[USC02] 10 USC Ch. 135: SPACE PROGRAMS
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10 USC Ch. 135: SPACE PROGRAMS
From Title 10—ARMED FORCESSubtitle A—General Military LawPART IV—SERVICE, SUPPLY, AND PROCUREMENT

CHAPTER 135—SPACE PROGRAMS

Sec.
2271.
Management of space programs: joint program offices and officer management programs.
2272.
Space science and technology strategy: coordination.
2273.
Policy regarding assured access to space: national security payloads.
2273a.
Space Rapid Capabilities Office.
2274.
Space situational awareness services and information: provision to non-United States Government entities.
2275.
Reports on integration of acquisition and capability delivery schedules for segments of major satellite acquisition programs and funding for such programs.
2276.
Commercial space launch cooperation.
[2277.
Repealed.]
2278.
Notification of foreign interference of national security space.
2279.
Foreign commercial satellite services and foreign launches.
[2279a.
Repealed.]
2279b.
Council on Oversight of the Department of Defense Positioning, Navigation, and Timing Enterprise.
2279c.
Air Force Space Command.
2279d.
Limitation on construction on United States territory of satellite positioning ground monitoring stations of certain foreign governments.

        

Amendments

2018Pub. L. 115–232, div. A, title X, §1081(a)(18)(B), Aug. 13, 2018, 132 Stat. 1984, added item 2279d.

2017Pub. L. 115–91, div. A, title X, §1051(a)(13)(B), title XVI, §§1601(a)(2), (b)(2)(B), (b)(2), 1603(d)(2), Dec. 12, 2017, 131 Stat. 1561, 1719, 1720, 1723, added item 2279c, substituted "Space Rapid Capabilities Office" for "Operationally Responsive Space Program Office" in item 2273a and "Foreign commercial satellite services and foreign launches" for "Foreign commercial satellite services" in item 2279, and struck out items 2277 "Report on foreign counter-space programs" and 2279a "Principal Advisor on Space Control".

2015Pub. L. 114–92, div. A, title XVI, §§1602(b), 1603(b), Nov. 25, 2015, 129 Stat. 1096, 1098, added items 2279a and 2279b.

2013Pub. L. 113–66, div. A, title IX, §911(b), title XVI, §1602(a)(2), Dec. 26, 2013, 127 Stat. 823, 942, added items 2278 and 2279.

Pub. L. 112–239, div. A, title IX, §§911(b), 912(b), 913(c)(2), Jan. 2, 2013, 126 Stat. 1872, 1874, 1876, added items 2275 to 2277.

2009Pub. L. 111–84, div. A, title IX, §912(b), Oct. 28, 2009, 123 Stat. 2431, added item 2274 and struck out former item 2274 "Space surveillance network: pilot program for provision of satellite tracking support to entities outside United States Government".

2006Pub. L. 109–364, div. A, title IX, §913(b)(2), Oct. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 2357, substituted "Operationally Responsive Space Program Office" for "Operationally responsive national security payloads and buses: separate program element required" in item 2273a.

2004Pub. L. 108–375, div. A, title IX, §913(a)(2), Oct. 28, 2004, 118 Stat. 2028, added item 2273a.

2003Pub. L. 108–136, div. A, title IX, §§911(a)(2), 912(b), 913(b), Nov. 24, 2003, 117 Stat. 1564, 1565, 1567, added items 2272 to 2274.

§2271. Management of space programs: joint program offices and officer management programs

(a) Joint Program Offices.—The Secretary of Defense shall take appropriate actions to ensure, to the maximum extent practicable, that space development and acquisition programs of the Department of Defense are carried out through joint program offices.

(b) Officer Management Programs.—(1) The Secretary of Defense shall take appropriate actions to ensure, to the maximum extent practicable, that—

(A) Army, Navy, and Marine Corps officers, as well as Air Force officers, are assigned to the space development and acquisition programs of the Department of Defense; and

(B) Army, Navy, and Marine Corps officers, as well as Air Force officers, are eligible, on the basis of qualification, to hold leadership positions within the joint program offices referred to in subsection (a).


(2) The Secretary of Defense shall designate those positions in the Office of the National Security Space Architect of the Department of Defense (or any successor office) that qualify as joint duty assignment positions for purposes of chapter 38 of this title.

(Added Pub. L. 107–107, div. A, title IX, §911(a), Dec. 28, 2001, 115 Stat. 1195.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 2271, act Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, 70A Stat. 123, related to competitions for designs of aircraft, aircraft parts, and aeronautical accessories, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 103–160, div. A, title VIII, §821(a)(1), Nov. 30, 1993, 107 Stat. 1704.

Space Warfighting Policy, Review of Space Capabilities, and Plan on Space Warfighting Readiness

Pub. L. 115–232, div. A, title XVI, §1607, Aug. 13, 2018, 132 Stat. 2108, provided that:

"(a) Space Warfighting Policy.—Not later than March 29, 2019, the Secretary of Defense shall develop a space warfighting policy.

"(b) Review of Space Capabilities.—

"(1) In general.—The Secretary shall conduct a review relating to the national security space enterprise that evaluates the following:

"(A) The resiliency of the national security space enterprise with respect to a conflict.

"(B) The ability of the national security space enterprise to attribute an attack on a space system in a timely manner.

"(C) The ability of the United States—

"(i) to resolve a conflict in space; and

"(ii) to determine the material means by which such conflict may be resolved.

"(D) Specific options for the national security space enterprise to provide the ability—

"(i) to defend against aggressive behavior in space at all levels of conflict;

"(ii) to defeat any adversary that demonstrates aggressive behavior in space at all levels of conflict;

"(iii) to deter aggressive behavior in space at all levels of conflict; and

"(iv) to develop a declassification strategy, if required to demonstrate deterrence.

"(E) The effectiveness and efficiency of the national security space enterprise to rapidly research, develop, acquire, and deploy space capabilities and capacities—

"(i) to deter and defend the national security space assets of the United States; and

"(ii) to respond to any new threat to such space assets.

"(F) The roles, responsibilities, and authorities of the Department of Defense with respect to space control activities.

"(G) Any emerging space threat the Secretary expects the United States to confront during the 10-year period beginning on the date of the enactment of this Act [Aug. 13, 2018].

"(H) Such other matters as the Secretary considers appropriate.

"(2) Report.—

"(A) In general.—Not later than March 29, 2019, the Secretary shall submit to the congressional defense committees [Committees on Armed Services and Appropriations of the Senate and the House of Representatives] a report on the findings of the review under paragraph (1).

"(B) Form.—The report under subparagraph (A) shall be submitted in unclassified form, but may include a classified annex.

"(c) Plan on Space Warfighting Readiness.—

"(1) In general.—Not later than March 29, 2019, the Secretary of Defense shall develop, and commence the implementation of, a plan that—

"(A) identifies joint mission-essential tasks for space as a warfighting domain;

"(B) identifies any additional authorities, or delegated authorities, that would need to accompany the employment of forces to meet such mission-essential tasks;

"(C) meets the readiness requirements for space warfighting, including with respect to equipment, training, and personnel, to meet such mission-essential tasks; and

"(D) considers the contributions by allies and partners of the United States with respect to defense space capabilities to increase burden sharing across space systems, as appropriate.

"(2) Briefing.—Not later than March 29, 2019, the Secretary shall provide to the Committees on Armed Services of the House of Representatives and the Senate, and to any other congressional defense committee upon request, a briefing describing the authorities identified under paragraph (1)(B) that the Secretary determines require legislative action."

Designation of Component of Department of Defense Responsible for Coordination of Hosted Payload Information

Pub. L. 115–232, div. A, title XVI, §1611, Aug. 13, 2018, 132 Stat. 2112, provided that:

"Not later than 30 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Aug. 13, 2018], the Secretary of Defense, in coordination with the Secretary of the Air Force, and other Secretaries of the military departments and the heads of Defense Agencies the Secretary determines appropriate, shall designate a component of the Department of Defense or a military department to be responsible for coordinating information, processes, and lessons learned relating to using commercially hosted payloads across the military departments, Defense Agencies, and other appropriate elements of the Department of Defense. The functions of such designated component shall include, at a minimum, the following:

"(1) Systematically collecting information from past and planned hosted payload arrangements to inform future acquisition planning and space system architecture design, including integration test data, lessons learned, and design solutions.

"(2) Creating a centralized database for cost, technical data, and lessons learned on commercially hosted payloads and sharing such information with other elements of the Department."

Air Force Space Contractor Responsibility Watch List

Pub. L. 115–91, div. A, title XVI, §1612, Dec. 12, 2017, 131 Stat. 1729, provided that:

"(a) In General.—The Commander of the Air Force Space and Missile Systems Center shall establish and maintain a watch list of contractors with a history of poor performance on space procurement contracts or research, development, test, and evaluation space program contracts.

"(b) Basis for Inclusion on List.—

"(1) Determination.—The Commander may place a contractor on the watch list established under subsection (a) upon determining that the ability of the contractor to perform a contract specified in such subsection is uncertain because of any of the following issues:

"(A) Poor performance or award fee scores below 50 percent.

"(B) Financial concerns.

"(C) Felony convictions or civil judgements.

"(D) Security or foreign ownership and control issues.

"(2) Discretion of the commander.—The Commander shall be responsible for determining which contractors to place on the watch list, whether an entire company or a specific division should be included, and when to remove a contractor from the list.

"(c) Effect of Listing.—

"(1) Prime contracts.—The Commander may not solicit an offer from, award a contract to, execute an engineering change proposal with, or exercise an option on any space program of the Air Force with a contractor included on the list established under subsection (a) without the prior approval of the Commander.

"(2) Subcontracts.—A prime contractor on a contract entered into with the Air Force Space and Missile Systems Center may not enter into a subcontract valued in excess of $3,000,000 or five percent of the prime contract value, whichever is lesser, with a contractor included on the watch list established under subsection (a) without the prior approval of the Commander.

"(d) Request for Removal From List.—A contractor may submit to the Commander a written request for removal from the watch list, including evidence that the contractor has resolved the issue that was the basis for inclusion on the list.

"(e) Rule of Construction.—Nothing in this section shall be construed as preventing the suspension or debarment of a contractor, but inclusion on the watch list shall not be construed as a punitive measure or de facto suspension or debarment of a contractor."

Briefings on the Joint Interagency Combined Space Operations Center

Pub. L. 115–31, div. N, title VI, §605(e)(2), May 5, 2017, 131 Stat. 832, provided that: "The Director of the National Reconnaissance Office and the Commander of the United States Strategic Command, in coordination with the Director of National Intelligence and Under Secretary of Defense for Intelligence, shall provide to the appropriate committees of Congress briefings providing updates on activities and progress of the Joint Interagency Combined Space Operations Center to begin 30 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [May 5, 2017]. Such briefings shall be quarterly for the first year following enactment, and annually thereafter."

[Pub. L. 115–31, div. N, title VI, §605(a), May 5, 2017, 131 Stat. 830, provided that: "In this section [enacting provisions set out as a note above], the term 'appropriate committees of Congress' means the congressional intelligence committees [Select Committee on Intelligence of the Senate and Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence of the House of Representatives], the Committee on Armed Services of the Senate, and the Committee on Armed Services of the House of Representatives."]

Space-Based Environmental Monitoring

Pub. L. 114–328, div. A, title XVI, §1607, Dec. 23, 2016, 130 Stat. 2586, provided that:

"(a) Roles of DOD and NOAA.—

"(1) Mechanisms.—The Secretary of Defense and the Administrator of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration shall jointly establish mechanisms to collaborate and coordinate in defining the roles and responsibilities of the Department of Defense and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration to—

"(A) carry out space-based environmental monitoring; and

"(B) plan for future non-governmental space-based environmental monitoring capabilities, as appropriate.

"(2) Rule of construction.—Nothing in paragraph (1) may be construed to authorize a joint satellite program of the Department of Defense and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.

"(b) Report.—Not later than 120 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 23, 2016], the Secretary and the Administrator shall jointly submit to the appropriate congressional committees a report on the mechanisms established under subsection (a)(1).

"(c) Appropriate Congressional Committees Defined.—In this section, the term 'appropriate congressional committees' means—

"(1) the congressional defense committees [Committees on Armed Services and Appropriations of the Senate and the House of Representatives];

"(2) the Committee on Science, Space, and Technology of the House of Representatives; and

"(3) the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate."

Consolidation of Acquisition of Wideband Satellite Communications

Pub. L. 114–92, div. A, title XVI, §1610, Nov. 25, 2015, 129 Stat. 1102, provided that:

"(a) Plan.—

"(1) Consolidation.—Not later than one year after the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 25, 2015], the Secretary of Defense shall submit to the congressional defense committees [Committees on Armed Services and Appropriations of the Senate and the House of Representatives] a plan for the consolidation, during the one-year period beginning on the date on which the plan is submitted, of the acquisition of wideband satellite communications necessary to meet the requirements of the Department of Defense for such communications, including with respect to military and commercial satellite communications.

"(2) Elements.—The plan under paragraph (1) shall include—

"(A) an assessment of the management and overhead costs relating to the acquisition of commercial satellite communications services across the Department of Defense;

"(B) an estimate of—

"(i) the costs of implementing the consolidation of the acquisition of such services described in paragraph (1); and

"(ii) the projected savings of the consolidation;

"(C) the identification and designation of a single acquisition agent pursuant to paragraph (3)(A); and

"(D) the roles and responsibilities of officials of the Department, including pursuant to paragraph (3).

"(3) Single acquisition agent.—

"(A) Except as provided by subparagraph (B), under the plan under paragraph (1), the Secretary of Defense shall identify and designate a single senior official of the Department of Defense to procure wideband satellite communications necessary to meet the requirements of the Department of Defense for such communications, including with respect to military and commercial satellite communications.

"(B) Notwithstanding subparagraph (A), under the plan under paragraph (1), an official described in subparagraph (C) may carry out the procurement of commercial wideband satellite communications if the official determines that such procurement is required to meet an urgent need.

"(C) An official described in this subparagraph is any of the following:

"(i) A Secretary of a military department.

"(ii) The Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics.

"(iii) The Chief Information Office[r] of the Department of Defense.

"(iv) A commander of a combatant command.

"(4) Validation.—The Director of Cost Assessment and Program Evaluation shall validate the assessment required by subparagraph (A) of paragraph (2) and the estimates required by subparagraph (B) of such paragraph.

"(b) Implementation.—

"(1) In general.—Except as provided by paragraph (2), the Secretary of Defense shall complete the implementation of the plan under subsection (a) by not later than one year after the date on which the Secretary submits the plan under such paragraph.

"(2) Waiver.—The Secretary may waive the implementation of the plan under subsection (a) if the Secretary—

"(A) determines that—

"(i) such implementation will require significant additional funding; or

"(ii) such waiver is in the interests of national security; and

"(B) submits to the congressional defense committees notice of such waiver and the justifications for such waiver."

Satellite Communications Responsibilities of Executive Agent for Space

Pub. L. 113–291, div. A, title XVI, §1603, Dec. 19, 2014, 128 Stat. 3622, directed the revision of Department of Defense guidance relating to acquisition of satellite communications no later than 180 days after Dec. 19, 2014.

Prohibition on Contracting With Russian Suppliers of Rocket Engines for the National Security Space Launch Program

Pub. L. 113–291, div. A, title XVI, §1608, Dec. 19, 2014, 128 Stat. 3626, as amended by Pub. L. 114–92, div. A, title XVI, §1607, Nov. 25, 2015, 129 Stat. 1100; Pub. L. 114–328, div. A, title XVI, §1602, Dec. 23, 2016, 130 Stat. 2582, provided that:

"(a) In General.—Except as provided by subsections (b) and (c), beginning on the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 19, 2014], the Secretary of Defense may not award or renew a contract for the procurement of property or services for space launch activities under the evolved expendable launch vehicle program [now the National Security Space Launch program] if such contract carries out such space launch activities using rocket engines designed or manufactured in the Russian Federation.

"(b) Waiver.—The Secretary may waive the prohibition under subsection (a) with respect to a contract for the procurement of property or services for space launch activities if the Secretary determines, and certifies to the congressional defense committees [Committees on Armed Services and Appropriations of the Senate and the House of Representatives] not later than 30 days before the waiver takes effect, that—

"(1) the waiver is necessary for the national security interests of the United States; and

"(2) the space launch services and capabilities covered by the contract could not be obtained at a fair and reasonable price without the use of rocket engines designed or manufactured in the Russian Federation.

"(c) Exception.—The prohibition in subsection (a) shall not apply to any of the following:

"(1) The placement of orders or the exercise of options under the contract numbered FA8811–13–C–0003 and awarded on December 18, 2013.

"(2) Contracts that are awarded during the period beginning on the date of the enactment of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2017 [Dec. 23, 2016] and ending December 31, 2022, for the procurement of property or services for space launch activities that include the use of a total of 18 rocket engines designed or manufactured in the Russian Federation, in addition to the Russian-designed or Russian-manufactured engines to which paragraph (1) applies."

Integrated Space Architectures

Pub. L. 111–383, div. A, title IX, §911, Jan. 7, 2011, 124 Stat. 4328, as amended by Pub. L. 113–291, div. A, title X, §1071(d)(1)(A), Dec. 19, 2014, 128 Stat. 3509, provided that: "The Secretary of Defense and the Director of National Intelligence shall develop an integrated process for national security space architecture planning, development, coordination, and analysis that—

"(1) encompasses defense and intelligence space plans, programs, budgets, and organizations;

"(2) provides mid-term to long-term recommendations to guide space-related defense and intelligence acquisitions, requirements, and investment decisions;

"(3) is independent of, but coordinated with, the space architecture planning, development, coordination, and analysis activities of each military department and each element of the intelligence community (as defined in section 3(4) of the National Security Act of 1947 (50 U.S.C. 3003(4))); and

"(4) makes use of, to the maximum extent practicable, joint duty assignment (as defined in section 668 of title 10, United States Code) positions."

Space Protection Strategy

Pub. L. 110–181, div. A, title IX, §911(a)–(f), Jan. 28, 2008, 122 Stat. 279, 280, as amended by Pub. L. 113–66, div. A, title IX, §912(c), Dec. 26, 2013, 127 Stat. 824; Pub. L. 113–291, div. A, title X, §1071(d)(1)(B), title XVI, §1606(e), Dec. 19, 2014, 128 Stat. 3509, 3625; Pub. L. 115–232, div. A, title VIII, §813(b)(1), Aug. 13, 2018, 132 Stat. 1851, provided that:

"(a) Sense of Congress.—It is the Sense of Congress that the United States should place greater priority on the protection of national security space systems.

"(b) Strategy.—The Secretary of Defense, in conjunction with the Director of National Intelligence, shall develop a strategy, to be known as the Space Protection Strategy, for the development and fielding by the United States of the capabilities that are necessary to ensure freedom of action in space for the United States.

"(c) Matters Included.—The strategy required by subsection (b) shall include each of the following:

"(1) An identification of the threats to, and the vulnerabilities of, the national security space systems of the United States.

"(2) A description of the capabilities currently contained in the program of record of the Department of Defense and the intelligence community that ensure freedom of action in space.

"(3) For each period covered by the strategy, a description of the capabilities that are needed for the period, including—

"(A) the hardware, software, and other materials or services to be developed or procured;

"(B) the management and organizational changes to be achieved; and

"(C) concepts of operations, tactics, techniques, and procedures to be employed.

"(4) For each period covered by the strategy, an assessment of the gaps and shortfalls between the capabilities that are needed for the period and the capabilities currently contained in the program of record.

"(5) For each period covered by the strategy, a comprehensive plan for investment in capabilities that identifies specific program and technology investments to be made in that period.

"(6) A description of the current processes by which the systems protection requirements of the Department of Defense and the intelligence community are addressed in space acquisition programs and during key milestone decisions, an assessment of the adequacy of those processes, and an identification of the actions of the Department and the intelligence community for addressing any inadequacies in those processes.

"(7) A description of the current processes by which the Department of Defense and the intelligence community program and budget for capabilities (including capabilities that are incorporated into single programs and capabilities that span multiple programs), an assessment of the adequacy of those processes, and an identification of the actions of the Department and the intelligence community for addressing any inadequacies in those processes.

"(8) A description of the organizational and management structure of the Department of Defense and the intelligence community for addressing policy, planning, acquisition, and operations with respect to capabilities, a description of the roles and responsibilities of each organization, and an identification of the actions of the Department and the intelligence community for addressing any inadequacies in that structure.

"(d) Periods Covered.—The strategy required by subsection (b) shall cover the following periods:

"(1) Fiscal years 2008 through 2013.

"(2) Fiscal years 2014 through 2019.

"(3) Fiscal years 2020 through 2025.

"(4) Fiscal years 2026 through 2030.

"(e) Definitions.—In this section—

"(1) the term 'capabilities' means space, airborne, and ground systems and capabilities for space situational awareness and for space systems protection; and

"(2) the term 'intelligence community' has the meaning given such term in section 3(4) of the National Security Act of 1947 (50 U.S.C. 3003(4)).

"(f) Report.—

"(1) Report.—Not later than six months after the date of the enactment of this Act [Jan. 28, 2008], the Secretary of Defense, in conjunction with the Director of National Intelligence, shall submit to Congress a report on the strategy required by subsection (b), including—

"(A) each of the matters required by subsection (c); and

"(B) a description of how the Department of Defense and the intelligence community plan to provide necessary national security capabilities, through alternative space, airborne, or ground systems, if a foreign actor degrades, denies access to, or destroys United States national security space capabilities.

"(2) Classification.—The report required by paragraph (1) shall be in unclassified form, but may include a classified annex."

Maintenance of Capability for Space-Based Nuclear Detection

Pub. L. 110–181, div. A, title X, §1065, Jan. 28, 2008, 122 Stat. 324, provided that: "The Secretary of Defense shall maintain the capability for space-based nuclear detection at a level that meets or exceeds the level of capability as of the date of the enactment of this Act [Jan. 28, 2008]."

Space Situational Awareness Strategy and Space Control Mission Review

Pub. L. 109–163, div. A, title IX, §911, Jan. 6, 2006, 119 Stat. 3405, required the Secretary of Defense to develop a "Space Situational Awareness Strategy" for ensuring freedom to operate United States space assets affecting national security, and to provide for a review and assessment of the requirements of the Department of Defense for the space control mission, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 110–181, div. A, title IX, §911(g), Jan. 28, 2008, 122 Stat. 280.

Space Personnel Career Fields

Pub. L. 108–136, div. A, title V, §547, Nov. 24, 2003, 117 Stat. 1480, as amended by Pub. L. 108–271, §8(b), July 7, 2004, 118 Stat. 814, provided that:

"(a) Strategy Required.—The Secretary of Defense shall develop a strategy for the Department of Defense that will—

"(1) promote the development of space personnel career fields within each of the military departments; and

"(2) ensure that the space personnel career fields developed by the military departments are integrated with each other to the maximum extent practicable.

"(b) Report.—Not later than February 1, 2004, the Secretary shall submit to the Committees on Armed Services of the Senate and the House of Representatives a report on the strategy developed under subsection (a). The report shall include the following:

"(1) A statement of the strategy developed under subsection (a), together with an explanation of that strategy.

"(2) An assessment of the measures required for the Department of Defense and the military departments to integrate the space personnel career fields of the military departments.

"(3) A comprehensive assessment of the adequacy of the actions of the Secretary of Air Force pursuant to section 8084 [now 9084] of title 10, United States Code, to establish for Air Force officers a career field for space.

"(c) Government Accountability Office Review and Reports.—(1) The Comptroller General shall review the strategy developed under subsection (a) and the status of efforts by the military departments in developing space personnel career fields.

"(2) The Comptroller General shall submit to the committees referred to in subsection (b) two reports on the review under paragraph (1), as follows:

"(A) Not later than June 15, 2004, the Comptroller General shall submit a report that assesses how effective that Department of Defense strategy and the efforts by the military departments, when implemented, are likely to be for developing the personnel required by each of the military departments who are expert in development of space doctrine and concepts of space operations, the development of space systems, and operation of space systems.

"(B) Not later than March 15, 2005, the Comptroller General shall submit a report that assesses, as of the date of the report—

"(i) the effectiveness of that Department of Defense strategy and the efforts by the military departments in developing the personnel required by each of the military departments who are expert in development of space doctrine and concepts of space operations, the development of space systems, and in operation of space systems; and

"(ii) progress made in integrating the space career fields of the military departments."

Comptroller General Assessment of Implementation of Recommendations of Space Commission

Pub. L. 107–107, div. A, title IX, §914, Dec. 28, 2001, 115 Stat. 1197, directed the Comptroller General to carry out an assessment through Feb. 15, 2003, of the actions taken by the Secretary of Defense in implementing the recommendations in the report of the Space Commission submitted to Congress pursuant to Pub. L. 106–65, §1623, formerly set out as a note under section 111 of this title, that were applicable to the Department of Defense, and to submit reports to committees of Congress, not later than Feb. 15, 2002, and Feb. 15, 2003, setting forth the results of the assessment.

§2272. Space science and technology strategy: coordination

The Secretary of Defense and the Director of National Intelligence shall jointly develop and implement a space science and technology strategy and shall review and, as appropriate, revise the strategy biennially. Functions of the Secretary under this section shall be carried out jointly by the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Research and Engineering and the official of the Department of Defense designated as the Department of Defense Executive Agent for Space.1

(Added Pub. L. 108–136, div. A, title IX, §911(a)(1), Nov. 24, 2003, 117 Stat. 1563; amended Pub. L. 111–84, div. A, title IX, §911(a)(1)–(3), Oct. 28, 2009, 123 Stat. 2428, 2429; Pub. L. 111–383, div. A, title IX, §901(j)(2), Jan. 7, 2011, 124 Stat. 4324; Pub. L. 114–92, div. A, title XVI, §1604, Nov. 25, 2015, 129 Stat. 1098.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 2272, act Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, 70A Stat. 124, related to contracts to obtain designs submitted in design competitions, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 103–160, div. A, title VIII, §821(a)(1), Nov. 30, 1993, 107 Stat. 1704.

Amendments

2015Pub. L. 114–92 amended section generally. Prior to amendment, section consisted of subsecs. (a) to (c) relating to space science and technology strategy, required coordination, and definitions.

2011—Subsecs. (a), (b). Pub. L. 111–383 substituted "Assistant Secretary of Defense for Research and Engineering" for "Director of Defense Research and Engineering" wherever appearing.

2009—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 111–84, §911(a)(1), substituted "The Secretary of Defense and the Director of National Intelligence shall jointly develop" for "The Secretary of Defense shall develop".

Subsec. (a)(2)(D). Pub. L. 111–84, §911(a)(2), added subpar. (D).

Subsec. (a)(5). Pub. L. 111–84, §911(a)(3), amended par. (5) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (5) read as follows: "The strategy shall be available for review by the congressional defense committees."

Effective Date of 2011 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 111–383 effective Jan. 1, 2011, see section 901(p) of Pub. L. 111–383, set out as a note under section 131 of this title.

Transfer of Functions

For termination and transfer of functions of the Department of Defense Executive Agent for Space, see section 1601(b)(1) of Pub. L. 115–91, set out as a Termination of Certain Positions and Entities note under former section 2279a of this title.

Initial Report

Pub. L. 111–84, div. A, title IX, §911(a)(4), Oct. 28, 2009, 123 Stat. 2429, required the first space science and technology strategy required to be submitted under former 10 U.S.C. 2272(a)(5) to be submitted on the date on which the President submitted to Congress the budget for fiscal year 2012 under 31 U.S.C. 1105.

1 See Transfer of Functions note below.

§2273. Policy regarding assured access to space: national security payloads

(a) Policy.—It is the policy of the United States for the President to undertake actions appropriate to ensure, to the maximum extent practicable, that the United States has the capabilities necessary to launch and insert United States national security payloads into space whenever such payloads are needed in space.

(b) Included Actions.—The appropriate actions referred to in subsection (a) shall include, at a minimum, providing resources and policy guidance to sustain—

(1) the availability of at least two space launch vehicles (or families of space launch vehicles) capable of delivering into space any payload designated by the Secretary of Defense or the Director of National Intelligence as a national security payload 1

(2) a robust space launch infrastructure and industrial base; and

(3) the availability of rapid, responsive, and reliable space launches for national security space programs to—

(A) improve the responsiveness and flexibility of a national security space system;

(B) lower the costs of launching a national security space system; and

(C) maintain risks of mission success at acceptable levels.


(c) Coordination.—The Secretary of Defense shall, to the maximum extent practicable, pursue the attainment of the capabilities described in subsection (a) in coordination with the Administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the Director of National Intelligence.

(Added Pub. L. 108–136, div. A, title IX, §912(a)(1), Nov. 24, 2003, 117 Stat. 1565; Pub. L. 110–181, div. A, title IX, §931(a)(12), Jan. 28, 2008, 122 Stat. 285; Pub. L. 110–417, [div. A], title IX, §932(a)(11), Oct. 14, 2008, 122 Stat. 4576; Pub. L. 111–84, div. A, title X, §1073(c)(10), Oct. 28, 2009, 123 Stat. 2475; Pub. L. 115–232, div. A, title XVI, §1603(a), Aug. 13, 2018, 132 Stat. 2105.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 2273, acts Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, 70A Stat. 125; Apr. 2, 1982, Pub. L. 97–164, title I, §160(a)(4), 96 Stat. 48; Oct. 29, 1992, Pub. L. 102–572, title IX, §902(b)(1), 106 Stat. 4516, related to right of United States to designs, rights of designers to patents, and rights to sue United States, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 103–160, div. A, title VIII, §821(a)(1), Nov. 30, 1993, 107 Stat. 1704.

Amendments

2018—Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 115–232, §1603(a)(1), added par. (3).

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 115–232, §1603(a)(2), inserted "and the Director of National Intelligence" before period at end.

2009—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 111–84 repealed Pub. L. 110–417, §932(a)(11). See 2008 Amendment note below.

2008—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 110–181 and Pub. L. 110–417, §932(a)(11), amended par. (1) identically, substituting "Director of National Intelligence" for "Director of Central Intelligence". Pub. L. 110–417, §932(a)(11), was repealed by Pub. L. 111–84.

Effective Date of 2009 Amendment

Pub. L. 111–84, div. A, title X, §1073(c), Oct. 28, 2009, 123 Stat. 2474, provided that the amendment made by section 1073(c)(10) is effective as of Oct. 14, 2008, and as if included in Pub. L. 110–417 as enacted.

Use of Reusable Launch Vehicles

Pub. L. 115–232, div. A, title XVI, §1603, Aug. 13, 2018, 132 Stat. 2105, provided that:

"(a) Assured Access to Space.—[Amended this section.]

"(b) Reusability of Launch Vehicles.—

"(1) Designation.—Effective March 1, 2019, the Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle program of the Department of Defense shall be known as the 'National Security Space Launch program'. Any reference in Federal law, regulations, guidance, instructions, or other documents of the Federal Government to the Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle program shall be deemed to be a reference to the National Security Space Launch program.

"(2) Requirement.—In carrying out the National Security Space Launch program, the Secretary of Defense shall provide for consideration of both reusable and expendable launch vehicles with respect to any solicitation occurring on or after March 1, 2019, for which the use of a reusable launch vehicle is technically capable and maintains risk at acceptable levels.

"(3) Notification of solicitations for non-reusable launch vehicles.—Beginning March 1, 2019, if the Secretary proposes to issue a solicitation for a contract for space launch services for which the use of reusable launch vehicles is not eligible for the award of the contract, the Secretary shall notify in writing the appropriate congressional committees of such proposed solicitation, including justifications for such ineligibility, by not later than 10 days after issuing such solicitation.

"(c) Risk and Cost Impact Analysis.—

"(1) In general.—The Secretary shall conduct a risk and cost impact analysis with respect to launch services that use reusable launch vehicles. Such analysis shall include—

"(A) an assessment of how the inspection and certification regime of the Air Force for previously flown launch vehicles will ensure increased responsiveness and operational flexibility while maintaining acceptable risk; and

"(B) an assessment of the anticipated cost savings to the Department of Defense realized by using a previously flown launch vehicle or components.

"(2) Submission.—Not later than 180 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Aug. 13, 2018], the Secretary shall submit to the appropriate congressional committees the analysis conducted under paragraph (1).

"(d) Appropriate Congressional Committees Defined.—In this section, the term 'appropriate congressional committees' means the following:

"(1) The congressional defense committees [Committees on Armed Services and Appropriations of the Senate and the House of Representatives].

"(2) The Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence of the House of Representatives and the Select Committee on Intelligence of the Senate."

Launch Support and Infrastructure Modernization

Pub. L. 115–91, div. A, title XVI, §1609, Dec. 12, 2017, 131 Stat. 1727, provided that:

"(a) In General.—In support of the policy specified in section 2273 of title 10, United States Code, the Secretary of Defense shall carry out a program to modernize infrastructure and improve support activities for the processing and launch of United States national security space vehicles launching from Federal ranges.

"(b) Elements.—The program under subsection (a) shall include—

"(1) investments in infrastructure to improve operations at the Eastern and Western Ranges that may benefit all users, to enhance the overall capabilities of ranges, to improve safety, and to reduce the long-term cost of operations and maintenance;

"(2) measures to normalize processes, systems, and products across the Eastern and Western ranges to minimize the burden on launch providers; and

"(3) improvements in transparency, flexibility, and, [sic] responsiveness for launch scheduling.

"(c) Consultation.—In carrying out the program under subsection (a), the Secretary may consult with current and anticipated users of the Eastern and Western Ranges.

"(d) Cooperation.—In carrying out the program under subsection (a), the Secretary may consider partnerships authorized under section 2276 of title 10, United States Code.

"(e) Report.—

"(1) Report required.—Not later than 120 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 12, 2017], the Secretary shall submit to the congressional defense committees [Committees on Armed Services and Appropriations of the Senate and the House of Representatives] a report on the plan for the implementation of the program under subsection (a).

"(2) Elements.—The report under paragraph (1) shall include—

"(A) a description of plans and the resources needed to improve launch support infrastructure, utilities, support equipment, and range operations;

"(B) a description of plans to streamline and normalize processes, systems, and products at the Eastern and Western ranges, to ensure consistency for range users; and

"(C) recommendations for improving transparency, flexibility, and responsiveness in launch scheduling."

Acquisition Strategy for National Security Space Launch Program

Pub. L. 114–92, div. A, title XVI, §1608, Nov. 25, 2015, 129 Stat. 1100, provided that:

"(a) Treatment of Certain Arrangement.—

"(1) Discontinuation.—The Secretary of the Air Force shall discontinue the evolved expendable launch vehicle launch capability arrangement, as structured as of the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 25, 2015], for—

"(A) existing contracts using rocket engines designed or manufactured in the Russian Federation by not later than December 31, 2019; and

"(B) existing contracts using domestic rocket engines by not later than December 31, 2020.

"(2) Waiver.—The Secretary may waive paragraph (1) if the Secretary—

"(A) determines that such waiver is necessary for the national security interests of the United States;

"(B) notifies the congressional defense committees [Committees on Armed Services and Appropriations of the Senate and the House of Representatives] of such waiver; and

"(C) a period of 90 days has elapsed following the date of such notification.

"(b) Consistent Standards.—In accordance with section 2306a of title 10, United States Code, the Secretary shall—

"(1) apply consistent and appropriate standards to certified evolved expendable launch vehicle providers with respect to certified cost and pricing data; and

"(2) conduct the appropriate audits.

"(c) Acquisition Strategy.—In accordance with subsections (a) and (b) and section 2273 of title 10, United States Code, the Secretary shall develop and carry out a 10-year phased acquisition strategy, including near and long term, for the evolved expendable launch vehicle program [now the National Security Space Launch program].

"(d) Elements.—The acquisition strategy under subsection (c) for the evolved expendable launch vehicle program [now the National Security Space Launch program] shall—

"(1) provide the necessary—

"(A) stability in budgeting and acquisition of capabilities;

"(B) flexibility to the Federal Government; and

"(C) procedures for fair competition; and

"(2) specifically take into account, as appropriate per competition, the effect of—

"(A) contracts or agreements for launch services or launch capability entered into by the Department of Defense and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration with certified evolved expendable launch vehicle providers;

"(B) the requirements of the Department of Defense, including with respect to launch capabilities and pricing data, that are met by such providers;

"(C) the cost of integrating a satellite onto a launch vehicle; and

"(D) any other matters the Secretary considers appropriate.

"(e) Competition.—In awarding any contract for launch services in a national security space mission pursuant to a competitive acquisition, the evaluation shall account for the value of the evolved expendable launch vehicle launch capability arrangement per contract line item numbers in the bid price of the offeror as appropriate per launch.

"(f) Report.—Not later than 180 days after the date of the enactment of this Act, the Secretary shall submit to the congressional defense committees, the Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence of the House of Representatives, and the Select Committee on Intelligence of the Senate a report on the acquisition strategy developed under subsection (c)."

Rocket Propulsion System Development Program

Pub. L. 113–291, div. A, title XVI, §1604, Dec. 19, 2014, 128 Stat. 3623, as amended by Pub. L. 114–92, div. A, title XVI, §1606(a), Nov. 25, 2015, 129 Stat. 1099; Pub. L. 114–328, div. A, title XVI, §1603, Dec. 23, 2016, 130 Stat. 2582, provided that:

"(a) Development.—

"(1) In general.—The Secretary of Defense shall develop a next-generation rocket propulsion system that enables the effective, efficient, and expedient transition from the use of non-allied space launch engines to a domestic alternative for national security space launches.

"(2) Requirements.—The system developed under paragraph (1) shall—

"(A) be made in the United States;

"(B) meet the requirements of the national security space community;

"(C) be developed by not later than 2019;

"(D) be developed using full and open competition; and

"(E) be available for purchase by all space launch providers of the United States.

"(b) Report.—Not later than 180 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 19, 2014], the Secretary shall submit to the appropriate congressional committees a report that includes—

"(1) a plan to carry out the development of the rocket propulsion system under subsection (a), including an analysis of the benefits of using public-private partnerships;

"(2) the requirements of the program to develop such system; and

"(3) the estimated cost of such system.

"(c) Streamlined Acquisition.—In developing the rocket propulsion system required under subsection (a), the Secretary shall—

"(1) use a streamlined acquisition approach, including tailored documentation and review processes, that enables the effective, efficient, and expedient transition from the use of non-allied space launch engines to a domestic alternative for national security space launches; and

"(2) prior to establishing such acquisition approach, establish well-defined requirements with a clear acquisition strategy.

"(d) Use of Funds Under Development Program.—

"(1) Development of rocket propulsion system.—The funds described in paragraph (2)—

"(A) may be obligated or expended for—

"(i) the development of the rocket propulsion system to replace non-allied space launch engines pursuant to subsection (a); and

"(ii) the necessary interfaces to, or integration of, the rocket propulsion system with an existing or new launch vehicle; and

"(B) except as provided by paragraph (3), may not be obligated or expended to develop or procure a launch vehicle, an upper stage, a strap-on motor, or related infrastructure.

"(2) Funds described.—The funds described in this paragraph are the following:

"(A) Funds authorized to be appropriated by the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2017 [Pub. L. 114–328, see Tables for classification] or otherwise made available for fiscal year 2017 for the Department of Defense for the development of the rocket propulsion system under subsection (a).

"(B) Funds authorized to be appropriated by this Act [see Tables for classification] or the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2016 [Pub. L. 114–92, see Tables for classification] or otherwise made available for fiscal years 2015 or 2016 for the Department of Defense for the development of the rocket propulsion system under subsection (a) that are unobligated as of the date of the enactment of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2017 [Dec. 23, 2016].

"(3) Other purposes.—The Secretary may obligate or expend not more than a total of the amount calculated under paragraph (4) of the funds that are authorized to be appropriated by the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2017 or otherwise made available for fiscal year 2017 for the rocket propulsion system and launch system investment for activities not authorized by paragraph (1)(A), including for developing a launch vehicle, an upper stage, a strap-on motor, or related infrastructure. The Secretary may exceed such limit calculated under paragraph (4) in fiscal year 2017 for such purposes if—

"(A) the Secretary certifies to the appropriate congressional committees that, as of the date of the certification—

"(i) the development of the rocket propulsion system is being carried out pursuant to paragraph (1)(A) in a manner that ensures that the rocket propulsion system will meet each requirement under subsection (a)(2); and

"(ii) such obligation or expenditure will not negatively affect the development of the rocket propulsion system, including with respect to meeting such requirements; and

"(B) the reprogramming or transfer is carried out in accordance with established procedures for reprogramming or transfers, including with respect to presenting a request for a reprogramming of funds.

"(4) Calculation of amounts for other purposes.—In carrying out paragraph (3), the Secretary shall calculate the amount of the funds specified in such paragraph as follows:

"(A) If the total amount of funds that are authorized to be appropriated by the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2017 or otherwise made available for fiscal year 2017 for the rocket propulsion system and launch system investment is equal to or less than $320,000,000, such amount shall equal 31 percent.

"(B) If the total amount of funds that are authorized to be appropriated by the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2017 or otherwise made available for fiscal year 2017 for the rocket propulsion system and launch system investment is greater than $320,000,000, such amount shall equal the difference of—

"(i) the amount of funds so authorized to be appropriated, minus

"(ii) $220,000,000.

"(e) Definitions.—In this section:

"(1) The term 'appropriate congressional committees' means—

"(A) the congressional defense committees [Committees on Armed Services and Appropriations of the Senate and the House of Representatives]; and

"(B) the Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence of the House of Representatives and the Select Committee on Intelligence of the Senate.

"(2) The term 'rocket propulsion system' means, with respect to the development authorized by subsection (a), a main booster, first-stage rocket engine or motor. The term does not include a launch vehicle, an upper stage, a strap-on motor, or related infrastructure."

1 So in original. Probably should be followed by a semicolon.

§2273a. Space Rapid Capabilities Office

(a) In General.—There is within the Air Force Space Command a program office known as the Space Rapid Capabilities Office (in this section referred to as the "Office"). The facilities of the Office may not be co-located with the headquarters facilities of the Air Force Space and Missile Systems Center.

(b) Head of Office.—The head of the Office shall be the designee of the Secretary of the Air Force. The head of the Office shall report to the Commander of the Air Force Space Command.

(c) Mission.—The mission of the Office shall be—

(1) to contribute to the development of low-cost, rapid reaction payloads, busses, launch, and launch control capabilities in order to fulfill joint military operational requirements for on-demand space support and reconstitution;

(2) to coordinate and execute space rapid capabilities efforts across the Department of Defense with respect to planning, acquisition, and operations; and

(3) to rapidly develop and field new classified space capabilities.


(d) Acquisition Authority.—The acquisition activities of the Office shall be subject to the following:

(1) The Secretary of the Air Force shall designate the acquisition executive of the Office who shall provide streamlined acquisition authorities for projects of the Office.

(2) The Joint Capabilities Integration and Development System process shall not apply to acquisitions by the Office.

(3) The Commander of the United States Strategic Command, acting through the United States Space Command, shall—

(A) establish and validate capability requirements; and

(B) recommend priorities as the Commander determines appropriate.


(e) Required Program Element.—(1) The Secretary of the Air Force shall ensure, within budget program elements for space programs, that—

(A) there are separate, dedicated unclassified and classified program elements for space rapid capabilities; and

(B) the Office executes the responsibilities of the Office through such program elements.


(2) The Office shall manage the program elements required by paragraph (1).

(f) Board of Directors.—The Secretary of the Air Force shall establish for the Office a Board of Directors (to be known as the "Space Rapid Capabilities Board of Directors") to provide coordination, oversight, and approval of projects of the Office.

(Added Pub. L. 108–375, div. A, title IX, §913(a)(1), Oct. 28, 2004, 118 Stat. 2028; amended Pub. L. 109–364, div. A, title IX, §913(b)(1), Oct. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 2355; Pub. L. 112–239, div. A, title IX, §914, Jan. 2, 2013, 126 Stat. 1876; Pub. L. 115–91, div. A, title XVI, §1601(b)(1), Dec. 12, 2017, 131 Stat. 1720; Pub. L. 115–232, div. A, title XVI, §1602, Aug. 13, 2018, 132 Stat. 2104.)

Amendments

2018Pub. L. 115–232 amended section generally. Prior to amendment, section related to: in subsec. (a) the Space Rapid Capabilities Office, in subsec. (b) the head of the Office, in subsec. (c) the mission of the Office, in subsec. (d) elements of the Department of Defense to be included in the Office, in subsec. (e) acquisition activities of the Office, in subsec. (f) required program elements, and in subsec. (g) establishment of an Executive Committee to provide coordination, oversight, and approval of projects.

2017Pub. L. 115–91, §1601(b)(1)(A), substituted "Space Rapid Capabilities" for "Operationally Responsive Space Program" in section catchline.

Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 115–91, §1601(b)(1)(B), substituted "Air Force Space Command" for "Air Force Space and Missile Systems Center of the Department of Defense" and "Space Rapid Capabilities" for "Operationally Responsive Space Program".

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 115–91, §1601(b)(1)(C), substituted "Air Force Space Command" for "Air Force Space and Missile Systems Center".

Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 115–91, §1601(b)(1)(D), substituted "space rapid capabilities" for "operationally responsive space".

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 115–91, §1601(b)(1)(E), substituted "space rapid capabilities" for "operationally responsive space" in introductory provisions and pars. (2) and (3)(A), "space rapid capabilities" for "capabilities for operationally responsive space" in par. (1), and "space rapid capabilities" for "operationally responsive space capabilities" in introductory provisions of par. (4)(B).

Subsec. (f)(1)(A). Pub. L. 115–91, §1601(b)(1)(D), substituted "space rapid capabilities" for "operationally responsive space".

Subsec. (g)(1). Pub. L. 115–91, §1601(b)(1)(F), substituted "Space Rapid Capabilities" for "Operationally Responsive Space".

2013—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 112–239, §914(a), amended subsec. (a) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "The Secretary of Defense shall establish within the Department of Defense an office to be known as the Operationally Responsive Space Program Office (in this section referred to as the 'Office')."

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 112–239, §914(b), substituted "shall be the designee of the Department of Defense Executive Agent for Space. The head of the Office shall report to the Commander of the Air Force Space and Missile Systems Center." for "shall be—

"(1) the Department of Defense Executive Agent for Space; or

"(2) the designee of the Secretary of Defense, who shall report to the Department of Defense Executive Agent for Space."

Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 112–239, §914(c), substituted "launch" for "spacelift".

Subsec. (e)(1). Pub. L. 112–239, §914(d), amended par. (1) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (1) read as follows: "The Department of Defense Executive Agent for Space shall be the senior acquisition executive of the Office."

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 112–239, §914(e), added subsec. (g).

2006Pub. L. 109–364 amended section catchline and text generally, substituting provisions relating to establishment, control, mission, elements, and authority of the Operationally Responsive Space Program Office within the Department of Defense for provisions relating to requirement for a separate, dedicated program element for operationally responsive national security payloads and buses within budget program elements for space programs of the Department of Defense.

Effective Date

Pub. L. 108–375, div. A, title IX, §913(b), Oct. 28, 2004, 118 Stat. 2028, provided that: "Subsection (a) of section 2273a of title 10, United States Code, as added by subsection (a), shall apply with respect to fiscal years after fiscal year 2005."

United States Policy on Operationally Responsive Space

Pub. L. 109–364, div. A, title IX, §913(a), Oct. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 2355, provided that: "It is the policy of the United States to demonstrate, acquire, and deploy an effective capability for operationally responsive space to support military users and operations from space, which shall consist of—

"(1) responsive satellite payloads and busses built to common technical standards;

"(2) low-cost space launch vehicles and supporting range operations that facilitate the timely launch and on-orbit operations of satellites;

"(3) responsive command and control capabilities; and

"(4) concepts of operations, tactics, techniques, and procedures that permit the use of responsive space assets for combat and military operations other than war."

Joint Operationally Responsive Space Payload Technology Organization

Pub. L. 109–163, div. A, title IX, §913(a), Jan. 6, 2006, 119 Stat. 3408, which directed the Secretary of Defense to establish or designate an organization in the Department of Defense to coordinate joint operationally responsive space payload technology, was repealed by Pub. L. 109–364, div. A, title IX, §913(d), Oct. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 2358.

§2274. Space situational awareness services and information: provision to non-United States Government entities

(a) Authority.—(1) Except as provided by paragraph (2), the Secretary of Defense may provide space situational awareness services and information to, and may obtain space situational awareness data and information from, non-United States Government entities in accordance with this section. Any such action may be taken only if the Secretary determines that such action is consistent with the national security interests of the United States.

(2) Beginning January 1, 2024, the Secretary may provide space situational awareness services and information to, and may obtain space situational awareness data and information from, non-United States Government entities under paragraph (1) only to the extent that the Secretary determines such actions are necessary to meet the national security interests of the United States.

(b) Eligible Entities.—The Secretary may provide services and information under subsection (a) to, and may obtain data and information under subsection (a) from, any non-United States Government entity, including any of the following:

(1) A State.

(2) A political subdivision of a State.

(3) A United States commercial entity.

(4) The government of a foreign country.

(5) A foreign commercial entity.


(c) Agreement.—The Secretary may not provide space situational awareness services and information under subsection (a) to a non-United States Government entity unless that entity enters into an agreement with the Secretary under which the entity—

(1) agrees to pay an amount that may be charged by the Secretary under subsection (d);

(2) agrees not to transfer any data or technical information received under the agreement, including the analysis of data, to any other entity without the express approval of the Secretary; and

(3) agrees to any other terms and conditions considered necessary by the Secretary.


(d) Charges.—(1) As a condition of an agreement under subsection (c), the Secretary may (except as provided in paragraph (2)) require the non-United States Government entity entering into the agreement to pay to the Department of Defense such amounts as the Secretary determines appropriate to reimburse the Department for the costs to the Department of providing space situational awareness services or information under the agreement.

(2) The Secretary may not require the government of a State, or of a political subdivision of a State, to pay any amount under paragraph (1).

(e) Crediting of Funds Received.—(1) Funds received for the provision of space situational awareness services or information pursuant to an agreement under this section shall be credited, at the election of the Secretary, to the following:

(A) The appropriation, fund, or account used in incurring the obligation.

(B) An appropriate appropriation, fund, or account currently available for the purposes for which the expenditures were made.


(2) Funds credited under paragraph (1) shall be merged with, and remain available for obligation with, the funds in the appropriation, fund, or account to which credited.

(f) Procedures.—The Secretary shall establish procedures by which the authority under this section shall be carried out. As part of those procedures, the Secretary may allow space situational awareness services or information to be provided through a contractor of the Department of Defense.

(g) Immunity.—The United States, any agencies and instrumentalities thereof, and any individuals, firms, corporations, and other persons acting for the United States, shall be immune from any suit in any court for any cause of action arising from the provision or receipt of space situational awareness services or information, whether or not provided in accordance with this section, or any related action or omission.

(h) Notice of Concerns of Disclosure of Information.—If the Secretary determines that a commercial or foreign entity has declined or is reluctant to provide data or information to the Secretary in accordance with this section due to the concerns of such entity about the potential disclosure of such data or information, the Secretary shall, not later than 60 days after the Secretary makes that determination, provide notice to the congressional defense committees of the declination or reluctance of such entity.

(Added Pub. L. 108–136, div. A, title IX, §913(a), Nov. 24, 2003, 117 Stat. 1565; amended Pub. L. 109–364, div. A, title IX, §912, Oct. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 2355; Pub. L. 110–417, [div. A], title IX, §911, Oct. 14, 2008, 122 Stat. 4571; Pub. L. 111–84, div. A, title IX, §912(a), Oct. 28, 2009, 123 Stat. 2429; Pub. L. 115–232, div. A, title XVI, §1604(a), Aug. 13, 2018, 132 Stat. 2106.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 2274, act Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, 70A Stat. 126, which related to procurement for experimental purposes, was repealed by Pub. L. 103–160, div. A, title VIII, §821(a)(1), Nov. 30, 1993, 107 Stat. 1704.

Amendments

2018—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 115–232 designated existing provisions as par. (1), substituted "Except as provided by paragraph (2), the Secretary of Defense may" for "The Secretary of Defense may", and added par. (2).

2009Pub. L. 111–84 amended section generally. Prior to amendment, section related to space surveillance network: pilot program for provision of satellite tracking support to entities outside United States Government.

2008—Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 110–417 substituted "September 30, 2010" for "September 30, 2009".

2006—Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 109–364 substituted "may be conducted through September 30, 2009" for "shall be conducted during the three-year period beginning on a date specified by the Secretary of Defense, which date shall be not later than 180 days after the date of the enactment of this section".

Effective Date of 2009 Amendment

Pub. L. 111–84, div. A, title IX, §912(c), Oct. 28, 2009, 123 Stat. 2431, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall take effect on October 1, 2009, or the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 28, 2009], whichever is later."

Limitation on Availability of Funding for Joint Space Operations Center Mission System

Pub. L. 115–91, div. A, title XVI, §1610, Dec. 12, 2017, 131 Stat. 1728, provided that:

"(a) Limitation.—Of the funds authorized to be appropriated by this Act [see Tables for classification] or otherwise made available for fiscal year 2018 for the Joint Space Operations Center mission system, not more than 75 percent may be obligated or expended until the date on which the Secretary of the Air Force certifies to the congressional defense committees [Committees on Armed Services and Appropriations of the Senate and the House of Representatives] that the Secretary has developed the plan under subsection (b).

"(b) Plan.—The Secretary shall develop and implement a plan to operationalize existing commercial space situational awareness capabilities to address warfighter requirements, consistent with the best-in-breed concept. Except as provided by subsection (c), the Secretary shall commence such implementation by not later than May 30, 2018.

"(c) Waiver.—The Secretary may waive the implementation of the plan developed under subsection (b) if the Secretary determines that existing commercial capabilities will not address national security requirements or existing space situational awareness capability gaps. The authority under this subsection may not be delegated below the Deputy Secretary of Defense."

§2275. Reports on integration of acquisition and capability delivery schedules for segments of major satellite acquisition programs and funding for such programs

(a) Reports Required.—The Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics shall submit to the congressional defense committees a report on each major satellite acquisition program in accordance with subsection (d) that assesses—

(1) the integration of the schedules for the acquisition and the delivery of the capabilities of the segments for the program; and

(2) funding for the program.


(b) Elements.—Each report required by subsection (a) with respect to a major satellite acquisition program shall include the following:

(1) The amount of funding approved for the program and for each segment of the program that is necessary for full operational capability of the program.

(2) The dates by which the program and each segment of the program is anticipated to reach initial and full operational capability.

(3) A description of the intended primary capabilities and key performance parameters of the program.

(4) An assessment of the extent to which the schedules for the acquisition and the delivery of the capabilities of the segments for the program or any related program referred to in paragraph (1) are integrated.

(5) If the Under Secretary determines pursuant to the assessment under paragraph (4) that the program is a non-integrated program, an identification of—

(A) the impact on the mission of the program of having the delivery of the segment capabilities of the program more than one year apart;

(B) the measures the Under Secretary is taking or is planning to take to improve the integration of the acquisition and delivery schedules of the segment capabilities; and

(C) the risks and challenges that impede the ability of the Department of Defense to fully integrate those schedules.


(c) Consideration by Milestone Decision Authority.—The Milestone Decision Authority shall include the report required by subsection (a) with respect to a major satellite acquisition program as part of the documentation used to approve the acquisition of the program.

(d) Submittal of Reports.—(1) In the case of a major satellite acquisition program initiated before January 2, 2013, the Under Secretary shall submit the report required by subsection (a) with respect to the program not later than one year after such date of enactment.1

(2) In the case of a major satellite acquisition program initiated on or after January 2, 2013, the Under Secretary shall submit the report required by subsection (a) with respect to the program at the time of the Milestone B approval of the program.

(e) Notification to Congress of Non-integrated Acquisition and Capability Delivery Schedules.—If, after submitting the report required by subsection (a) with respect to a major satellite acquisition program, the Under Secretary determines that the program is a non-integrated program, the Under Secretary shall, not later than 30 days after making that determination, submit to the congressional defense committees a report—

(1) notifying the committees of that determination; and

(2) identifying—

(A) the impact on the mission of the program of having the delivery of the segment capabilities of the program more than one year apart;

(B) the measures the Under Secretary is taking or is planning to take to improve the integration of the acquisition and delivery schedules of the segment capabilities; and

(C) the risks and challenges that impede the ability of the Department of Defense to fully integrate those schedules.


(f) Annual Updates for Non-integrated Programs.—

(1) Requirement.—For each major satellite acquisition program that the Under Secretary has determined under subsection (b)(5) or subsection (e) is a non-integrated program, the Under Secretary shall annually submit to Congress, at the same time the budget of the President for a fiscal year is submitted under section 1105 of title 31, an update to the report required by subsection (a) for such program.

(2) Termination of requirement.—The requirement to submit an annual report update for a program under paragraph (1) shall terminate on the date on which the Under Secretary submits to the congressional defense committees notice that the Under Secretary has determined that such program is no longer a non-integrated program, or on the date that is five years after the date on which the initial report update required under paragraph (1) is submitted, whichever is earlier.

(3) GAO review of certain non-integrated programs.—If at the time of the termination of the requirement to annually update a report for a program under paragraph (1) the Under Secretary has not provided notice to the congressional defense committees that the Under Secretary has determined that the program is no longer a non-integrated program, the Comptroller General shall conduct a review of such program and submit the results of such review to the congressional defense committees.


(g) Definitions.—In this section:

(1) Segments.—The term "segments", with respect to a major satellite acquisition program, refers to any satellites acquired under the program and the ground equipment and user terminals necessary to fully exploit the capabilities provided by those satellites.

(2) Major satellite acquisition program.—The term "major satellite acquisition program" means a major defense acquisition program (as defined in section 2430 of this title) for the acquisition of a satellite.

(3) Milestone b approval.—The term "Milestone B approval" has the meaning given that term in section 2366(e)(7) of this title.

(4) Non-integrated program.—The term "non-integrated program" means a program with respect to which the schedules for the acquisition and the delivery of the capabilities of the segments for the program, or a related program that is necessary for the operational capability of the program, provide for the acquisition or the delivery of the capabilities of at least two of the three segments for the program or related program more than one year apart.

(Added Pub. L. 112–239, div. A, title IX, §911(a), Jan. 2, 2013, 126 Stat. 1870; amended Pub. L. 113–291, div. A, title X, §1071(e)(3), Dec. 19, 2014, 128 Stat. 3509.)

References in Text

Such date of enactment, referred to in subsec. (d)(1), is a reference to the date of enactment of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2013, Pub. L. 112–239, which was approved Jan. 2, 2013. Such reference was struck out by Pub. L. 113–291, §1071(e)(3)(A), see 2014 Amendment note below.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 2275, act Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, 70A Stat. 126, which related to award of contracts and review of decisions, was repealed by Pub. L. 103–160, div. A, title VIII, §821(a)(1), Nov. 30, 1993, 107 Stat. 1704.

Amendments

2014—Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 113–291, §1071(e)(3)(A), substituted "before January 2, 2013" for "before the date of the enactment of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2013".

Subsec. (d)(2). Pub. L. 113–291, §1071(e)(3)(B), substituted "on or after January 2, 2013" for "on or after the date of the enactment of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2013".

Termination of Reporting Requirements

For termination, effective Dec. 31, 2021, of provisions of this section requiring submittal of annual reports to Congress, see section 1061 of Pub. L. 114–328, set out as a note under section 111 of this title.

1 See References in Text note below.

§2276. Commercial space launch cooperation

(a) Authority.—The Secretary of Defense may take such actions as the Secretary considers to be in the best interest of the Federal Government to—

(1) maximize the use of the capacity of the space transportation infrastructure of the Department of Defense by the private sector in the United States;

(2) maximize the effectiveness and efficiency of the space transportation infrastructure of the Department of Defense;

(3) reduce the cost of services provided by the Department of Defense related to space transportation infrastructure at launch support facilities and space recovery support facilities;

(4) encourage commercial space activities by enabling investment by covered entities in the space transportation infrastructure of the Department of Defense; and

(5) foster cooperation between the Department of Defense and covered entities.


(b) Authority for Contracts and Other Agreements Relating to Space Transportation Infrastructure.—The Secretary of Defense—

(1) may enter into an agreement with a covered entity to provide the covered entity with support and services related to the space transportation infrastructure of the Department of Defense; and

(2) upon the request of such covered entity, may include such support and services in the space launch and reentry range support requirements of the Department of Defense if—

(A) the Secretary determines that the inclusion of such support and services in such requirements—

(i) is in the best interest of the Federal Government;

(ii) does not interfere with the requirements of the Department of Defense; and

(iii) does not compete with the commercial space activities of other covered entities, unless that competition is in the national security interests of the United States; and


(B) any commercial requirement included in the agreement has full non-Federal funding before the execution of the agreement.


(c) Contributions.—

(1) In general.—The Secretary of Defense may enter into an agreement with a covered entity on a cooperative and voluntary basis to accept contributions of funds, services, and equipment to carry out this section.

(2) Use of contributions.—Any funds, services, or equipment accepted by the Secretary under this subsection—

(A) may be used only for the objectives specified in this section in accordance with terms of use set forth in the agreement entered into under this subsection; and

(B) shall be managed by the Secretary in accordance with regulations of the Department of Defense.


(3) Requirements with respect to agreements.—An agreement entered into with a covered entity under this subsection—

(A) shall address the terms of use, ownership, and disposition of the funds, services, or equipment contributed pursuant to the agreement; and

(B) shall include a provision that the covered entity will not recover the costs of its contribution through any other agreement with the United States.


(d) Defense Cooperation Space Launch Account.—

(1) Establishment.—There is established in the Treasury of the United States a special account to be known as the "Defense Cooperation Space Launch Account".

(2) Crediting of funds.—Funds received by the Secretary of Defense under subsection (c) shall be credited to the Defense Cooperation Space Launch Account.

(3) Use of funds.—Funds deposited in the Defense Cooperation Space Launch Account under paragraph (2) are authorized to be appropriated and shall be available for obligation only to the extent provided in advance in an appropriation Act for costs incurred by the Department of Defense in carrying out subsection (b). Funds in the Account shall remain available until expended.


[(e) Repealed. Pub. L. 115–232, div. A, title VIII, §813(a)(2), Aug. 13, 2018, 132 Stat. 1851.]

(f) Regulations.—The Secretary of Defense shall prescribe regulations to carry out this section.

(g) Definitions.—In this section:

(1) Covered entity.—The term "covered entity" means a non-Federal entity that—

(A) is organized under the laws of the United States or of any jurisdiction within the United States; and

(B) is engaged in commercial space activities.


(2) Launch support facilities.—The term "launch support facilities" has the meaning given the term in section 50501(7) of title 51.

(3) Space recovery support facilities.—The term "space recovery support facilities" has the meaning given the term in section 50501(11) of title 51.

(4) Space transportation infrastructure.—The term "space transportation infrastructure" has the meaning given that term in section 50501(12) of title 51.

(Added Pub. L. 112–239, div. A, title IX, §912(a), Jan. 2, 2013, 126 Stat. 1872; amended Pub. L. 115–232, div. A, title VIII, §813(a)(2), Aug. 13, 2018, 132 Stat. 1851.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 2276, acts Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, 70A Stat. 126; Sept. 7, 1962, Pub. L. 87–651, title I, §131, 76 Stat. 514, which related to inspection and audit of plants and books of contractors and provided criminal penalties for violations, was repealed by Pub. L. 103–160, div. A, title VIII, §821(a)(1), Nov. 30, 1993, 107 Stat. 1704.

Amendments

2018—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 115–232 struck out subsec. (e). Text read as follows: "Not later than January 31 of each year, the Secretary of Defense shall submit to the congressional defense committees a report on the funds, services, and equipment accepted and used by the Secretary under this section during the preceding fiscal year."

[§2277. Repealed. Pub. L. 115–91, div. A, title X, §1051(a)(13)(A), Dec. 12, 2017, 131 Stat. 1561]

Section, added Pub. L. 112–239, div. A, title IX, §913(c)(1), Jan. 2, 2013, 126 Stat. 1875, related to report on foreign counter-space programs.

A prior section 2277, act Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, 70A Stat. 127, related to availability of appropriations, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 103–160, div. A, title VIII, §821(a)(1), Nov. 30, 1993, 107 Stat. 1704.

§2278. Notification of foreign interference of national security space

(a) Notice Required.—The Commander of the United States Strategic Command shall, with respect to each intentional attempt by a foreign actor to disrupt, degrade, or destroy a United States national security space capability, provide to the appropriate congressional committees—

(1) not later than 48 hours after the Commander determines that there is reason to believe such attempt occurred, notice of such attempt; and

(2) not later than 10 days after the date on which the Commander determines that there is reason to believe such attempt occurred, a notification described in subsection (b) with respect to such attempt.


(b) Notification Description.—A notification described in this subsection is a written notification that includes—

(1) the name and a brief description of the national security space capability that was impacted by an attempt by a foreign actor to disrupt, degrade, or destroy a United States national security space capability;

(2) a description of such attempt, including the foreign actor, the date and time of such attempt, and any related capability outage and the mission impact of such outage; and

(3) any other information the Commander considers relevant.


(c) Appropriate Congressional Committees Defined.—In this section, the term "appropriate congressional committees" means—

(1) the congressional defense committees; and

(2) with respect to a notice or notification related to an attempt by a foreign actor to disrupt, degrade, or destroy a United States national security space capability that is intelligence-related, the Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence of the House of Representatives and the Select Committee on Intelligence of the Senate.

(Added Pub. L. 113–66, div. A, title IX, §911(a), Dec. 26, 2013, 127 Stat. 823.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 2278, act Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, 70A Stat. 127, related to purchases of sample aircraft, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 103–160, div. A, title VIII, §821(a)(1), Nov. 30, 1993, 107 Stat. 1704.

§2279. Foreign commercial satellite services and foreign launches

(a) Prohibition.—Except as provided in subsection (c), the Secretary of Defense may not enter into a contract for satellite services with a foreign entity if the Secretary reasonably believes that—

(1) the foreign entity is an entity in which the government of a covered foreign country has an ownership interest that enables that government to affect satellite operations;

(2) the foreign entity plans to or is expected to provide satellite services under the contract from a covered foreign country; or

(3) entering into such contract would create an unacceptable cybersecurity risk for the Department of Defense.


(b) Launches and Manufacturers.—

(1) Limitation.—In addition to the prohibition in subsection (a), and except as provided in paragraph (2) and in subsection (c), the Secretary may not enter into a contract for satellite services with any entity if the Secretary reasonably believes that such satellite services will be provided using satellites that will be—

(A) designed or manufactured in a covered foreign country, or by an entity controlled in whole or in part by, or acting on behalf of, the government of a covered foreign country; or

(B) launched using a launch vehicle that is designed or manufactured in a covered foreign country, or that is provided by the government of a covered foreign country or by an entity controlled in whole or in part by, or acting on behalf of, the government of a covered foreign country, regardless of the location of the launch (unless such location is in the United States).


(2) Exception.—The limitation in paragraph (1) shall not apply with respect to—

(A) a launch that occurs prior to December 31, 2022; or

(B) a contract or other agreement relating to launch services that, prior to the date that is 180 days after the date of the enactment of this subsection, was either fully paid for by the contractor or covered by a legally binding commitment of the contractor to pay for such services.


(3) Launch vehicle defined.—In this subsection, the term "launch vehicle" means a fully integrated space launch vehicle.


(c) Notice and Exception.—The prohibitions in subsections (a) and (b) shall not apply to a contract if—

(1) the Secretary determines it is in the national security of the United States to enter into such contract; and

(2) not later than 7 days before entering into such contract, the Secretary, in consultation with the Director of National Intelligence, submits to the congressional defense committees a national security assessment for such contract that includes the following:

(A) The projected period of performance (including any period covered by options to extend the contract), the financial terms, and a description of the services to be provided under the contract.

(B) To the extent practicable, a description of the ownership interest that a covered foreign country has in the foreign entity providing satellite services to the Department of Defense under the contract and the launch or other satellite services that will be provided in a covered foreign country under the contract.

(C) A justification for entering into a contract with such foreign entity and a description of the actions necessary to eliminate the need to enter into such a contract with such foreign entity in the future.

(D) A risk assessment of entering into a contract with such foreign entity, including an assessment of mission assurance and security of information and a description of any measures necessary to mitigate risks found by such risk assessment.


(d) Delegation of Notice and Exception Authority.—The Secretary of Defense may only delegate the authority under subsection (c) to enter into a contract subject to the prohibition under subsection (a) or (b) to the Deputy Secretary of Defense, the Under Secretary of Defense for Policy, or the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics and such authority may not be further delegated.

(e) Form of Assessments.—Each assessment under subsection (c) shall be submitted in unclassified form, but may include a classified annex.

(f) Definitions.—In this section:

(1) The term "covered foreign country" means any of the following:

(A) A country described in section 1261(c)(2) of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2013 (Public Law 112–239; 126 Stat. 2019).

(B) The Russian Federation.


(2) The term "cybersecurity risk" means threats to and vulnerabilities of information or information systems and any related consequences caused by or resulting from unauthorized access, use, disclosure, degradation, disruption, modification, or destruction of such information or information systems, including such related consequences caused by an act of terrorism.

(Added Pub. L. 113–66, div. A, title XVI, §1602(a)(1), Dec. 26, 2013, 127 Stat. 941; amended Pub. L. 115–91, div. A, title XVI, §1603(a)–(d)(1), Dec. 12, 2017, 131 Stat. 1722, 1723; Pub. L. 115–232, div. A, title X, §1081(a)(16), Aug. 13, 2018, 132 Stat. 1984.)

References in Text

The date of the enactment of this subsection, referred to in subsec. (b)(2)(B), is the date of enactment of Pub. L. 115–91, which was approved Dec. 12, 2017.

Section 1261(c)(2) of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2013, referred to in subsec. (f)(1)(A), is section 1261(c)(2) of Pub. L. 112–239, which is set out in a note under section 2778 of Title 22, Foreign Relations and Intercourse.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 2279, act Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, 70A Stat. 127, related to restrictions on alien employees of contractors as to access to plans and specifications, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 103–160, div. A, title VIII, §821(a)(1), Nov. 30, 1993, 107 Stat. 1704.

Amendments

2018—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 115–232 substituted "subsections (a) and (b)" for "subsection (a) and (b)" in introductory provisions.

2017Pub. L. 115–91, §1603(d)(1)(A), substituted "services and foreign launches" for "services" in section catchline.

Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 115–91, §1603(d)(1)(B), substituted "subsection (c)" for "subsection (b)" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 115–91, §1603(d)(1)(C), struck out "launch or other" before "satellite services".

Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 115–91, §1603(a), added par. (3).

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 115–91, §1603(b)(2), added subsec. (b). Former subsec. (b) redesignated (c).

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 115–91, §1603(b)(1), (d)(1)(D), redesignated subsec. (b) as (c) and substituted "prohibitions in subsection (a) and (b)" for "prohibition in subsection (a)" in introductory provisions. Former subsec. (c) redesignated (d).

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 115–91, §1603(b)(1), (d)(1)(B), (E), redesignated subsec. (c) as (d) and substituted "subsection (c)" for "subsection (b)" and "prohibition under subsection (a) or (b)" for "prohibition under subsection (a)". Former subsec. (d) redesignated (e).

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 115–91, §1603(b)(1), (d)(1)(B), redesignated subsec. (d) as (e) and substituted "subsection (c)" for "subsection (b)". Former subsec. (e) redesignated (f).

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 115–91, §1603(b)(1), (c), redesignated subsec. (e) as (f) and amended it generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "In this section, the term 'covered foreign country' means a country described in section 1261(c)(2) of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2013 (Public Law 112–239; 126 Stat. 2019)."

Effective Date of 2017 Amendment

Pub. L. 115–91, div. A, title XVI, §1603(e), Dec. 12, 2017, 131 Stat. 1723, provided that: "Except as otherwise specifically provided, the amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall apply with respect to contracts for satellite services awarded by the Secretary of Defense on or after the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 12, 2017]."

[§2279a. Repealed. Pub. L. 115–91, div. A, title XVI, §1601(b)(2)(A), Dec. 12, 2017, 131 Stat. 1719]

Section, added Pub. L. 114–92, div. A, title XVI, §1602(a), Nov. 25, 2015, 129 Stat. 1096, related to principal advisor on space control.

Termination of Certain Positions and Entities

Pub. L. 115–91, div. A, title XVI, §1601(b)(1), Dec. 12, 2017, 131 Stat. 1719, provided that:

"(1) In general.—Effective 30 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 12, 2017]—

"(A) the position, and the office of, the Principal Department of Defense Space Advisor (previously known as the Department of Defense Executive Agent for Space) shall be terminated;

"(B) the duties, responsibilities, and personnel of such office specified in subparagraph (A) shall be transferred to a single official selected by the Deputy Secretary of Defense, without delegation, except the Deputy Secretary may not select the Secretary of the Air Force nor the Under Secretary of Defense for Intelligence;

"(C) any reference in Federal law, regulations, guidance, instructions, or other documents of the Federal Government to the Principal Department of Defense Space Advisor or the Department of Defense Executive Agent for Space shall be deemed to be a reference to the official selected by the Deputy Secretary under subparagraph (B);

"(D) the position, and the office of, the Deputy Chief of Staff of the Air Force for Space Operations shall be terminated; and

"(E) the Defense Space Council shall be terminated."

§2279b. Council on Oversight of the Department of Defense Positioning, Navigation, and Timing Enterprise

(a) Establishment.—There is within the Department of Defense a council to be known as the "Council on Oversight of the Department of Defense Positioning, Navigation, and Timing Enterprise" (in this section referred to as the "Council").

(b) Membership.—The members of the Council shall be as follows:

(1) The Under Secretary of Defense for Policy.

(2) The Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics.

(3) The Vice Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.

(4) The Commander of the United States Strategic Command.

(5) The Commander of the United States Northern Command.

(6) The Commander of United States Cyber Command.

(7) The Director of the National Security Agency.

(8) The Chief Information Officer of the Department of Defense.

(9) The Secretaries of the military departments, who shall be ex officio members.

(10) Such other officers of the Department of Defense as the Secretary may designate.


(c) Co-chair.—The Council shall be co-chaired by the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics and the Vice Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.

(d) Responsibilities.—(1) The Council shall be responsible for oversight of the Department of Defense positioning, navigation, and timing enterprise, including positioning, navigation, and timing services provided to civil, commercial, scientific, and international users.

(2) In carrying out the responsibility for oversight of the Department of Defense positioning, navigation, and timing enterprise as specified in paragraph (1), the Council shall be responsible for the following:

(A) Oversight of performance assessments (including interoperability).

(B) Vulnerability identification and mitigation.

(C) Architecture development.

(D) Resource prioritization.

(E) Such other responsibilities as the Secretary of Defense shall specify for purposes of this section.


(e) Annual Reports.—At the same time each year that the budget of the President is submitted to Congress under section 1105(a) of title 31, the Council shall submit to the congressional defense committees a report on the activities of the Council. Each report shall include the following:

(1) A description and assessment of the activities of the Council during the previous fiscal year.

(2) A description of the activities proposed to be undertaken by the Council during the period covered by the current future-years defense program under section 221 of this title.

(3) Any changes to the requirements of the Department of Defense positioning, navigation, and timing enterprise made during the previous year, along with an explanation for why the changes were made and a description of the effects of the changes to the capability of such enterprise.

(4) A breakdown of each program element in such budget that relates to the Department of Defense positioning, navigation, and timing enterprise, including how such program element relates to the operation and sustainment, research and development, procurement, or other activity of such enterprise.


(f) Budget and Funding Matters.—(1) Not later than 30 days after the President submits to Congress the budget for a fiscal year under section 1105(a) of title 31, the Commander of the United States Strategic Command shall submit to the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff an assessment of—

(A) whether such budget allows the Federal Government to meet the required capabilities of the Department of Defense positioning, navigation, and timing enterprise during the fiscal year covered by the budget and the four subsequent fiscal years; and

(B) if the Commander determines that such budget does not allow the Federal Government to meet such required capabilities, a description of the steps being taken to meet such required capabilities.


(2) Not later than 30 days after the date on which the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff receives the assessment of the Commander of the United States Strategic Command under paragraph (1), the Chairman shall submit to the congressional defense committees—

(A) such assessment as it was submitted to the Chairman; and

(B) any comments of the Chairman.


(3) If a House of Congress adopts a bill authorizing or appropriating funds for the activities of the Department of Defense positioning, navigation, and timing enterprise that, as determined by the Council, provides insufficient funds for such activities for the period covered by such bill, the Council shall notify the congressional defense committees of the determination.

(g) Notification of Anomalies.—(1) The Secretary of Defense shall submit to the congressional defense committees written notification of an anomaly in the Department of Defense positioning, navigation, and timing enterprise that is reported to the Secretary or the Council by not later than 14 days after the date on which the Secretary or the Council learns of such anomaly, as the case may be.

(2) In this subsection, the term "anomaly" means any unplanned, irregular, or abnormal event, whether unexplained or caused intentionally or unintentionally by a person or a system.

(h) Termination.—The Council shall terminate on the date that is 10 years after the date of the enactment of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2016.

(Added Pub. L. 114–92, div. A, title XVI, §1603(a), Nov. 25, 2015, 129 Stat. 1096.)

References in Text

The date of the enactment of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2016, referred to in subsec. (h), is the date of enactment of Pub. L. 114–92, which was approved Nov. 25, 2015.

§2279c. Air Force Space Command

(a) Commander.—(1) The head of the Air Force Space Command shall be the Commander of the Air Force Space Command, who shall be appointed in accordance with section 601 of this title. The officer serving as Commander, while so serving, has the grade of general without vacating the permanent grade of the officer.

(2) The Commander shall be appointed to serve a term of six years. The Secretary may propose to promote the individual serving as the Commander during that term of appointment.

(3) The incumbent Commander may serve as the first Commander after December 12, 2017.

(b) Authorities.—In addition to the authorities and responsibilities assigned to the Commander before December 12, 2017, the Commander has the sole authority with respect to each of the following:

(1) Organizing, training, and equipping personnel and operations of the space forces of the Air Force.

(2) Subject to the direction of the Secretary of the Air Force, serving as the service acquisition executive under section 1704 of this title for defense space acquisitions.

(3) In consultation with the Chief Information Officer of the Department of Defense, procurement of commercial satellite communications services for the Department of Defense for such services entered into after December 11, 2018.

(Added Pub. L. 115–91, div. A, title XVI, §1601(a)(1), Dec. 12, 2017, 131 Stat. 1718; amended Pub. L. 115–232, div. A, title X, §1081(a)(17), Aug. 13, 2018, 132 Stat. 1984.)

Codification

Another section 2279c was renumbered section 2279d of this title.

Amendments

2018—Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 115–232, §1081(a)(17)(A), substituted "December 12, 2017" for "the date of the enactment of this Act".

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 115–232, §1081(a)(17)(B)(i), substituted "December 12, 2017" for "the date of the enactment of this section" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 115–232, §1081(a)(17)(B)(ii), substituted "after December 11, 2018" for "on or after the date that is one year after the date of the enactment of this section".

Construction

Pub. L. 115–91, div. A, title XVI, §1601(a)(3), Dec. 12, 2017, 131 Stat. 1719, provided that: "Nothing in subsection (b)(1) of section 2279c of title 10, United States Code, as added by paragraph (1), may be construed to prohibit or otherwise affect the authority of the Secretary of the Air Force to provide to the space forces of the Air Force the services of the Department of the Air Force relating to basic personnel functions, the United States Air Force Academy, recruitment, and basic training."

§2279d. Limitation on construction on United States territory of satellite positioning ground monitoring stations of certain foreign governments.1

(a) Limitation.—

(1) Certification.—

(A) In general.—The President may not authorize or permit the construction of a global navigation satellite system ground monitoring station directly or indirectly controlled by a foreign government (including a ground monitoring station owned, operated, or controlled on behalf of a foreign government) in the territory of the United States unless the Secretary of Defense and the Director of National Intelligence jointly certify to the appropriate congressional committees that such ground monitoring station will not possess the capability or potential to be used for the purpose of gathering intelligence in the United States or improving any foreign weapon system.

(B) Form.—Each certification under subparagraph (A) shall be submitted in unclassified form, but may include a classified annex.


(2) National security waiver.—The Secretary of Defense and the Director of National Intelligence may jointly waive the certification requirement in paragraph (1) for a ground monitoring station if—

(A) the Secretary and the Director jointly determine that the waiver is in the vital interests of the national security of the United States; and

(B) the Secretary and the Director ensure that—

(i) all data collected or transmitted from ground monitoring stations covered by the waiver are not encrypted;

(ii) all persons involved in the construction, operation, and maintenance of such ground monitoring stations are United States persons;

(iii) such ground monitoring stations are not located in geographic proximity to sensitive United States national security sites;

(iv) the United States approves all equipment to be located at such ground monitoring stations;

(v) appropriate actions are taken to ensure that any such ground monitoring stations do not pose a cyber espionage or other threat, including intelligence or counterintelligence, to the national security of the United States; and

(vi) any improvements to such ground monitoring stations do not reduce or compete with the advantages of Global Positioning System technology for users.


(3) Waiver report.—For each waiver under paragraph (2), the Secretary of Defense and the Director of National Intelligence, in consultation with the Secretary of State, shall jointly submit to the appropriate congressional committees a report containing—

(A) the reason why it is not possible to provide the certification under paragraph (1) for the ground monitoring stations covered by such waiver;

(B) an assessment of the impact of the exercise of authority under paragraph (2) with respect to such ground monitoring stations on the national security of the United States;

(C) a description of the means to be used to mitigate any such impact to the United States for the duration that such ground monitoring stations are operated in the territory of the United States; and

(D) any other information in connection with the waiver that the Secretary of Defense and the Director of National Intelligence, in consultation with the Secretary of State, consider appropriate.


(4) Notice.—Not later than 30 days before the exercise of the authority to waive under paragraph (2) the certification requirement under paragraph (1) for a ground monitoring station, the Secretary of Defense and the Director of National Intelligence shall jointly provide to the appropriate congressional committees notice of the exercise of such authority and the report required under paragraph (3) with respect to such ground monitoring station.

(5) Appropriate congressional committees defined.—In this subsection, the term "appropriate congressional committees" means—

(A) the Committee on Armed Services, the Committee on Foreign Relations, and the Select Committee on Intelligence of the Senate; and

(B) the Committee on Armed Services, the committee on Foreign Affairs, and the Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence of the House of Representatives.


(b) Exception.—The limitation in subsection (a) shall not apply to foreign governments that are allies of the United States.

(c) Sunset.—The limitation in subsection (a) shall terminate on December 31, 2023.

(Added and amended Pub. L. 115–91, div. A, title XVI, §1602, Dec. 12, 2017, 131 Stat. 1721, §2279c; renumbered §2279d, Pub. L. 115–232, div. A, title X, §1081(a)(18)(A), Aug. 13, 2018, 132 Stat. 1984.)

Codification

Section 1602(b) of Pub. L. 113–66, formerly set out as a note under section 2281 of this title, which was transferred to and inserted as the first subsection of this section, redesignated as subsec. (a), and amended by Pub. L. 115–91, §1602(b), was based on Pub. L. 113–66, div. A, title XVI, §1602(b), Dec. 26, 2013, 127 Stat. 943.

Amendments

2018Pub. L. 115–232 renumbered section 2279c of this title as this section.

2017—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 115–91, §1602(b), transferred section 1602(b) of Pub. L. 113–66 to this section, inserted it as the first subsection of this section, designated it as subsec. (a), substituted "Limitation" for "Limitation on Construction on United States Territory of Satellite Positioning Ground Monitoring Stations of Foreign Governments" in heading, and struck out par. (6). Prior to amendment, text of par. (6) read as follows: "Effective on the date that is five years after the date of the enactment of this Act, paragraphs (1) through (5) are repealed." See Codification note above.

1 So in original. The period probably should not appear.