[USC02] 10 USC Ch. 149: DEFENSE ACQUISITION SYSTEM
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10 USC Ch. 149: DEFENSE ACQUISITION SYSTEM
From Title 10—ARMED FORCESSubtitle A—General Military LawPART IV—SERVICE, SUPPLY, AND PROCUREMENT

CHAPTER 149—DEFENSE ACQUISITION SYSTEM

Sec.
2545.
Definitions.
2546.
Civilian management of the defense acquisition system.
2546a.
Customer-oriented acquisition system.
2547.
Acquisition-related functions of chiefs of the armed forces.
2548.
Performance assessments of the defense acquisition system.

        

Prior Provisions

A prior chapter 149, comprised of sections 2511 to 2518, relating to manufacturing technology, was repealed, except for sections 2517 and 2518, by Pub. L. 102–484, div. D, title XLII, §4202(a), Oct. 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 2659. Sections 2517 and 2518 of that chapter were renumbered sections 2523 and 2522, respectively, of this chapter by Pub. L. 102–484, div. D, title XLII, §§4232(a), 4233(a), Oct. 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 2687, and were subsequently repealed.

Another prior chapter 149, comprised of section 2511, was successively renumbered chapter 150 of this title, comprised of section 2521, then chapter 152 of this title, comprised of section 2540 et seq.

A prior chapter 150, comprised of sections 2521 to 2526, relating to development of dual-use critical technologies, was repealed, except for sections 2524 to 2526, by Pub. L. 102–484, div. D, title XLII, §4202(a), Oct. 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 2659. Sections 2524, 2525, and 2526 of that chapter were renumbered sections 2513, 2517, and 2518, respectively, of this chapter by Pub. L. 102–484, div. D, title XLII, §§4223(a), 4227(a), 4228, Oct. 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 2681, 2685. Section 2513 of this chapter was subsequently repealed.

Another prior chapter 150, comprised of section 2521, was renumbered chapter 152 of this title, comprised of section 2540 et seq.

Amendments

2015Pub. L. 114–92, div. A, title VIII, §802(a)(2), Nov. 25, 2015, 129 Stat. 879, added item 2546a.

§2545. Definitions

In this chapter:

(1) The term "acquisition" has the meaning provided in section 131 of title 41.

(2) The term "defense acquisition system" means the workforce engaged in carrying out the acquisition of property and services for the Department of Defense; the management structure responsible for directing and overseeing the acquisition of property and services for the Department of Defense; and the statutory, regulatory, and policy framework that guides the acquisition of property and services for the Department of Defense.

(3) The term "element of the defense acquisition system" means an organization that employs members of the acquisition workforce, carries out acquisition functions, and focuses primarily on acquisition.

(4) The term "acquisition workforce" has the meaning provided in section 101(a)(18) of this title.

(Added Pub. L. 111–383, div. A, title VIII, §861(a), Jan. 7, 2011, 124 Stat. 4288; amended Pub. L. 113–291, div. A, title X, §1071(a)(11), Dec. 19, 2014, 128 Stat. 3505.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 2545 was renumbered section 2555 of this title.

Amendments

2014—Par. (1). Pub. L. 113–291 substituted "section 131 of title 41" for "section 4(16) of the Office of Federal Procurement Policy Act (41 U.S.C. 403(16))".

Short Title of 2011 Amendment

Pub. L. 111–383, div. A, title VIII, §860, Jan. 7, 2011, 124 Stat. 4287, provided that: "This subtitle [subtitle F (§§860–896) of title VIII of div. A of Pub. L. 111–383, enacting this chapter and sections 139e, 1701a, 1722b, 1748, 1762, and 2508 of this title, amending sections 101, 1723, 1746, 2302, 2500, 2501, 2505, and 2506 of this title, enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 1723, 1748, 2222, 2302, 2306a, 2330, and 2501 of this title, amending provisions set out as notes under section 2371 of this title and section 637 of Title 15, Commerce and Trade, and repealing provisions set out as notes under sections 1701 and 1723 of this title] may be cited as the 'Improve Acquisition Act of 2010'."

Review of Time-Based Requirements Process and Budgeting and Acquisition Systems

Pub. L. 114–92, div. A, title VIII, §810, Nov. 25, 2015, 129 Stat. 890, provided that:

"(a) Time-based Requirements Process.—The Secretary of Defense and the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff shall review the requirements process with the goal of establishing an agile and streamlined system that develops requirements that provide stability and foundational direction for acquisition programs and shall determine the advisability of providing a time-based or phased distinction between capabilities needed to be deployed urgently, within 2 years, within 5 years, and longer than 5 years.

"(b) Budgeting and Acquisition Systems.—The Secretary of Defense shall review and ensure that the acquisition and budgeting systems are structured to meet time-based or phased requirements in a manner that is predictable, cost effective, and efficient and takes advantage of emerging technological developments."

§2546. Civilian management of the defense acquisition system

(a) Responsibility of the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition and Sustainment.—Subject to the authority, direction and control of the Secretary of Defense, the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition and Sustainment shall be responsible for the management of the defense acquisition system and shall exercise such control of the system and perform such duties as are necessary to ensure the successful and efficient operation of the defense acquisition system, including the duties enumerated and assigned to the Under Secretary elsewhere in this title.

(b) Responsibility of the Service Acquisition Executives.—Subject to the direction of the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition and Sustainment on matters pertaining to acquisition, and subject to the authority, direction, and control of the Secretary of the military department concerned, a service acquisition executive of a military department shall be responsible for the management of elements of the defense acquisition system in that military department and shall exercise such control of the system and perform such duties as are necessary to ensure the successful and efficient operation of such elements of the defense acquisition system.

(Added Pub. L. 111–383, div. A, title VIII, §861(a), Jan. 7, 2011, 124 Stat. 4288; amended Pub. L. 116–92, div. A, title IX, §902(78), Dec. 20, 2019, 133 Stat. 1552.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 2546 was renumbered section 2556 of this title.

Amendments

2019—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 116–92, §902(78)(A), (B), substituted "Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition and Sustainment" for "Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics" in heading and text.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 116–92, §902(78)(C), substituted "Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition and Sustainment" for "Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics".

§2546a. Customer-oriented acquisition system

(a) Objective.—It shall be the objective of the defense acquisition system to meet the needs of its customers in the most cost-effective manner practicable. The acquisition policies, directives, and regulations of the Department of Defense shall be modified as necessary to ensure the development and implementation of a customer-oriented acquisition system.

(b) Customer.—The customer of the defense acquisition system is the armed force that will have primary responsibility for fielding the system or systems acquired. The customer is represented with regard to a major defense acquisition program by the Secretary of the military department concerned and the Chief of the armed force concerned.

(c) Role of Customer.—The customer of a major defense acquisition program shall be responsible for balancing resources against priorities on the acquisition program and ensuring that appropriate trade-offs are made among cost, schedule, technical feasibility, and performance on a continuing basis throughout the life of the acquisition program.

(Added Pub. L. 114–92, div. A, title VIII, §802(a)(1), Nov. 25, 2015, 129 Stat. 878.)

§2547. Acquisition-related functions of chiefs of the armed forces

(a) Performance of Certain Acquisition-related Functions.—The Secretary of Defense shall ensure that the Chief of Staff of the Army, the Chief of Naval Operations, the Chief of Staff of the Air Force, and the Commandant of the Marine Corps assist the Secretary of the military department concerned in the performance of the following acquisition-related functions of such department:

(1) The development of requirements for equipping the armed force concerned (subject, where appropriate, to validation by the Joint Requirements Oversight Council pursuant to section 181 of this title).

(2) Decisions regarding the balancing of resources and priorities, and associated trade-offs among cost, schedule, technical feasibility, and performance on major defense acquisition programs.

(3) The coordination of measures to control requirements creep in the defense acquisition system.

(4) The recommendation of trade-offs among life-cycle cost, schedule, and performance objectives, and procurement quantity objectives, to ensure acquisition programs deliver best value in meeting the approved military requirements.

(5) Termination of development or procurement programs for which life-cycle cost, schedule, and performance expectations are no longer consistent with approved military requirements and levels of priority, or which no longer have approved military requirements.

(6) The development and management of career paths in acquisition for military personnel (as required by section 1722a of this title).

(7) The assignment and training of contracting officer representatives when such representatives are required to be members of the armed forces because of the nature of the contract concerned.


(b) Adherence to Requirements in Major Defense Acquisition Programs.—(1) The Secretary of the military department concerned shall ensure that the program capability document supporting a Milestone B or subsequent decision for a major defense acquisition program may not be approved until the chief of the armed force concerned determines in writing that the requirements in the document are necessary and realistic in relation to the program cost and fielding targets established under section 2448a(a) of this title.

(2) Consistent with the performance of duties under subsection (a), the Chief of the armed force concerned, or in the case of a joint program the chiefs of the armed forces concerned, with respect to major defense acquisition programs, shall—

(A) concur with the need for a materiel solution as identified in the Materiel Development Decision Review prior to entry into the Materiel Solution Analysis Phase under Department of Defense Instruction 5000.02;

(B) concur with the cost, schedule, technical feasibility, and performance trade-offs that have been made with regard to the program before Milestone A approval is granted under section 2366a of this title;

(C) concur that appropriate trade-offs among cost, schedule, technical feasibility, and performance objectives have been made to ensure that the program is affordable when considering the per unit cost and the total life-cycle cost before Milestone B approval is granted under section 2366b of this title; and

(D) concur that the requirements in the program capability document are necessary and realistic in relation to program cost and fielding targets as required by paragraph (1) before Milestone C approval is granted.


(c) Rule of Construction.—Nothing in this section shall be construed to affect the assignment of functions under section 7014(c)(1)(A), section 8014(c)(1)(A), or section 9014(c)(1)(A) of this title, except as explicitly provided in this section.

(d) Definitions.—In this section:

(1) The term "requirements creep" means the addition of new technical or operational specifications after a requirements document is approved by the appropriate validation authority for the requirements document.

(2) The term "requirements document" means a document produced in the requirements process that is provided for an acquisition program to guide the subsequent development, production, and testing of the program and that—

(A) justifies the need for a materiel approach, or an approach that is a combination of materiel and non-materiel, to satisfy one or more specific capability gaps;

(B) details the information necessary to develop an increment of militarily useful, logistically supportable, and technically mature capability, including key performance parameters; or

(C) identifies production attributes required for a single increment of a program.


(3) The term "program capability document" has the meaning provided in section 2446a(b)(5) of this title.

(Added Pub. L. 111–383, div. A, title VIII, §861(a), Jan. 7, 2011, 124 Stat. 4289; amended Pub. L. 112–239, div. A, title IX, §951(c), Jan. 2, 2013, 126 Stat. 1891; Pub. L. 114–92, div. A, title VIII, §802(b), Nov. 25, 2015, 129 Stat. 879; Pub. L. 114–328, div. A, title VIII, §807(c), Dec. 23, 2016, 130 Stat. 2261; Pub. L. 115–91, div. A, title VIII, §833, Dec. 12, 2017, 131 Stat. 1468; Pub. L. 115–232, div. A, title VIII, §809(a), Aug. 13, 2018, 132 Stat. 1840; Pub. L. 116–92, div. A, title XVII, §1731(a)(52), Dec. 20, 2019, 133 Stat. 1815.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 2547 was renumbered section 2557 of this title.

Amendments

2019—Subsec. (b)(2)(A). Pub. L. 116–92 substituted "materiel" for "material" and "Materiel" for "Material" in two places.

2018—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 115–232 substituted "section 7014(c)(1)(A), section 8014(c)(1)(A), or section 9014(c)(1)(A)" for "section 3014(c)(1)(A), section 5014(c)(1)(A), or section 8014(c)(1)(A)".

2017—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 115–91 designated existing provisions as par. (1) and added par. (2).

2016—Subsecs. (b), (c). Pub. L. 114–328, §807(c)(1), (2), added subsec. (b) and redesignated former subsec. (b) as (c). Former subsec. (c) redesignated (d).

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 114–328, §807(c)(1), redesignated subsec. (c) as (d).

Subsec. (d)(3). Pub. L. 114–328, §807(c)(3), added par. (3).

2015—Subsec. (a)(2) to (5). Pub. L. 114–92, §802(b)(1), (2), added par. (2) and redesignated former pars. (2) to (4) as (3) to (5), respectively. Former par. (5) redesignated (6).

Subsec. (a)(6). Pub. L. 114–92, §802(b)(1), (3), redesignated par. (5) as (6) and substituted "The development and management" for "The development". Former par. (6) redesignated (7).

Subsec. (a)(7). Pub. L. 114–92, §802(b)(1), redesignated par. (6) as (7).

2013—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 112–239, §951(c)(1), substituted "of requirements for equipping the armed force concerned" for "of requirements relating to the defense acquisition system".

Subsec. (a)(3) to (6). Pub. L. 112–239, §951(c)(2), (3), added pars. (3) and (4) and redesignated former pars. (3) and (4) as (5) and (6), respectively.

Effective Date of 2018 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 115–232 effective Feb. 1, 2019, with provision for the coordination of amendments and special rule for certain redesignations, see section 800 of Pub. L. 115–232, set out as a note preceding section 3001 of this title.

§2548. Performance assessments of the defense acquisition system

(a) Performance Assessments Required.—The Secretary of Defense, acting through the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition and Sustainment, the Director of Procurement and Acquisition Policy, and the Director of the Office of Performance Assessment and Root Cause Analysis, shall issue guidance, with detailed implementation instructions, for the Department of Defense to provide for periodic independent performance assessments of elements of the defense acquisition system for the purpose of—

(1) determining the extent to which such elements of the defense acquisition system deliver value to the Department of Defense, taking into consideration the performance elements identified in subsection (b);

(2) assisting senior officials of the Department of Defense in identifying and developing lessons learned from best practices and shortcomings in the performance of such elements of the defense acquisition system; and

(3) assisting senior officials of the Department of Defense in developing acquisition workforce excellence under section 1701a of this title.


(b) Areas Considered in Performance Assessments.—(1) Each performance assessment conducted pursuant to subsection (a) shall consider, at a minimum—

(A) the extent to which acquisitions conducted by the element of the defense acquisition system under review meet applicable cost, schedule, and performance objectives; and

(B) the staffing and quality of the acquisition workforce and the effectiveness of the management of the acquisition workforce, including workforce incentives and career paths.


(2) The Secretary of Defense shall ensure that the performance assessments required by this section are appropriately tailored to reflect the diverse nature of the work performed by each element of the defense acquisition system. In addition to the mandatory areas under paragraph (1), a performance assessment may consider, as appropriate, specific areas of acquisition concern, such as—

(A) the selection of contractors, including—

(i) the extent of competition and the use of exceptions to competition requirements;

(ii) compliance with Department of Defense policies regarding the participation of small business concerns and various categories of small business concerns, including the use of contract bundling and the availability of non-bundled contract vehicles;

(iii) the quality of market research;

(iv) the effective consideration of contractor past performance; and

(v) the number of bid protests, the extent to which such bid protests have been successful, and the reasons for such success;


(B) the negotiation of contracts, including—

(i) the appropriate application of section 2306a of this title (relating to truth in negotiations);

(ii) the appropriate use of contract types appropriate to specific procurements;

(iii) the appropriate use of performance requirements;

(iv) the appropriate acquisition of technical data and other rights and assets necessary to support long-term sustainment and follow-on procurement; and

(v) the timely definitization of any undefinitized contract actions; and


(C) the management of contractor performance, including—

(i) the assignment of appropriately qualified contracting officer representatives and other contract management personnel;

(ii) the extent of contract disputes, the reasons for such disputes, and the extent to which they have been successfully addressed;

(iii) the appropriate consideration of long-term sustainment and energy efficiency objectives; and

(iv) the appropriate use of integrated testing.


(c) Contents of Guidance.—The guidance issued pursuant to subsection (a) shall ensure that each element of the defense acquisition system is subject to a performance assessment under this section not less often than once every four years, and shall address, at a minimum—

(1) the designation of elements of the defense acquisition system that are subject to performance assessment at an organizational level that ensures such assessments can be performed in an efficient and integrated manner;

(2) the frequency with which such performance assessments should be conducted;

(3) goals, standards, tools, and metrics for use in conducting performance assessments;

(4) the composition of the teams designated to perform performance assessments;

(5) any phase-in requirements needed to ensure that qualified staff are available to perform performance assessments;

(6) procedures for tracking the implementation of recommendations made pursuant to performance assessments;

(7) procedures for developing and disseminating lessons learned from performance assessments; and

(8) procedures for ensuring that information from performance assessments are retained electronically and are provided in a timely manner to the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition and Sustainment and the Director of the Office of Performance Assessment and Root Cause Analysis as needed to assist them in performing their responsibilities under this section.


(d) Performance Goals Under Government Performance and Results Act of 1993.—The annual performance plan prepared by the Department of Defense pursuant to section 1115 of title 31 shall include appropriate performance goals for elements of the defense acquisition system.

(e) Reporting Requirement.—The annual report prepared by the Secretary of Defense pursuant to section 1116 of title 31 shall address the Department's success in achieving performance goals established pursuant to such section for elements of the defense acquisition system.

(Added Pub. L. 111–383, div. A, title VIII, §861(a), Jan. 7, 2011, 124 Stat. 4289; amended Pub. L. 112–239, div. A, title X, §1076(d)(5), (f)(30), Jan. 2, 2013, 126 Stat. 1951, 1953; Pub. L. 115–91, div. A, title X, §1081(a)(41), Dec. 12, 2017, 131 Stat. 1596; Pub. L. 116–92, div. A, title IX, §902(79), Dec. 20, 2019, 133 Stat. 1553.)

References in Text

The Government Performance and Results Act of 1993, referred to in subsec. (d), is Pub. L. 103–62, Aug. 3, 1993, 107 Stat. 285, which enacted section 306 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees, sections 1115 to 1119, 9703, and 9704 of Title 31, Money and Finance, and sections 2801 to 2805 of Title 39, Postal Service, amended section 1105 of Title 31, and enacted provisions set out as notes under sections 1101 and 1115 of Title 31. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title of 1993 Amendment note set out under section 1101 of Title 31 and Tables.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 2548 was renumbered section 2558 of this title.

Amendments

2019—Subsecs. (a), (c)(8). Pub. L. 116–92 substituted "Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition and Sustainment" for "Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics".

2017—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 115–91 substituted "Requirement" for "Requirements" in heading, struck out introductory provisions "Beginning with fiscal year 2012—", substituted "The annual report prepared by the Secretary" for "(1) the annual report prepared by the Secretary", and struck out par. (2) which read as follows: "the annual report prepared by the Director of the Office of Performance Assessment and Root Cause Analysis pursuant to section 2438(f) of this title shall include information on the activities undertaken by the Department pursuant to such section, including a summary of significant findings or recommendations arising out of performance assessments."

2013—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 112–239, §1076(f)(30)(A)(i), substituted "The Secretary" for "Not later than 180 days after the date of the enactment of the Ike Skelton National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2011, the Secretary" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 112–239, §1076(f)(30)(A)(ii), inserted period at end.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 112–239, §1076(f)(30)(B), inserted "and" after "Government Performance" in heading and substituted "The" for "Beginning with fiscal year 2012, the" in text.

Subsec. (e)(1). Pub. L. 112–239, §1076(f)(30)(C), struck out ", United States Code," after "title 31".

Subsec. (e)(2). Pub. L. 112–239, §1076(d)(5), substituted "section 2438(f) of this title" for "section 103(f) of the Weapon Systems Acquisition Reform Act of 2009 (10 U.S.C. 2430 note),".