31, §12(100), Aug. 6, 1981, 95 Stat. 162, related to transfer of vessels to foreign registry on default of United States.

Section 612 was classified to section 1182 of the former Appendix to this title and was repealed by Pub. L. 101–225, title III, §307(7), Dec. 12, 1989, 103 Stat. 1925.

Section 613, added Pub. L. 87–45, §1, May 27, 1961, 75 Stat. 89; and amended Pub. L. 90–358, §§1, 2, June 22, 1968, 82 Stat. 248; Pub. L. 91–250, May 14, 1970, 84 Stat. 215; Pub. L. 92–323, June 30, 1972, 86 Stat. 389; Pub. L. 97–31, §12(102), Aug. 6, 1981, 95 Stat. 162, related to off-season cruises by passenger vessels.

Section 614, added Pub. L. 97–35, title XVI, §1603, Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 751, related to suspension of operating differential subsidy contracts by operator recipients.

Section 615, added Pub. L. 97–35, title XVI, §1610, Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 753, related to construction, reconstruction, or acquisition of vessels over five thousand deadweight tons in foreign shipyards and preconditions.

Section 616, added Pub. L. 104–239, §3(b), Oct. 8, 1996, 110 Stat. 3127, related to wind-up of program.

Title VI of act June 29, 1936, ch. 858, which comprised this note, consisted of sections 601 to 611 and 613 to 616 which were classified to sections 1171 to 1181 and 1183 to 1185a, respectively, of the former Appendix to this title, prior to the enactment of Pub. L. 109–304 and elimination of that Appendix. For complete disposition of those sections, see Disposition Table preceding section 101 of this title.

Contract Provisions

Act June 29, 1936, ch. 858, title VIII, §§801, 802, 809, 49 Stat. 2011, 2015, as amended, was repealed or transferred by Pub. L. 114–120, title III, §313(a), (c)(1)(A), Feb. 8, 2016, 130 Stat. 58.

Section 801, amended Pub. L. 97–31, §12(119), Aug. 6, 1981, 95 Stat. 164, which related to provision for books and records, filing balance sheets, inspection and auditing by Secretary, and rescission of contract on failure to comply with provisions, was transferred to section 57522 of this title by Pub. L. 114–120, title III, §313(c)(1)(A), Feb. 8, 2016, 130 Stat. 58.

Section 802, amended June 29, 1936, ch. 858, title VIII, §802, 49 Stat. 2011; June 23, 1938, ch. 600, §33, 52 Stat. 962; Aug. 7, 1939, ch. 555, §2, 53 Stat. 1254; Pub. L. 97–31, §12(120), Aug. 6, 1981, 95 Stat. 164, related to purchase or requisition of vessels by United States and amount of payment, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 114–120, title III, §313(a), Feb. 8, 2016, 130 Stat. 58.

Section 809, amended Pub. L. 91–469, §26(a), Oct. 21, 1970, 84 Stat. 1034; Pub. L. 94–10, §3, Mar. 23, 1975, 89 Stat. 16; Pub. L. 94–127, §4, Nov. 13, 1975, 89 Stat. 680; Pub. L. 96–470, title II, §201(a), Oct. 19, 1980, 94 Stat. 2241; Pub. L. 97–31, §12(121), Aug. 6, 1981, 95 Stat. 164; Pub. L. 97–35, title XVI, §1604, Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 751; Pub. L. 109–304, §§14(b), 19, Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1702, 1710, which consisted of subsecs. (a) and (b), related to requirement that contracts designed equitably for all ports, minimum allocation of funds, report to Congress, and preference to citizens of United States, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 114–120, title III, §313(a), Feb. 8, 2016, 130 Stat. 58. Subsec. (b) of section 809 had already been repealed by Pub. L. 109–304, §19, Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1710.

Enrollment in Sealift Readiness Program

Act June 29, 1936, ch. 858, title IX, §909, as added by Pub. L. 97–35, title XVI, §1605, Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 752, provided that: "No vessel may receive construction differential subsidy or operating differential subsidy if it is not offered for enrollment in a sealift readiness program approved by the Secretary of Defense."

§53102. Establishment of Maritime Security Fleet

(a) In General.—The Secretary of Transportation, in consultation with the Secretary of Defense, shall establish a fleet of active, commercially viable, militarily useful, privately owned vessels to meet national defense and other security requirements and maintain a United States presence in international commercial shipping. The Fleet shall consist of privately owned, United States-documented vessels for which there are in effect operating agreements under this chapter, and shall be known as the Maritime Security Fleet.

(b) Vessel Eligibility.—A vessel is eligible to be included in the Fleet if—

(1) the vessel meets the requirements of paragraph (1), (2), (3), or (4) of subsection (c);

(2) the vessel is operated (or in the case of a vessel to be constructed, will be operated) in providing transportation in foreign commerce;

(3) the vessel is self-propelled and—

(A) is a tank vessel that is 10 years of age or less on the date the vessel is included in the Fleet; or

(B) is any other type of vessel that is 15 years of age or less on the date the vessel is included in the Fleet;


(4) the vessel—

(A) is suitable for use by the United States for national defense or military purposes in time of war or national emergency, as determined by the Secretary of Defense; and

(B) is commercially viable, as determined by the Secretary; and


(5) the vessel—

(A) is a United States-documented vessel; or

(B) is not a United States-documented vessel, but—

(i) the owner of the vessel has demonstrated an intent to have the vessel documented under chapter 121 of this title if it is included in the Fleet; and

(ii) at the time an operating agreement for the vessel is entered into under this chapter, the vessel is eligible for documentation under chapter 121 of this title.


(c) Requirements Regarding Citizenship of Owners, Charterers, and Operators.—

(1) Vessel owned and operated by section 50501 citizens.—A vessel meets the requirements of this paragraph if, during the period of an operating agreement under this chapter that applies to the vessel, the vessel will be owned and operated by one or more persons that are citizens of the United States under section 50501 of this title.

(2) Vessel owned by section 50501 citizen or united states citizen trust, and chartered to documentation citizen.—A vessel meets the requirements of this paragraph if—

(A) during the period of an operating agreement under this chapter that applies to the vessel, the vessel will be—

(i) owned by a person that is a citizen of the United States under section 50501 of this title or that is a United States citizen trust; and

(ii) demise chartered to a person—

(I) that is eligible to document the vessel under chapter 121 of this title;

(II) the chairman of the board of directors, chief executive officer, and a majority of the members of the board of directors of which are citizens of the United States under section 50501 of this title, and are appointed and subjected to removal only upon approval by the Secretary; and

(III) that certifies to the Secretary that there are no treaties, statutes, regulations, or other laws that would prohibit the contractor for the vessel from performing its obligations under an operating agreement under this chapter;


(B) in the case of a vessel that will be demise chartered to a person that is owned or controlled by another person that is not a citizen of the United States under section 50501 of this title, the other person enters into an agreement with the Secretary not to influence the operation of the vessel in a manner that will adversely affect the interests of the United States; and

(C) the Secretary and the Secretary of Defense notify the Committee on Armed Services and the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate and the Committee on Armed Services of the House of Representatives that they concur with the certification required under subparagraph (A)(ii)(III), and have reviewed and agree that there are no other legal, operational, or other impediments that would prohibit the contractor for the vessel from performing its obligations under an operating agreement under this chapter.


(3) Vessel owned and operated by defense contractor.—A vessel meets the requirements of this paragraph if—

(A) during the period of an operating agreement under this chapter that applies to the vessel, the vessel will be owned and operated by a person that—

(i) is eligible to document a vessel under chapter 121 of this title;

(ii) operates or manages other United States-documented vessels for the Secretary of Defense, or charters other vessels to the Secretary of Defense;

(iii) has entered into a special security agreement for purposes of this paragraph with the Secretary of Defense;

(iv) makes the certification described in paragraph (2)(A)(ii)(III); and

(v) in the case of a vessel described in paragraph (2)(B), enters into an agreement referred to in that paragraph; and


(B) the Secretary and the Secretary of Defense notify the Committee on Armed Services and the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate and the Committee on Armed Services of the House of Representatives that they concur with the certification required under subparagraph (A)(iv), and have reviewed and agree that there are no other legal, operational, or other impediments that would prohibit the contractor for the vessel from performing its obligations under an operating agreement under this chapter.


(4) Vessel owned by documentation citizen and chartered to section 50501 citizen.—A vessel meets the requirements of this paragraph if, during the period of an operating agreement under this chapter that applies to the vessel, the vessel will be—

(A) owned by a person that is eligible to document a vessel under chapter 121 of this title; and

(B) demise chartered to a person that is a citizen of the United States under section 50501 of this title.


(d) Request by Secretary of Defense.—The Secretary of Defense shall request the Secretary of Homeland Security to issue any waiver under section 501 of this title that is necessary for purposes of this chapter.

(e) Vessel Standards.—

(1) Certificate of inspection.—A vessel used to provide oceangoing transportation which the Secretary of the department in which the Coast Guard is operating determines meets the criteria of subsection (b) of this section but which, on the date of enactment of the Maritime Security Act of 2003, is not documented under chapter 121 of this title, shall be eligible for a certificate of inspection if the Secretary determines that—

(A) the vessel is classed by and designed in accordance with the rules of the American Bureau of Shipping, or another classification society accepted by the Secretary;

(B) the vessel complies with applicable international agreements and associated guidelines, as determined by the country in which the vessel was documented immediately before becoming documented under chapter 121; and

(C) that country has not been identified by the Secretary as inadequately enforcing international vessel regulations as to that vessel.


(2) Continued eligibility for certificate.—Paragraph (1) does not apply to a vessel after any date on which the vessel fails to comply with the applicable international agreements and associated guidelines referred to in paragraph (1)(B).

(3) Reliance on classification society.—

(A) In general.—The Secretary may rely on a certification from the American Bureau of Shipping or, subject to subparagraph (B), another classification society accepted by the Secretary to establish that a vessel is in compliance with the requirements of paragraphs (1) and (2).

(B) Foreign classification society.—The Secretary may accept certification from a foreign classification society under subparagraph (A) only—

(i) to the extent that the government of the foreign country in which the society is headquartered provides access on a reciprocal basis to the American Bureau of Shipping; and

(ii) if the foreign classification society has offices and maintains records in the United States.


(f) Authority To Waive Age Restriction for Eligibility of a Vessel To Be Included in Fleet.—The Secretary of Defense, in conjunction with the Secretary of Transportation, may waive the application of an age restriction under subsection (b)(3) if the Secretaries jointly determine that the waiver—

(1) is in the national interest;

(2) is appropriate to allow the maintenance of the economic viability of the vessel and any associated operating network; and

(3) is necessary due to the lack of availability of other vessels and operators that comply with the requirements of this chapter.


(g) Authority To Extend Maximum Service Age for Vessel.—The Secretary of Defense, in conjunction with the Secretary of Transportation, may, for a particular participating fleet vessel, treat the ages specified in section 53101(5)(A)(ii) and section 53106(c)(3) as increased by up to 5 years if the Secretaries jointly determine that it is in the national interest to do so.

(Added Pub. L. 108–136, div. C, title XXXV, §3531(a), Nov. 24, 2003, 117 Stat. 1805; amended Pub. L. 109–304, §13(a)(1), Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1700; Pub. L. 112–239, div. C, title XXXV, §3508(b), Jan. 2, 2013, 126 Stat. 2223; Pub. L. 114–328, div. C, title XXXV, §3502(a), Dec. 23, 2016, 130 Stat. 2774.)

References in Text

The date of enactment of the Maritime Security Act of 2003, referred to in subsec. (e)(1), is the date of enactment of Pub. L. 108–136, which was approved Nov. 24, 2003.

Amendments

2016—Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 114–328, §3502(a)(2), substituted "Authority To Waive Age Restriction for Eligibility of a Vessel To Be Included in Fleet" for "Waiver of Age Restriction" in heading.

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 114–328, §3502(a)(1), added subsec. (g).

2013—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 112–239 amended subsec. (b) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (b) related to vessel eligibility, including provisions for certain roll-on/roll-off and LASH vessels.

2006—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 109–304, §13(a)(1)(A), (B), substituted "section 50501" for "section 2" in the headings of pars. (1), (2), and (4) and substituted "section 50501 of this title" for "section 2 of the Shipping Act, 1916 (46 U.S.C. App. 802)" in pars. (1), (2)(A)(i), (ii)(II), (B), and (4)(B).

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 109–304, §13(a)(1)(C), substituted "section 501 of this title" for "the first section of Public Law 81–891 (64 Stat. 1120; 46 U.S.C. App. note prec. 3)".

Subsec. (e)(1). Pub. L. 109–304, §13(a)(1)(D), substituted "documented under chapter 121 of this title," for "a documented vessel (as that term is defined in section 12101 of this title)" in introductory provisions and "documented under chapter 121" for "a documented vessel (as defined in that section)" in subpar. (B).

Vessel Standards

Pub. L. 104–324, title XI, §1137, Oct. 19, 1996, 110 Stat. 3988, as amended by Pub. L. 108–136, div. C, title XXXV, §3534(b)(2), Nov. 24, 2003, 117 Stat. 1818, provided that:

"(a) Certificate of Inspection.—A vessel used to provide transportation service as a common carrier which the Secretary of Transportation determines meets the criteria of section 53102(b) of title 46, United States Code, but which on the date of enactment of this Act [Oct. 19, 1996] is not a documented vessel (as that term is defined in section 2101 [now section 106] of title 46, United States Code), shall be eligible for a certificate of inspection if the Secretary determines that—

"(1) the vessel is classed by and designed in accordance with the rules of the American Bureau of Shipping or another classification society accepted by the Secretary;

"(2) the vessel complies with applicable international agreements and associated guidelines, as determined by the country in which the vessel was documented immediately before becoming a documented vessel (as defined in that section); and

"(3) that country has not been identified by the Secretary as inadequately enforcing international vessel regulations as to that vessel.

"(b) Continued Eligibility for Certificate.—Subsection (a) does not apply to a vessel after any date on which the vessel fails to comply with the applicable international agreements and associated guidelines referred to in subsection (a)(2).

"(c) Reliance on Classification Society.—

"(1) In general.—The Secretary may rely on a certification from the American Bureau of Shipping or, subject to paragraph (2), another classification society accepted by the Secretary to establish that a vessel is in compliance with the requirements of subsections (a) and (b).

"(2) Foreign classification society.—The Secretary may accept certification from a foreign classification society under paragraph (1) only—

"(A) to the extent that the government of the foreign country in which the society is headquartered provides access on a reciprocal basis to the American Bureau of Shipping; and

"(B) if the foreign classification society has offices and maintains records in the United States."

§53103. Award of operating agreements

(a) In General.—The Secretary shall require, as a condition of including any vessel in the Fleet, that the person that is the owner or operator of the vessel for purposes of section 53102(c) enter into an operating agreement with the Secretary under this section.

(b) Extension of Existing Operating Agreements.—

(1) Offer to extend.—Not later than 60 days after the date of enactment of this paragraph, the Secretary shall offer, to an existing contractor, to extend, through September 30, 2025, an operating agreement that is in existence on the date of enactment of this paragraph. The terms and conditions of the extended operating agreement shall include terms and conditions authorized under this chapter, as amended from time to time.

(2) Time limit.—An existing contractor shall have not later than 120 days after the date the Secretary offers to extend an operating agreement to agree to the extended operating agreement.

(3) Subsequent award.—The Secretary may award an operating agreement to an applicant that is eligible to enter into an operating agreement for fiscal years 2016 through 2025 if the existing contractor does not agree to the extended operating agreement under paragraph (2).


(c) Procedure for Awarding New Operating Agreements.—The Secretary may enter into a new operating agreement with an applicant that meets the requirements of section 53102(c) (for vessels that meet the qualifications of section 53102(b)) on the basis of priority for vessel type established by military requirements of the Secretary of Defense. The Secretary shall allow an applicant at least 30 days to submit an application for a new operating agreement. After consideration of military requirements, priority shall be given to an applicant that is a United States citizen under section 50501 of this title. The Secretary may not approve an application without the consent of the Secretary of Defense. The Secretary shall enter into an operating agreement with the applicant or provide a written reason for denying the application.

(d) Limitation.—The Secretary may not award operating agreements under this chapter that require payments under section 53106 for a fiscal year for more than 60 vessels.

(Added Pub. L. 108–136, div. C, title XXXV, §3531(a), Nov. 24, 2003, 117 Stat. 1808; amended Pub. L. 109–304, §13(a)(2), Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1700; Pub. L. 109–364, div. C, title XXXV, §3502(b)(1), Oct. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 2515; Pub. L. 112–239, div. C, title XXXV, §3508(c), Jan. 2, 2013, 126 Stat. 2224.)

References in Text

The date of enactment of this paragraph, referred to in subsec. (b)(1), probably means the date of enactment of Pub. L. 112–239, which amended subsec. (b) generally and was approved Jan. 2, 2013.

Amendments

2013—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 112–239, §3508(c)(1), amended subsec. (b) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (b) related to procedure for applications.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 112–239, §3508(c)(2), amended subsec. (c) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (c) related to priority for awarding agreements.

2006—Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 109–304, §13(a)(2)(A)–(C), substituted "section 50501 of this title" for "section 2 of the Shipping Act, 1916 (46 U.S.C. App. 802)" in subpars. (A)(iii) and (C)(i) and (ii), "applying subparagraph" for "applying subparagraphs" in subpar. (B), and "section 50501" for "section 2" in subpar. (C) heading.

Subsec. (c)(3)(B). Pub. L. 109–304, §13(a)(2)(D), substituted "agreements" for "agreement".

Subsec. (c)(4)(A). Pub. L. 109–364, §3502(b)(1)(A)–(D), redesignated cls. (i) and (ii) as cl. (i), subcls. (I) and (II), respectively, in subcl. (II) substituted "; or" for period at end, and added cl. (ii).

Subsec. (c)(4)(B). Pub. L. 109–364, §3502(b)(1)(E), inserted "with respect to which a binding contract is entered into under subparagraph (A)(i)" after "existing tank vessel".

Subsec. (c)(4)(C), (D). Pub. L. 109–364, §3502(b)(1)(F), added subpars. (C) and (D).

§53104. Effectiveness of operating agreements

(a) Effectiveness, Generally.—The Secretary may enter into an operating agreement under this chapter for fiscal year 2006. Except as provided in subsection (b), the agreement shall be effective only for 1 fiscal year, but shall be renewable, subject to the availability of appropriations, for each subsequent fiscal year through the end of fiscal year 2025.

(b) Vessels Under Charter to United States.—Unless an earlier date is requested by the applicant, the effective date for an operating agreement with respect to a vessel that is, on the date of entry into an operating agreement, on charter to the United States Government, other than a charter pursuant to an Emergency Preparedness Agreement under section 53107, shall be the expiration or termination date of the Government charter covering the vessel, or any earlier date the vessel is withdrawn from that charter.

(c) Termination.—

(1) Termination by secretary.—If the contractor with respect to an operating agreement materially fails to comply with the terms of the agreement—

(A) the Secretary shall notify the contractor and provide a reasonable opportunity to comply with the operating agreement;

(B) the Secretary shall terminate the operating agreement if the contractor fails to achieve such compliance; and

(C) upon such termination, any funds obligated by the agreement shall be available to the Secretary to carry out this chapter.


(2) Early termination by contractor, generally.—An operating agreement under this chapter shall terminate on a date specified by the contractor if the contractor notifies the Secretary, by not later than 60 days before the effective date of the termination, that the contractor intends to terminate the agreement.


(d) Nonrenewal for Lack of Funds.—If, by the first day of a fiscal year, sufficient funds have not been appropriated under the authority provided by this chapter for that fiscal year, then the Secretary shall notify the Committee on Armed Services and the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate and the Committee on Armed Services of the House of Representatives that operating agreements authorized under this chapter for which sufficient funds are not available will not be renewed for that fiscal year if sufficient funds are not appropriated by the 60th day of that fiscal year.

(e) Release of Vessels From Obligations.—If funds are not appropriated for payments under an operating agreement under this chapter for any fiscal year by the 60th day of that fiscal year, then—

(1) each vessel covered by the operating agreement is thereby released from any further obligation under the operating agreement;

(2) the owner or operator of the vessel may transfer and register such vessel under a foreign registry that is acceptable to the Secretary of Transportation and the Secretary of Defense, notwithstanding section 56101 of this title; and

(3) if chapter 563 of this title is applicable to such vessel after registration of the vessel under such a registry, then the vessel is available to be requisitioned by the Secretary of Transportation pursuant to chapter 563.

(Added Pub. L. 108–136, div. C, title XXXV, §3531(a), Nov. 24, 2003, 117 Stat. 1810; amended Pub. L. 109–304, §13(a)(3), Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1701; Pub. L. 111–383, div. C, title XXXV, §3502(1), Jan. 7, 2011, 124 Stat. 4518; Pub. L. 112–239, div. C, title XXXV, §3508(d), Jan. 2, 2013, 126 Stat. 2224.)

Amendments

2013—Subsec. (c)(3). Pub. L. 112–239, §3508(d)(1), struck out par. (3) which related to early termination by contractor, with available replacement.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 112–239, §3508(d)(2), struck out "an operating agreement under this chapter is terminated under subsection (c)(3), or if" after "If" in introductory provisions.

2011—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 111–383 substituted "2025" for "2015".

2006—Subsec. (c)(3)(B)(ii). Pub. L. 109–304, §13(a)(3)(A), substituted "section 50501 of this title" for "section 2 of the Shipping Act, 1916 (46 U.S.C. App. 802)" in subcls. (I) and (II).

Subsec. (e)(2). Pub. L. 109–304, §13(a)(3)(B), substituted "section 56101 of this title" for "section 9 of the Shipping Act, 1916 (46 U.S.C. App. 808)".

Subsec. (e)(3). Pub. L. 109–304, §13(a)(3)(C), substituted "chapter 563 of this title" and "chapter 563" for "section 902 of the Merchant Marine Act, 1936 (46 U.S.C. App. 1242)" and "section 902 of such Act", respectively.

§53105. Obligations and rights under operating agreements

(a) Operation of Vessel.—An operating agreement under this chapter shall require that, during the period a vessel is operating under the agreement—

(1) the vessel—

(A) shall be operated exclusively in the foreign commerce or, except as provided in paragraph (2), in mixed foreign commerce and domestic trade allowed under a registry endorsement issued under section 12111 of this title; and

(B) shall not otherwise be operated in the coastwise trade;


(2) in the case of a vessel, other than a replacement vessel under subsection (f), first covered by an operating agreement after the date of the enactment of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2018, the vessel shall not be operated in the transportation of cargo between points in the United States and its territories either directly or via a foreign port; and

(3) the vessel shall be documented under chapter 121 of this title.


(b) Annual Payments by Secretary.—

(1) In general.—An operating agreement under this chapter shall require, subject to the availability of appropriations, that the Secretary make a payment each fiscal year to the contractor in accordance with section 53106.

(2) Operating agreement is obligation of united states government.—An operating agreement under this chapter constitutes a contractual obligation of the United States Government to pay the amounts provided for in the agreement to the extent of actual appropriations.


(c) Documentation Requirement.—Each vessel covered by an operating agreement (including an agreement terminated under section 53104(c)(2)) shall remain documented under chapter 121 of this title, until the date the operating agreement would terminate according to its terms.

(d) National Security Requirements.—

(1) In general.—A contractor with respect to an operating agreement (including an agreement terminated under section 53104(c)(2)) shall continue to be bound by the provisions of section 53107 until the date the operating agreement would terminate according to its terms.

(2) Emergency preparedness agreement.—All terms and conditions of an Emergency Preparedness Agreement entered into under section 53107 shall remain in effect until the date the operating agreement would terminate according to its terms, except that the terms of such Emergency Preparedness Agreement may be modified by the mutual consent of the contractor, the Secretary of Transportation, and the Secretary of Defense.


(e) Transfer of Operating Agreements.—A contractor under an operating agreement may transfer the agreement (including all rights and obligations under the operating agreement) to any person that is eligible to enter into the operating agreement under this chapter if the Secretary and the Secretary of Defense determine that the transfer is in the best interests of the United States. A transaction shall not be considered a transfer of an operating agreement if the same legal entity with the same vessels remains the contracting party under the operating agreement.

(f) Replacement Vessels.—A contractor may replace a vessel under an operating agreement with another vessel that is eligible to be included in the Fleet under section 53102(b), if the Secretary, in conjunction with the Secretary of Defense, approves the replacement of the vessel.

(Added Pub. L. 108–136, div. C, title XXXV, §3531(a), Nov. 24, 2003, 117 Stat. 1812; amended Pub. L. 109–304, §13(a)(4), Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1701; Pub. L. 109–364, div. C, title XXXV, §3502(a), Oct. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 2514; Pub. L. 110–181, div. C, title XXXV, §3526(f), Jan. 28, 2008, 122 Stat. 602; Pub. L. 112–239, div. C, title XXXV, §3508(e), Jan. 2, 2013, 126 Stat. 2225; Pub. L. 115–91, div. C, title XXXV, §3503(a), Dec. 12, 2017, 131 Stat. 1911.)

References in Text

The date of the enactment of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2018, referred to in subsec. (a)(2), is the date of enactment of Pub. L. 115–91, which was approved Dec. 12, 2017.

Amendments

2017—Subsec. (a)(1)(A). Pub. L. 115–91, §3503(a)(1), inserted ", except as provided in paragraph (2)," after "in the foreign commerce or".

Subsec. (a)(2), (3). Pub. L. 115–91, §3503(a)(2)–(4), added par. (2) and redesignated former par. (2) as (3).

2013—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 112–239, §3508(e)(1), amended subsec. (e) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (e) related to transfer of operating agreements, with limitation based on citizenship of recipient.

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 112–239, §3508(e)(2), amended subsec. (f) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "A contractor may replace a vessel under an operating agreement with another vessel that is eligible to be included in the Fleet under section 53102(b), if the Secretary, in conjunction with the Secretary of Defense, approves replacement of the vessel."

2008—Subsec. (e)(2). Pub. L. 110–181 substituted "section 50501 of this title" for "section 2 of the Shipping Act, 1916 (46 U.S.C. App. 802),".

2006—Subsec. (a)(1)(A). Pub. L. 109–304, §13(a)(4)(A), substituted "section 12111" for "section 12105".

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 109–364 designated existing provisions as par. (1), inserted heading and aligned margins in par. (1), and added par. (2).

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 109–304, §13(a)(4)(B), substituted "approves" for "approve".

§53106. Payments

(a) Annual Payment.—

(1) In general.—The Secretary, subject to the availability of appropriations and the other provisions of this section, shall pay to the contractor for an operating agreement, for each vessel that is covered by the operating agreement, an amount equal to—

(A) $5,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2018, 2019, and 2020;

(B) $5,233,463 for fiscal year 2021; and

(C) $3,700,000 for each of fiscal years 2022, 2023, 2024, and 2025.


(2) Timing.—The amount shall be paid in equal monthly installments at the end of each month. The amount shall not be reduced except as provided by this section.


(b) Certification Required for Payment.—As a condition of receiving payment under this section for a fiscal year for a vessel, the contractor for the vessel shall certify, in accordance with regulations issued by the Secretary, that the vessel has been and will be operated in accordance with paragraph (1) and (2) of section 53105(a), as otherwise applicable with respect to such vessel, for at least 320 days in the fiscal year. Days during which the vessel is drydocked, surveyed, inspected, or repaired shall be considered days of operation for purposes of this subsection.

(c) General Limitations.—The Secretary of Transportation shall not make any payment under this chapter for a vessel with respect to any days for which the vessel is—

(1) under a charter to the United States Government, other than a charter pursuant to an Emergency Preparedness Agreement under section 53107;

(2) not operated or maintained in accordance with an operating agreement under this chapter; or

(3) more than—

(A) 25 years of age, except as provided in subparagraph (B); or

(B) 20 years of age, in the case of a tank vessel.


(d) Reductions in Payments.—With respect to payments under this chapter for a vessel covered by an operating agreement, the Secretary—

(1) except as provided in paragraph (2), shall not reduce any payment for the operation of the vessel to carry military or other preference cargoes under section 55302(a), 55304, 55305, or 55314 of this title, section 2631 of title 10, or any other cargo preference law of the United States;

(2) shall not make any payment for any day that the vessel is engaged in transporting more than 7,500 tons of civilian bulk preference cargoes pursuant to section 55302(a), 55305, or 55314 of this title that is bulk cargo; and

(3) shall make a pro rata reduction in payment for each day less than 320 in a fiscal year that the vessel is not operated in accordance with paragraph (1) and (2) of section 53105(a), as otherwise applicable with respect to such vessel, with days during which the vessel is drydocked or undergoing survey, inspection, or repair considered to be days on which the vessel is operated.


(e) Limitation Regarding Noncontiguous Domestic Trade.—

(1) In general.—No contractor shall receive payments pursuant to this chapter during a period in which it participates in noncontiguous domestic trade.

(2) Limitation on application.—Paragraph (1) shall not apply to any person that is a citizen of the United States within the meaning of section 50501 of this title, applying the 75 percent ownership requirement of that section.

(3) Participates in a noncontiguous domestic trade defined.—In this subsection the term "participates in a noncontiguous domestic trade" means directly or indirectly owns, charters, or operates a vessel engaged in transportation of cargo between a point in the contiguous 48 States and a point in Alaska, Hawaii, or Puerto Rico, other than a point in Alaska north of the Arctic Circle.

(Added Pub. L. 108–136, div. C, title XXXV, §3531(a), Nov. 24, 2003, 117 Stat. 1813; amended Pub. L. 109–304, §13(a)(5), Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1701; Pub. L. 109–364, div. C, title XXXV, §3502(c), Oct. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 2516; Pub. L. 111–383, div. C, title XXXV, §3502(2), Jan. 7, 2011, 124 Stat. 4518; Pub. L. 112–239, div. C, title XXXV, §3508(f), Jan. 2, 2013, 126 Stat. 2225; Pub. L. 114–113, div. O, title I, §101(e)(1), Dec. 18, 2015, 129 Stat. 2988; Pub. L. 114–328, div. C, title XXXV, §3502(b), Dec. 23, 2016, 130 Stat. 2775; Pub. L. 115–91, div. C, title XXXV, §3503(b), Dec. 12, 2017, 131 Stat. 1911; Pub. L. 115–232, div. C, title XXXV, §3546(o), Aug. 13, 2018, 132 Stat. 2327.)

Amendments

2018—Subsec. (a)(1)(A) to (G). Pub. L. 115–232 redesignated subpars. (E) to (G) as (A) to (C), respectively, and struck out former subpars. (A) to (D) which set out payment amounts for fiscal years 2006 to 2017.

2017—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 115–91, §3503(b)(1), substituted "paragraph (1) and (2) of section 53105(a), as otherwise applicable with respect to such vessel," for "section 53105(a)(1)".

Subsec. (d)(3). Pub. L. 115–91, §3503(b)(2), substituted "paragraph (1) and (2) of section 53105(a), as otherwise applicable with respect to such vessel" for "section 53105(a)(1)".

2016—Subsec. (c)(3). Pub. L. 114–328 substituted "; or" for "or (C);" at end of subpar. (A) and a period for "; or" at end of subpar. (B) and struck out subpar. (C) which read as follows: "30 years of age, in the case of a lighter aboard ship vessel."

2015—Subsec. (a)(1)(B). Pub. L. 114–113, §101(e)(1)(A), struck out comma before "for each".

Subsec. (a)(1)(C). Pub. L. 114–113, §101(e)(1)(B), substituted "and 2015;" for "2015, 2016, 2017, and 2018;".

Subsec. (a)(1)(D) to (G). Pub. L. 114–113, §101(e)(1)(C), (D), added subpars. (D) to (F), redesignated former subpar. (E) as (G), and struck out former subpar. (D) which read as follows: "$3,500,000 for each of fiscal years 2019, 2020, and 2021; and".

2013—Subsec. (a)(1)(B) to (E). Pub. L. 112–239, §3508(f)(1), added subpars. (C) to (E) and struck out former subpar. (C) which read as follows: "$3,100,000 for each of fiscal years 2012 though 2025."

Subsec. (c)(3)(C). Pub. L. 112–239, §3508(f)(2), substituted "a lighter aboard ship vessel." for "a LASH vessel."

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 112–239, §3508(f)(3), struck out subsec. (f). Text read as follows: "If the amount available for a fiscal year for making payments under operating agreements under this chapter is not sufficient to pay the full amount authorized under each agreement pursuant to this section for such fiscal year, the amount available shall be allocated among such agreements in a manner that gives priority to payments for vessels that are subject to agreements under section 3517 of the Maritime Security Act of 2003 (46 U.S.C. 53101 note)."

2011—Subsec. (a)(1)(C). Pub. L. 111–383 substituted "for each of fiscal years 2012 though 2025" for "for each fiscal years 2012, 2013, 2014, and 2015".

2006—Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 109–304, §13(a)(5)(A), substituted "section 55302(a), 55304, 55305, or 55314 of this title, section 2631 of title 10" for "section 2631 of title 10, United States Code, the Act of March 26, 1934 (46 U.S.C. App. 1241–1), section 901(a), 901(b), or 901b of the Merchant Marine Act, 1936 (46 U.S.C. App. 1241(a), 1241(b), or 1241f)".

Subsec. (d)(2). Pub. L. 109–304, §13(a)(5)(B), substituted "section 55302(a), 55305, or 55314 of this title" for "section 901(a), 901(b), or 901b of the Merchant Marine Act, 1936 (46 U.S.C. App. 1241(a), 1241(b), or 1241f),".

Subsec. (e)(2). Pub. L. 109–304, §13(a)(5)(C), substituted "section 50501 of this title, applying the 75 percent ownership requirement of that section" for "section 2(c) of the Shipping Act, 1916 (46 U.S.C. App. 802(c))".

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 109–364 added subsec. (f).

Effective Date of 2013 Amendment

Amendment by section 3508(f)(2) of Pub. L. 112–239 effective Dec. 31, 2014, see section 3508(j)(2) of Pub. L. 112–239, set out as a note under section 53101 of this title.

§53107. National security requirements

(a) Emergency Preparedness Agreement Required.—The Secretary shall establish an Emergency Preparedness Program under this section that is approved by the Secretary of Defense. Under the program, the Secretary, in conjunction with the Secretary of Defense, shall include in each operating agreement under this chapter a requirement that the contractor enter into an Emergency Preparedness Agreement under this section with the Secretary. The Secretary shall negotiate and enter into an Emergency Preparedness Agreement with each contractor as promptly as practicable after the contractor has entered into an operating agreement under this chapter.

(b) Terms of Agreement.—

(1) In general.—An Emergency Preparedness Agreement under this section shall require that a contractor for a vessel covered by an operating agreement under this chapter shall make commercial transportation resources (including services) available, upon request by the Secretary of Defense during a time of war or national emergency, or whenever the Secretary of Defense determines that it is necessary for national security or contingency operation (as that term is defined in section 101 of title 10, United States Code).

(2) Basic terms.—(A) The basic terms of the Emergency Preparedness Agreement shall be established (subject to subparagraph (B)) by the Secretary and the Secretary of Defense.

(B) In any Emergency Preparedness Agreement, the Secretary and a contractor may agree to additional or modifying terms appropriate to the contractor's circumstances if those terms have been approved by the Secretary of Defense.

(3) Defense measures against unauthorized seizures.—(A) The Emergency Preparedness Agreement for any operating agreement that first takes effect or is renewed after the date of enactment of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2010 shall require that any vessel operating under the agreement in the carriage of cargo for the Department of Defense in an area that is designated by the Coast Guard as an area of high risk of piracy shall be equipped with, at a minimum, appropriate non-lethal defense measures to protect the vessel, crew, and cargo from unauthorized seizure at sea.

(B) The Secretary of Defense and the Secretary of the department in which the Coast Guard is operating shall jointly prescribe the non-lethal defense measures that are required under this paragraph.


(c) Participation After Expiration of Operating Agreement.—Except as provided by section 53105(d), the Secretary may not require, through an Emergency Preparedness Agreement or operating agreement, that a contractor continue to participate in an Emergency Preparedness Agreement after the operating agreement with the contractor has expired according to its terms or is otherwise no longer in effect. After expiration of an Emergency Preparedness Agreement, a contractor may volunteer to continue to participate in such an agreement.

(d) Resources Made Available.—The commercial transportation resources to be made available under an Emergency Preparedness Agreement shall include vessels or capacity in vessels, intermodal systems and equipment, terminal facilities, intermodal and management services, and other related services, or any agreed portion of such nonvessel resources for activation as the Secretary of Defense may determine to be necessary, seeking to minimize disruption of the contractor's service to commercial shippers.

(e) Compensation.—

(1) In general.—The Secretary shall include in each Emergency Preparedness Agreement provisions approved by the Secretary of Defense under which the Secretary of Defense shall pay fair and reasonable compensation for all commercial transportation resources provided pursuant to this section.

(2) Specific requirements.—Compensation under this subsection—

(A) shall not be less than the contractor's commercial market charges for like transportation resources;

(B) shall be fair and reasonable considering all circumstances;

(C) shall be provided from the time that a vessel or resource is required by the Secretary of Defense until the time that it is redelivered to the contractor and is available to reenter commercial service; and

(D) shall be in addition to and shall not in any way reflect amounts payable under section 53106.


(f) Temporary Replacement Vessels.—Notwithstanding section 55302(a), 55304, 55305, or 55314 of this title, section 2631 of title 10, or any other cargo preference law of the United States—

(1) a contractor may operate or employ in foreign commerce a foreign-flag vessel or foreign-flag vessel capacity as a temporary replacement for a United States-documented vessel or United States-documented vessel capacity that is activated by the Secretary of Defense under an Emergency Preparedness Agreement or under a primary Department of Defense-approved sealift readiness program; and

(2) such replacement vessel or vessel capacity shall be eligible during the replacement period to transport preference cargoes subject to sections 55302(a), 55304, 55305, and 55314 of this title and section 2631 of title 10 to the same extent as the eligibility of the vessel or vessel capacity replaced.


(g) Redelivery and Liability of United States for Damages.—

(1) In general.—All commercial transportation resources activated under an Emergency Preparedness Agreement shall, upon termination of the period of activation, be redelivered to the contractor in the same good order and condition as when received, less ordinary wear and tear, or the Secretary of Defense shall fully compensate the contractor for any necessary repair or replacement.

(2) Limitation on liability of u.s.—Except as may be expressly agreed to in an Emergency Preparedness Agreement, or as otherwise provided by law, the Government shall not be liable for disruption of a contractor's commercial business or other consequential damages to a contractor arising from activation of commercial transportation resources under an Emergency Preparedness Agreement.

(Added Pub. L. 108–136, div. C, title XXXV, §3531(a), Nov. 24, 2003, 117 Stat. 1814; amended Pub. L. 109–304, §13(a)(6), Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1701; Pub. L. 111–84, div. C, title XXXV, §3505, Oct. 28, 2009, 123 Stat. 2720; Pub. L. 112–239, div. C, title XXXV, §3508(g), Jan. 2, 2013, 126 Stat. 2225.)

References in Text

The date of enactment of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2010, referred to in subsec. (b)(3)(A), is the date of enactment of Pub. L. 111–84, which was approved Oct. 28, 2009.

Amendments

2013—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 112–239 amended par. (1) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "An Emergency Preparedness Agreement under this section shall require that upon a request by the Secretary of Defense during time of war or national emergency, or whenever determined by the Secretary of Defense to be necessary for national security or contingency operation (as that term is defined in section 101 of title 10, United States Code), a contractor for a vessel covered by an operating agreement under this chapter shall make available commercial transportation resources (including services)."

2009—Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 111–84 added par. (3).

2006—Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 109–304 substituted "section 55302(a), 55304, 55305, or 55314 of this title, section 2631 of title 10" for "section 2631 of title 10, United States Code, the Act of March 26, 1934 (46 U.S.C. App. 1241–1), section 901(a), 901(b), or 901b of the Merchant Marine Act, 1936 (46 U.S.C. App. 1241(a), 1241(b), or 1241f)" in introductory provisions and "sections 55302(a), 55304, 55305, and 55314 of this title and section 2631 of title 10" for "section 2631 of title 10, United States Code, the Act of March 26, 1934 (46 U.S.C. App. 1241–1), and sections 901(a), 901(b), and 901b of the Merchant Marine Act, 1936 (46 U.S.C. App. 1241(a), 1241(b), and 1241b)" in par. (2).

§53108. Regulatory relief

(a) Operation in Foreign Commerce.—A contractor for a vessel included in an operating agreement under this chapter may operate the vessel in the foreign commerce of the United States without restriction.

(b) Other Restrictions.—The restrictions of section 55305(a) of this title concerning the building, rebuilding, or documentation of a vessel in a foreign country shall not apply to a vessel for any day the operator of that vessel is receiving payments for operation of that vessel under an operating agreement under this chapter.

(c) Telecommunications Equipment.—The telecommunications and other electronic equipment on an existing vessel that is redocumented under the laws of the United States for operation under an operating agreement under this chapter shall be deemed to satisfy all Federal Communications Commission equipment certification requirements, if—

(1) such equipment complies with all applicable international agreements and associated guidelines as determined by the country in which the vessel was documented immediately before becoming documented under the laws of the United States;

(2) that country has not been identified by the Secretary as inadequately enforcing international regulations as to that vessel; and

(3) at the end of its useful life, such equipment will be replaced with equipment that meets Federal Communications Commission equipment certification standards.

(Added Pub. L. 108–136, div. C, title XXXV, §3531(a), Nov. 24, 2003, 117 Stat. 1816; amended Pub. L. 109–304, §13(a)(7), Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1701.)

Amendments

2006—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 109–304 substituted "section 55305(a) of this title" for "section 901(b)(1) of the Merchant Marine Act, 1936 (46 U.S.C. App. 1241(b)(1))".

[§53109. Repealed. Pub. L. 112–239, div. C, title XXXV, §3508(h), Jan. 2, 2013, 126 Stat. 2225]

Section, Pub. L. 108–136, div. C, title XXXV, §3531(a), Nov. 24, 2003, 117 Stat. 1817, related to special rule regarding age of participating fleet vessel.

§53110. Regulations

The Secretary and the Secretary of Defense may each prescribe rules as necessary to carry out their respective responsibilities under this chapter.

(Added Pub. L. 108–136, div. C, title XXXV, §3531(a), Nov. 24, 2003, 117 Stat. 1817.)

Interim Rules

Pub. L. 108–136, div. C, title XXXV, §3533, Nov. 24, 2003, 117 Stat. 1818, provided that: "The Secretary of Transportation and the Secretary of Defense may each prescribe interim rules necessary to carry out their respective responsibilities under this subtitle [subtitle C (§§3531–3537) of title XXXV of div. C of Pub. L. 108–136, enacting this chapter, amending former section 12102 of this title and sections 808 and 1162 of the former Appendix to this title, repealing sections 1187 to 1187e and 1222 of the former Appendix to this title, enacting provisions set out as a note under section 53101 of this title, and amending provisions set out as a note under section 1187 of the former Appendix to this title] and the amendments made by this subtitle. For this purpose, the Secretaries are excepted from compliance with the notice and comment requirements of section 553 of title 5, United States Code. All interim rules prescribed under the authority of this section that are not earlier superseded by final rules shall expire no later than 270 days after the effective date of this subtitle [see Effective Date note set out under section 53101 of this title]."

§53111. Authorization of appropriations

There are authorized to be appropriated for payments under section 53106, to remain available until expended—

(1) $300,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2018, 2019, and 2020;

(2) $314,007,780 for fiscal year 2021; and

(3) $222,000,000 for each fiscal year thereafter through fiscal year 2025.

(Added Pub. L. 108–136, div. C, title XXXV, §3531(a), Nov. 24, 2003, 117 Stat. 1817; amended Pub. L. 111–383, div. C, title XXXV, §3502(3), Jan. 7, 2011, 124 Stat. 4518; Pub. L. 112–239, div. C, title XXXV, §3508(i), Jan. 2, 2013, 126 Stat. 2225; Pub. L. 114–92, div. C, title XXXV, §3504(b), Nov. 25, 2015, 129 Stat. 1219; Pub. L. 114–113, div. O, title I, §101(e)(2), Dec. 18, 2015, 129 Stat. 2988; Pub. L. 115–232, div. C, title XXXV, §3546(p), Aug. 13, 2018, 132 Stat. 2327.)

Amendments

2018Pub. L. 115–232 redesignated pars. (5) to (7) as (1) to (3), respectively, and struck out former pars. (1) to (4) which set out authorized amounts for fiscal years 2006 to 2017.

2015—Par. (3). Pub. L. 114–113, §101(e)(2)(A), substituted "and 2015" for "2015, 2017, and 2018;".

Pub. L. 114–92 struck out "2016," after "2015,".

Pars. (4) to (7). Pub. L. 114–113, §101(e)(2)(B), (C), added pars. (4) to (6), redesignated former par. (5) as (7), and struck out former par. (4) which read as follows: "$210,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2019, 2020, and 2021; and".

2013—Par. (2). Pub. L. 112–239, §3508(i)(1), struck out "and" at end.

Pars. (3) to (5). Pub. L. 112–239, §3508(i)(2), which directed amendment of par. (3) "to read as follows" and then set out pars. (3) to (5), was executed by amending par. (3) generally and adding pars. (4) and (5) to reflect the probable intent of Congress. Prior to amendment, par. (3) read as follows: "$186,000,000 for each fiscal year thereafter through fiscal year 2025."

2011—Par. (3). Pub. L. 111–383 substituted "2025" for "2015".

CHAPTER 533—CONSTRUCTION RESERVE FUNDS

Sec.
53301.
Definitions.
53302.
Authority for construction reserve funds.
53303.
Persons eligible to establish funds.
53304.
Vessel ownership.
53305.
Eligible fund deposits.
53306.
Recognition of gain for tax purposes.
53307.
Basis for determining gain or loss and for depreciating new vessels.
53308.
Order and proportions of deposits and withdrawals.
53309.
Accumulation of deposits.
53310.
Obligation of deposits and period for construction of certain vessels.
53311.
Taxation of deposits on failure of conditions.
53312.
Assessment and collection of deficiency tax.

        

§53301. Definitions

(a) In General.—In this chapter:

(1) Construction contract.—The term "construction contract" includes, for a taxpayer constructing a new vessel in a shipyard owned by that taxpayer, an agreement between the taxpayer and the Secretary of Transportation for that construction containing provisions the Secretary considers advisable to carry out this chapter.

(2) New vessel.—The term "new vessel" means—

(A) a vessel—

(i) constructed in the United States after December 31, 1939, constructed with a construction-differential subsidy under title V of the Merchant Marine Act, 1936, or constructed with financing or a financing guarantee under chapter 537 or 575 of this title;

(ii) documented or agreed with the Secretary to be documented under the laws of the United States; and

(iii)(I) of a type, size, and speed that the Secretary determines is suitable for use on the high seas or Great Lakes in carrying out this subtitle, but not less than 2,000 gross tons or less than 12 knots speed unless the Secretary certifies in each case that a vessel of lesser tonnage or speed is desirable for use by the United States Government in case of war or national emergency; or

(II) constructed to replace a vessel bought or requisitioned by the Government; and


(B) a vessel reconstructed or reconditioned for use only on the Great Lakes, including the Saint Lawrence River and Gulf, if the Secretary finds that the reconstruction or reconditioning will promote the objectives of this subtitle.


(b) Additional Tax-Related Terms.—Other terms used in this chapter have the same meaning as in chapter 1 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 (26 U.S.C. ch. 1).

(Pub. L. 109–304, §8(c), Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1587.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
53301(a)(1) 46 App.:1161(n). June 29, 1936, ch. 858, title V, §511(n), as added Dec. 23, 1944, ch. 714, §2, 58 Stat. 920; Pub. L. 97–31, §12(92)(A), Aug. 6, 1981, 95 Stat. 161.
53301(a) (2)(A) 46 App.:1161(a). June 29, 1936, ch. 858, title V, §511(a), as added Oct. 10, 1940, ch. 849, 54 Stat. 1106; Pub. L. 97–31, §12(92)(A), Aug. 6, 1981, 95 Stat. 161.
53301(a) (2)(B) 46 App.:1161(o). June 29, 1936, ch. 858, title V, §511(o), as added July 17, 1952, ch. 939, §14, 66 Stat. 764; Pub. L. 97–31, §12(92)(A), Aug. 6, 1981, 95 Stat. 161.
53301(b) 46 App.:1161(m). June 29, 1936, ch. 858, title V, §511(m), as added Oct. 10, 1940, ch. 849, 54 Stat. 1108.

In subsection (a)(2)(A)(i), the words "constructed with a construction-differential subsidy under title V of the Merchant Marine Act, 1936, or constructed with financing or a financing guarantee under chapter 537 or 575 of this title" are substituted for "the construction of which has been financed under subchapters V or VII of this chapter, or the construction of which has been aided by a mortgage insured under subchapter XI of this chapter" because of the reorganization of the material and the omission from the revised title of the provisions relating to the construction-differential subsidy program.

Subsection (a)(2)(B) is substituted for the source provision to state more directly that a vessel described in the source provision is a new vessel for purposes of this chapter.

References in Text

The Merchant Marine Act, 1936, referred to in subsec. (a)(2)(A)(i), is act June 29, 1936, ch. 858, 49 Stat. 1985. Title V of the Act enacted provisions set out as notes under section 53101 of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title of 1936 Amendment note set out under section 101 of this title and Tables.

§53302. Authority for construction reserve funds

(a) General Authority.—An eligible person under section 53303 of this title may establish a construction reserve fund for the construction, reconstruction, reconditioning, or acquisition of a new vessel or for other purposes authorized by this chapter.

(b) Application of Certain Laws and Regulations.—The fund shall be established, maintained, expended, and used as provided by this chapter and regulations prescribed jointly by the Secretary of Transportation and the Secretary of the Treasury.

(Pub. L. 109–304, §8(c), Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1587.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
53302(a) 46 App.:1161(b) (1st sentence words before 6th comma and between 10th and 16th commas). June 29, 1936, ch. 858, title V, §511(b) (1st sentence words before 6th comma and between 10th and 16th commas, last sentence), as added Oct. 10, 1940, ch. 849, 54 Stat. 1106; June 17, 1943, ch. 130, subdiv. (a), 57 Stat. 157; July 17, 1952, ch. 939, §9, 66 Stat. 762; Pub. L. 97–31, §12(92)(A), Aug. 6, 1981, 95 Stat. 161.
53302(b) 46 App.:1161(b) (last sentence).

In subsection (a), the words "necessary to carrying out the policy set forth in section 1101 of this Appendix" are omitted as unnecessary.

§53303. Persons eligible to establish funds

A construction reserve fund may be established by a citizen of the United States that—

(1) is operating a vessel in the foreign or domestic commerce of the United States or in the fisheries;

(2) owns, in whole or in part, a vessel being operated in the foreign or domestic commerce of the United States or in the fisheries;

(3) was operating a vessel in the foreign or domestic commerce of the United States or in the fisheries when it was bought or requisitioned by the United States Government;

(4) owned, in whole or in part, a vessel being operated in the foreign or domestic commerce of the United States or in the fisheries when it was bought or requisitioned by the Government; or

(5) had acquired or was having constructed a vessel to operate in the foreign or domestic commerce of the United States or in the fisheries when it was bought or requisitioned by the Government.

(Pub. L. 109–304, §8(c), Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1587.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
53303 46 App.:1161(b) (1st sentence words between 6th and 10th commas). June 29, 1936, ch. 858, title V, §511(b) (1st sentence words between 6th and 10th commas), as added Oct. 10, 1940, ch. 849, 54 Stat. 1106; June 17, 1943, ch. 130, subdiv. (a), 57 Stat. 157; July 17, 1952, ch. 939, §9, 66 Stat. 762.

§53304. Vessel ownership

In this chapter, a vessel is deemed to be constructed or acquired by a taxpayer if constructed or acquired by a corporation when the taxpayer owns at least 95 percent of each class of stock of the corporation.

(Pub. L. 109–304, §8(c), Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1588.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
53304 46 App.:1161(l). June 29, 1936, ch. 858, title V, §511(l), as added Oct. 10, 1940, ch. 849, 54 Stat. 1108.

§53305. Eligible fund deposits

A construction reserve fund may include deposits of—

(1) the proceeds from the sale of a vessel;

(2) indemnities for the loss of a vessel;

(3) earnings from the operation of a documented vessel and from services incident to the operation; and

(4) interest or other amounts accrued on deposits in the fund.

(Pub. L. 109–304, §8(c), Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1588.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
53305 46 App.:1161(b) (1st sentence words after 16th comma). June 29, 1936, ch. 858, title V, §511(b) (1st sentence words after 16th comma), as added Oct. 10, 1940, ch. 849, 54 Stat. 1106; June 17, 1943, ch. 130, subdiv. (a), 57 Stat. 157; July 17, 1952, ch. 939, §9, 66 Stat. 762.

In paragraph (3), the words "documented vessel" are substituted for "vessels documented under the laws of the United States" because of the definition of "documented vessel" in chapter 1 of the revised title.

In paragraph (4), the words "interest or other amounts accrued on deposits in the fund" are substituted for "receipts, in the form of interest or otherwise, with respect to amounts previously deposited" for clarity and to eliminate unnecessary words.

§53306. Recognition of gain for tax purposes

(a) Definitions.—In this section, the terms "net proceeds" and "net indemnity" mean the sum of—

(1) the adjusted basis of the vessel; and

(2) the amount of gain the taxpayer would recognize without regard to this section.


(b) Recognition of Gain.—In computing net income under the income or excess profits tax laws of the United States, a taxpayer does not recognize a gain on the sale or the actual or constructive total loss of a vessel if the taxpayer—

(1) deposits an amount equal to the net proceeds of the sale or the net indemnity for the loss in a construction reserve fund within 60 days after receiving the payment of proceeds or indemnity; and

(2) elects under this section not to recognize the gain.


(c) When Election Must Be Made.—

(1) In general.—Except as provided in paragraph (2), the taxpayer must make the election referred to in subsection (b) in the taxpayer's income tax return for the taxable year in which the gain was realized.

(2) Receipt after taxable year.—If the vessel is bought or requisitioned by the United States Government, or is lost, and the taxpayer receives payment for the vessel or indemnity for the loss from the Government after the end of the taxable year in which it was bought, requisitioned, or lost, the taxpayer must make the election referred to in subsection (b) within 60 days after receiving the payment or indemnity, on a form prescribed by the Secretary of the Treasury.


(d) Effect of Statute of Limitation.—If the taxpayer makes an election under subsection (c)(2), and computation or recomputation under this section is otherwise allowable but is prevented by a statute of limitation on the date the election is made or within 6 months thereafter, the computation or recomputation nevertheless shall be made notwithstanding the statute if the taxpayer files a claim for the computation or recomputation within 6 months after the date of making the election.

(Pub. L. 109–304, §8(c), Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1588.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
53306 46 App.:1161(c). June 29, 1936, ch. 858, title V, §511(c), as added Oct. 10, 1940, ch. 849, 54 Stat. 1106; June 17, 1943, ch. 130, subdiv. (b), 57 Stat. 157; Dec. 23, 1944, ch. 714, §1, 58 Stat. 920; July 17, 1952, ch. 939, §10, 66 Stat. 762.

In subsection (c)(2), the words "in any taxable year beginning after December 31, 1939" are omitted as obsolete. The words "prescribed by the Secretary of the Treasury" are substituted for "prescribed by the Commissioner of Internal Revenue with the approval of the Secretary of the Treasury" for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the United States Code. See 26 U.S.C. 7805.

§53307. Basis for determining gain or loss and for depreciating new vessels

Under the income or excess profits tax laws of the United States, the basis for determining a gain or loss and for depreciation of a new vessel constructed, reconstructed, reconditioned, or acquired by the taxpayer, or for which purchase-money indebtedness is liquidated as provided in section 53310 of this title, with amounts from a construction reserve fund, shall be reduced by that part of the deposits in the fund expended in the construction, reconstruction, reconditioning, acquisition, or liquidation of purchase-money indebtedness of the new vessel that represents a gain not recognized for tax purposes under section 53306 of this title.

(Pub. L. 109–304, §8(c), Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1589.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
53307 46 App.:1161(d). June 29, 1936, ch. 858, title V, §511(d), as added Oct. 10, 1940, ch. 849, 54 Stat. 1106; July 17, 1952, ch. 939, §11, 66 Stat. 763.

§53308. Order and proportions of deposits and withdrawals

In this chapter—

(1) if the net proceeds of a sale or the net indemnity for a loss is deposited in more than one deposit, the amount consisting of the gain shall be deemed to be deposited first;

(2) amounts expended, obligated, or otherwise withdrawn shall be applied against the amounts deposited in the fund in the order of deposit; and

(3) if a deposit consists in part of a gain not recognized under section 53306 of this title, any expenditure, obligation, or withdrawal applied against that deposit shall be deemed to be a gain in the proportion that the part of the deposit consisting of a gain bears to the total amount of the deposit.

(Pub. L. 109–304, §8(c), Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1589.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
53308 46 App.:1161(e). June 29, 1936, ch. 858, title V, §511(e), as added Oct. 10, 1940, ch. 849, 54 Stat. 1107.

§53309. Accumulation of deposits

For any taxable year, amounts on deposit in a construction reserve fund on the last day of the taxable year, for which the requirements of section 53310 of this title have been satisfied (to the extent they apply on the last day of the taxable year), are deemed to have been retained for the reasonable needs of the business within the meaning of section 537(a) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 (26 U.S.C. 537(a)).

(Pub. L. 109–304, §8(c), Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1589.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
53309 46 App.:1161(f). June 29, 1936, ch. 858, title V, §511(f), as added Oct. 10, 1940, ch. 849, 54 Stat. 1107.

The words "are deemed to have been retained for the reasonable needs of the business within the meaning of section 537(a) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 (26 U.S.C. 537(a))" are substituted for "shall not constitute an accumulation of earnings or profits within the meaning of section 102 of the Internal Revenue Code" because section 102 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1939 has been superseded by part 1 of subchapter G of chapter 1 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 (26 U.S.C. 531 et seq.). See also 46 C.F.R. §287.16 (2003).

§53310. Obligation of deposits and period for construction of certain vessels

(a) Application of Sections 53306 and 53309.—Sections 53306 and 53309 of this title apply to a deposit in a construction reserve fund only if, within 3 years after the date of the deposit (and any extension under subsection (c))—

(1)(A) a contract is made for the construction or acquisition of a new vessel or, with the approval of the Secretary of Transportation, for a part interest in a new vessel or for the reconstruction or reconditioning of a new vessel;

(B) the deposit is expended or obligated for expenditure under that contract;

(C) at least 12.5 percent of the construction or contract price of the vessel is paid or irrevocably committed for payment; and

(D) the plans and specifications for the vessel are approved by the Secretary to the extent the Secretary considers necessary; or

(2) the deposit is expended or obligated for expenditure for the liquidation of existing or subsequently incurred purchase-money indebtedness to a person not a parent company of, or a company affiliated or associated with, the mortgagor on a new vessel.


(b) Additional Requirements for Certain Vessels.—In addition to the requirements of subsection (a)(1), for a vessel not constructed under a construction-differential subsidy contract or not bought from the Secretary of Transportation—

(1) at least 5 percent of the construction (or, if the contract covers more than one vessel, at least 5 percent of the construction of the first vessel) must be completed within 6 months after the date of the construction contract (or within the period of an extension under subsection (c)), as estimated by the Secretary and certified by the Secretary to the Secretary of the Treasury; and

(2) construction under the contract must be completed with reasonable dispatch thereafter.


(c) Extensions.—The Secretary of Transportation may grant extensions of the period within which the deposits must be expended or obligated or within which the construction must have progressed to the extent of 5 percent completion under this section. However, the extensions may not be for a total of more than 2 years for the expenditure or obligation of deposits or one year for the progress of construction.

(Pub. L. 109–304, §8(c), Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1589.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
53310(a) 46 App.:1161(g) (less (1)(B)). June 29, 1936, ch. 858, title V, §511(g), (h), as added Oct. 10, 1940, ch. 849, 54 Stat. 1107; June 17, 1943, ch. 130, subdivs. (c), (d), 57 Stat. 158; July 17, 1952, ch. 939, §§12, 13(a), 66 Stat. 763; Pub. L. 86–237, §1, Sept. 8, 1959, 73 Stat. 471; Pub. L. 87–303, §3, Sept. 26, 1961, 75 Stat. 661; Pub. L. 87–782, §1, Oct. 10, 1962, 76 Stat. 796; Pub. L. 88–227, §1, Dec. 23, 1963, 77 Stat. 470; Pub. L. 88–595, §1, Sept. 12, 1964, 78 Stat. 943; Pub. L. 97–31, §12(92), Aug. 6, 1981, 95 Stat. 161.
53310(b) 46 App.:1161(g)(1)(B).
53310(c) 46 App.:1161(h).

In this section, the language about joint regulations in 46 App. U.S.C. 1161(g) and (h) is omitted as unnecessary because of section 53302(b) of the revised title.

In subsection (a), the words "(i) two years from the date of deposit or the date of any extension thereof which may be granted by the Secretary of Transportation pursuant to the provisions of subsection (h) of this section, in the case of deposits made prior to the date on which these amendatory provisions become effective, or" in 46 App. U.S.C. 1161(g)(1) and (2) are omitted as obsolete. In paragraph (1)(A), the words "or, with the approval of the Secretary of Transportation, for a part interest in a new vessel or for the reconstruction or reconditioning of a new vessel" are substituted for "(or in the discretion of the Secretary of Transportation, for a part interest therein), or, with the approval of the Secretary of Transportation, for the reconstruction or reconditioning of a new vessel or vessels" to eliminate unnecessary words.

In subsection (c), the proviso in 46 App. U.S.C. 1161(h) is omitted as obsolete.

§53311. Taxation of deposits on failure of conditions

A deposited gain, if otherwise taxable income under the law applicable to the taxable year in which the gain was realized, shall be included in gross income for that taxable year, except for purposes of the declared value excess profits tax and the capital stock tax, if—

(1) the deposited gain is not expended or obligated within the appropriate period under section 53310 of this title;

(2) the deposited gain is withdrawn before the end of that period;

(3) the construction related to that deposited gain has not progressed to the extent of 5 percent of completion within the appropriate period under section 53310 of this title; or

(4) the Secretary of Transportation finds and certifies to the Secretary of the Treasury that, for causes within the control of the taxpayer, the entire construction related to that deposited gain is not completed with reasonable dispatch.

(Pub. L. 109–304, §8(c), Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1590.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
53311 46 App.:1161(i). June 29, 1936, ch. 858, title V, §511(i), as added Oct. 10, 1940, ch. 849, 54 Stat. 1107; July 17, 1952, ch. 939, §13(b), 66 Stat. 764; Pub. L. 97–31, §12(92)(A), Aug. 6, 1981, 95 Stat. 161.

The last sentence of 46 App. U.S.C. 1161(i) is omitted as obsolete.

§53312. Assessment and collection of deficiency tax

Notwithstanding any other provision of law, a deficiency in tax for a taxable year resulting from the inclusion of an amount in gross income as provided by section 53311 of this title, and the amount to be treated as a deficiency under section 53311 instead of as an adjustment for the declared value excess profits tax, may be assessed or a civil action may be brought to collect the deficiency without assessment, at any time. Interest on a deficiency or amount to be treated as a deficiency does not begin until the date the deposited gain or part of the deposited gain in question is required to be included in gross income under section 51111.

(Pub. L. 109–304, §8(c), Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1590.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
53312 46 App.:1161(j). June 29, 1936, ch. 858, title V, §511(j), as added Oct. 10, 1940, ch. 849, 54 Stat. 1108.