[USC02] 10 USC Subtitle A, PART II, CHAPTER 47, SUBCHAPTER XII: UNITED STATES COURT OF APPEALS FOR THE ARMED FORCES
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10 USC Subtitle A, PART II, CHAPTER 47, SUBCHAPTER XII: UNITED STATES COURT OF APPEALS FOR THE ARMED FORCES
From Title 10—ARMED FORCESSubtitle A—General Military LawPART II—PERSONNELCHAPTER 47—UNIFORM CODE OF MILITARY JUSTICE

SUBCHAPTER XII—UNITED STATES COURT OF APPEALS FOR THE ARMED FORCES

 
Sec.Art. 
941. 141. Status.
942. 142. Judges.
943. 143. Organization and employees.
944. 144. Procedure.
945. 145. Annuities for judges and survivors.
946. 146. Military Justice Review Panel.
946a. 146a. Annual reports.

Amendments

2017Pub. L. 115–91, div. A, title X, §1081(d)(19)(A), Dec. 12, 2017, 131 Stat. 1601, made technical amendment to Pub. L. 114–328, §5541(8). See 2016 Amendment note below.

2016Pub. L. 114–328, div. E, title LXIII, §5541(8), Dec. 23, 2016, 130 Stat. 2967, as amended by Pub. L. 115–91, div. A, title X, §1081(d)(19)(A), Dec. 12, 2017, 131 Stat. 1601, added item 946a and substituted "Military Justice Review Panel" for "Code committee" in item 946.

1994Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title IX, §924(c)(3)(A), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2831, substituted "UNITED STATES COURT OF APPEALS FOR THE ARMED FORCES" for "COURT OF MILITARY APPEALS" as subchapter heading.

1990Pub. L. 101–510, div. A, title XIV, §1484(i)(2), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1718, redesignated subchapter XI as XII.

§941. Art. 141. Status

There is a court of record known as the United States Court of Appeals for the Armed Forces. The court is established under article I of the Constitution. The court is located for administrative purposes only in the Department of Defense.

(Added Pub. L. 101–189, div. A, title XIII, §1301(c), Nov. 29, 1989, 103 Stat. 1570; amended Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title IX, §924(a)(2), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2831.)

Amendments

1994Pub. L. 103–337 substituted "Court of Appeals for the Armed Forces" for "Court of Military Appeals".

Change of Name

Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title IX, §924(a)(1), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2831, provided that: "The United States Court of Military Appeals shall hereafter be known and designated as the United States Court of Appeals for the Armed Forces."

§942. Art. 142. Judges

(a) Number.—The United States Court of Appeals for the Armed Forces consists of five judges.

(b) Appointment; Qualification.—(1) Each judge of the court shall be appointed from civilian life by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, for a specified term determined under paragraph (2). A judge may serve as a senior judge as provided in subsection (e).

(2)(A) The term of a judge shall expire as follows:

(i) In the case of a judge who is appointed after January 31 and before July 31 of any year, the term shall expire on July 31 of the year in which the fifteenth anniversary of the appointment occurs.

(ii) In the case of a judge who is appointed after July 31 of any year and before February 1 of the following year, the term shall expire fifteen years after such July 31.


(B) If at the time of the appointment of a judge the date that is otherwise applicable under subparagraph (A) for the expiration of the term of service of the judge is the same as the date for the expiration of the term of service of a judge already on the court, then the term of the judge being appointed shall expire on the first July 31 after such date on which no term of service of a judge already on the court will expire.

(3) No person may be appointed to be a judge of the court unless the person is a member of the bar of a Federal court or the highest court of a State.

(4) A person may not be appointed as a judge of the court within seven years after retirement from active duty as a commissioned officer of a regular component of an armed force.

(c) Removal.—Judges of the court may be removed from office by the President, upon notice and hearing, for—

(1) neglect of duty;

(2) misconduct; or

(3) mental or physical disability.


A judge may not be removed by the President for any other cause.

(d) Pay and Allowances.—Each judge of the court is entitled to the same salary and travel allowances as are, and from time to time may be, provided for judges of the United States Courts of Appeals.

(e) Senior Judges.—(1)(A) A former judge of the court who is receiving retired pay or an annuity under section 945 of this title (article 145) or under subchapter III of chapter 83 or chapter 84 of title 5 shall be a senior judge. The chief judge of the court may call upon an individual who is a senior judge of the court under this subparagraph, with the consent of the senior judge, to perform judicial duties with the court—

(i) during a period a judge of the court is unable to perform his duties because of illness or other disability;

(ii) during a period in which a position of judge of the court is vacant; or

(iii) in any case in which a judge of the court recuses himself.


(B) If, at the time the term of a judge expires, no successor to that judge has been appointed, the chief judge of the court may call upon that judge (with that judge's consent) to continue to perform judicial duties with the court until the vacancy is filled. A judge who, upon the expiration of the judge's term, continues to perform judicial duties with the court without a break in service under this subparagraph shall be a senior judge while such service continues.

(2) A senior judge shall be paid for each day on which he performs judicial duties with the court an amount equal to the difference between—

(A) the daily equivalent of the annual rate of pay provided for a judge of the court; and

(B) the daily equivalent of the annuity of the judge under section 945 of this title (article 145), the applicable provisions of title 5, or any other retirement system for employees of the Federal Government under which the senior judge receives an annuity.


(3) A senior judge, while performing duties referred to in paragraph (1), shall be provided with such office space and staff assistance as the chief judge considers appropriate and shall be entitled to the per diem, travel allowances, and other allowances provided for judges of the court.

(4) A senior judge shall be considered to be an officer or employee of the United States with respect to his status as a senior judge, but only during periods the senior judge is performing duties referred to in paragraph (1). For the purposes of section 205 of title 18, a senior judge shall be considered to be a special government employee during such periods. Any provision of law that prohibits or limits the political or business activities of an employee of the United States shall apply to a senior judge only during such periods.

(5) The court shall prescribe rules for the use and conduct of senior judges of the court. The chief judge of the court shall transmit such rules, and any amendments to such rules, to the Committee on Armed Services of the Senate and the Committee on Armed Services of the House of Representatives not later than 15 days after the issuance of such rules or amendments, as the case may be.

(6) For purposes of subchapter III of chapter 83 of title 5 (relating to the Civil Service Retirement and Disability System) and chapter 84 of such title (relating to the Federal Employees' Retirement System) and for purposes of any other Federal Government retirement system for employees of the Federal Government—

(A) a period during which a senior judge performs duties referred to in paragraph (1) shall not be considered creditable service;

(B) no amount shall be withheld from the pay of a senior judge as a retirement contribution under section 8334, 8343, 8422, or 8432 of title 5 or under any other such retirement system for any period during which the senior judge performs duties referred to in paragraph (1);

(C) no contribution shall be made by the Federal Government to any retirement system with respect to a senior judge for any period during which the senior judge performs duties referred to in paragraph (1); and

(D) a senior judge shall not be considered to be a reemployed annuitant for any period during which the senior judge performs duties referred to in paragraph (1).


(f) Service of Article III Judges.—(1) The Chief Justice of the United States, upon the request of the chief judge of the court, may designate a judge of a United States court of appeals or of a United States district court to perform the duties of judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the Armed Forces—

(A) during a period a judge of the court is unable to perform his duties because of illness or other disability;

(B) in any case in which a judge of the court recuses himself; or

(C) during a period when there is a vacancy on the court and in the opinion of the chief judge of the court such a designation is necessary for the proper dispatch of the business of the court.


(2) The chief judge of the court may not request that a designation be made under paragraph (1) unless the chief judge has determined that no person is available to perform judicial duties with the court as a senior judge under subsection (e).

(3) A designation under paragraph (1) may be made only with the consent of the designated judge and the concurrence of the chief judge of the court of appeals or district court concerned.

(4) Per diem, travel allowances, and other allowances paid to the designated judge in connection with the performance of duties for the court shall be paid from funds available for the payment of per diem and such allowances for judges of the court.

(g) Effect of Vacancy on Court.—A vacancy on the court does not impair the right of the remaining judges to exercise the powers of the court.

(Added Pub. L. 101–189, div. A, title XIII, §1301(c), Nov. 29, 1989, 103 Stat. 1570; amended Pub. L. 101–510, div. A, title V, §541(f), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1565; Pub. L. 102–190, div. A, title X, §1061(b)(1)(A), (B), (2), Dec. 5, 1991, 105 Stat. 1474; Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title IX, §924(c)(1), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2831; Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title XV, §1502(a)(2), Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 502; Pub. L. 106–65, div. A, title X, §1067(1), Oct. 5, 1999, 113 Stat. 774; Pub. L. 113–66, div. A, title V, §531(a), Dec. 26, 2013, 127 Stat. 759; Pub. L. 113–291, div. A, title V, §540(a), Dec. 19, 2014, 128 Stat. 3371; Pub. L. 114–328, div. A, title V, §541(b)(2), (c), (d), Dec. 23, 2016, 130 Stat. 2125.)

Amendments

2016—Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 114–328, §541(b)(2), designated existing provisions as subpar. (A), redesignated former subpars. (A) and (B) as cls. (i) and (ii), respectively, of subpar. (A), realigned margins, and added subpar. (B).

Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 114–328, §541(c), substituted "No" for "Not more than three of the judges of the court may be appointed from the same political party, and no".

Subsec. (e)(2). Pub. L. 114–328, §541(d), substituted "equal to the difference between—" and subpars. (A) and (B) for "equal to the daily equivalent of the annual rate of pay provided for a judge of the court. Such pay shall be in lieu of retired pay and in lieu of an annuity under section 945 of this title (article 145), subchapter III of chapter 83 or subchapter II of chapter 84 of title 5, or any other retirement system for employees of the Federal Government."

2014—Subsec. (b)(2)(A). Pub. L. 113–291, §540(a)(1), substituted "January 31" for "March 31", "July 31 of any year" for "October 1 of any year", and "July 31 of the year" for "September 30 of the year".

Subsec. (b)(2)(B). Pub. L. 113–291, §540(a)(2), substituted "July 31" for "September 30" in two places and "February 1" for "April 1".

2013—Subsec. (b)(4). Pub. L. 113–66 amended par. (4) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (4) read as follows: "For purposes of appointment of judges to the court, a person retired from the armed forces after 20 or more years of active service (whether or not such person is on the retired list) shall not be considered to be in civilian life."

1999—Subsec. (e)(5). Pub. L. 106–65 substituted "and the Committee on Armed Services" for "and the Committee on National Security".

1996—Subsec. (e)(5). Pub. L. 104–106 substituted "Committee on Armed Services of the Senate and the Committee on National Security of the House of Representatives" for "Committees on Armed Services of the Senate and the House of Representatives".

1994—Subsecs. (a), (f)(1). Pub. L. 103–337 substituted "Court of Appeals for the Armed Forces" for "Court of Military Appeals".

1991—Subsec. (e)(1). Pub. L. 102–190, §1061(b)(1)(A)(i)–(iv), designated existing provisions as subpar. (A), struck out "(2)(A)" before "The chief judge", moved sentence beginning "The chief judge of the court" to end of par. (1)(A), substituted "an individual who is a senior judge of the court under this subparagraph" for "a senior judge of the court", and added subpar. (B).

Subsec. (e)(2). Pub. L. 102–190, §1061(b)(1)(A)(ii), (v), redesignated par. (2)(B) as (2) and incorporated former par. (2)(A) into par. (1)(A).

Subsec. (e)(3), (4), (6). Pub. L. 102–190, §1061(b)(1)(B), substituted "paragraph (1)" for "paragraph (2)" wherever appearing.

Subsec. (f)(1)(C). Pub. L. 102–190, §1061(b)(2)(A), added subpar. (C).

Subsec. (f)(2) to (4). Pub. L. 102–190, §1061(b)(2)(B), (C), added par. (2) and redesignated former pars. (2) and (3) as (3) and (4), respectively.

1990—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 101–510, §541(f)(1), substituted "civilian life" for "civil life".

Subsec. (b)(4). Pub. L. 101–510, §541(f)(2), added par. (4).

Effective Date of 2016 Amendment

Pub. L. 114–328, div. A, title V, §541(b)(3), Dec. 23, 2016, 130 Stat. 2125, provided that: "The amendments made by paragraph (2) [amending this section] shall apply with respect to appointments to the United States Court of Appeals for the Armed Forces that are made on or after the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 23, 2016]."

Effective Date of 2013 Amendment

Pub. L. 113–66, div. A, title V, §531(b), Dec. 26, 2013, 127 Stat. 759, provided that: "The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall take effect on the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 26, 2013], and shall apply with respect to appointments to the United States Court of Appeals for the Armed Forces that occur on or after that date."

Effective Date of 1991 Amendment

Pub. L. 102–190, div. A, title X, §1061(b)(1)(D), Dec. 5, 1991, 105 Stat. 1474, provided that: "The amendments made by this paragraph [amending this section and section 945 of this title] shall take effect as of November 29, 1989."

Effective Date for Repeal of Termination of Authority for Chief Justice of United States To Designate Article III Judges for Temporary Service on Court of Appeals for the Armed Forces

Pub. L. 104–201, div. A, title X, §1074(c)(2), Sept. 23, 1996, 110 Stat. 2660, provided that: "The authority provided under section 942(f) of title 10, United States Code, shall be effective as if section 1142 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1996 (Public Law 104–106; 110 Stat. 467) [repealing section 1301(i) of Pub. L. 101–189, set out below] had been enacted on September 29, 1995."

Saving Provision

Pub. L. 113–291, div. A, title V, §540(b), Dec. 19, 2014, 128 Stat. 3371, provided that: "No person who is serving as a judge of the court on the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 19, 2014], and no survivor of any such person, shall be deprived of any annuity provided by section 945 of title 10, United States Code, by the operation of the amendments made by subsection (a) [amending this section]."

Early Retirement Authorized for One Current Judge

Pub. L. 114–328, div. A, title V, §541(b)(1), Dec. 23, 2016, 130 Stat. 2125, provided that: "If the judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the Armed Forces who is the junior in seniority of the two judges of the court whose terms of office under section 942(b)(2) of title 10, United States Code (article 142(b)(2) of the Uniform Code of Military Justice), expire on July 31, 2021, chooses to retire one year early, that judge—

"(A) may retire from service on the court effective August 1, 2020; and

"(B) shall be treated, upon such retirement, for all purposes as having completed a term of service for which the judge was appointed as a judge of the court."

Transitional Provisions

Pub. L. 101–189, div. A, title XIII, §1301(d)–(i), Nov. 29, 1989, 103 Stat. 1574–1576, as amended by Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title XI, §1142, Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 467; Pub. L. 104–201, div. A, title X, §1068(c), Sept. 23, 1996, 110 Stat. 2655, provided that:

"(d) Transition From Three-Judge Court to Five-Judge Court.—(1) Effective during the period before October 1, 1990—

"(A) the number of members of the United States Court of Military Appeals [now United States Court of Appeals for the Armed Forces] shall (notwithstanding subsection (a) of section 942 of title 10, United States Code, as enacted by subsection (c)) be three; and

"(B) the maximum number of members of the court who may be appointed from the same political party shall (notwithstanding subsection (b)(3) of section 942) be two.

"(2) In the application of paragraph (2) of section 942(b) of title 10, United States Code (as enacted by subsection (c)) to the judge who is first appointed to one of the two new positions of the court created as of October 1, 1990, as designated by the President at the time of appointment, the anniversary referred to in subparagraph (A) of that paragraph shall be treated as being the seventh anniversary and the number of years referred to in subparagraph (B) of that paragraph shall be treated as being seven.

"(e) Transition Rules Relating to Retirement of New Judges.—(1) Except as otherwise provided in paragraphs (2) and (3), a judge to whom subsection (d)(2) applies shall be eligible for an annuity as provided in section 945 of title 10, United States Code, as enacted by subsection (c).

"(2) The annuity of a judge referred to in paragraph (1) is computed under subsection (b) of such section 945 only if the judge—

"(A) completes the term of service for which he is first appointed;

"(B) is reappointed as a judge of the United States Court of Military Appeals [now United States Court of Appeals for the Armed Forces] at any time after the completion of such term of service;

"(C) is separated from civilian service in the Federal Government after completing a total of 15 years as a judge of such court; and

"(D) elects to receive an annuity under such section in accordance with subsection (a)(2) of such section.

"(3) In the case of a judge referred to in paragraph (1) who is separated from civilian service after completing the term of service for which he is first appointed as a judge of the United States Court of Military Appeals [now United States Court of Appeals for the Armed Forces] and before completing a total of 15 years as a judge of such court, the annuity of such judge (if elected in accordance with section 945(a)(2) of title 10, United States Code) shall be 1/15 of the amount computed under subsection (b) of such section times the number of years (including any fraction thereof) of such judge's service as a judge of the court.

"(f) Applicability of Amended Retirement Provisions.—Except as otherwise provided in subsections (c) and (d), section 945 of title 10, United States Code, as enacted by subsection (c), applies with respect to judges of the United States Court of Military Appeals [now United States Court of Appeals for the Armed Forces] whose terms of service on such court end after September 28, 1988, and to the survivors of such judges.

"(g) Terms of Current Judges.—Section 942(b) of title 10, United States Code, as enacted by subsection (c), shall not apply to the term of office of a judge of the United States Court of Military Appeals [now United States Court of Appeals for the Armed Forces] serving on such court on the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 29, 1989]. The term of office of such a judge shall expire on the later of (A) the date the term of such judge would have expired under section 867(a)(1) of title 10, United States Code, as in effect on the day before such date of enactment, or (B) September 30 of the year in which the term of such judge would have expired under such section 867(a)(1).

"(h) Civil Service Status of Current Employees.—Section 943(c) of title 10, United States Code, as enacted by subsection (c), shall not be applied to change the civil service status of any attorney who is an employee of the United States Court of Military Appeals [now United States Court of Appeals for the Armed Forces] on the day before the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 29, 1989]."

§943. Art. 143. Organization and employees

(a) Chief Judge.—(1) The chief judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the Armed Forces shall be the judge of the court in regular active service who is senior in commission among the judges of the court who—

(A) have served for one or more years as judges of the court; and

(B) have not previously served as chief judge.


(2) In any case in which there is no judge of the court in regular active service who has served as a judge of the court for at least one year, the judge of the court in regular active service who is senior in commission and has not served previously as chief judge shall act as the chief judge.

(3) Except as provided in paragraph (4), a judge of the court shall serve as the chief judge under paragraph (1) for a term of five years. If no other judge is eligible under paragraph (1) to serve as chief judge upon the expiration of that term, the chief judge shall continue to serve as chief judge until another judge becomes eligible under that paragraph to serve as chief judge.

(4)(A) The term of a chief judge shall be terminated before the end of five years if—

(i) the chief judge leaves regular active service as a judge of the court; or

(ii) the chief judge notifies the other judges of the court in writing that such judge desires to be relieved of his duties as chief judge.


(B) The effective date of a termination of the term under subparagraph (A) shall be the date on which the chief judge leaves regular active service or the date of the notification under subparagraph (A)(ii), as the case may be.

(5) If a chief judge is temporarily unable to perform his duties as a chief judge, the duties shall be performed by the judge of the court in active service who is present, able and qualified to act, and is next in precedence.

(b) Precedence of Judges.—The chief judge of the court shall have precedence and preside at any session that he attends. The other judges shall have precedence and preside according to the seniority of their original commissions. Judges whose commissions bear the same date shall have precedence according to seniority in age.

(c) Status of Certain Positions.—(1) Attorney positions of employment under the Court of Appeals for the Armed Forces are excepted from the competitive service. A position of employment under the court that is provided primarily for the service of one judge of the court, reports directly to the judge, and is a position of a confidential character is excepted from the competitive service. Appointments to positions referred to in the preceding sentences shall be made by the court, without the concurrence of any other officer or employee of the executive branch, in the same manner as appointments are made to other executive branch positions of a confidential or policy-determining character for which it is not practicable to examine or to hold a competitive examination. Such positions shall not be counted as positions of that character for purposes of any limitation on the number of positions of that character provided in law.

(2) In making appointments to the positions described in paragraph (1), preference shall be given, among equally qualified persons, to persons who are preference eligibles (as defined in section 2108(3) of title 5).

(Added Pub. L. 101–189, div. A, title XIII, §1301(c), Nov. 29, 1989, 103 Stat. 1572; amended Pub. L. 102–484, div. A, title X, §1061(a)(1), Oct. 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 2503; Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title IX, §924(c)(1), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2831; Pub. L. 104–201, div. A, title X, §1068(b), Sept. 23, 1996, 110 Stat. 2655; Pub. L. 105–85, div. A, title X, §1073(a)(11), Nov. 18, 1997, 111 Stat. 1900.)

Amendments

1997—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 105–85 made technical amendment to heading and substituted "under the court" for "under the Court" in second sentence and "positions referred to in the preceding sentences" for "such positions" in third sentence.

1996—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 104–201 substituted "Certain" for "Attorney" in heading and inserted "A position of employment under the Court that is provided primarily for the service of one judge of the court, reports directly to the judge, and is a position of a confidential character is excepted from the competitive service." after first sentence in par. (1).

1994—Subsecs. (a)(1), (c). Pub. L. 103–337 substituted "Court of Appeals for the Armed Forces" for "Court of Military Appeals".

1992—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 102–484 amended subsec. (a) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (a) read as follows: "Chief Judge.—The President shall designate from time to time one of the judges of the United States Court of Military Appeals to be chief judge of the court."

Transition Provision

Pub. L. 102–484, div. A, title X, §1061(b), Oct. 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 2504, provided that: "For purposes of section 943(a) (article 943(a)) of title 10, United States Code, as amended by subsection (a)—

"(1) the person serving as the chief judge of the United States Court of Military Appeals [now United States Court of Appeals for the Armed Forces] on the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 23, 1992] shall be deemed to have been designated as the chief judge under such section; and

"(2) the five-year term provided in paragraph (3) of such section shall be deemed to have begun on the date on which such judge was originally designated as the chief judge under section 867(a) or 943 of title 10, United States Code, as the case may be, as that provision of law was in effect on the date of the designation."

Inapplicability of Subsection (c)

Subsec. (c) of this section not to be applied to change civil service status of any attorney who is an employee of United States Court of Military Appeals [now United States Court of Appeals for the Armed Forces] on Nov. 28, 1989, see section 1301(h) of Pub. L. 101–189, set out as a Transitional Provisions note under section 942 of this title.

§944. Art. 144. Procedure

The United States Court of Appeals for the Armed Forces may prescribe its rules of procedure and may determine the number of judges required to constitute a quorum.

(Added Pub. L. 101–189, div. A, title XIII, §1301(c), Nov. 29, 1989, 103 Stat. 1572; amended Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title IX, §924(c)(1), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2831.)

Amendments

1994Pub. L. 103–337 substituted "Court of Appeals for the Armed Forces" for "Court of Military Appeals".

§945. Art. 145. Annuities for judges and survivors

(a) Retirement Annuities for Judges.—(1) A person who has completed a term of service for which he was appointed as a judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the Armed Forces is eligible for an annuity under this section upon separation from civilian service in the Federal Government. A person who continues service with the court as a senior judge under section 942(e)(1)(B) of this title (article 142(e)(1)(B)) upon the expiration of the judge's term shall be considered to have been separated from civilian service in the Federal Government only upon the termination of that continuous service.

(2) A person who is eligible for an annuity under this section shall be paid that annuity if, at the time he becomes eligible to receive that annuity, he elects to receive that annuity in lieu of any other annuity for which he may be eligible at the time of such election (whether an immediate or a deferred annuity) under subchapter III of chapter 83 or subchapter II of chapter 84 of title 5 or any other retirement system for civilian employees of the Federal Government. Such an election may not be revoked.

(3)(A) The Secretary of Defense shall notify the Director of the Office of Personnel Management whenever an election under paragraph (2) is made affecting any right or interest under subchapter III of chapter 83 or subchapter II of chapter 84 of title 5 based on service as a judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the Armed Forces.

(B) Upon receiving any notification under subparagraph (A) in the case of a person making an election under paragraph (2), the Director shall determine the amount of the person's lump-sum credit under subchapter III of chapter 83 or subchapter II of chapter 84 of title 5, as applicable, and shall request the Secretary of the Treasury to transfer such amount from the Civil Service Retirement and Disability Fund to the Department of Defense Military Retirement Fund. The Secretary of the Treasury shall make any transfer so requested.

(C) In determining the amount of a lump-sum credit under section 8331(8) of title 5 for purposes of this paragraph—

(i) interest shall be computed using the rates under section 8334(e)(3) of such title; and

(ii) the completion of 5 years of civilian service (or longer) shall not be a basis for excluding interest.


(b) Amount of Annuity.—The annuity payable under this section to a person who makes an election under subsection (a)(2) is 80 percent of the rate of pay for a judge in active service on the United States Court of Appeals for the Armed Forces as of the date on which the person is separated from civilian service.

(c) Relation to Thrift Savings Plan.—Nothing in this section affects any right of any person to participate in the thrift savings plan under section 8351 of title 5 or subchapter III of chapter 84 of such title.

(d) Survivor Annuities.—The Secretary of Defense shall prescribe by regulation a program to provide annuities for survivors and former spouses of persons receiving annuities under this section by reason of elections made by such persons under subsection (a)(2). That program shall, to the maximum extent practicable, provide benefits and establish terms and conditions that are similar to those provided under survivor and former spouse annuity programs under other retirement systems for civilian employees of the Federal Government. The program may include provisions for the reduction in the annuity paid the person as a condition for the survivor annuity. An election by a judge (including a senior judge) or former judge to receive an annuity under this section terminates any right or interest which any other individual may have to a survivor annuity under any other retirement system for civilian employees of the Federal Government based on the service of that judge or former judge as a civilian officer or employee of the Federal Government (except with respect to an election under subsection (f)(1)(B)).

(e) Cost-of-Living Increases.—The Secretary of Defense shall periodically increase annuities and survivor annuities paid under this section in order to take account of changes in the cost of living. The Secretary shall prescribe by regulation procedures for increases in annuities under this section. Such system shall, to the maximum extent appropriate, provide cost-of-living adjustments that are similar to those that are provided under other retirement systems for civilian employees of the Federal Government.

(f) Election of Judicial Retirement Benefits.—(1) A person who is receiving an annuity under this section by reason of service as a judge of the court and who later is appointed as a justice or judge of the United States to hold office during good behavior and who retires from that office, or from regular active service in that office, shall be paid either (A) the annuity under this section, or (B) the annuity or salary to which he is entitled by reason of his service as such a justice or judge of the United States, as determined by an election by that person at the time of his retirement from the office, or from regular active service in the office, of justice or judge of the United States. Such an election may not be revoked.

(2) An election by a person to be paid an annuity or salary pursuant to paragraph (1)(B) terminates (A) any election previously made by such person to provide a survivor annuity pursuant to subsection (d), and (B) any right of any other individual to receive a survivor annuity pursuant to subsection (d) on the basis of the service of that person.

(g) Source of Payment of Annuities.—Annuities and survivor annuities paid under this section shall be paid out of the Department of Defense Military Retirement Fund.

(h) Eligibility to Elect Between Retirement Systems.—(1) This subsection applies with respect to any person who—

(A) prior to being appointed as a judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the Armed Forces, performed civilian service of a type making such person subject to the Civil Service Retirement System; and

(B) would be eligible to make an election under section 301(a)(2) of the Federal Employees' Retirement System Act of 1986, by virtue of being appointed as such a judge, but for the fact that such person has not had a break in service of sufficient duration to be considered someone who is being reemployed by the Federal Government.


(2) Any person with respect to whom this subsection applies shall be eligible to make an election under section 301(a)(2) of the Federal Employees' Retirement System Act of 1986 to the same extent and in the same manner (including subject to the condition set forth in section 301(d) of such Act) as if such person's appointment constituted reemployment with the Federal Government.

(Added Pub. L. 101–189, div. A, title XIII, §1301(c), Nov. 29, 1989, 103 Stat. 1572; amended Pub. L. 102–190, div. A, title X, §1061(b)(1)(C), Dec. 5, 1991, 105 Stat. 1474; Pub. L. 102–484, div. A, title X, §§1052(11), 1062(a)(1), Oct. 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 2499, 2504; Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title IX, §924(c)(1), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2831; Pub. L. 114–328, div. A, title V, §541(e), Dec. 23, 2016, 130 Stat. 2125.)

References in Text

Section 301(a)(2) and (d) of the Federal Employees' Retirement System Act of 1986, referred to in subsec. (h), is section 301(a)(2) and (d) of Pub. L. 99–335, which is set out in a note under section 8331 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

Amendments

2016—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 114–328, §541(e)(1), substituted "subsection (f)(1)(B)" for "subsection (g)(1)(B)".

Subsecs. (f) to (i). Pub. L. 114–328, §541(e)(2), (3), redesignated subsecs. (g) to (i) as (f) to (h), respectively, and struck out former subsec. (f). Prior to amendment, text of subsec. (f) read as follows: "A person who is receiving an annuity under this section by reason of service as a judge of the court and who is appointed to a position in the Federal Government shall, during the period of such person's service in such position, be entitled to receive only the annuity under this section or the pay for that position, whichever is higher."

1994—Subsecs. (a)(1), (3)(A), (b), (i)(1)(A). Pub. L. 103–337 substituted "Court of Appeals for the Armed Forces" for "Court of Military Appeals".

1992—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 102–484, §1052(11), substituted "section 942(e)(1)(B) of this title (article 142(e)(1)(B))" for "section 943(e)(1)(B) of this title (art. 143(e)(1)(B))".

Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 102–484, §1062(a)(1), added subsec. (i).

1991—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 102–190 inserted at end "A person who continues service with the court as a senior judge under section 943(e)(1)(B) of this title (art. 143(e)(1)(B)) upon the expiration of the judge's term shall be considered to have been separated from civilian service in the Federal Government only upon the termination of that continuous service."

Effective Date of 1992 Amendment

Pub. L. 102–484, div. A, title X, §1062(a)(2), Oct. 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 2505, provided that: "The amendment made by paragraph (1) [amending this section] shall apply with respect to any appointment which takes effect on or after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 23, 1992]."

Effective Date of 1991 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 102–190 effective Nov. 29, 1989, see section 1061(b)(1)(D) of Pub. L. 102–190, set out as a note under section 942 of this title.

Effective Date

Except as otherwise provided, section applicable with respect to judges of United States Court of Military Appeals [now United States Court of Appeals for the Armed Forces] whose terms of service on such court end after Sept. 28, 1988, and to survivors of such judges, see section 1301(f) of Pub. L. 101–189, set out as a Transitional Provisions note under section 942 of this title.

Additional Elections

Pub. L. 102–484, div. A, title X, §1062(b), Oct. 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 2505, provided that:

"(1) Any individual who is a judge in active service on the United States Court of Military Appeals [now United States Court of Appeals for the Armed Forces] shall be eligible to make an election under section 301(a)(2) of the Federal Employees' Retirement System Act of 1986 [Pub. L. 99–335, 5 U.S.C. 8331 note] if—

"(A) such individual is such a judge on the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 23, 1992]; and

"(B) as of the date of the election, such individual is—

"(i) subject to the Civil Service Retirement System; or

"(ii) covered by Social Security but not subject to the Federal Employees' Retirement System.

"(2) An election under this subsection—

"(A) shall not be effective unless it is—

"(i) made within 30 days after the date of the enactment of this Act; and

"(ii) in compliance with the condition set forth in section 301(d) of the Federal Employees' Retirement System Act of 1986 [Pub. L. 99–335, 5 U.S.C. 8331 note]; and

"(B) may not be revoked.

"(3) For the purpose of this subsection, a judge of the United States Court of Military Appeals [now United States Court of Appeals for the Armed Forces] shall be considered to be 'covered by Social Security' if such judge's service is employment for the purposes of title II of the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 401 et seq.] and chapter 21 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [26 U.S.C. 3101 et seq.]."

§946. Art. 146. Military Justice Review Panel

(a) Establishment.—The Secretary of Defense shall establish a panel to conduct independent periodic reviews and assessments of the operation of this chapter. The panel shall be known as the "Military Justice Review Panel" (in this section referred to as the "Panel").

(b) Members.—

(1) Number of members.—The Panel shall be composed of thirteen members.

(2) Appointment of certain members.—Each of the following shall appoint one member of the Panel:

(A) The Secretary of Defense (in consultation with the Secretary of the department in which the Coast Guard is operating when it is not operating as a service in the Navy).

(B) The Attorney General.

(C) The Judge Advocates General of the Army, Navy, Air Force, and Coast Guard, and the Staff Judge Advocate to the Commandant of the Marine Corps.


(3) Appointment of remaining members by secretary of defense.—The Secretary of Defense shall appoint the remaining members of the Panel, taking into consideration recommendations made by each of the following:

(A) The chairman and ranking minority member of the Committee on Armed Services of the Senate and the Committee on Armed Services of the House of Representatives.

(B) The Chief Justice of the United States.

(C) The Chief Judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the Armed Forces.


(c) Qualifications of Members.—The members of the Panel shall be appointed from among private United States citizens with expertise in criminal law, as well as appropriate and diverse experience in investigation, prosecution, defense, victim representation, or adjudication with respect to courts-martial, Federal civilian courts, or State courts.

(d) Chair.—The Secretary of Defense shall select the chair of the Panel from among the members.

(e) Term; Vacancies.—Each member shall be appointed for a term of eight years, and no member may serve more than one term. Any vacancy shall be filled in the same manner as the original appointment.

(f) Reviews and Reports.—

(1) Initial review of recent amendments to ucmj.—During fiscal year 2021, the Panel shall conduct an initial review and assessment of the implementation of the amendments made to this chapter during the preceding five years. In conducting the initial review and assessment, the Panel may review such other aspects of the operation of this chapter as the Panel considers appropriate.

(2) Sentencing data collection and report.—During fiscal year 2020, the Panel shall gather and analyze sentencing data collected from each of the armed forces from general and special courts-martial applying offense-based sentencing under section 856 of this title (article 56). The sentencing data shall include the number of accused who request member sentencing and the number who request sentencing by military judge alone, the offenses which the accused were convicted of, and the resulting sentence for each offense in each case. The Judge Advocates General and the Staff Judge Advocate to the Commandant of the Marine Corps shall provide the sentencing data in the format and for the duration established by the chair of the Panel. The analysis under this paragraph shall be included in the assessment required by paragraph (1).

(3) Periodic comprehensive reviews.—During fiscal year 2024 and every eight years thereafter, the Panel shall conduct a comprehensive review and assessment of the operation of this chapter.

(4) Periodic interim reviews.—During fiscal year 2028 and every eight years thereafter, the Panel shall conduct an interim review and assessment of such other aspects of the operation of this chapter as the Panel considers appropriate. In addition, at the request of the Secretary of Defense, the Panel may, at any time, review and assess other specific matters relating to the operation of this chapter.

(5) Reports.—With respect to each review and assessment under this subsection, the Panel shall submit a report to the Committees on Armed Services of the Senate and the House of Representatives. Each report—

(A) shall set forth the results of the review and assessment concerned, including the findings and recommendations of the Panel; and

(B) shall be submitted not later than December 31 of the calendar year in which the review and assessment is concluded.


(g) Hearings.—The Panel may hold such hearings, sit and act at such times and places, take such testimony, and receive such evidence as the Panel considers appropriate to carry out its duties under this section.

(h) Information From Federal Agencies.—Upon request of the chair of the Panel, a department or agency of the Federal Government shall provide information that the Panel considers necessary to carry out its duties under this section.

(i) Administrative Matters.—

(1) Members to serve without pay.—Members of the Panel shall serve without pay, but shall be allowed travel expenses, including per diem in lieu of subsistence, at rates authorized for employees of agencies under subchapter I of chapter 57 of title 5, while away from their homes or regular places of business in the performance of services for the Panel.

(2) Staffing and resources.—The Secretary of Defense shall provide staffing and resources to support the Panel.


(j) Federal Advisory Committee Act.—The Federal Advisory Committee Act (5 U.S.C. App.) shall not apply to the Panel.

(Added Pub. L. 101–189, div. A, title XIII, §1301(c), Nov. 29, 1989, 103 Stat. 1574; amended Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title IX, §924(c)(1), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2831; Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title XV, §1502(a)(1), Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 502; Pub. L. 106–65, div. A, title X, §1067(1), Oct. 5, 1999, 113 Stat. 774; Pub. L. 107–296, title XVII, §1704(b)(1), Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2314; Pub. L. 112–239, div. A, title V, §532, Jan. 2, 2013, 126 Stat. 1726; Pub. L. 114–328, div. E, title LXII, §5521, Dec. 23, 2016, 130 Stat. 2962; Pub. L. 115–91, div. A, title V, §531(k), Dec. 12, 2017, 131 Stat. 1386.)

References in Text

The Federal Advisory Committee Act, referred to in subsec. (j), is Pub. L. 92–463, Oct. 6, 1972, 86 Stat. 770, as amended, which is set out in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

Amendments

2017—Subsec. (f)(1). Pub. L. 115–91, §531(k)(1), substituted "fiscal year 2021" for "fiscal year 2020".

Subsec. (f)(2). Pub. L. 115–91, §531(k)(2), substituted "The analysis under this paragraph shall be included in the assessment required by paragraph (1)." for "Not later than October 31, 2020, the Panel shall submit to the Committees on Armed Services of the Senate and the House of Representatives through the Secretary of Defense a report setting forth the Panel's findings and recommendations on the need for sentencing reform."

Subsec. (f)(5). Pub. L. 115–91, §531(k)(3), added par. (5) and struck out former par. (5). Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "Not later than December 31 of each year during which the Panel conducts a review and assessment under this subsection, the Panel shall submit to the Committees on Armed Services of the Senate and the House of Representatives a report setting forth the results of such review and assessment, including the Panel's findings and recommendations."

2016Pub. L. 114–328 amended section generally. Prior to amendment, section related to establishment, membership, and duties of Code committee.

2013—Subsec. (c)(2)(B), (C). Pub. L. 112–239 added subpar. (B) and redesignated former subpar. (B) as (C).

2002—Subsec. (c)(1)(B). Pub. L. 107–296 substituted "of Homeland Security" for "of Transportation".

1999—Subsec. (c)(1)(A). Pub. L. 106–65 substituted "and the Committee on Armed Services" for "and the Committee on National Security".

1996—Subsec. (c)(1)(A). Pub. L. 104–106 substituted "Committee on Armed Services of the Senate and the Committee on National Security of the House of Representatives" for "Committees on Armed Services of the Senate and House of Representatives".

1994—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 103–337 substituted "Court of Appeals for the Armed Forces" for "Court of Military Appeals".

Effective Date of 2017 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 115–91 effective immediately after the amendments made by div. E (§§5001–5542) of Pub. L. 114–328 take effect as provided for in section 5542 of that Act (10 U.S.C. 801 note), see section 531(p) of Pub. L. 115–91, set out as a note under section 801 of this title.

Effective Date of 2016 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 114–328 effective on Jan. 1, 2019, as designated by the President, with implementing regulations and provisions relating to applicability to various situations, see section 5542 of Pub. L. 114–328 and Ex. Ord. No. 13825, set out as notes under section 801 of this title.

Effective Date of 2002 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 107–296 effective on the date of transfer of the Coast Guard to the Department of Homeland Security, see section 1704(g) of Pub. L. 107–296, set out as a note under section 101 of this title.

Termination of Reporting Requirements

For termination, effective Dec. 31, 2021, of provisions in subsec. (c) of this section requiring submittal of annual report to Congress, see section 1061 of Pub. L. 114–328, set out as a note under section 111 of this title.

§946a. Art. 146a. Annual reports

(a) Court of Appeals for the Armed Forces.—Not later than December 31 each year, the Court of Appeals for the Armed Forces shall submit a report that, with respect to the previous fiscal year, provides information on the number and status of completed and pending cases before the Court, and such other matters as the Court considers appropriate regarding the operation of this chapter.

(b) Service Reports.—Not later than December 31 each year, the Judge Advocates General and the Staff Judge Advocate to the Commandant of the Marine Corps shall each submit a report, with respect to the preceding fiscal year, containing the following:

(1) Data on the number and status of pending cases.

(2) Information on the appellate review process, including—

(A) information on compliance with processing time goals;

(B) descriptions of the circumstances surrounding cases in which general or special court-martial convictions were (i) reversed because of command influence or denial of the right to speedy review or (ii) otherwise remitted because of loss of records of trial or other administrative deficiencies; and

(C) an analysis of each case in which a provision of this chapter was held unconstitutional.


(3)(A) An explanation of measures implemented by the armed force concerned to ensure the ability of judge advocates—

(i) to participate competently as trial counsel and defense counsel in cases under this chapter;

(ii) to preside as military judges in cases under this chapter; and

(iii) to perform the duties of Special Victims' Counsel, when so designated under section 1044e of this title.


(B) The explanation under subparagraph (A) shall specifically identify the measures that focus on capital cases, national security cases, sexual assault cases, and proceedings of military commissions.

(4) The independent views of each Judge Advocate General and of the Staff Judge Advocate to the Commandant of the Marine Corps as to the sufficiency of resources available within the respective armed forces, including total workforce, funding, training, and officer and enlisted grade structure, to capably perform military justice functions.

(5) Such other matters regarding the operation of this chapter as may be appropriate.


(c) Submission.—Each report under this section shall be submitted—

(1) to the Committee on Armed Services of the Senate and the Committee on Armed Services of the House of Representatives; and

(2) to the Secretary of Defense, the Secretaries of the military departments, and the Secretary of the department in which the Coast Guard is operating when it is not operating as a service in the Navy.

(Added Pub. L. 114–328, div. E, title LXII, §5522, Dec. 23, 2016, 130 Stat. 2964.)

Effective Date

Section effective on Jan. 1, 2019, as designated by the President, with implementing regulations and provisions relating to applicability to various situations, see section 5542 of Pub. L. 114–328 and Ex. Ord. 13825, set out as notes under section 801 of this title.