[USC02] 10 USC Ch. 1407: FAILURE OF SELECTION FOR PROMOTION AND INVOLUNTARY SEPARATION
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10 USC Ch. 1407: FAILURE OF SELECTION FOR PROMOTION AND INVOLUNTARY SEPARATION
From Title 10—ARMED FORCESSubtitle E—Reserve ComponentsPART III—PROMOTION AND RETENTION OF OFFICERS ON THE RESERVE ACTIVE-STATUS LIST

CHAPTER 1407—FAILURE OF SELECTION FOR PROMOTION AND INVOLUNTARY SEPARATION

Sec.
14501.
Failure of selection for promotion.
14502.
Special selection boards: correction of errors.
14503.
Discharge of officers with less than six years of commissioned service or found not qualified for promotion to first lieutenant or lieutenant (junior grade).
14504.
Effect of failure of selection for promotion: reserve first lieutenants of the Army, Air Force, and Marine Corps and reserve lieutenants (junior grade) of the Navy.
14505.
Effect of failure of selection for promotion: reserve captains of the Army, Air Force, and Marine Corps and reserve lieutenants of the Navy.
14506.
Effect of failure of selection for promotion: reserve majors of the Army, Air Force, and Marine Corps and reserve lieutenant commanders of the Navy.
14507.
Removal from the reserve active-status list for years of service: reserve lieutenant colonels and colonels of the Army, Air Force, and Marine Corps and reserve commanders and captains of the Navy.
14508.
Removal from the reserve active-status list for years of service: reserve general and flag officers.
14509.
Separation at age 62: reserve officers in grades below brigadier general or rear admiral (lower half).
14510.
Separation at age 62: brigadier generals and rear admirals (lower half).
14511.
Separation at age 64: officers in grade of major general or rear admiral and above.
14512.
Separation at age 66: officers holding certain offices.
14513.
Failure of selection for promotion: transfer, retirement, or discharge.
14514.
Discharge or retirement for years of service or after selection for early removal.
14515.
Discharge or retirement for age.
14516.
Separation to be considered involuntary.
14517.
Entitlement of officers discharged under this chapter to separation pay.
14518.
Continuation of officers to complete disciplinary action.
14519.
Deferment of retirement or separation for medical reasons.

        

Amendments

2008Pub. L. 110–181, div. A, title V, §503(c)(3), title XVIII, §1825(a)(2), Jan. 28, 2008, 122 Stat. 95, 502, substituted "six years" for "five years" in item 14503 and "officers in grade of major general or rear admiral and above" for "major generals and rear admirals" in item 14511.

2006Pub. L. 109–364, div. A, title V, §503(f), Oct. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 2178, struck out "reserve" before "brigadier" in item 14510 and substituted "62" for "60" in items 14509 and 14510, "64" for "62" in item 14511, and "66" for "64" in item 14512.

2002Pub. L. 107–314, div. A, title V, §522(b), Dec. 2, 2002, 116 Stat. 2541, added item 14519.

2001Pub. L. 107–107, div. A, title V, §517(b)(2)(B), Dec. 28, 2001, 115 Stat. 1094, substituted "Failure of selection for promotion: transfer, retirement, or discharge" for "Separation for failure of selection of promotion" in item 14513.

1999Pub. L. 106–65, div. A, title V, §511(b), Oct. 5, 1999, 113 Stat. 592, added item 14518.

1996Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title XV, §1501(b)(27), Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 497, inserted "reserve" after "Marine Corps and" in item 14506, "reserve" after "Removal from the" in item 14507, and "in grades" after "reserve officers" in item 14509.

§14501. Failure of selection for promotion

(a) Officers Below the Grade of Colonel or Navy Captain.—An officer on the reserve active-status list in a grade below the grade of colonel or, in the case of an officer in the Navy Reserve, captain who is in or above the promotion zone established for that officer's grade and competitive category and who (1) is considered but not recommended for promotion (other than by a vacancy promotion board), or (2) declines to accept a promotion for which selected (other than by a vacancy promotion board), shall be considered to have failed of selection for promotion.

(b) Officers Twice Failed of Selection.—An officer shall be considered for all purposes to have twice failed of selection for promotion if any of the following applies:

(1) The officer is considered but not recommended for promotion a second time by a mandatory promotion board convened under section 14101(a) or a special selection board convened under section 14502(a) of this title.

(2) The officer declines to accept a promotion for which recommended by a mandatory promotion board convened under section 14101(a) or a special selection board convened under section 14502(a) or 14502(b) of this title after previously failing of selection or after the officer's name was removed from the report of a selection board under section 14111(b) or from a promotion list under section 14310 of this title after recommendation for promotion by an earlier selection board described in subsection (a).

(3) The officer's name has been removed from the report of a selection board under section 14111(b) or from a promotion list under section 14310 of this title after recommendation by a mandatory promotion board convened under section 14101(a) or by a special selection board convened under section 14502(a) or 14502(b) of this title and—

(A) the officer is not recommended for promotion by the next mandatory promotion board convened under section 14101(a) or special selection board convened under section 14502(a) of this title for that officer's grade and competitive category; or

(B) the officer's name is again removed from the report of a selection board under section 14111(b) or from a promotion list under section 14310 of this title.

(Added Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title XVI, §1611, Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2946; amended Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title XV, §1501(b)(28), Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 498; Pub. L. 109–163, div. A, title V, §515(b)(1)(TT), Jan. 6, 2006, 119 Stat. 3234.)

Amendments

2006—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 109–163 substituted "Navy Reserve" for "Naval Reserve".

1996—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 104–106 inserted heading.

Effective Date of 1996 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 104–106 effective as if included in the Reserve Officer Personnel Management Act, title XVI of Pub. L. 103–337, as enacted on Oct. 5, 1994, see section 1501(f)(3) of Pub. L. 104–106, set out as a note under section 113 of this title.

Effective Date

Section effective Oct. 1, 1996, see section 1691(b)(1) of Pub. L. 103–337, set out as a note under section 10001 of this title.

Continuation on Reserve Active-Status List of Certain Reserve Colonels of Army and Air Force

Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title XVI, §1681, Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 3021, provided that:

"(a) Continuation Under Old Law.—Except as provided in subsection (b), a reserve officer of the Army or the Air Force who, on the effective date of this title [Oct. 1, 1996, see section 1691(b)(1), (2) of Pub. L. 103–337, set out as an Effective Date note under section 10001 of this title]—

"(1) is subject to placement on the reserve active-status list of the Army or the Air Force; and

"(2)(A) holds the reserve grade of colonel, (B) is on a list of officers recommended for promotion to the reserve grade of colonel, or (C) has been nominated by the President for appointment in the reserve grade of colonel,

shall continue to be subject to mandatory transfer to the Retired Reserve or discharge from the officer's reserve appointment under section 3851 or 8851 of title 10, United States Code, as in effect on the day before the effective date of this title.

"(b) Exemption.—This section does not apply to an officer who is—

"(1) sooner transferred from an active status or discharged under some other provision of law;

"(2) promoted to a higher grade, unless the officer was on a list of officers recommended for promotion to the reserve grade of colonel before the effective date of this title; or

"(3) continued on the reserve active-status list under section 14701 of title 10, United States Code, as added by this title."

Mandatory Separation for Age for Certain Reserve Officers of Navy and Marine Corps

Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title XVI, §1690, Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 3025, provided that:

"(a) Savings Provisions for Required Separation Age.—A reserve officer of the Navy or the Marine Corps—

"(1) who—

"(A) on the effective date of this title [Oct. 1, 1996, see section 1691(b)(1), (2) of Pub. L. 103–337, set out as an Effective Date note under section 10001 of this title] is in an active status, and

"(B) on the day before the effective date of this title was an officer described in section 6389(e) [now 8373(e)], [former] 6397(a), [former] 6403(a), or [former] 6403(b) of title 10, United States Code; and

"(2) who, on or after the effective date of this title is subject to elimination from an active status under any provision of such title,

is entitled to be treated as that officer would have been treated under [former] section 6397 or 6403 as applicable, as in effect on the day before the effective date of this title, if that treatment would result in the date for the officer's separation from an active status being a later date than the date established under the law in effect on or after the effective date of this title.

"(b) Savings Provisions for Mandatory Separation for Age.—An officer who was initially appointed in the Naval Reserve [now Navy Reserve] or the Marine Corps Reserve before January 1, 1953, and who cannot complete 20 years of service computed under section 12732 of this title before he becomes 62 years of age, but can complete this service by the time he becomes 64 years of age, may be retained in an active status not later than the date he becomes 64 years of age.

"(c) An officer who was initially appointed in the Naval Reserve [now Navy Reserve] or the Marine Corps Reserve before the effective date of this title, and who cannot complete 20 years of service computed under section 12732 of this title before he becomes 60 years of age, but can complete this service by the time he becomes 62 years of age, may be retained in an active status not later than the date he becomes 62 years of age."

§14502. Special selection boards: correction of errors

(a) Officers Not Considered Because of Administrative Error.—(1) In the case of an officer or former officer who the Secretary of the military department concerned determines was not considered for selection for promotion from in or above the promotion zone by a mandatory promotion board convened under section 14101(a) of this title because of administrative error, the Secretary concerned shall convene a special selection board under this subsection to determine whether such officer or former officer should be recommended for promotion. Any such board shall be convened under regulations prescribed by the Secretary of Defense and shall be appointed and composed in accordance with section 14102 of this title and shall include the representation of competitive categories required by that section. The members of a board convened under this subsection shall be required to take an oath in the same manner as prescribed in section 14103 of this title.

(2) A special selection board convened under this subsection shall consider the record of the officer or former officer as that record would have appeared to the promotion board that should have considered the officer or former officer. That record shall be compared with a sampling of the records of those officers of the same grade and competitive category who were recommended for promotion and those officers of the same grade and competitive category who were not recommended for promotion by that board.

(3) If a special selection board convened under paragraph (1) does not recommend for promotion an officer or former officer in a grade below the grade of colonel or, in the case of an officer or former officer of the Navy, captain, whose name was referred to it for consideration, the officer or former officer shall be considered to have failed of selection for promotion.

(b) Officers Considered But Not Selected; Material Error.—(1) In the case of an officer or former officer who was eligible for promotion and was considered for selection for promotion from in or above the promotion zone under this chapter by a mandatory promotion board convened under section 14101(a) of this title but was not selected, the Secretary of the military department concerned may, under regulations prescribed by the Secretary of Defense, convene a special selection board under this subsection to determine whether the officer or former officer should be recommended for promotion, if the Secretary determines that—

(A) the action of the mandatory promotion board that considered the officer or former officer was contrary to law in a matter material to the decision of the board or involved material error of fact or material administrative error; or

(B) the mandatory promotion board did not have before it for its consideration material information.


(2) A special selection board convened under paragraph (1) shall be appointed and composed in accordance with section 14102 of this title (including the representation of competitive categories required by that section), and the members of such a board shall take an oath in the same manner as prescribed in section 14103 of this title.

(3) The special selection board shall consider the record of the officer or former officer as that record, if corrected, would have appeared to the mandatory promotion board that considered the officer or former officer. That record shall be compared with a sampling of the records of those officers of the same grade and competitive category who were recommended for promotion and those officers of the same grade and competitive category who were not recommended for promotion by that board.

(4) If a special selection board convened under paragraph (1) does not recommend for promotion an officer or former officer in the grade of lieutenant colonel or commander or below whose name was referred to it for consideration, the officer or former officer shall be considered to have failed of selection for promotion by the board which did consider the officer but incurs no additional failure of selection for promotion from the action of the special selection board.

(c) Report.—Each special selection board convened under this section shall submit to the Secretary of the military department concerned a written report, signed by each member of the board, containing the name of each officer it recommends for promotion and certifying that the board has considered carefully the record of each officer whose name was referred to it.

(d) Applicable Provisions.—The provisions of sections 14104, 14109, 14110, and 14111 of this title apply to the report and proceedings of a special selection board convened under this section in the same manner as they apply to the report and proceedings of a promotion board convened under section 14101(a) of this title.

(e) Appointment of Officers Recommended for Promotion.—(1) An officer whose name is placed on a promotion list as a result of recommendation for promotion by a special selection board convened under this section, shall, as soon as practicable, be appointed to the next higher grade in accordance with the law and policies which would have been applicable had he been recommended for promotion by the board which should have considered or which did consider him.

(2) An officer who is promoted to the next higher grade as the result of the recommendation of a special selection board convened under this section shall, upon such promotion, have the same date of rank, the same effective date for the pay and allowances of that grade, and the same position on the reserve active-status list as the officer would have had if the officer had been recommended for promotion to that grade by the selection board which should have considered, or which did consider, the officer.

(3) If the report of a special selection board convened under this section, as approved by the President, recommends for promotion to the next higher grade an officer not currently eligible for promotion or a former officer whose name was referred to it for consideration, the Secretary concerned may act under section 1552 of this title to correct the military record of the officer or former officer to correct an error or remove an injustice resulting from not being selected for promotion by the board which should have considered, or which did consider, the officer.

(f) Time Limits for Consideration.—The Secretary of Defense may prescribe by regulation the circumstances under which consideration by a special selection board is contingent upon application for consideration by an officer or former officer and time limits within which an officer or former officer must make such application in order to be considered by a special selection board under this section.

(g) Limitation of Other Jurisdiction.—No official or court of the United States shall have power or jurisdiction—

(1) over any claim based in any way on the failure of an officer or former officer of the armed forces to be selected for promotion by a selection board convened under chapter 1403 of this title until—

(A) the claim has been referred to a special selection board by the Secretary concerned and acted upon by that board; or

(B) the claim has been rejected by the Secretary without consideration by a special selection board; or


(2) to grant any relief on such a claim unless the officer or former officer has been selected for promotion by a special selection board convened under this section to consider the officer's claim.


(h) Judicial Review.—(1) A court of the United States may review a determination by the Secretary concerned under subsection (a)(1), (b)(1), or (e)(3) not to convene a special selection board. If a court finds the determination to be arbitrary or capricious, not based on substantial evidence, or otherwise contrary to law, it shall remand the case to the Secretary concerned, who shall provide for consideration of the officer or former officer by a special selection board under this section.

(2) If a court finds that the action of a special selection board which considers an officer or former officer was contrary to law or involved material error of fact or material administrative error, it shall remand the case to the Secretary concerned, who shall provide the officer or former officer reconsideration by a new special selection board.

(i) Designation of Boards.—The Secretary of the military department concerned may designate a promotion board convened under section 14101(a) of this title as a special selection board convened under this section. A board so designated may function in both capacities.

(Added Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title XVI, §1611, Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2947; amended Pub. L. 107–107, div. A, title V, §505(c)(3)(B), Dec. 28, 2001, 115 Stat. 1088; Pub. L. 109–364, div. A, title V, §514(b), Oct. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 2185; Pub. L. 114–92, div. A, title V, §§502(c)(2), 512, Nov. 25, 2015, 129 Stat. 807, 809.)

Prior Provisions

Provisions similar to those in this section were contained in section 5904 of this title, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 103–337, §1629(b)(2).

Amendments

2015—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 114–92, §502(c)(2), struck out "or whose name was not placed on an all-fully-qualified-officers list under section 14308(b)(4) of this title because of administrative error," after "administrative error,".

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 114–92, §512(1), substituted "a mandatory promotion board convened under section 14101(a) of this title" for "a selection board" in introductory provisions and "mandatory promotion board" for "selection board" in subpars. (A) and (B).

Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 114–92, §512(2), in first sentence, substituted "The special selection board" for "Such board" and "mandatory promotion board" for "selection board".

2006—Subsec. (b)(1)(A). Pub. L. 109–364 inserted "in a matter material to the decision of the board" after "contrary to law".

2001—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 107–107 inserted "or whose name was not placed on an all-fully-qualified-officers list under section 14308(b)(4) of this title because of administrative error," after "because of administrative error,".

Effective Date of 2006 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 109–364 effective Mar. 1, 2007, and applicable with respect to selection boards convened on or after that date, see section 514(c) of Pub. L. 109–364, set out as a note under section 628 of this title.

Effective Date

Section effective Oct. 1, 1996, see section 1691(b)(1) of Pub. L. 103–337, set out as a note under section 10001 of this title.

§14503. Discharge of officers with less than six years of commissioned service or found not qualified for promotion to first lieutenant or lieutenant (junior grade)

(a) Authorized Discharges.—The Secretary of the military department concerned may discharge any reserve officer who—

(1) has less than six years of service in an active status as a commissioned officer; or

(2) is serving in the grade of second lieutenant or ensign and has been found not qualified for promotion to the grade of first lieutenant or lieutenant (junior grade).


(b) Time for Discharge.—(1) An officer described in subsection (a)(2)—

(A) may be discharged at any time after being found not qualified for promotion; and

(B) if not sooner discharged, shall be discharged at the end of the 18-month period beginning on the date on which the officer is first found not qualified for promotion.


(2) Paragraph (1) shall not apply if the officer is sooner promoted.

(c) Regulations.—Discharges under this section shall be made under regulations prescribed by the Secretary of Defense and may be made without regard to section 12645 of this title.

(Added Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title XVI, §1611, Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2949; amended Pub. L. 110–181, div. A, title V, §503(c)(1), (2), Jan. 28, 2008, 122 Stat. 95.)

Prior Provisions

Provisions similar to those in subsecs. (a) and (b) of this section were contained in sections 3819(b) and 8819(c) of this title, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 103–337, §1629(a)(2), (c)(2).

Amendments

2008Pub. L. 110–181, §503(c)(2), substituted "six years" for "five years" in section catchline.

Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 110–181, §503(c)(1), substituted "six years" for "five years".

Effective Date

Section effective Oct. 1, 1996, see section 1691(b)(1) of Pub. L. 103–337, set out as a note under section 10001 of this title.

Rights for Officers With Over Three Years Service

Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title XVI, §1689, Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 3025, provided that: "A reserve officer of the Army, Navy, Air Force, or Marine Corps who was in an active status on the day before the effective date of this title [Oct. 1, 1996, see section 1691(b)(1), (2) of Pub. L. 103–337, set out as an Effective Date note under section 10001 of this title] and who was subject to placement of the reserve active-status list on the effective date of this title may not be discharged under section 14503 of title 10, United States Code, as added by this title, until on or after the day on which that officer completes three years of continuous service as a reserve commissioned officer."

§14504. Effect of failure of selection for promotion: reserve first lieutenants of the Army, Air Force, and Marine Corps and reserve lieutenants (junior grade) of the Navy

(a) General Rule.—A first lieutenant on the reserve active-status list of the Army, Air Force, or Marine Corps or a lieutenant (junior grade) on the reserve active-status list of the Navy who has failed of selection for promotion to the next higher grade for the second time and whose name is not on a list of officers recommended for promotion to the next higher grade shall be separated in accordance with section 14513 of this title not later than the first day of the seventh month after the month in which the President approves the report of the board which considered the officer for the second time.

(b) Exceptions.—Subsection (a) does not apply (1) in the case of an officer retained as provided by regulation of the Secretary of the military department concerned in order to meet planned mobilization needs for a period not in excess of 24 months beginning with the date on which the President approves the report of the selection board which resulted in the second failure, or (2) as provided in section 12646 or 12686 of this title.

(c) Officers in Grade of First Lieutenant or Lieutenant (Junior Grade) Found Not Fully Qualified for Promotion.—For the purposes of this chapter, an officer of the Army, Air Force, or Marine Corps on a reserve active-status list who holds the grade of first lieutenant, and an officer of the Navy on a reserve active-status list who holds the grade of lieutenant (junior grade), shall be treated as having failed of selection for promotion if the Secretary of the military department concerned determines that the officer would be eligible for consideration for promotion to the next higher grade by a selection board convened under section 14101(a) of this title if such a board were convened but is not fully qualified for promotion when recommending for promotion under section 14308(b)(4) of this title all fully qualified officers of the officer's armed force in such grade who would be eligible for such consideration.

(Added Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title XVI, §1611, Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2950; amended Pub. L. 107–107, div. A, title V, §505(b)(2), Dec. 28, 2001, 115 Stat. 1087.)

Amendments

2001—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 107–107 added subsec. (c).

Effective Date

Section effective Oct. 1, 1996, see section 1691(b)(1) of Pub. L. 103–337, set out as a note under section 10001 of this title.

§14505. Effect of failure of selection for promotion: reserve captains of the Army, Air Force, and Marine Corps and reserve lieutenants of the Navy

Unless retained as provided in section 12646 or 12686 of this title, a captain on the reserve active-status list of the Army, Air Force, or Marine Corps or a lieutenant on the reserve active-status list of the Navy who has failed of selection for promotion to the next higher grade for the second time and whose name is not on a list of officers recommended for promotion to the next higher grade and who has not been selected for continuation on the reserve active-status list under section 14701 of this title, shall be separated in accordance with section 14513 of this title not later than the first day of the seventh month after the month in which the President approves the report of the board which considered the officer for the second time.

(Added Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title XVI, §1611, Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2950.)

Effective Date

Section effective Oct. 1, 1996, see section 1691(b)(1) of Pub. L. 103–337, set out as a note under section 10001 of this title.

§14506. Effect of failure of selection for promotion: reserve majors of the Army, Air Force, and Marine Corps and reserve lieutenant commanders of the Navy

Unless retained as provided in section 12646, 12686, 14701, or 14702 of this title, each reserve officer of the Army, Navy, Air Force, or Marine Corps who holds the grade of major or lieutenant commander who has failed of selection to the next higher grade for the second time and whose name is not on a list of officers recommended for promotion to the next higher grade shall, if not earlier removed from the reserve active-status list, be removed from that list in accordance with section 14513 of this title on the later of (1) the first day of the month after the month in which the officer completes 20 years of commissioned service, or (2) the first day of the seventh month after the month in which the President approves the report of the board which considered the officer for the second time.

(Added Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title XVI, §1611, Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2951; amended Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title XV, §1501(b)(29), Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 498; Pub. L. 106–65, div. A, title V, §514(a), Oct. 5, 1999, 113 Stat. 593.)

Amendments

1999Pub. L. 106–65 inserted "the later of (1)" after "in accordance with section 14513 of this title on" and ", or (2) the first day of the seventh month after the month in which the President approves the report of the board which considered the officer for the second time" before the period at end.

1996Pub. L. 104–106 inserted comma after "Force" in section catchline.

Effective Date of 1999 Amendment

Pub. L. 106–65, div. A, title V, §514(b), Oct. 5, 1999, 113 Stat. 593, provided that: "The amendments made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply with respect to removals of reserve officers from reserve active-status lists under section 14506 of title 10, United States Code, on or after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 5, 1999]."

Effective Date of 1996 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 104–106 effective as if included in the Reserve Officer Personnel Management Act, title XVI of Pub. L. 103–337, as enacted on Oct. 5, 1994, see section 1501(f)(3) of Pub. L. 104–106, set out as a note under section 113 of this title.

Effective Date

Section effective Oct. 1, 1996, see section 1691(b)(1) of Pub. L. 103–337, set out as a note under section 10001 of this title.

§14507. Removal from the reserve active-status list for years of service: reserve lieutenant colonels and colonels of the Army, Air Force, and Marine Corps and reserve commanders and captains of the Navy

(a) Lieutenant Colonels and Commanders.—Unless continued on the reserve active-status list under section 14701 or 14702 of this title or retained as provided in section 12646 or 12686 of this title, each reserve officer of the Army, Navy, Air Force, or Marine Corps who holds the grade of lieutenant colonel or commander and who is not on a list of officers recommended for promotion to the next higher grade shall (if not earlier removed from the reserve active-status list) be removed from that list under section 14514 of this title on the first day of the month after the month in which the officer completes 28 years of commissioned service.

(b) Colonels and Navy Captains.—Unless continued on the reserve active-status list under section 14701 or 14702 of this title or retained as provided in section 12646 or 12686 of this title, each reserve officer of the Army, Air Force, or Marine Corps who holds the grade of colonel, and each reserve officer of the Navy who holds the grade of captain, and who is not on a list of officers recommended for promotion to the next higher grade shall (if not earlier removed from the reserve active-status list) be removed from that list under section 14514 of this title on the first day of the month after the month in which the officer completes 30 years of commissioned service. This subsection does not apply to the adjutant general or assistant adjutants general of a State.

(c) Temporary Authority To Retain Certain Officers Designated as Judge Advocates.—(1) Notwithstanding the provisions of subsections (a) and (b), the Secretary of the Air Force may retain on the reserve active-status list any reserve officer of the Air Force who is designated as a judge advocate and who obtained the first professional degree in law while on an educational delay program subsequent to being commissioned through the Reserve Officers' Training Corps.

(2) No more than 50 officers may be retained on the reserve active-status list under the authority of paragraph (1) at any time.

(3) No officer may be retained on the reserve active-status list under the authority of paragraph (1) for a period exceeding three years from the date on which, but for that authority, that officer would have been removed from the reserve active-status list under subsection (a) or (b).

(4) The authority of the Secretary of the Air Force under paragraph (1) expires on September 30, 2003.

(Added Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title XVI, §1611, Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2951; amended Pub. L. 104–201, div. A, title V, §508(a), Sept. 23, 1996, 110 Stat. 2513.)

Amendments

1996—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 104–201 added subsec. (c).

Effective Date of 1996 Amendment

Pub. L. 104–201, div. A, title V, §508(b), Sept. 23, 1996, 110 Stat. 2513, provided that: "Subsection (c) of section 14507 of title 10, United States Code, as added by subsection (a), shall take effect on October 1, 1996."

Effective Date

Section effective Oct. 1, 1996, see section 1691(b)(1) of Pub. L. 103–337, set out as a note under section 10001 of this title.

§14508. Removal from the reserve active-status list for years of service: reserve general and flag officers

(a) Thirty Years Service or Five Years in Grade for Brigadier Generals and Rear Admirals (Lower Half).—Unless retired, transferred to the Retired Reserve, or discharged at an earlier date, each reserve officer of the Army, Air Force, or Marine Corps in the grade of brigadier general who has not been recommended for promotion to the grade of major general, and each reserve officer of the Navy in the grade of rear admiral (lower half) who has not been recommended for promotion to rear admiral shall, 30 days after completion of 30 years of commissioned service or on the fifth anniversary of the date of the officer's appointment in the grade of brigadier general or rear admiral (lower half), whichever is later, be separated in accordance with section 14514 of this title.

(b) Thirty-Five Years Service or Five Years in Grade for Major Generals and Rear Admirals.—Unless retired, transferred to the Retired Reserve, or discharged at an earlier date, each reserve officer of the Army, Air Force, or Marine Corps in the grade of major general, and each reserve officer of the Navy in the grade of rear admiral, shall, 30 days after completion of 35 years of commissioned service or on the fifth anniversary of the date of the officer's appointment in the grade of major general or rear admiral, whichever is later, be separated in accordance with section 14514 of this title.

(c) Thirty-Eight Years of Service for Lieutenant Generals and Vice Admirals.—Unless retired, transferred to the Retired Reserve, or discharged at an earlier date, each reserve officer of the Army, Air Force, or Marine Corps in the grade of lieutenant general and each reserve officer of the Navy in the grade of vice admiral shall be separated in accordance with section 14514 of this title on the later of the following:

(1) 30 days after completion of 38 years of commissioned service.

(2) The fifth anniversary of the date of the officer's appointment in the grade of lieutenant general or vice admiral.


(d) Forty Years of Service for Generals and Admirals.—Unless retired, transferred to the Retired Reserve, or discharged at an earlier date, each reserve officer of the Army, Air Force, or Marine Corps in the grade of general and each reserve officer of the Navy in the grade of admiral shall be separated in accordance with section 14514 of this title on the first day of the first month beginning after the date of the fifth anniversary of the officer's appointment to that grade or 30 days after the date on which the officer completes 40 years of commissioned service, whichever is later.

(e) Retention of Brigadier Generals.—A reserve officer of the Army or Air Force in the grade of brigadier general who would otherwise be removed from an active status under subsection (a) may, in the discretion of the Secretary of the Army or the Secretary of the Air Force, as the case may be, be retained in an active status, but not later than the last day of the month in which the officer becomes 62 years of age. Not more than 10 officers of the Army and not more than 10 officers of the Air Force may be retained under this subsection at any one time.

(f) Retention of Major Generals.—A reserve officer of the Army or Air Force in the grade of major general who would otherwise be removed from an active status under subsection (b) may, in the discretion of the Secretary of the Army or the Secretary of the Air Force, as the case may be, be retained in an active status, but not later than the date on which the officer becomes 64 years of age. Not more than 10 officers of the Army and not more than 10 officers of the Air Force may be retained under this subsection at any one time.

(g) Retention of Lieutenant Generals.—A reserve officer of the Army or Air Force in the grade of lieutenant general who would otherwise be removed from an active status under subsection (c) may, in the discretion of the Secretary of the Army or the Secretary of the Air Force, as the case may be, be retained in an active status, but not later than the date on which the officer becomes 66 years of age.

(h) Exception for State Adjutants General and Assistant Adjutants General.—This section does not apply to an officer who is the adjutant general or assistant adjutant general of a State.

(Added Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title XVI, §1611, Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2951; amended Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title XV, §1501(b)(30), Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 498; Pub. L. 105–85, div. A, title V, §521(b), Nov. 18, 1997, 111 Stat. 1734; Pub. L. 109–364, div. A, title V, §503(e), Oct. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 2178; Pub. L. 110–181, div. A, title V, §513, title XVIII, §1825(c)(1), Jan. 28, 2008, 122 Stat. 99, 502; Pub. L. 110–417, [div. A], title V, §515, Oct. 14, 2008, 122 Stat. 4442.)

Prior Provisions

Provisions similar to those in this section were contained in sections 3851, 3852, 6389(f)(1), (2), 8851, and 8852 of this title, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 103–337, §§1628(4), 1629(a)(3), (c)(3).

Amendments

2008—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 110–181, §513(b)(1), inserted "for Brigadier Generals and Rear Admirals (Lower Half)" after "Grade" in heading.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 110–181, §513(b)(2), inserted "for Major Generals and Rear Admirals" after "Grade" in heading.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 110–181, §513(a)(2), added subsec. (c). Former subsec. (c) redesignated (e).

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 110–181, §1825(c)(1), added subsec. (d). Former subsec. (d) redesignated (f).

Pub. L. 110–181, §513(a)(1), redesignated subsec. (d) as (f).

Subsecs. (e) and (f). Pub. L. 110–181, §513(a)(1), redesignated subsecs. (c) and (d) as (e) and (f), respectively.

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 110–417, §515(2), added subsec. (g). Former subsec. (g) redesignated (h).

Pub. L. 110–181, §513(a)(1), redesignated subsec. (e) as (g).

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 110–417, §515(1), redesignated subsec. (g) as (h).

2006—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 109–364, §503(e)(1), substituted "62" for "60".

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 109–364, §503(e)(2), substituted "64" for "62".

1997—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 105–85 substituted "not later than the last day of the month in which the officer becomes 60 years of age" for "not later than the date on which the officer becomes 60 years of age".

1996—Subsecs. (c), (d). Pub. L. 104–106 struck out "this" after "from an active status under".

Effective Date of 1996 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 104–106 effective as if included in the Reserve Officer Personnel Management Act, title XVI of Pub. L. 103–337, as enacted on Oct. 5, 1994, see section 1501(f)(3) of Pub. L. 104–106, set out as a note under section 113 of this title.

Effective Date

Section effective Oct. 1, 1996, see section 1691(b)(1) of Pub. L. 103–337, set out as a note under section 10001 of this title.

§14509. Separation at age 62: reserve officers in grades below brigadier general or rear admiral (lower half)

Each reserve officer of the Army, Navy, Air Force, or Marine Corps in a grade below brigadier general or rear admiral (lower half) who has not been recommended for promotion to the grade of brigadier general or rear admiral (lower half) and is not a member of the Retired Reserve shall, on the last day of the month in which that officer becomes 62 years of age, be separated in accordance with section 14515 of this title.

(Added Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title XVI, §1611, Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2952; amended Pub. L. 109–364, div. A, title V, §503(c), Oct. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 2178.)

Amendments

2006Pub. L. 109–364 substituted "62" for "60" in section catchline and text.

Effective Date

Section effective Oct. 1, 1996, see section 1691(b)(1) of Pub. L. 103–337, set out as a note under section 10001 of this title.

§14510. Separation at age 62: brigadier generals and rear admirals (lower half)

Unless retired, transferred to the Retired Reserve, or discharged at an earlier date, each reserve officer of the Army, Air Force, or Marine Corps in the grade of brigadier general who has not been recommended for promotion to the grade of major general, and each reserve rear admiral (lower half) of the Navy who has not been recommended for promotion to the grade of rear admiral, except an officer covered by section 14512 of this title, shall be separated in accordance with section 14515 of this title on the last day of the month in which the officer becomes 62 years of age.

(Added Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title XVI, §1611, Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2952; amended Pub. L. 109–364, div. A, title V, §503(b), Oct. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 2178.)

Prior Provisions

Provisions similar to those in this section were contained in sections 3843(a) and 8843 of this title, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 103–337, §1629(a)(3), (c)(3).

Amendments

2006Pub. L. 109–364 substituted "age 62: brigadier generals" for "age 60: reserve brigadier generals" in section catchline and "62" for "60" in text.

Effective Date

Section effective Oct. 1, 1996, see section 1691(b)(1) of Pub. L. 103–337, set out as a note under section 10001 of this title.

§14511. Separation at age 64: officers in grade of major general or rear admiral and above

(a) Separation Required.—Unless retired, transferred to the Retired Reserve, or discharged at an earlier date, each reserve officer of the Army, Air Force, or Marine Corps in the grade of major general or above and each reserve officer of the Navy in the grade of rear admiral or above shall be separated in accordance with section 14515 of this title on the last day of the month in which the officer becomes 64 years of age.

(b) Exception for Officers Serving in O–9 and O–10 Positions.—The retirement of a reserve officer of the Army, Air Force, or Marine Corps in the grade of lieutenant general or general, or a reserve officer of the Navy in the grade of vice admiral or admiral, under subsection (a) may be deferred—

(1) by the President, but such a deferment may not extend beyond the first day of the month following the month in which the officer becomes 68 years of age; or

(2) by the Secretary of Defense, but such a deferment may not extend beyond the first day of the month following the month in which the officer becomes 66 years of age.


(c) Exception for Officers Holding Certain Offices.—This section does not apply to an officer covered by section 14512 of this title.

(Added Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title XVI, §1611, Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2953; amended Pub. L. 109–364, div. A, title V, §503(a), Oct. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 2178; Pub. L. 110–181, div. A, title XVIII, §1825(a)(1), Jan. 28, 2008, 122 Stat. 501.)

Prior Provisions

Provisions similar to those in this section were contained in sections 3844 and 8844 of this title, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 103–337, §1629(a)(3), (c)(3).

Amendments

2008Pub. L. 110–181 amended section generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "Unless retired, transferred to the Retired Reserve, or discharged at an earlier date, each reserve officer of the Army, Air Force, or Marine Corps in the grade of major general and each reserve officer of the Navy in the grade of rear admiral, except an officer covered by section 14512 of this title, shall be separated in accordance with section 14515 of this title on the last day of the month in which the officer becomes 64 years of age."

2006Pub. L. 109–364 substituted "64" for "62" in section catchline and text.

Effective Date

Section effective Oct. 1, 1996, see section 1691(b)(1) of Pub. L. 103–337, set out as a note under section 10001 of this title.

§14512. Separation at age 66: officers holding certain offices

(a) Army and Air Force.—(1) Unless retired, transferred to the Retired Reserve, or discharged at an earlier date, a reserve officer of the Army or Air Force who is specified in paragraph (2) shall on the last day of the month in which the officer becomes 66 years of age, be separated in accordance with section 14515 of this title.

(2) Paragraph (1) applies to a reserve officer of the Army or Air Force who is any of the following:

(A) The Chief of the Army Reserve, Chief of the Air Force Reserve, Director of the Army National Guard, or Director of the Air National Guard.

(B) An adjutant general.

(C) If a reserve officer of the Army, the commanding general of the troops of a State.


(b) Navy and Marine Corps.—(1) The Secretary of the Navy may defer the retirement under section 14510 or 14511 of a reserve officer of the Navy in a grade above captain or a reserve officer of the Marine Corps in a grade above colonel and retain the officer in an active status until the officer becomes 66 years of age. Not more than 10 officers may be so deferred at any one time, distributed between the Navy Reserve and the Marine Corps Reserve as the Secretary determines.

(2) The Secretary of Defense may defer the retirement of a reserve officer serving in the position of Chief of the Navy Reserve or Commander of the Marine Forces Reserve, but such deferment may not extend beyond the first day of the month following the month in which the officer becomes 66 years of age. A deferment under this paragraph shall not count toward the limitation on the total number of officers whose retirement may be deferred at any one time under paragraph (1).

(Added Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title XVI, §1611, Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2953; amended Pub. L. 109–163, div. A, title V, §§511, 515(b)(1)(UU), Jan. 6, 2006, 119 Stat. 3231, 3234; Pub. L. 109–364, div. A, title V, §503(d), Oct. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 2178; Pub. L. 110–181, div. A, title XVIII, §1825(b), Jan. 28, 2008, 122 Stat. 502.)

Prior Provisions

Provisions similar to those in this section were contained in sections 3845, 6391(b), and 8845 of this title, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 103–337, §1629(a)(3), (b)(3), (c)(3).

Amendments

2008—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 110–181, §1825(b)(1), redesignated subpars. (B) to (D) as (A) to (C), respectively, and struck out former subpar. (A) which read as follows: "The Chief of the National Guard Bureau."

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 110–181, §1825(b)(2), designated existing provisions as par. (1) and added par. (2).

2006Pub. L. 109–364, §503(d)(2), substituted "66" for "64" in section catchline.

Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 109–163, §511, designated existing provisions as par. (1), substituted "who is specified in paragraph (2)" for "who is Chief of the National Guard Bureau, an adjutant general, or if a reserve officer of the Army, commanding general of the troops of a State,", and added par. (2).

Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 109–364, §503(d)(1), substituted "66" for "64".

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 109–364, §503(d)(1), substituted "66" for "64".

Pub. L. 109–163, §515(b)(1)(UU), substituted "Navy Reserve" for "Naval Reserve".

Effective Date

Section effective Oct. 1, 1996, see section 1691(b)(1) of Pub. L. 103–337, set out as a note under section 10001 of this title.

§14513. Failure of selection for promotion: transfer, retirement, or discharge

Each reserve officer of the Army, Navy, Air Force, or Marine Corps who is in an active status and whose removal from an active status or from a reserve active-status list is required by section 14504, 14505, or 14506 of this title shall (unless the officer's separation is deferred or the officer is continued in an active status under another provision of law) not later than the date specified in those sections—

(1) be transferred to an inactive status if the Secretary concerned determines that the officer has skills which may be required to meet the mobilization needs of the officer's armed force;

(2) be transferred to the Retired Reserve if the officer is qualified for such transfer and does not request (in accordance with regulations prescribed by the Secretary concerned) not to be transferred to the Retired Reserve; or

(3) if the officer is not transferred to an inactive status or to the Retired Reserve, be discharged from the officer's reserve appointment.

(Added Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title XVI, §1611, Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2953; amended Pub. L. 107–107, div. A, title V, §517(b)(1), (2)(A), Dec. 28, 2001, 115 Stat. 1094.)

Amendments

2001Pub. L. 107–107, §517(b)(2)(A), substituted "Failure of selection for promotion: transfer, retirement, or discharge" for "Separation for failure of selection of promotion" in section catchline.

Par. (2). Pub. L. 107–107, §517(b)(1), substituted "if the officer is qualified for such transfer and does not request (in accordance with regulations prescribed by the Secretary concerned) not to be transferred to the Retired Reserve" for ", if the officer is qualified and applies for such transfer".

Effective Date of 2001 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 107–107 effective on the first day of the first month that begins more than 180 days after Dec. 28, 2001, see section 517(g) of Pub. L. 107–107, set out as a note under section 10154 of this title.

Effective Date

Section effective Oct. 1, 1996, see section 1691(b)(1) of Pub. L. 103–337, set out as a note under section 10001 of this title.

§14514. Discharge or retirement for years of service or after selection for early removal

Each reserve officer of the Army, Navy, Air Force, or Marine Corps who is in an active status and who is required to be removed from an active status or from a reserve active-status list, as the case may be, under section 14507, 14508, 14704, or 14705 of this title (unless the officer is sooner separated or the officer's separation is deferred or the officer is continued in an active status under another provision of law), in accordance with those sections, shall—

(1) be transferred to the Retired Reserve if the officer is qualified for such transfer and does not request (in accordance with regulations prescribed by the Secretary concerned) not to be transferred to the Retired Reserve; or

(2) be discharged from the officer's reserve appointment if the officer is not qualified for transfer to the Retired Reserve or has requested (in accordance with regulations prescribed by the Secretary concerned) not to be so transferred.

(Added Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title XVI, §1611, Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2953; amended Pub. L. 107–107, div. A, title V, §517(c), Dec. 28, 2001, 115 Stat. 1094.)

Amendments

2001—Par. (1). Pub. L. 107–107, §517(c)(1), substituted "if the officer is qualified for such transfer and does not request (in accordance with regulations prescribed by the Secretary concerned) not to be transferred to the Retired Reserve" for ", if the officer is qualified and applies for such transfer".

Par. (2). Pub. L. 107–107, §517(c)(2), added par. (2) and struck out former par. (2) which read as follows: "if the officer is not qualified or does not apply for such transfer, be discharged from the officer's reserve appointment."

Effective Date of 2001 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 107–107 effective on the first day of the first month that begins more than 180 days after Dec. 28, 2001, see section 517(g) of Pub. L. 107–107, set out as a note under section 10154 of this title.

Effective Date

Section effective Oct. 1, 1996, see section 1691(b)(1) of Pub. L. 103–337, set out as a note under section 10001 of this title.

§14515. Discharge or retirement for age

Each reserve officer of the Army, Navy, Air Force, or Marine Corps who is in an active status or on an inactive-status list and who reaches the maximum age specified in section 14509, 14510, 14511, or 14512 of this title for the officer's grade or position shall (unless the officer is sooner separated or the officer's separation is deferred or the officer is continued in an active status under another provision of law) not later than the last day of the month in which the officer reaches that maximum age—

(1) be transferred to the Retired Reserve if the officer is qualified for such transfer and does not request (in accordance with regulations prescribed by the Secretary concerned) not to be transferred to the Retired Reserve; or

(2) be discharged from the officer's reserve appointment if the officer is not qualified for transfer to the Retired Reserve or has requested (in accordance with regulations prescribed by the Secretary concerned) not to be so transferred.

(Added Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title XVI, §1611, Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2954; amended Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title XV, §1501(b)(31), Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 498; Pub. L. 107–107, div. A, title V, §517(d), Dec. 28, 2001, 115 Stat. 1095.)

Amendments

2001—Par. (1). Pub. L. 107–107, §517(d)(1), substituted "if the officer is qualified for such transfer and does not request (in accordance with regulations prescribed by the Secretary concerned) not to be transferred to the Retired Reserve" for ", if the officer is qualified and applies for such transfer".

Par. (2). Pub. L. 107–107, §517(d)(2), added par. (2) and struck out former par. (2) which read as follows: "if the officer is not qualified or does not apply for transfer to the Retired Reserve, be discharged from the officer's reserve appointment."

1996Pub. L. 104–106 substituted "inactive-status" for "inactive status" in introductory provisions.

Effective Date of 2001 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 107–107 effective on the first day of the first month that begins more than 180 days after Dec. 28, 2001, see section 517(g) of Pub. L. 107–107, set out as a note under section 10154 of this title.

Effective Date of 1996 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 104–106 effective as if included in the Reserve Officer Personnel Management Act, title XVI of Pub. L. 103–337, as enacted on Oct. 5, 1994, see section 1501(f)(3) of Pub. L. 104–106, set out as a note under section 113 of this title.

Effective Date

Section effective Oct. 1, 1996, see section 1691(b)(1) of Pub. L. 103–337, set out as a note under section 10001 of this title.

§14516. Separation to be considered involuntary

The separation of an officer pursuant to section 14513, 14514, or 14515 of this title shall be considered to be an involuntary separation for purposes of any other provision of law.

(Added Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title XVI, §1611, Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2954.)

Effective Date

Section effective Oct. 1, 1996, see section 1691(b)(1) of Pub. L. 103–337, set out as a note under section 10001 of this title.

§14517. Entitlement of officers discharged under this chapter to separation pay

An officer who is discharged under section 14513, 14514, or 14515 of this title is entitled to separation pay under section 1174 of this title if otherwise eligible under that section.

(Added Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title XVI, §1611, Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2954.)

Effective Date

Section effective Oct. 1, 1996, see section 1691(b)(1) of Pub. L. 103–337, set out as a note under section 10001 of this title.

§14518. Continuation of officers to complete disciplinary action

The Secretary concerned may delay the separation or retirement under this chapter of an officer against whom an action has been commenced with a view to trying the officer by court-martial. Any such delay may continue until the completion of the disciplinary action against the officer.

(Added Pub. L. 106–65, div. A, title V, §511(a), Oct. 5, 1999, 113 Stat. 592.)

§14519. Deferment of retirement or separation for medical reasons

(a) Authority.—If, in the case of an officer required to be retired or separated under this chapter or chapter 1409 of this title, the Secretary concerned determines that the evaluation of the physical condition of the officer and determination of the officer's entitlement to retirement or separation for physical disability require hospitalization or medical observation and that such hospitalization or medical observation cannot be completed with confidence in a manner consistent with the officer's well being before the date on which the officer would otherwise be required to retire or be separated, the Secretary may defer the retirement or separation of the officer.

(b) Period of Deferment.—A deferral of retirement or separation under subsection (a) may not extend for more than 30 days after the completion of the evaluation requiring hospitalization or medical observation.

(Added Pub. L. 107–314, div. A, title V, §522(a), Dec. 2, 2002, 116 Stat. 2540.)