[USC05] 7 USC 2026: Research, demonstration, and evaluations
Result 293 of 137693
   

TEXT OF PART V OF SUBTITLE A (3001 ET SEQ.), EFFECTIVE JANUARY 1, 2022, CURRENTLY SET OUT AS A PREVIEW

7 USC 2026: Research, demonstration, and evaluations Text contains those laws in effect on January 4, 1995
From Title 7-AGRICULTURECHAPTER 51-FOOD STAMP PROGRAM

§2026. Research, demonstration, and evaluations

(a) Contracts or grants; issuance of aggregate allotments

(1) The Secretary may, by way of making contracts with or grants to public or private organizations or agencies, undertake research that will help improve the administration and effectiveness of the food stamp program in delivering nutrition-related benefits.

(2) The Secretary may, on application, permit not more than two State agencies to establish procedures that allow households whose monthly food stamp benefits do not exceed $20, at their option, to receive, in lieu of their food stamp benefits for the initial period under section 2017 of this title and their regular allotment in following months, and at intervals of up to 3 months thereafter, aggregate allotments not to exceed $60 and covering not more than 3 months' benefits. The allotments shall be provided in accordance with paragraphs (3) and (9) of section 2020(e) of this title (except that no household shall begin to receive combined allotments under this section until it has complied with all applicable verification requirements of section 2020(e)(3) of this title) and (with respect to the first aggregate allotment so issued) within 40 days of the last coupon issuance.

(b) Pilot projects

(1)(A) The Secretary may conduct on a trial basis, in one or more areas of the United States, pilot or experimental projects designed to test program changes that might increase the efficiency of the food stamp program and improve the delivery of food stamp benefits to eligible households, including projects involving the payment of the value of allotments or the average value of allotments by household size in the form of cash to eligible households all of whose members are age sixty-five or over or any of whose members are entitled to supplemental security income benefits under title XVI of the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 1381 et seq.] or to aid to families with dependent children under part A of title IV of the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 601 et seq.], the use of countersigned food coupons or similar identification mechanisms that do not invade a household's privacy, and the use of food checks or other voucher-type forms in place of food coupons. The Secretary may waive the requirements of this chapter to the degree necessary for such projects to be conducted, except that no project, other than a project involving the payment of the average value of allotments by household size in the form of cash to eligible households or a project conducted under paragraph (3), shall be implemented which would lower or further restrict the income or resource standards or benefit levels provided pursuant to sections 2014 and 2017 of this title. Any pilot or experimental project implemented under this paragraph and operating as of October 1, 1981, involving the payment of the value of allotments in the form of cash to eligible households all of whose members are either age sixty-five or over or entitled to supplemental security income benefits under title XVI of the Social Security Act shall be continued through October 1, 1995, if the State so requests.

(B)(i) No waiver or demonstration program shall be approved under this chapter after November 28, 1990, unless-

(I) any household whose food assistance is issued in a form other than coupons has its allotment increased to the extent necessary to compensate for any State or local sales tax that may be collected in all or part of the area covered by the demonstration project, the tax on purchases of food by any such household is waived, or the Secretary determines on the basis of information provided by the State agency that the increase is unnecessary on the basis of the limited nature of the items subject to the State or local sales tax; and

(II) the State agency conducting the demonstration project pays the cost of any increased allotments.


(ii) Clause (i) shall not apply if a waiver or demonstration project already provides a household with assistance that exceeds that which the household would otherwise be eligible to receive by more than the estimated amount of any sales tax on the purchases of food that would be collected from the household in the project area in which the household resides.

(2) The Secretary shall, jointly with the Secretary of Labor, implement two pilot projects involving the performance of work in return for food stamp benefits in each of the seven administrative regions of the Food and Nutrition Service of the Department of Agriculture, such projects to be (A) appropriately divided in each region between locations that are urban and rural in characteristics and among locations selected to provide a representative cross-section of political subdivisions in the States and (B) submitted for approval prior to project implementation, together with the names of the agencies or organizations that will be engaged in such projects, to the Committee on Agriculture of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry of the Senate. Under such pilot projects, any person who is subject to the work registration requirements pursuant to section 2015(d) of this title, and is a member of a household that does not have earned income equal to or exceeding the allotment to which the household is otherwise entitled pursuant to section 2017(a) of this title, shall be ineligible to participate in the food stamp program as a member of any household during any month in which such person refuses, after not being offered employment in the private sector of the economy for more than thirty days (ten days in at least one pilot project area designated by the Secretary) after the initial registration for employment referred to in section 2015(d)(1)(i) of this title, to accept an offer of employment from a political subdivision or a prime sponsor pursuant to the Comprehensive Employment and Training Act of 1973, as amended (29 U.S.C. 812), for which employment compensation shall be paid in the form of the allotment to which the household is otherwise entitled pursuant to section 2017(a) of this title, with each hour of employment entitling the household to a portion of the allotment equal in value to 100 per centum of the Federal minimum hourly rate under the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938, as amended (29 U.S.C. 206(a)(1)); which employment shall not, together with any other hours worked in any other capacity by such person exceed forty hours a week; and which employment shall not be used by the employer to fill a job opening created by the action of such employer in laying off or terminating the employment of any regular employee not supported under this paragraph in anticipation of filling the vacancy so created by hiring an employee or employees to be supported under this paragraph: Provided, That all of the political subdivision's or prime sponsor's public service jobs supported under the Comprehensive Employment and Training Act of 1973, as amended (29 U.S.C. 812), are filled before such subdivision or sponsor can extend a job offer pursuant to this paragraph: Provided further, That the sponsor of each such project shall provide the assurances required of prime sponsors under section 205(c)(7), (8), (15), (19), and (24) of the Comprehensive Employment and Training Act of 1973, as amended (29 U.S.C. 845(c)), and the Secretary shall require such sponsors to comply with the conditions contained in sections 208(a)(1), (4), and (5) and (c) and 703(4) of the Comprehensive Employment and Training Act of 1973, as amended (29 U.S.C. 848(a) and (c) and 983). The Secretary and the Secretary of Labor shall jointly issue reports to the appropriate committees of Congress on the progress of such pilot projects no later than six and twelve months following September 29, 1977, shall issue interim reports no later than October 1, 1979, October 1, 1980, and March 30, 1981, shall issue a final report describing the results of such pilot projects based upon their operation from their commencement through the fiscal year ending September 30, 1981, and shall pay to the agencies or organizations operating such pilot projects 50 per centum of all administrative costs involved in such operation.

(3)(A) The Secretary may conduct demonstration projects to test improved consistency or coordination between the food stamp employment and training program and the Job Opportunities and Basic Skills program under title IV of the Social Security Act (42 U.S.C. 601 et seq.).

(B) Notwithstanding paragraph (1), the Secretary may, as part of a project authorized under this paragraph, waive requirements under section 2015(d) of this title to permit a State to operate an employment and training program for food stamp recipients on the same terms and conditions under which the State operates its Job Opportunities and Basic Skills program for recipients of aid to families with dependent children under part F of title IV of the Social Security Act (42 U.S.C. 681 et seq.). Any work experience program conducted as part of the project shall be conducted in conformity with section 482(f) of such Act (42 U.S.C. 682(f)).

(C) A State seeking such a waiver shall provide assurances that the resulting employment and training program shall meet the requirements of subsections (a)(19) and (g) of section 402 of such Act (42 U.S.C. 602) (but not including the provision of transitional benefits under clauses (ii) through (vii) of section 402(g)(1)(A) [42 U.S.C. 602(g)(1)(A)]) and sections 481 through 487 of such Act (42 U.S.C. 681 through 687). Each reference to "aid to families with dependent children" in such sections shall be deemed to be a reference to food stamps for purposes of the demonstration project.

(D) Notwithstanding the other provisions of this paragraph, participation in an employment and training activity in which food stamp benefits are converted to cash shall occur only with the consent of the participant.

(E) For the purposes of any project conducted under this paragraph, the provisions of this chapter affecting the rights of recipients may be waived to the extent necessary to conform to the provisions of section 402, and sections 481 through 487, of the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 602, 681 687].

(F) At least 60 days prior to granting final approval of a project under this paragraph, the Secretary shall publish the terms and conditions for any demonstration project conducted under the paragraph for public comment in the Federal Register and shall notify the Committee on Agriculture of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry of the Senate.

(G) Waivers may be granted under this paragraph to conduct projects at any one time in a total of up to 60 project areas (or parts of project areas), as such areas are defined in regulations in effect on January 1, 1990.

(H) A waiver for a change in program rules may be granted under this paragraph only for a demonstration project that has been approved by the Secretary, that will be evaluated according to criteria prescribed by the Secretary, and that will be in operation for no more than 4 years.

(c) Evaluation measures; pilot programs for nutritional monitoring

The Secretary shall develop and implement measures for evaluating, on an annual or more frequent basis, the effectiveness of the food stamp program in achieving its stated objectives, including, but not limited to, the program's impact upon the nutritional and economic status of participating households, the program's impact upon all sectors of the agricultural economy, including farmers and ranchers, as well as retail food stores, and the program's relative fairness to households of different income levels, different age composition, different size, and different regions of residence. Further, the Secretary shall, by way of making contracts with or grants to public or private organizations or agencies, implement pilot programs to test various means of measuring on a continuing basis the nutritional status of low income people, with special emphasis on people who are eligible for food stamps, in order to develop minimum common criteria and methods for systematic nutrition monitoring that could be applied on a nationwide basis. The locations of the pilot programs shall be selected to provide a representative geographic and demographic cross-section of political subdivisions that reflect natural usage patterns of health and nutritional services and that contain high proportions of low income people. The Secretary shall report on the progress of these pilot programs on an annual basis commencing on July 1, 1982, to the Committee on Agriculture of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry of the Senate, together with such recommendations as the Secretary deems appropriate.

(d) "Qualification period" defined; pilot projects for employment of applicants and recipients; exceptions; waiver; reestablishment of eligibility

(1) As used in this subsection, the term "qualification period" means a period of time immediately preceding-

(A) in the case of a new applicant for benefits under this chapter, the date on which application for such benefits is made by the individual; or

(B) in the case of an otherwise continuing recipient of coupons under this chapter, the date on which such coupons would otherwise be issued to the individual.


(2) Upon application of a State or political subdivision thereof, the Secretary may conduct one pilot project involving the employment requirements described in this subsection in each of four project areas selected by the Secretary.

(3) Under the pilot projects conducted pursuant to this subsection, except as provided in paragraphs (4), (5), and (6), an individual who resides in a project area shall not be eligible for assistance under this chapter if the individual was not employed a minimum of twenty hours per week, or did not participate in a workfare program established under section 2029 of this title, during a qualification period of-

(A) thirty or more consecutive days, in the case of an individual whose benefits under a State or Federal unemployment compensation law were terminated immediately before such qualification period began; or

(B) sixty or more consecutive days, in the case of an individual not described in clause (A).


(4) The provisions of paragraph (3) shall not apply in the case of an individual who-

(A) is under eighteen or over fifty-nine years of age;

(B) is certified by a physician as physically or mentally unfit for employment;

(C) is a parent or other member of a household with responsibility for the care of a dependent child under six years of age or of an incapacitated person;

(D) is a parent or other caretaker of a child under six years of age in a household in which there is another parent who, unless covered by clause (A) or (B), or both such clauses, is employed a minimum of twenty hours per week or participating in a workfare program established under section 2029 of this title;

(E) is in compliance with section 2015(d) of this title and demonstrates, in a manner prescribed by the Secretary, that the individual is able and willing to accept employment but is unable to obtain such employment; or

(F) is a member of any other group described by the Secretary.


(5) The Secretary may waive the requirements of paragraph (3) in the case of all individuals within all or part of a project area if the Secretary finds that such area-

(A) has an unemployment rate of over 10 per centum; or

(B) does not have a sufficient number of jobs to provide employment for individuals subject to this subsection.


(6) An individual who has become ineligible for assistance under this chapter by reason of paragraph (3) may reestablish eligibility for assistance after a period of ineligibility by-

(1) becoming employed for a minimum of twenty hours per week during any consecutive thirty-day period; or

(2) participating in a workfare program established under section 2029 of this title during any consecutive thirty-day period.

(e) Study and report to Congressional committees of effect of reduction of benefits

The Secretary shall conduct a study of the effects of reductions made in benefits provided under this chapter pursuant to part 1 of subtitle A of title I of the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1981, the Food Stamp and Commodity Distribution Amendments of 1981, the Food Stamp Act Amendments of 1982, and any other laws enacted by the Ninety-seventh Congress which affect the food stamp program. The study shall include a study of the effect of retrospective accounting and periodic reporting procedures established under such Acts, including the impact on benefit and administrative costs and on error rates and the degree to which eligible households are denied food stamp benefits for failure to file complete periodic reports. The Secretary shall submit to the Committee on Agriculture of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry of the Senate an interim report on the results of such study no later than February 1, 1984, and a final report on the results of such study no later than March 1, 1985.

(f) Demonstration projects for development and use of intelligent computer benefit cards to pay food stamp benefits

In order to encourage States to plan, design, develop, and implement a system for making food stamp benefits available through the use of intelligent benefit cards or other automated or electronic benefit delivery systems, the Secretary may conduct one or more pilot or experimental projects, subject to the restrictions imposed by subsection (b)(1) of this section and section 2016(g)(2) of this title, designed to test whether the use of such cards or systems can enhance the efficiency and effectiveness of program operations while ensuring that individuals receive correct benefit amounts on a timely basis. Intelligent benefit cards developed under such a demonstration project shall contain information, encoded on a computer chip embedded in a credit card medium, including the eligibility of the individual and the amount of benefits to which such individual is entitled. Any other automated or electronic benefit delivery system developed under such a demonstration project shall be able to use a plastic card to access such information from a data file.

(g) Study of effectiveness of food stamp employment and training program

In order to assess the effectiveness of the employment and training programs established under section 2015(d) of this title in placing individuals into the work force and withdrawing such individuals from the food stamp program, the Secretary is authorized to carry out studies comparing the pre- and post-program labor force participation, wage rates, family income, level of receipt of food stamp and other transfer payments, and other relevant information, for samples of participants in such employment and training programs as compared to the appropriate control or comparison groups that did not participate in such programs. Such studies shall, to the maximum extent possible-

(1) collect such data for up to 3 years after the individual has completed the employment and training program; and

(2) yield results that can be generalized to the national program as a whole.


The results of such studies and reports shall be considered in developing or updating the performance standards required under section 2015 of this title.

(h) Demonstration projects for vehicle exclusion limits

The Secretary shall conduct a sufficient number of demonstration projects to evaluate the effects, in both rural and urban areas, of including in financial resources under section 2014(g) of this title the fair market value of licensed vehicles to the extent the value of each vehicle exceeds $4,500, but excluding the value of-

(1) any licensed vehicle that is used to produce earned income, necessary for transportation of an elderly or physically disabled household member, or used as the household's home; and

(2) one licensed vehicle used to obtain, continue, or seek employment (including travel to and from work), used to pursue employment-related education or training, or used to secure food or the benefits of the food stamp program.

(i) Demonstration projects for AFDC/food stamp simplification

(1) The Secretary may conduct four demonstration projects, in both urban and rural areas, under which households in which each member receives benefits under a State plan approved under part A of title IV of the Social Security Act (42 U.S.C. 601 et seq.) (hereafter in this subsection referred to as an "eligible household") shall be issued monthly allotments following the rules and procedures of programs under part A of title IV of the Social Security Act, and without regard to the eligibility, benefit, and administrative rules established under this chapter other than those terms and conditions specified under this subsection or established by the Secretary to ensure program integrity.

(2) In carrying out the demonstration projects, the Secretary shall ensure the following:

(A) The third sentence of section 2012(i) of this title, subsections (b) and (d)(2) of section 2015 of this title, the first sentence of section 2015(c) of this title, paragraphs (1)(B), (3), (4), and (9) of section 2020(e) of this title, and all applicable provisions of this chapter dealing with the treatment of homeless individuals and migrant and seasonal farm worker households shall apply.

(B) Assistance under the food stamp program shall be furnished to all eligible households who make application for assistance by providing any information that is needed by the State agency to determine the correct monthly allotment and that has not been provided as part of the household's application for assistance under part A of title IV of the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 601 et seq.].

(C) Eligible households' monthly allotments shall be calculated under section 2017(a) of this title, except that a household's income shall be determined in accordance with subparagraphs (D) and (E). The allotments shall be provided retroactive to the date of application.

(D) For purposes of determining monthly allotments under this subsection, household income shall be the benefit provided under part A of title IV of the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 601 et seq.] and the amount used to determine the household's benefit under such part (not including any amount disregarded for dependent care expenses), except that the amount shall be calculated without regard to section 402(a)(7)(C) of such Act (42 U.S.C. 602(a)(7)(C)) and shall not include nonrecurring lump-sum income and income deemed or allocated to the household under such part.

(E) In computing household income for purposes of determining monthly allotments, all eligible households shall be allowed the standard, earned income, excess shelter, and medical expense deductions provided under section 2014(e) of this title in lieu of any earned income disregards provided under section 402(a)(8) of the Social Security Act (42 U.S.C. 602(a)(8)). Alternatively, the Secretary may approve demonstration projects under which households without earned income are allowed such standard, excess shelter, and medical expense deductions, and household income for households with earned income is computed using such deductions and the earned income disregards provided under section 402(a)(8) of the Social Security Act to the extent that the Secretary determines they are consistent with the purposes of the demonstration projects required under this subsection.

(F) Uninterrupted food stamp assistance shall be provided to households who become ineligible to receive the assistance under this subsection but are determined otherwise eligible for food stamp assistance and to households receiving food stamp assistance other than under this subsection who are determined eligible under this subsection.

(G) Any other requirements and administrative procedures equivalent to those applicable under part A of title IV of the Social Security Act (42 U.S.C. 601 et seq.) may be used in implementing the demonstration projects required under this subsection, if the Secretary determines that the requirements or procedures further the purposes of this subsection and do not undermine program integrity.


(3) In establishing the projects, the Secretary shall solicit proposals from, and consult with, interested State and local agencies and shall consult with the Secretary of Health and Human Services on waivers of Federal rules under part A of title IV of the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 601 et seq.] that would assist in carrying out the projects required under this subsection.

(4) Not later than six months after termination of any project, the Secretary shall submit a report to the Committee on Agriculture of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry of the Senate evaluating the results of the demonstration projects established under this subsection, including evaluations of the effects on recipients and administrators.

(j) Grants to improve food stamp participation

(1)(A) Subject to the availability of funds specifically appropriated to carry out this subsection and subject to the other provisions of this subsection, during each of fiscal years 1992 through 1995, the Secretary shall make grants competitively awarded to public or private nonprofit organizations to fund food stamp outreach demonstration projects (hereinafter in this subsection referred to as the "projects") and related evaluations in areas of the United States to increase participation by eligible low-income households in the food stamp program. The total amount of grants provided during a fiscal year may not exceed $5,000,000. Funds appropriated to carry out this subsection shall be used in the year during which the funds are appropriated. Not more than 20 percent of the funds appropriated to carry out this subsection shall be used for evaluations.

(B) The Secretary shall make a grant under this paragraph only to an entity that demonstrates to the Secretary that the entity is able to conduct the outreach functions described in this subsection.

(2) Outreach projects under this subsection shall be targeted toward members of rural, elderly, and homeless populations, low-income working families with children, and non-English speaking minorities (hereinafter in this subsection collectively referred to as "target populations").

(3)(A) The Secretary shall appoint an advisory panel (hereinafter in this subsection referred to as the "panel") composed of representatives of the target populations as well as individuals with expertise in the area of program evaluation. The panel shall not be subject to the Federal Advisory Committee Act.

(B) The Secretary shall select recipients for grants, taking into consideration any recommendations from the panel concerning criteria that should be used in selecting recipients, to carry out projects under this subsection based on the appropriateness of the methods proposed for the projects to reach target populations. Appropriate methods shall include-

(i) the production of electronic media campaigns (with the total amount allocated for the campaigns in the aggregate not to exceed 15 percent of the total amount of funds specified in paragraph (1)(A));

(ii) utilization of local outreach workers and volunteers;

(iii) development of solutions to transportation and access problems;

(iv) in-service training for those capable of referring households to the program;

(v) community presentations and education;

(vi) pre-screening assistance for program eligibility;

(vii) individualized client assistance;

(viii) consultation and referral for benefit appeals; and

(ix) recruitment of authorized representatives for applicants unable to appear for certification or at authorized food stores.


(C) In selecting grant recipients, the Secretary shall take into consideration the ability of the applicants to produce useful data for evaluation purposes.

(D) In selecting grant recipients from among applicant public agencies, preference shall be given to those applicants that propose to involve nonprofit organizations in projects to be carried out with the grants.

(E) The Secretary shall provide at least one grant equal to 50 percent of the cost of the development of outreach materials aimed at the general food stamp eligible population as well as the specific target populations, including written materials and public service announcements, so that the materials may be used or adopted by other grant recipients, as appropriate. To be eligible to receive any such grant, a recipient shall provide matching funds equal to 50 percent of the cost of the development of materials described in the preceding sentence. In carrying out this subparagraph, the Secretary shall give preference to applicants that demonstrate the ability to disseminate the materials through other public and private nonprofit organizations. Not to exceed $500,000 of the funds provided under this subsection for any fiscal year shall be used for the grant.

(4)(A) The Secretary shall evaluate a sufficient number of projects to be able to determine the effectiveness of the projects and the techniques employed by the projects with respect to-

(i) success in reducing barriers to participation;

(ii) increasing overall program participation including participation among target populations;

(iii) administrative effectiveness;

(iv) program efficiency; and

(v) adequacy of administrative resource levels to conduct the activities effectively.


(B) The Secretary shall provide an interim report on the results of the evaluation carried out under subparagraph (A) not later than 1 year after a sufficient number of projects have begun and a final report not later than 3 years after a sufficient number of projects have begun to the Committee on Agriculture of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry of the Senate.

(C) The Secretary shall also examine and report on previous research regarding reasons for nonparticipation and effective methods to conduct outreach and to reduce barriers to participation.

(5) The Secretary shall-

(A) within 180 days after funds are appropriated, publish such notice as may be necessary to implement this subsection;

(B) accept proposals from organizations for projects under this subsection for 90 days following the date the notice is published; and

(C) begin to award grants under this subsection beginning no later than 180 days following the date the notice is published.

(k) Testing resource accumulation

The Secretary shall conduct, under such terms and conditions as the Secretary shall prescribe, for a period not to exceed 4 years, projects to test allowing not more than 11,000 eligible households, in the aggregate, to accumulate resources up to $10,000 each (which shall be excluded from consideration as a resource) for later expenditure for a purpose directly related to improving the education, training, or employability (including self-employment) of household members, for the purchase of a home for the household, for a change of the household's residence, or for making major repairs to the household's home.

(l) Demonstration projects directed at food coupon trafficking

The Secretary shall use up to $4,000,000 of the funds provided in advance in appropriations Acts for projects authorized by this section to conduct demonstration projects in which State or local food stamp agencies test innovative ideas for working with State or local law enforcement agencies to investigate and prosecute coupon trafficking.

(Pub. L. 88 525, §17, as added Pub. L. 93 86, §3(n), Aug. 10, 1973, 87 Stat. 248; amended Pub. L. 95 113, title XIII, §1301, Sept. 29, 1977, 91 Stat. 977; Pub. L. 95 400, Sept. 30, 1978, 92 Stat. 856; Pub. L. 96 249, title I, §§130 132(a), 133, May 26, 1980, 94 Stat. 367, 368; Pub. L. 97 98, title XIII, §§1328 1330, Dec. 22, 1981, 95 Stat. 1289, 1290; Pub. L. 97 253, title I, §§152(c), 181, 182, 190(d), Sept. 8, 1982, 96 Stat. 776, 784, 785, 787; Pub. L. 99 114, §4, Oct. 1, 1985, 99 Stat. 488; Pub. L. 99 157, §2, Nov. 15, 1985, 99 Stat. 818; Pub. L. 99 182, §2, Dec. 13, 1985, 99 Stat. 1173; Pub. L. 99 198, title XV, §1540, Dec. 23, 1985, 99 Stat. 1588; Pub. L. 100 435, title V, §§504, 505, Sept. 19, 1988, 102 Stat. 1673; Pub. L. 101 624, title XVII, §§1729(b), 1731, 1754 1759, Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 3790, 3798 3800, 3802; Pub. L. 102 237, title IX, §941(8), Dec. 13, 1991, 105 Stat. 1893; Pub. L. 103 66, title XIII, §13925, Aug. 10, 1993, 107 Stat. 675; Pub. L. 103 225, title II, §204, Mar. 25, 1994, 108 Stat. 109.)

References in Text

The Social Security Act, referred to in subsecs. (b)(1), (3)(A), (B), and (i), is act Aug. 14, 1935, ch. 531, 49 Stat. 620 , as amended. Title IV, parts A and F of title IV, and title XVI of the Act are classified generally to subchapter IV (§601 et seq.), parts A (§601 et seq.) and F (§681 et seq.) of subchapter IV, and subchapter XVI (§1381 et seq.), respectively, of chapter 7 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 1305 of Title 42 and Tables.

The Comprehensive Employment and Training Act of 1973, referred to in subsec. (b)(2), is Pub. L. 93 203, Dec. 28, 1973, 87 Stat. 839, as amended. The Act was amended generally by Pub. L. 95 524, Oct. 27, 1978, 92 Stat. 1912, and, as so amended, was known as the Comprehensive Employment and Training Act, which was classified generally to chapter 17 (§801 et seq.) of Title 29, Labor, and was repealed by section 184(a)(1) of the Job Training Partnership Act, Pub. L. 97 300, title I, Oct. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 1357. The Job Training Partnership Act is classified principally to chapter 19 (§1501 et seq.) of Title 29, Section 183 of Pub. L. 97 300, classified to section 1592 of title 29, provided in part that references in any other statute to the Comprehensive Employment and Training Act shall be deemed to refer to the Job Training Partnership Act. Sections 821, 845, 848, and 983 of Title 29, also referred to in subsec. (b)(2), are references to sections of the 1973 Act prior to amendment by Pub. L. 95 524. For further details, see the notes set out for those former sections of Title 29.

The Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938, as amended, referred to in subsec. (b)(2), is act June 25, 1938, ch. 676, 52 Stat. 1060 , as amended, which is classified generally to chapter 8 (§201 et seq.) of Title 29. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 201 of Title 29 and Tables.

The Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1981, referred to in subsec. (e), is Pub. L. 97 35, Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 357. Part 1 of subtitle A of title I of the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act amended this chapter generally. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Tables.

The Food Stamp and Commodity Distribution Amendments of 1981, referred to in subsec. (e), is title XIII of Pub. L. 97 98, Dec. 22, 1981, 95 Stat. 1282, which amended this chapter generally. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title of 1981 Amendment note set out under section 2011 of this title and Tables.

The Food Stamp Act Amendments of 1982, referred to in subsec. (e), is subtitle E of title I of Pub. L. 97 253, Sept. 8, 1982, 96 Stat. 772, which amended this chapter generally. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title of 1982 Amendment note set out under section 2011 of this title and Tables.

The Federal Advisory Committee Act, referred to in subsec. (j)(3)(A), is Pub. L. 92 463, Oct. 6, 1972, 86 Stat. 770, as amended, which is set out in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

Amendments

1994-Subsec. (l). Pub. L. 103 225 added subsec. (l).

1993-Subsec. (k). Pub. L. 103 66 added subsec. (k).

1991-Subsec. (b)(3)(C). Pub. L. 102 237 inserted a closing parenthesis after "402(g)(1)(A)".

1990-Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 101 624, §1731, designated existing provisions as par. (1) and added par. (2).

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 101 624, §1756(1), inserted "or a project conducted under paragraph (3)" after "eligible households" in second sentence of subpar. (A).

Pub. L. 101 624, §1755, designated existing provisions as subpar. (A) and added subpar. (B).

Pub. L. 101 624, §1754, substituted "1995" for "1990".

Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 101 624, §1756(2), added par. (3).

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 101 624, §1729(b), struck out par. (1) designation preceding text.

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 101 624, §1757, added subsec. (h).

Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 101 624, §1758, added subsec. (i).

Subsec. (j). Pub. L. 101 624, §1759, added subsec. (j).

1988-Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 100 435, §504, added subsec. (f).

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 100 435, §505, added subsec. (g).

1985-Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 99 198, §1540(a), substituted "October 1, 1990" for "December 31, 1985".

Pub. L. 99 182 substituted "December 31, 1985" for "December 13, 1985".

Pub. L. 99 157 substituted "December 13, 1985" for "November 15, 1985".

Pub. L. 99 114 substituted "through November 15, 1985" for "until October 1, 1985".

Subsecs. (d) to (f). Pub. L. 99 198, §1540(b), (c), struck out subsec. (d) which had authorized the Secretary to conduct statewide pilot projects respecting the processing of applications for certain recipients, and redesignated subsecs. (e) and (f) as (d) and (e), respectively.

1982-Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 97 253, §§152(c), 190(d), redesignated subsec. (f) as (d), and struck out former subsec. (d), which provided that notwithstanding any other provision of law, the Secretary has required, in consultation with the Secretary of the Treasury, to conduct a study, through the use of Federal income tax data, of the feasibility, alternative methods of implementation, and the effects of a program to recover food stamp benefits from members of eligible households in which the adjusted gross income of members of such households for a calendar year (as defined by the Internal Revenue Code of 1954) exceeded twice the income poverty guidelines set forth in section 2014(c) of this title, and that such study had to be conducted in rural and urban areas only on a voluntary basis by food stamp recipients, and that the Secretary was required, no later than twelve months and eighteen months from September 29, 1977, to report the results of the study to the Committees on Agriculture and Ways and Means of the House of Representatives and to the Committees on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry and Finance of the Senate, together with such recommendations as the Secretary deemed appropriate.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 97 253, §§152(c), 190(d), redesignated subsec. (g) as (e) and struck out former subsec. (e) which provided for a study of the Consumer Price Index and other alternative consumer price or cost-of-living indices.

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 97 253, §190(d), redesignated subsec. (h) as (f). Former subsec. (f) redesignated (d).

Subsecs. (g), (h). Pub. L. 97 253, §§181, 182, 190(d), added subsecs. (g) and (h) and redesignated them as (e) and (f), respectively.

1981-Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 97 98, §1328, substituted "may conduct" for "is authorized to conduct", "age sixty-five or over and any of whose members are entitled to supplemental security income benefits under title XVI of the Social Security Act or to aid to families with dependent children under part A of title IV of the Social Security Act" for "either age sixty-five or over or entitled to supplemental security income benefits under title XVI of the Social Security Act", and "October 1, 1985" for "October 1, 1981" and inserted "or the average value of allotments by household size" after "value of allotments", ", other than a project involving the payment of the average value of allotments by household size in the form of cash to eligible households," after "no project", "and operating as of October 1, 1981," after "under this paragraph" and "all of whose members are either age sixty-five or over or entitled to supplemental security income benefits under title XVI of the Social Security Act" before "shall be continued".

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 97 98, §1329, inserted provision authorizing the Secretary to implement pilot programs to test various means of measuring on a continual basis the nutritional status of low income people in order to develop minimum common criteria and methods for systematic nutrition monitoring that could be applied on a nationwide basis and directing the Secretary to report on the progress of these pilot programs on an annual basis commencing on July 1, 1982, to designated Congressional committees.

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 97 98, §1330, added subsec. (f).

1980-Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 96 249, §130, inserted provisions requiring that any pilot or experimental project implemented under this paragraph involving the payment of the value of allotments in the form of cash to eligible households be continued until October 1, 1981, if the State so requests.

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 96 249, §§131, 132(a), inserted "(ten days in at least one pilot project area designated by the Secretary)" after "thirty days" and substituted "interim reports no later than October 1, 1979, October 1, 1980, and March 30, 1981, shall issue a final report describing the results of such pilot project based upon their operation from their commencement through the fiscal year ending September 30, 1981, and shall pay to the agencies or organizations operating such pilot projects 50 per centum of all administrative costs involved in such operation" for "an interim report no later than October 1, 1979, and shall issue a final report describing the results of such pilot projects no later than October 1, 1980".

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 96 249, §133, added subsec. (e).

1978-Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 95 400 required issuance of an interim report no later than Oct. 1, 1979, and substituted requirement for issuance of a final report no later than Oct. 1, 1980, for prior requirement of a final report no later than eighteen months following Sept. 29, 1977.

1977-Pub. L. 95 113 substituted provisions relating to research, demonstrations, and evaluations for provisions relating to the purchase with coupons of hunting and fishing equipment for procuring food by members of eligible households living in Alaska.

Effective Date of 1993 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 103 66 effective, and to be implemented beginning on, Oct. 1, 1993, see section 13971(a) of Pub. L. 103 66, set out as a note under section 2025 of this title.

Effective Date of 1991 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 102 237 effective and to be implemented no later than Feb. 1, 1992, see section 1101(d)(1) of Pub. L. 102 237, set out as a note under section 1421 of this title.

Effective Date of 1990 Amendment

Amendment by sections 1729(b), 1731, and 1755 to 1759 of Pub. L. 101 624 effective Nov. 28, 1990, and amendment by section 1754 of Pub. L. 101 624 effective Oct. 1, 1990, see section 1781(a), (b)(1) of Pub. L. 101 624, set out as a note under section 2012 of this title.

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 100 435 to be effective and implemented on Oct. 1, 1988, except that such amendment to become effective and implemented on Oct. 1, 1989, if final order is issued under section 902(b) of Title 2, The Congress, for fiscal year 1989 making reductions and sequestrations specified in the report required under section 901(a)(3)(A) of Title 2, see section 701(a), (c)(2) of Pub. L. 100 435, set out as a note under section 2012 of this title.

Effective Date of 1982 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 97 253 effective Sept. 8, 1982, see section 193(a) of Pub. L. 97 253, set out as a note under section 2012 of this title.

Effective Date of 1981 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 97 98 effective on earlier of Sept. 8, 1982, or date such amendment became effective pursuant to section 1338 of Pub. L. 97 98, set out as a note under section 2012 of this title, see section 192(b) of Pub. L. 97 253, set out as a note under section 2012 of this title.

Amendment by Pub. L. 97 98 effective upon such date as Secretary of Agriculture may prescribe, taking into account need for orderly implementation, see section 1338 of Pub. L. 97 98, set out as a note under section 2012 of this title.

Effective Date of 1980 Amendment

Section 132(b) of Pub. L. 96 249 provided that: "The provisions of section 17(b)(2) of the Food Stamp Act of 1977 [subsec. (b)(2) of this section] for the sharing of administrative costs, as added by subsection (a) of this section, shall be effective on the date of enactment of this Act [May 26, 1980]."

Effective Date of 1977 Amendment

Section 1301 of Pub. L. 95 113 provided that the amendment made by that section is effective Oct. 1, 1977.

Demonstration Projects for Vehicle Exclusion Limit

Section 912 of Pub. L. 102 237 provided that: "The Secretary of Agriculture shall solicit requests to participate in the demonstration projects required by section 17(h) of the Food Stamp Act of 1977 (7 U.S.C. 2026(h)) by May 1, 1992. The projects shall commence operations no later than January 1, 1993."

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in sections 2016, 2020, 2027 of this title.