[USC02] 10 USC Ch. 1003: RESERVE COMPONENTS GENERALLY
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10 USC Ch. 1003: RESERVE COMPONENTS GENERALLY
From Title 10—ARMED FORCESSubtitle E—Reserve ComponentsPART I—ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION

CHAPTER 1003—RESERVE COMPONENTS GENERALLY

Sec.
10101.
Reserve components named.
10102.
Purpose of reserve components.
10102a.
Deployment prioritization and readiness of Army components.
10103.
Basic policy for order into Federal service.
10104.
Army Reserve: composition.
10105.
Army National Guard of the United States: composition.
10106.
Army National Guard: when a component of the Army.
10107.
Army National Guard of the United States: status when not in Federal service.
10108.
Navy Reserve: administration.
10109.
Marine Corps Reserve: administration.
10110.
Air Force Reserve: composition.
10111.
Air National Guard of the United States: composition.
10112.
Air National Guard: when a component of the Air Force.
10113.
Air National Guard of the United States: status when not in Federal service.
10114.
Coast Guard Reserve.

        

Amendments

2016Pub. L. 114–328, div. A, title III, §321(a)(2), Dec. 23, 2016, 130 Stat. 2075, added item 10102a.

2006Pub. L. 109–163, div. A, title V, §515(b)(4)(E), Jan. 6, 2006, 119 Stat. 3235, substituted "Navy Reserve" for "Naval Reserve" in item 10108.

1996Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title XV, §1501(b)(2)(B), Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 495, substituted "into Federal service" for "of National Guard into Federal service" in item 10103.

§10101. Reserve components named

The reserve components of the armed forces are:

(1) The Army National Guard of the United States.

(2) The Army Reserve.

(3) The Navy Reserve.

(4) The Marine Corps Reserve.

(5) The Air National Guard of the United States.

(6) The Air Force Reserve.

(7) The Coast Guard Reserve.

(Added Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title XVI, §1661(a)(1), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2970; amended Pub. L. 109–163, div. A, title V, §515(b)(1)(Z), Jan. 6, 2006, 119 Stat. 3233.)

Prior Provisions

Provisions similar to those in this section were contained in section 261(a) of this title, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 103–337, §1661(a)(2)(A).

Amendments

2006—Par. (3). Pub. L. 109–163 substituted "Navy Reserve" for "Naval Reserve".

Change of Name

Pub. L. 109–163, div. A, title V, §515(a)(1), Jan. 6, 2006, 119 Stat. 3233, provided that: "The reserve component of the Armed Forces known as the Naval Reserve is redesignated as the Navy Reserve."

Pub. L. 109–163, div. A, title V, §515(h), Jan. 6, 2006, 119 Stat. 3237, as amended by Pub. L. 111–383, div. A, title X, §1075(h)(1), Jan. 7, 2011, 124 Stat. 4377, provided that: "Any reference in any law, regulation, document, record, or other paper of the United States to the Naval Reserve, other than a reference to the Naval Reserve regarding the United States Naval Reserve Retired List, shall be considered to be a reference to the Navy Reserve."

Pub. L. 108–375, div. A, title V, §517, Oct. 28, 2004, 118 Stat. 1884, which authorized the Secretary of the Navy, with the President's approval, to redesignate the Naval Reserve as the "Navy Reserve", was repealed by Pub. L. 109–163, div. A, title V, §515(a)(2), Jan. 6, 2006, 119 Stat. 3233.

Effective Date

Section effective Dec. 1, 1994, except as otherwise provided, see section 1691 of Pub. L. 103–337, set out as a note under section 10001 of this title.

Transfer of Functions

For transfer of authorities, functions, personnel, and assets of the Coast Guard, including the authorities and functions of the Secretary of Transportation relating thereto, to the Department of Homeland Security, and for treatment of related references, see sections 468(b), 551(d), 552(d), and 557 of Title 6, Domestic Security, and the Department of Homeland Security Reorganization Plan of November 25, 2002, as modified, set out as a note under section 542 of Title 6.

Pilot Program on Enhancements of Department of Defense Efforts on Mental Health in the National Guard and Reserves Through Community Partnerships

Pub. L. 112–239, div. A, title VII, §706, Jan. 2, 2013, 126 Stat. 1800, as amended by Pub. L. 113–66, div. A, title V, §511(b), Dec. 26, 2013, 127 Stat. 751, provided that:

"(a) Program Authority.—The Secretary of Defense may carry out a pilot program to enhance the efforts of the Department of Defense in research, treatment, education, and outreach on mental health, substance use disorders, traumatic brain injury, and suicide prevention in members of the National Guard and Reserves, their family members, and their caregivers through community partners.

"(b) Agreements With Community Partners.—In carrying out the pilot program authorized by subsection (a), the Secretary may enter into partnership agreements with community partners described in subsection (c) using a competitive and merit-based award process.

"(c) Community Partner Described.—A community partner described in this subsection is a private non-profit organization or institution that meets such qualifications as the Secretary shall establish for purposes of the pilot program and engages in one or more of the following:

"(1) Research on the causes, development, and innovative treatment of mental health and substance use disorders and traumatic brain injury in members of the National Guard and Reserves, their family members, and their caregivers.

"(2) Identifying and disseminating evidence-based treatments of mental health and substance use disorders and traumatic brain injury described in paragraph (1).

"(3) Outreach and education to such members, their families and caregivers, and the public about mental health, substance use disorders, traumatic brain injury, and suicide prevention.

"(d) Duration.—The duration of the pilot program may not exceed three years.

"(e) Report.—Not later than 180 days before the completion of the pilot program, the Secretary of Defense shall submit to the Secretary of Veterans Affairs and the congressional defense committees [Committees on Armed Services and Appropriations of the Senate and the House of Representatives] a report on the results of the pilot program, including the number of members of the National Guard and Reserves provided treatment or services by community partners, and a description and assessment of the effectiveness and achievements of the pilot program with respect to research, treatment, education, and outreach on mental health, substance use disorders, traumatic brain injury, and suicide prevention."

Behavioral Health Support

Pub. L. 112–81, div. A, title VII, §703(b), Dec. 31, 2011, 125 Stat. 1471, provided that:

"(1) In general.—Each member of a reserve component of the Armed Forces participating in annual training or individual duty training shall have access, while so participating, to the behavioral health support programs for members of the reserve components described in paragraph (2).

"(2) Behavioral health support programs.—The behavioral health support programs for members of the reserve components described in this paragraph shall include one or any combination of the following:

"(A) Programs providing access to licensed mental health providers in armories, reserve centers, or other places for scheduled unit training assemblies.

"(B) Programs providing training on suicide prevention and post-suicide response.

"(C) Psychological health programs.

"(D) Such other programs as the Secretary of Defense, in consultation with the Surgeon General for the National Guard of the State in which the members concerned reside, the Director of Psychological Health of the State in which the members concerned reside, the Department of Mental Health or the equivalent agency of the State in which the members concerned reside, or the Director of the Psychological Health Program of the National Guard Bureau, considers appropriate.

"(3) Funding.—Behavioral health support programs provided to members of the reserve components under this subsection shall be provided using amounts made available for operation and maintenance for the reserve components.

"(4) State defined.—In this subsection, the term 'State' has the meaning given that term in section 10001 of title 10, United States Code."

Limitation on Scheduling of Mobilization or Pre-Mobilization Training for Reserve Units When Certain Suspension of Training is Likely

Pub. L. 111–84, div. A, title V, §514, Oct. 28, 2009, 123 Stat. 2282, provided that:

"(a) Limitation.—

"(1) In general.—Subject to paragraph (2), the Secretary of a military department shall avoid scheduling mobilization training or pre-mobilization training for a unit of a reserve component of the Armed Forces at a temporary duty location that is outside the normal commuting distance of the unit (as determined pursuant to the regulations prescribed by the Secretary of Defense under subsection (c)) if a suspension of training at such temporary duty location of at least five days is anticipated to occur during any portion of such mobilization or pre-mobilization training.

"(2) Waiver.—The Secretary of a military department may waive the applicability of the limitation in paragraph (1) to a unit of a reserve component if the Secretary determines that the waiver is in the national security interests of the United States.

"(3) Notice to congress.—Until December 31, 2014, the Secretary of the military department concerned shall submit written notice of each waiver issued under paragraph (2) to the congressional defense committees [Committees on Armed Services and Appropriations of the Senate and the House of Representatives]. Notice of such waiver shall be so submitted at the time of the issuance of such waiver.

"(b) Notice of Other Suspensions of Training.—Until December 31, 2014, in the event of a suspension of training (other than an anticipated suspension of training described in subsection (a)(1)) of at least five days at a temporary duty location at which one or more units of the reserve components on active duty are engaged in mobilization training or pre-mobilization training, the Secretary of the military department having jurisdiction over such unit or units shall submit written notice of the suspension to the congressional defense committees [Committees on Armed Services and Appropriations of the Senate and the House of Representatives]. Notice of such suspension of training shall be so submitted at the time of such suspension of training.

"(c) Regulations.—The Secretaries of the military departments shall administer this section in accordance with regulations prescribed by the Secretary of Defense. Such regulations shall apply uniformly among the military departments."

Yellow Ribbon Reintegration Program

Pub. L. 111–84, div. A, title V, §597(b), Oct. 28, 2009, 123 Stat. 2344, which related to annual reports on the Yellow Ribbon Reintegration Program, was repealed by Pub. L. 114–92, div. A, title X, §1072(d)(2), Nov. 25, 2015, 129 Stat. 995.

Pub. L. 110–181, div. A, title V, §582, Jan. 28, 2008, 122 Stat. 122, as amended by Pub. L. 111–84, div. A, title V, §595, Oct. 28, 2009, 123 Stat. 2338; Pub. L. 111–383, div. A, title V, §583, Jan. 7, 2011, 124 Stat. 4228; Pub. L. 112–81, div. A, title V, §590, Dec. 31, 2011, 125 Stat. 1438; Pub. L. 112–239, div. A, title V, §581(b), Jan. 2, 2013, 126 Stat. 1766; Pub. L. 114–92, div. A, title V, §551, title X, §1072(d)(1), Nov. 25, 2015, 129 Stat. 820, 995, provided that:

"(a) Establishment of Program.—The Secretary of Defense shall establish a national reintegration program to provide eligible individuals with sufficient information, services, referral, and proactive outreach opportunities. This program shall be known as the Yellow Ribbon Reintegration Program.

"(b) Purpose of Program.—The Yellow Ribbon Reintegration Program shall consist of informational events and activities (including programs of outreach) for eligible individuals and community members to facilitate access to services supporting their health and well-being.

"(c) Executive Agent.—The Secretary shall designate the Under Secretary of Defense for Personnel and Readiness as the Department of Defense executive agent for the Yellow Ribbon Reintegration Program.

"(d) Office for Reintegration Programs.—

"(1) Establishment.—

"(A) In general.—The Under Secretary of Defense for Personnel and Readiness shall establish the Office for Reintegration Programs within the Office of the Secretary of Defense. The office shall administer all reintegration programs in coordination with State National Guard organizations. The office shall be responsible for coordination with existing National Guard and Reserve family and support programs. The Directors of the Army National Guard and Air National Guard and the Chiefs of the Army Reserve, Marine Corps Reserve, Navy Reserve, and Air Force Reserve may appoint liaison officers to coordinate with the permanent office staff.

"(B) Partnerships and access.—The office may enter into partnerships with other public entities, including the Department of Health and Human Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration and the Department of Veterans Affairs, for access to necessary substance abuse, mental health treatment, and other quality of life services from local State-licensed service providers. Service and State-based programs may provide access to curriculum, training, and support for services to members and families from all components.

"(2) Center for excellence in reintegration.—The Office for Reintegration Programs shall establish a Center for Excellence in Reintegration within the office. The Center shall have the following functions:

"(A) To collect and analyze 'lessons learned' and suggestions from State National Guard and Reserve organizations with existing or developing reintegration programs.

"(B) To assist in developing training aids and briefing materials and training representatives from State National Guard and Reserve organizations.

"(C) To develop and implement a process for evaluating the effectiveness of the Yellow Ribbon Reintegration Program in supporting the health and well-being of eligible individuals.

"(D) To develop and implement a process for identifying best practices in the delivery of information and services in programs of outreach as described in subsection (j).

"(3) Grants.—The Office for Reintegration Programs may make grants to conduct data collection, trend analysis, and curriculum development and to prepare reports in support of activities under this section.

"(e) Advisory Board.—

"(1) Appointment.—The Secretary of Defense shall appoint an advisory board to analyze the Yellow Ribbon Reintegration Program and report on areas of success and areas for necessary improvements. The advisory board shall include the Director of the Army National Guard, the Director of the Air National Guard, Chiefs of the Army Reserve, Marine Corps Reserve, Navy Reserve, and Air Force Reserve, the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Reserve Affairs [now Assistant Secretary of Defense for Manpower and Reserve Affairs], an Adjutant General on a rotational basis as determined by the Chief of the National Guard Bureau, and any other Department of Defense, Federal Government agency, or outside organization as determined by the Secretary of Defense. The members of the advisory board may designate representatives in their stead.

"(2) Schedule.—The advisory board shall meet on a schedule determined by the Secretary of Defense.

"(3) Initial reporting requirement.—The advisory board shall issue internal reports as necessary and shall submit an initial report to the Committees on Armed Services of the Senate and House of Representatives not later than 180 days after the end of the 1-year period beginning on the date of the establishment of the Office for Reintegration Programs. The report shall contain—

"(A) an evaluation of the implementation of the Yellow Ribbon Reintegration Program by State National Guard and Reserve organizations;

"(B) an assessment of any unmet resource requirements; and

"(C) recommendations regarding closer coordination between the Office of Reintegration Programs and State National Guard and Reserve organizations.

"(f) Support Teams.—The Office for Reintegration Programs may employ personnel to administer the Yellow Ribbon Reintegration Program at the State level. The primary function of team members shall be—

"(1) to implement the reintegration curriculum through the deployment cycle described in subsection (g);

"(2) to obtain necessary service providers; and

"(3) to educate service providers and community-based organizations regarding the unique military nature of the reintegration program.

"(g) Operation of Program.—

"(1) In general.—The Office for Reintegration Programs shall assist State National Guard and Reserve organizations with the development and provision of information, events, and activities to support the health and well-being of eligible individuals before, during, and after periods of activation, mobilization, or deployment.

"(2) Focus of information, events, and activities.—

"(A) Before activation, mobilization, or deployment.—Before a period of activation, mobilization, or deployment, the information, events, and activities described in paragraph (1) should focus on preparing eligible individuals and affected communities for the rigors of activation, mobilization, and deployment.

"(B) During activation, mobilization, or deployment.—During such a period, the information, events, and activities described in paragraph (1) should focus on—

"(i) helping eligible individuals cope with the challenges and stress associated with such period;

"(ii) decreasing the isolation of eligible individuals during such period; and

"(iii) preparing eligible individuals for the challenges associated with reintegration.

"(C) After activation, mobilization, or deployment.—After such a period, but no earlier than 30 days after demobilization, the information, events, and activities described in paragraph (1) should focus on—

"(i) reconnecting the member with their families, friends, and communities;

"(ii) providing information on employment opportunities;

"(iii) helping eligible individuals deal with the challenges of reintegration;

"(iv) ensuring that eligible individuals understand what benefits they are entitled to and what resources are available to help them overcome the challenges of reintegration; and

"(v) providing a forum for addressing negative behaviors related to operational stress and reintegration.

"(3) Member pay.—Members shall receive appropriate pay for days spent attending such events and activities.

"(4) Minimum number of events and activities.—The State National Guard and Reserve Organizations shall provide to eligible individuals—

"(A) one event or activity before a period of activation, mobilization, or deployment;

"(B) one event or activity during a period of activation, mobilization, or deployment; and

"(C) two events or activities after a period of activation, mobilization, or deployment.

"(h) Outreach Services.—As part of the Yellow Ribbon Reintegration Program, the Office for Reintegration Programs may develop programs of outreach to eligible individuals to educate such eligible individuals about the assistance and services available to them under the Yellow Ribbon Reintegration Program. Such assistance and services may include the following:

"(1) Marriage counseling.

"(2) Services for children.

"(3) Substance abuse awareness and treatment.

"(4) Mental health awareness and treatment.

"(5) Financial counseling.

"(6) Anger management counseling.

"(7) Domestic violence awareness and prevention.

"(8) Employment assistance.

"(9) Preparing and updating family care plans.

"(10) Development of strategies for living with a member of the Armed Forces with post-traumatic stress disorder or traumatic brain injury.

"(11) Other services that may be appropriate to address the unique needs of members of the Armed Forces and their families who live in rural or remote areas with respect to family readiness and servicemember reintegration.

"(12) Assisting members of the Armed Forces and their families find and receive assistance with military family readiness and servicemember reintegration, including referral services.

"(13) Development of strategies and programs that recognize the need for long-term follow-up services for reintegrating members of the Armed Forces and their families for extended periods following deployments, including between deployments.

"(14) Assisting members of the Armed Forces and their families in receiving services and assistance from the Department of Veterans Affairs, including referral services.

"(15) Resiliency training to promote comprehensive programs for members of the Armed Forces to build mental and emotional resiliency for successfully meeting the demands of the deployment cycle.

"(16) Stress management and positive coping skills.

"(i) Support of Suicide Prevention Efforts.—The Office for Reintegration Programs shall assist the Defense Suicide Prevention Office and the Defense Centers of Excellence for Psychological Health and Traumatic Brain Injury to collect and analyze information, suggestions, and best practices from State National Guard and Reserve organizations with suicide prevention and community response programs.

"(j) State-led Programs of Outreach.—The Office for Reintegration Programs may work with the States, whether acting through or in coordination with their National Guard and Reserve organizations, to assist the States and such organizations in developing and carrying out programs of outreach for eligible individuals to inform and educate them on the assistance and services available to them under the Yellow Ribbon Reintegration Program, including the assistance and services described in subsection (h).

"(k) Scope of Activities Under Programs of Outreach.—For purposes of this section, the activities and services provided under programs of outreach may include personalized and substantive care coordination services targeted specifically to eligible individuals.

"(l) Eligible Individuals Defined.—For the purposes of this section, the term 'eligible individual' means a member of a reserve component, a member of their family, or a designated representative who the Secretary of Defense determines to be eligible for the Yellow Ribbon Reintegration Program."

Pilot Program on Enhanced Quality of Life for Members of the Army Reserve and Their Families

Pub. L. 109–163, div. A, title V, §520, Jan. 6, 2006, 119 Stat. 3238, directed the Secretary of the Army to carry out a pilot program in two States to assess the feasibility and advisability of using a coalition of military and civilian community personnel to enhance the quality of life for members of the Army Reserve and their families and, not later than Apr. 1, 2007, submit to the appropriate Senate and House committees a report on the pilot program with appropriate assessments and recommendations.

Annual Review

Pub. L. 108–375, div. A, title V, §513(h), Oct. 28, 2004, 118 Stat. 1882, as amended by Pub. L. 114–92, div. A, title X, §1079(g), Nov. 25, 2015, 129 Stat. 999, provided that:

"(1) The Secretary of Defense shall annually review the reserve components of the Armed Forces with regard to—

"(A) the roles and missions of the reserve components; and

"(B) the compensation and other benefits, including health care benefits, that are provided for members of the reserve components under the laws of the United States.

"(2) The first review under paragraph (1) shall take place during fiscal year 2006."

Pay of Administration, Training, and Supply Maintenance Technicians for Army Reserve Contingent Upon Reserve Status

Pub. L. 104–61, title VIII, §8016, Dec. 1, 1995, 109 Stat. 654, provided that none of the funds appropriated for Department of Defense during and after fiscal year 1996 were to be obligated for pay of any individual who was initially employed after Dec. 1, 1995, as technician in administration and training of Army Reserve and maintenance and repair of supplies issued to Army Reserve unless such individual was also military member of Army Reserve troop program unit that he or she was employed to support, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 105–85, div. A, title V, §522(e), Nov. 18, 1997, 111 Stat. 1735.

Similar provisions were contained in the following prior appropriation acts:

Pub. L. 103–335, title VIII, §8015, Sept. 30, 1994, 108 Stat. 2620.

Pub. L. 103–139, title VIII, §8016, Nov. 11, 1993, 107 Stat. 1440.

Pub. L. 102–396, title IX, §9019, Oct. 6, 1992, 106 Stat. 1904.

Pub. L. 102–172, title VIII, §8018, Nov. 26, 1991, 105 Stat. 1175.

Pub. L. 101–511, title VIII, §8018, Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1878.

Pub. L. 101–165, title IX, §9027, Nov. 21, 1989, 103 Stat. 1135.

Pub. L. 100–463, title VIII, §8045, Oct. 1, 1988, 102 Stat. 2270–25.

Pub. L. 100–202, §101(b) [title VIII, §8055], Dec. 22, 1987, 101 Stat. 1329–43, 1329-72.

Pub. L. 99–500, §101(c) [title IX, §9054], Oct. 18, 1986, 100 Stat. 1783–82, 1783-111, and Pub. L. 99–591, §101(c) [title IX, §9054], Oct. 30, 1986, 100 Stat. 3341–82, 3341-111.

Pub. L. 99–190, §101(b) [title VIII, §8059], Dec. 19, 1985, 99 Stat. 1185, 1212.

Pub. L. 98–473, title I, §101(h) [title VIII, §8076], Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 1904, 1938.

Pub. L. 98–212, title VII, §783, Dec. 8, 1983, 97 Stat. 1453.

Retention in Active Status of National Guard or Reserve Technicians Until Age Sixty

Pub. L. 104–61, title VIII, §8017, Dec. 1, 1995, 109 Stat. 655, provided that: "Notwithstanding any other provision of law, during the current fiscal year and hereafter, the Secretaries of the Army and Air Force may authorize the retention in an active status until age sixty of any person who would otherwise be removed from an active status and who is employed as a National Guard or Reserve technician in a position in which active status in a reserve component of the Army or Air Force is required as a condition of that employment."

Similar provisions were contained in the following prior appropriation acts:

Pub. L. 103–335, title VIII, §8016, Sept. 30, 1994, 108 Stat. 2620.

Pub. L. 103–139, title VIII, §8018, Nov. 11, 1993, 107 Stat. 1441.

Pub. L. 102–396, title IX, §9022, Oct. 6, 1992, 106 Stat. 1905.

Pub. L. 102–172, title VIII, §8022, Nov. 26, 1991, 105 Stat. 1176.

Pub. L. 101–511, title VIII, §8022, Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1879.

Pub. L. 101–165, title IX, §9032, Nov. 21, 1989, 103 Stat. 1136.

Pub. L. 100–463, title VIII, §8052, Oct. 1, 1988, 102 Stat. 2270–26.

Pub. L. 100–202, §101(b) [title VIII, §8064], Dec. 22, 1987, 101 Stat. 1329–43, 1329-73.

Pub. L. 99–500, §101(c) [title IX, §9063], Oct. 18, 1986, 100 Stat. 1783–82, 1783-112, and Pub. L. 99–591, §101(c) [title IX, §9063], Oct. 30, 1986, 100 Stat. 3341–82, 3341-112.

Pub. L. 99–190, §101(b) [title VIII, §8073], Dec. 19, 1985, 99 Stat. 1185, 1214.

Pub. L. 98–473, title I, §101(h) [title VIII, §8106], Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 1904, 1943.

§10102. Purpose of reserve components

The purpose of each reserve component is to provide trained units and qualified persons available for active duty in the armed forces, in time of war or national emergency, and at such other times as the national security may require, to fill the needs of the armed forces whenever more units and persons are needed than are in the regular components.

(Added Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title XVI, §1661(a)(1), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2970; amended Pub. L. 108–375, div. A, title V, §511, Oct. 28, 2004, 118 Stat. 1877.)

Prior Provisions

Provisions similar to those in this section were contained in section 262 of this title, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 103–337, §1661(a)(2)(A).

Amendments

2004Pub. L. 108–375 struck out ", during and after the period needed to procure and train additional units and qualified persons to achieve the planned mobilization," after "whenever".

Effective Date

Section effective Dec. 1, 1994, except as otherwise provided, see section 1691 of Pub. L. 103–337, set out as a note under section 10001 of this title.

§10102a. Deployment prioritization and readiness of Army components

(a) Deployment Prioritization.—The Secretary of the Army shall maintain a system for identifying the priority of deployment for units of all components of the Army.

(b) Deployability Readiness Rating.—The Secretary of the Army shall maintain a readiness rating system for units of all components of the Army that provides an accurate assessment of the deployability of a unit and those shortfalls of a unit that require the provision of additional resources. The system shall ensure—

(1) that the personnel readiness rating of a unit reflects—

(A) both the percentage of the overall personnel requirement of the unit that is manned and deployable and the fill and deployability rate for critical occupational specialties necessary for the unit to carry out its basic mission requirements; and

(B) the number of personnel in the unit who are qualified in their primary military occupational specialty; and


(2) that the equipment readiness assessment of a unit—

(A) documents all equipment required for deployment;

(B) reflects only that equipment that is directly possessed by the unit;

(C) specifies the effect of substitute items; and

(D) assesses the effect of missing components and sets on the readiness of major equipment items.

(Added Pub. L. 114–328, div. A, title III, §321(a)(1), Dec. 23, 2016, 130 Stat. 2074.)

§10103. Basic policy for order into Federal service

Whenever Congress determines that more units and organizations are needed for the national security than are in the regular components of the ground and air forces, the Army National Guard of the United States and the Air National Guard of the United States, or such parts of them as are needed, together with units of other reserve components necessary for a balanced force, shall be ordered to active duty and retained as long as so needed.

(Added Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title XVI, §1661(a)(1), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2970; amended Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title XV, §1501(b)(2)(A), Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 495.)

Prior Provisions

Provisions similar to those in this section were contained in section 263 of this title, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 103–337, §1661(a)(2)(A).

Amendments

1996Pub. L. 104–106 substituted "into Federal service" for "of the National Guard and reserve components to active duty" in section catchline.

Effective Date of 1996 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 104–106 effective as if included in the Reserve Officer Personnel Management Act, title XVI of Pub. L. 103–337, as enacted on Oct. 5, 1994, see section 1501(f)(3) of Pub. L. 104–106, set out as a note under section 113 of this title.

Effective Date

Section effective Dec. 1, 1994, except as otherwise provided, see section 1691 of Pub. L. 103–337, set out as a note under section 10001 of this title.

Ordering Ready Reserve to Active Duty During National Emergencies

For additional provisions authorizing ordering of Ready Reserve to active duty during national emergencies, see section 12303 of this title and notes thereunder.

§10104. Army Reserve: composition

The Army Reserve includes all Reserves of the Army who are not members of the Army National Guard of the United States.

(Added Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title XVI, §1661(a)(1), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2970.)

Prior Provisions

Provisions similar to those in this section were contained in section 3076 of this title, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 103–337, §1661(a)(3)(A).

Effective Date

Section effective Dec. 1, 1994, except as otherwise provided, see section 1691 of Pub. L. 103–337, set out as a note under section 10001 of this title.

§10105. Army National Guard of the United States: composition

The Army National Guard of the United States is the reserve component of the Army that consists of—

(1) federally recognized units and organizations of the Army National Guard; and

(2) members of the Army National Guard who are also Reserves of the Army.

(Added Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title XVI, §1661(a)(1), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2970.)

Prior Provisions

Provisions similar to those in this section were contained in section 3077 of this title, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 103–337, §1661(a)(3)(A).

Effective Date

Section effective Dec. 1, 1994, except as otherwise provided, see section 1691 of Pub. L. 103–337, set out as a note under section 10001 of this title.

Active Component Support for Reserve Training

Pub. L. 103–160, div. A, title V, §515, Nov. 30, 1993, 107 Stat. 1650, provided that:

"(a) Requirement To Establish.—The Secretary of the Army shall, not later than September 30, 1995, establish one or more active-component units of the Army with the primary mission of providing training support to reserve units. Each such unit shall be part of the active Army force structure and shall have a commander who is on the active-duty list of the Army.

"(b) Implementation Plan.—The Secretary of the Army shall during fiscal year 1994 submit to the Committees on Armed Services of the Senate and House of Representatives a plan to meet the requirement in subsection (a). The plan shall include a proposal for any statutory changes that the Secretary considers to be necessary for the implementation of the plan."

Test Program for Reserve Combat Maneuver Unit Integration

Pub. L. 103–160, div. A, title V, §516, Nov. 30, 1993, 107 Stat. 1650, directed Secretary of the Army to prepare a plan for carrying out a test program to determine feasibility and advisability of applying the roundout and roundup models for integration of active and reserve component Army units at the battalion and company levels and submit to Congress not later than Mar. 31, 1994, a report that includes the plan for the test program.

Army National Guard Combat Readiness Reform

Pub. L. 102–484, div. A, title XI, Oct. 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 2536, as amended by Pub. L. 103–35, title II, §202(a)(11), May 31, 1993, 107 Stat. 101; Pub. L. 103–160, div. A, title V, §520, Nov. 30, 1993, 107 Stat. 1651; Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title V, §516, Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2754; Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title V, §§514, 515, title VII, §704(b), Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 307, 308, 372; Pub. L. 114–328, div. A, title III, §321(b), Dec. 23, 2016, 130 Stat. 2075, provided that:

"SEC. 1101. SHORT TITLE.

"This title may be cited as the 'Army National Guard Combat Readiness Reform Act of 1992'.

"Subtitle A—Deployability Enhancements

"SEC. 1111. PRIOR ACTIVE-DUTY PERSONNEL.

"(a) Additional Prior Active Duty Officers.—The Secretary of the Army shall increase the number of qualified prior active-duty officers in the Army National Guard by providing a program that permits the separation of officers on active duty with at least two, but less than three, years of active service upon condition that the officer is accepted for appointment in the Army National Guard. The Secretary shall have a goal of having not fewer than 150 officers become members of the Army National Guard each year under this section.

"(b) Additional Prior Active Duty Enlisted Members.—The Secretary of the Army shall increase the number of qualified prior active-duty enlisted members in the Army National Guard through the use of enlistments as described in section 8020 of the Department of Defense Appropriations Act, 1994 (Public Law 103–139) [107 Stat. 1441]. The Secretary shall enlist not fewer than 1,000 new enlisted members each year under enlistments described in that section.

"(c) Qualified Prior Active-Duty Personnel.—For purposes of this section, qualified prior active-duty personnel are members of the Army National Guard with not less than two years of active duty.

"SEC. 1112. SERVICE IN SELECTED RESERVE IN LIEU OF ACTIVE-DUTY SERVICE.

"(a) Academy Graduates and Distinguished ROTC Graduates To Serve in Selected Reserve for Period of Active-duty Service Obligation Not Served on Active Duty.—(1) An officer who is a graduate of one of the service academies or who was commissioned as a distinguished Reserve Officers' Training Corps graduate and who is permitted to be released from active duty before the completion of the active-duty service obligation applicable to that officer shall serve the remaining period of such active-duty service obligation as a member of the Selected Reserve.

"(2) The Secretary concerned may waive paragraph (1) in a case in which the Secretary determines that there is no unit position available for the officer.

"(b) ROTC Graduates.—The Secretary of the Army shall provide a program under which graduates of the Reserve Officers' Training Corps program may perform their minimum period of obligated service by a combination of (A) two years of active duty, and (B) such additional period of service as is necessary to complete the remainder of such obligation, to be served in the Selected Reserve.

"SEC. 1113. REVIEW OF OFFICER PROMOTIONS BY COMMANDER OF ASSOCIATED ACTIVE DUTY UNIT.

"(a) Review.—Whenever an officer in an Army Selected Reserve unit as defined in subsection (b) is recommended for a unit vacancy promotion to a grade above first lieutenant, the recommended promotion shall be reviewed by the commander of the active duty unit associated with the Selected Reserve unit of that officer or another active-duty officer designated by the Secretary of the Army. The commander or other active-duty officer designated by the Secretary of the Army shall provide to the promoting authority, through the promotion board convened by the promotion authority to consider unit vacancy promotion candidates, before the promotion is made, a recommendation of concurrence or nonconcurrence in the promotion. The recommendation shall be provided to the promoting authority within 60 days after receipt of notice of the recommended promotion.

"(b) Coverage of Selected Reserve Combat and Early Deploying Units.—(1) Subsection (a) applies to officers in all units of the Selected Reserve that are designated as combat units or that are designated for deployment within 75 days of mobilization.

"(2) Subsection (a) shall take effect with respect to officers of the Army Reserve, and with respect to officers of the Army National Guard in units not subject to subsection (a) as of the date of the enactment of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1996 [Feb. 10, 1996], at the end of the 90-day period beginning on such date of enactment.

"(c) Report on Feasibility.—The Secretary of the Army shall submit to the Committees on Armed Services of the Senate and House of Representatives a report, not later than March 1, 1993, containing a plan for implementation of subsection (a). The Secretary may include with the report such proposals for legislation to clarify, improve, or modify the provisions of subsection (a) in order to better carry out the purposes of those provisions as the Secretary considers appropriate.

"SEC. 1114. NONCOMMISSIONED OFFICER EDUCATION REQUIREMENTS.

"(a) Nonwaivability.—Any standard prescribed by the Secretary of the Army establishing a military education requirement for noncommissioned officers that must be met as a requirement for promotion to a higher noncommissioned officer grade may be waived only if the Secretary determines that the waiver is necessary in order to preserve unit leadership continuity under combat conditions.

"(b) Availability of Training Positions.—The Secretary of the Army shall ensure that there are sufficient training positions available to enable compliance with subsection (a).

"SEC. 1115. INITIAL ENTRY TRAINING AND NONDEPLOYABLE PERSONNEL ACCOUNT.

"(a) Establishment of Personnel Account.—The Secretary of the Army shall establish a personnel accounting category for members of the Army Selected Reserve to be used for categorizing members of the Selected Reserve who have not completed the minimum training required for deployment or who are otherwise not available for deployment. The account shall be designed so that it is compatible with the decentralized personnel systems of the Army Guard and Reserve. The account shall be used for the reporting of personnel readiness and may not be used as a factor in establishing the level of Army Guard and Reserve force structure.

"(b) Use of Account.—Until a member of the Army Selected Reserve has completed the minimum training necessary for deployment, the member may not be assigned to fill a position in a Selected Reserve unit but shall be carried in the account established under subsection (a).

"(c) Time for Qualification for Deployment.—(1) If at the end of 24 months after a member of the Army Selected Reserve enters the Army Selected Reserve, the member has not completed the minimum training required for deployment, the member shall be discharged.

"(2) The Secretary of the Army may waive the requirement in paragraph (1) in the case of health care providers and in other cases determined necessary. The authority to make such a waiver may not be delegated.

"SEC. 1116. MINIMUM PHYSICAL DEPLOYABILITY STANDARDS.

"The Secretary of the Army shall transfer the personnel classification of a member of the Army Selected Reserve from the Selected Reserve unit of the member to the personnel account established pursuant to section 1115 if the member does not meet minimum physical profile standards required for deployment. Any such transfer shall be made not later than 90 days after the date on which the determination that the member does not meet such standards is made.

"[SECS. 1117, 1118. Repealed. Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title VII, §704(b), Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 372.]

"SEC. 1119. COMBAT UNIT TRAINING.

"The Secretary of the Army shall establish a program to minimize the post-mobilization training time required for combat units of the Army National Guard. The program shall require—

"(1) that unit premobilization training emphasize—

"(A) individual soldier qualification and training;

"(B) collective training and qualification at the crew, section, team, and squad level; and

"(C) maneuver training at the platoon level as required of all Army units; and

"(2) that combat training for command and staff leadership include annual multi-echelon training to develop battalion, brigade, and division level skills, as appropriate.

"SEC. 1120. USE OF COMBAT SIMULATORS.

"The Secretary of the Army shall expand the use of simulations, simulators, and advanced training devices and technologies in order to increase training opportunities for members and units of the Army National Guard and the Army Reserve.

"Subtitle B—Assessment of National Guard Capability

"[SEC. 1121. Repealed. Pub. L. 114–328, div. A, title III, §321(b), Dec. 23, 2016, 130 Stat. 2075.]

"SEC. 1122. INSPECTIONS.

"[Amended section 105 of Title 32, National Guard.]

"Subtitle C—Compatibility of Guard Units With Active Component Units

"SEC. 1131. ACTIVE DUTY ASSOCIATE UNIT RESPONSIBILITY.

"(a) Associate Units.—The Secretary of the Army shall require—

"(1) that each ground combat maneuver brigade of the Army National Guard that (as determined by the Secretary) is essential for the execution of the National Military Strategy be associated with an active-duty combat unit; and

"(2) that combat support and combat service support units of the Army Selected Reserve that (as determined by the Secretary) are essential for the execution of the National Military Strategy be associated with active-duty units.

"(b) Responsibilities.—The commander (at a brigade or higher level) of the associated active duty unit for any National Guard unit or Army Selected Reserve unit that (as determined by the Secretary under subsection (a)) is essential for the execution of the National Military Strategy shall be responsible for—

"(1) approving the training program of that unit;

"(2) reviewing the readiness report of that unit;

"(3) assessing the manpower, equipment, and training resources requirements of that unit; and

"(4) validating, not less often than annually, the compatibility of that unit with the active duty forces.

"(c) Implementation.—The Secretary of the Army shall begin to implement subsection (a) during fiscal year 1993 and shall achieve full implementation of the plan not later than October 1, 1995.

"SEC. 1132. TRAINING COMPATIBILITY.

"[Amended section 414(c) of Pub. L. 102–190, set out as a note under section 12001 of this title.]

"SEC. 1133. SYSTEMS COMPATIBILITY.

"(a) Compatibility Program.—The Secretary of the Army shall develop and implement a program to ensure that Army personnel systems, Army supply systems, Army maintenance management systems, and Army finance systems are compatible across all Army components.

"(b) Report.—Not later than September 30, 1993, the Secretary shall submit to the Committees on Armed Services of the Senate and House of Representatives a report describing the program under subsection (a) and setting forth a plan for implementation of the program by the end of fiscal year 1997.

"SEC. 1134. EQUIPMENT COMPATIBILITY.

"[Amended section 115b(b) [now 10541(b)] of this title.]

"[SEC. 1135. Repealed. Pub. L. 114–328, div. A, title III, §321(b), Dec. 23, 2016, 130 Stat. 2075.]

"SEC. 1136. QUALIFICATION FOR PRIOR-SERVICE ENLISTMENT BONUS.

"[Amended section 308i(c) of Title 37, Pay and Allowances of the Uniformed Services.]

"SEC. 1137. STUDY OF IMPLEMENTATION FOR ALL RESERVE COMPONENTS.

"The Secretary of Defense shall conduct an assessment of the feasibility of implementing the provisions of this title for all reserve components. Not later than December 31, 1993, the Secretary shall submit to the Committees on Armed Services of the Senate and House of Representatives a report containing a plan for such implementation."

§10106. Army National Guard: when a component of the Army

The Army National Guard while in the service of the United States is a component of the Army.

(Added Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title XVI, §1661(a)(1), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2970.)

Prior Provisions

Provisions similar to those in this section were contained in section 3078 of this title, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 103–337, §1661(a)(3)(A).

Effective Date

Section effective Dec. 1, 1994, except as otherwise provided, see section 1691 of Pub. L. 103–337, set out as a note under section 10001 of this title.

§10107. Army National Guard of the United States: status when not in Federal service

When not on active duty, members of the Army National Guard of the United States shall be administered, armed, equipped, and trained in their status as members of the Army National Guard.

(Added Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title XVI, §1661(a)(1), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2971.)

Prior Provisions

Provisions similar to those in this section were contained in section 3079 of this title, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 103–337, §1661(a)(3)(A).

Effective Date

Section effective Dec. 1, 1994, except as otherwise provided, see section 1691 of Pub. L. 103–337, set out as a note under section 10001 of this title.

§10108. Navy Reserve: administration

(a) The Navy Reserve is the reserve component of the Navy. It shall be organized, administered, trained, and supplied under the direction of the Chief of Naval Operations.

(b) The bureaus and offices of the executive part of the Department of the Navy have the same relation and responsibility to the Navy Reserve as they do to the Regular Navy.

(Added Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title XVI, §1661(a)(1), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2971; amended Pub. L. 109–163, div. A, title V, §515(b)(1)(AA), (3)(F), Jan. 6, 2006, 119 Stat. 3233, 3234.)

Prior Provisions

Provisions similar to those in this section were contained in section 5251(a), (b) of this title, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 103–337, §1661(a)(3)(A).

Amendments

2006Pub. L. 109–163, §515(b)(3)(F), substituted "Navy Reserve" for "Naval Reserve" in section catchline.

Pub. L. 109–163, §515(b)(1)(AA), substituted "Navy Reserve" for "Naval Reserve" in subsecs. (a) and (b).

Effective Date

Section effective Dec. 1, 1994, except as otherwise provided, see section 1691 of Pub. L. 103–337, set out as a note under section 10001 of this title.

§10109. Marine Corps Reserve: administration

(a) The Marine Corps Reserve is the reserve component of the Marine Corps. It shall be organized, administered, trained, and supplied under the direction of the Commandant of the Marine Corps.

(b) The departments and offices of Headquarters, Marine Corps have the same relation and responsibilities to the Marine Corps Reserve as they do to the Regular Marine Corps.

(Added Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title XVI, §1661(a)(1), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2971.)

Prior Provisions

Provisions similar to those in this section were contained in section 5252(a), (b) of this title, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 103–337, §1661(a)(3)(A).

Effective Date

Section effective Dec. 1, 1994, except as otherwise provided, see section 1691 of Pub. L. 103–337, set out as a note under section 10001 of this title.

§10110. Air Force Reserve: composition

The Air Force Reserve is a reserve component of the Air Force to provide a reserve for active duty. It consists of the members of the officers' section of the Air Force Reserve and of the enlisted section of the Air Force Reserve. It includes all Reserves of the Air Force who are not members of the Air National Guard of the United States.

(Added Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title XVI, §1661(a)(1), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2971.)

Prior Provisions

Provisions similar to those in this section were contained in section 8076 of this title, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 103–337, §1661(a)(3)(A).

Effective Date

Section effective Dec. 1, 1994, except as otherwise provided, see section 1691 of Pub. L. 103–337, set out as a note under section 10001 of this title.

§10111. Air National Guard of the United States: composition

The Air National Guard of the United States is the reserve component of the Air Force that consists of—

(1) federally recognized units and organizations of the Air National Guard; and

(2) members of the Air National Guard who are also Reserves of the Air Force.

(Added Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title XVI, §1661(a)(1), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2971.)

Prior Provisions

Provisions similar to those in this section were contained in section 8077 of this title, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 103–337, §1661(a)(3)(A).

Effective Date

Section effective Dec. 1, 1994, except as otherwise provided, see section 1691 of Pub. L. 103–337, set out as a note under section 10001 of this title.

§10112. Air National Guard: when a component of the Air Force

The Air National Guard while in the service of the United States is a component of the Air Force.

(Added Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title XVI, §1661(a)(1), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2971.)

Prior Provisions

Provisions similar to those in this section were contained in section 8078 of this title, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 103–337, §1661(a)(3)(A).

Effective Date

Section effective Dec. 1, 1994, except as otherwise provided, see section 1691 of Pub. L. 103–337, set out as a note under section 10001 of this title.

§10113. Air National Guard of the United States: status when not in Federal service

When not on active duty, members of the Air National Guard of the United States shall be administered, armed, equipped, and trained in their status as members of the Air National Guard.

(Added Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title XVI, §1661(a)(1), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2971.)

Prior Provisions

Provisions similar to those in this section were contained in section 8079 of this title, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 103–337, §1661(a)(3)(A).

Effective Date

Section effective Dec. 1, 1994, except as otherwise provided, see section 1691 of Pub. L. 103–337, set out as a note under section 10001 of this title.

§10114. Coast Guard Reserve

As provided in section 701 1 of title 14, the Coast Guard Reserve is a component of the Coast Guard and is organized, administered, trained, and supplied under the direction of the Commandant of the Coast Guard. Laws applicable to the Coast Guard Reserve are set forth in chapter 21 1 of title 14 (14 U.S.C. 701 et seq.).

(Added Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title XVI, §1661(a)(1), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2971.)

References in Text

Section 701 of title 14, referred to in text, was redesignated section 3701 of title 14 by Pub. L. 115–282, title I, §118(b), Dec. 4, 2018, 132 Stat. 4233, and references to section 701 of title 14 deemed to refer to such redesignated section, see section 123(b)(1) of Pub. L. 115–282, set out as a References to Sections of Title 14 as Redesignated by Pub. L. 115–282 note preceding section 101 of Title 14, Coast Guard.

Chapter 21 of title 14, referred to in text, was comprised of sections 701 to 713 and 720 to 746, prior to the renumbering of such sections as sections 3701 to 3714 and 3731 to 3757, respectively, of title 14 by Pub. L. 115–282, title I, §118(b)(2), Dec. 4, 2018, 132 Stat. 4233. After renumbering, such sections now comprise chapter 37 (designated as chapter "1" in chapter analysis) of title 14.

Effective Date

Section effective Dec. 1, 1994, except as otherwise provided, see section 1691 of Pub. L. 103–337, set out as a note under section 10001 of this title.

Transfer of Functions

For transfer of authorities, functions, personnel, and assets of the Coast Guard, including the authorities and functions of the Secretary of Transportation relating thereto, to the Department of Homeland Security, and for treatment of related references, see sections 468(b), 551(d), 552(d), and 557 of Title 6, Domestic Security, and the Department of Homeland Security Reorganization Plan of November 25, 2002, as modified, set out as a note under section 542 of Title 6.

1 See References in Text note below.