[USC02] 10 USC Subtitle A, PART II, CHAPTER 47, SUBCHAPTER IV: COURT-MARTIAL JURISDICTION
Result 1 of 1
   
 
10 USC Subtitle A, PART II, CHAPTER 47, SUBCHAPTER IV: COURT-MARTIAL JURISDICTION
From Title 10—ARMED FORCESSubtitle A—General Military LawPART II—PERSONNELCHAPTER 47—UNIFORM CODE OF MILITARY JUSTICE

SUBCHAPTER IV—COURT-MARTIAL JURISDICTION

 
Sec.Art. 
816. 16. Courts-martial classified.
817. 17. Jurisdiction of courts-martial in general.
818. 18. Jurisdiction of general courts-martial.
819. 19. Jurisdiction of special courts-martial.
820. 20. Jurisdiction of summary courts-martial.
821. 21. Jurisdiction of courts-martial not exclusive.

§816. Art 16. Courts-martial classified

(a) In General.—The three kinds of courts-martial in each of the armed forces are the following:

(1) General courts-martial, as described in subsection (b).

(2) Special courts-martial, as described in subsection (c).

(3) Summary courts-martial, as described in subsection (d).


(b) General Courts-martial.—General courts-martial are of the following three types:

(1) A general court-martial consisting of a military judge and eight members, subject to sections 825(e)(3) and 829 of this title (articles 25(e)(3) and 29).

(2) In a capital case, a general court-martial consisting of a military judge and the number of members determined under section 825a of this title (article 25a), subject to sections 825(e)(3) and 829 of this title (articles 25(e)(3) and 29).

(3) A general court-martial consisting of a military judge alone, if, before the court is assembled, the accused, knowing the identity of the military judge and after consultation with defense counsel, requests, orally on the record or in writing, a court composed of a military judge alone and the military judge approves the request.


(c) Special Courts-martial.—Special courts-martial are of the following two types:

(1) A special court-martial consisting of a military judge and four members, subject to sections 825(e)(3) and 829 of this title (articles 25(e)(3) and 29).

(2) A special court-martial consisting of a military judge alone—

(A) if the case is so referred by the convening authority, subject to section 819 of this title (article 19) and such limitations as the President may prescribe by regulation; or

(B) if the case is referred under paragraph (1) and, before the court is assembled, the accused, knowing the identity of the military judge and after consultation with defense counsel, requests, orally on the record or in writing, a court composed of a military judge alone and the military judge approves the request.


(d) Summary Court-martial.—A summary court-martial consists of one commissioned officer.

(Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, 70A Stat. 42; Pub. L. 90–632, §2(3), Oct. 24, 1968, 82 Stat. 1335; Pub. L. 98–209, §3(a), Dec. 6, 1983, 97 Stat. 1394; Pub. L. 107–107, div. A, title V, §582(a), Dec. 28, 2001, 115 Stat. 1124; Pub. L. 114–328, div. E, title LIV, §5161, Dec. 23, 2016, 130 Stat. 2897; Pub. L. 115–91, div. A, title X, §1081(c)(1)(C), Dec. 12, 2017, 131 Stat. 1597.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised sectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
816 50:576. May 5, 1950, ch. 169, §1 (Art. 16), 64 Stat. 113.

The word "The" is substituted for the words "There shall be". The word "are" is substituted for the word "namely". The words "not less than five members" are substituted for the words "any number of members not less than five". The words "not less than three members" are substituted for the words "any number of members not less than three". The word "commissioned" is inserted before the word "officer" in clause (3) for clarity.

Amendments

2017—Subsecs. (b), (c). Pub. L. 115–91 substituted "sections 825(e)(3) and 829 of this title (articles 25(e)(3) and 29)" for "sections 825(d)(3) and 829 of this title (articles 25(d)(3) and 29)" wherever appearing.

2016Pub. L. 114–328 amended section generally. Prior to amendment, section defined the three kinds of courts-martial in each of the armed forces.

2001—Par. (1)(A). Pub. L. 107–107 inserted "or, in a case in which the accused may be sentenced to a penalty of death, the number of members determined under section 825a of this title (article 25a)" after "five members".

1983—Par. (1)(B). Pub. L. 98–209 substituted "orally on the record or in writing" for "in writing".

1968Pub. L. 90–632 provided that a general or special court-martial shall consist of only a military judge if the accused, before the court is assembled, so requests in writing and the military judge approves, with the added requirements that the accused know the identity of the military judge and have the advice of counsel, and that the election be available in the case of a special court-martial only if a military judge has been detailed to the court.

Effective Date of 2017 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 115–91 effective immediately after the amendments made by div. E (§§5001–5542) of Pub. L. 114–328 take effect as provided for in section 5542 of that Act (10 U.S.C. 801 note), see section 1081(c)(4) of Pub. L. 115–91, set out as a note under section 801 of this title.

Effective Date of 2016 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 114–328 effective on Jan. 1, 2019, as designated by the President, with implementing regulations and provisions relating to applicability to various situations, see section 5542 of Pub. L. 114–328 and Ex. Ord. No. 13825, set out as notes under section 801 of this title.

Effective Date of 2001 Amendment

Pub. L. 107–107, div. A, title V, §582(d), Dec. 28, 2001, 115 Stat. 1125, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [enacting section 825a of this title and amending this section and section 829 of this title] shall apply with respect to offenses committed after December 31, 2002."

Effective Date of 1983 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 98–209 effective first day of eighth calendar month beginning after Dec. 6, 1983, see section 12(a)(1) of Pub. L. 98–209, set out as a note under section 801 of this title.

Effective Date of 1968 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 90–632 effective first day of tenth month following October 1968, see section 4 of Pub. L. 90–632, set out as a note under section 801 of this title.

§817. Art. 17. Jurisdiction of courts-martial in general

(a) Each armed force has court-martial jurisdiction over all persons subject to this chapter. The exercise of jurisdiction by one armed force over personnel of another armed force shall be in accordance with regulations prescribed by the President.

(b) In all cases, departmental review after that by the officer with authority to convene a general court-martial for the command which held the trial, where that review is required under this chapter, shall be carried out by the department that includes the armed force of which the accused is a member.

(Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, 70A Stat. 43.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised sectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
817(a)

817(b)

50:577(a).

50:577(b).

May 5, 1950, ch. 169, §1 (Art. 17), 64 Stat. 114.

In subsection (a), the word "has" is substituted for the words "shall have".

In subsection (b), the word "after" is substituted for the words "subsequent to". The words "the provisions of" are omitted as surplusage. The words "department that includes the" are inserted before the words "armed force", since the review is carried out by the department and not by the armed force.

§818. Art. 18. Jurisdiction of general courts-martial

(a) Subject to section 817 of this title (article 17), general courts-martial have jurisdiction to try persons subject to this chapter for any offense made punishable by this chapter and may, under such limitations as the President may prescribe, adjudge any punishment not forbidden by this chapter, including the penalty of death when specifically authorized by this chapter. General courts-martial also have jurisdiction to try any person who by the law of war is subject to trial by a military tribunal and may adjudge any punishment permitted by the law of war.

(b) A general court-martial of the kind specified in section 816(b)(3) of this title (article 16(b)(3)) shall not have jurisdiction to try any person for any offense for which the death penalty may be adjudged unless the case has been previously referred to trial as a noncapital case.

(c) Consistent with sections 819 and 820 of this title (articles 19 and 20), only general courts-martial have jurisdiction over the following offenses:

(1) A violation of subsection (a) or (b) of section 920 of this title (article 120).

(2) A violation of subsection (a) or (b) of section 920b of this title (article 120b).

(3) An attempt to commit an offense specified in paragraph (1) or (2) that is punishable under section 880 of this title (article 80).

(Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, 70A Stat. 43; Pub. L. 90–632, §2(4), Oct. 24, 1968, 82 Stat. 1335; Pub. L. 113–66, div. A, title XVII, §1705(b), Dec. 26, 2013, 127 Stat. 959; Pub. L. 114–328, div. E, title LIV, §5162, Dec. 23, 2016, 130 Stat. 2898.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised sectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
818 50:578. May 5, 1950, ch. 169, §1 (Art. 18), 64 Stat. 114.

The word "shall" is omitted as surplusage wherever it occurs.

Amendments

2016—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 114–328, §5162(1), substituted "section 816(b)(3) of this title (article 16(b)(3))" for "section 816(1)(B) of this title (article 16(1)(B))".

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 114–328, §5162(2), added subsec. (c) and struck out former subsec. (c) which read as follows: "Consistent with sections 819, 820, and 856(b) of this title (articles 19, 20, and 56(b)), only general courts-martial have jurisdiction over an offense specified in section 856(b)(2) of this title (article 56(b)(2))."

2013Pub. L. 113–66 designated the first two sentences as subsec. (a), designated third sentence as subsec. (b) and substituted "A general court-martial" for "However, a general court-martial", and added subsec. (c).

1968Pub. L. 90–632 provided that a general court-martial consisting of only a military judge has no jurisdiction in cases in which the death penalty may be adjudged unless the case has been previously referred to trial as a noncapital case.

Effective Date of 2016 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 114–328 effective on Jan. 1, 2019, as designated by the President, with implementing regulations and provisions relating to applicability to various situations, see section 5542 of Pub. L. 114–328 and Ex. Ord. No. 13825, set out as notes under section 801 of this title.

Effective Date of 2013 Amendment

Pub. L. 113–66, div. A, title XVII, §1705(c), Dec. 26, 2013, 127 Stat. 960, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 856 of this title] shall take effect 180 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 26, 2013], and apply to offenses specified in section 856(b)(2) of title 10, United States Code (article 56(b)(2) of the Uniform Code of Military Justice), as added by subsection (a)(1), committed on or after that date."

Effective Date of 1968 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 90–632 effective first day of tenth month following October 1968, see section 4 of Pub. L. 90–632, set out as a note under section 801 of this title.

§819. Art. 19. Jurisdiction of special courts-martial

(a) In General.—Subject to section 817 of this title (article 17), special courts-martial have jurisdiction to try persons subject to this chapter for any noncapital offense made punishable by this chapter and, under such regulations as the President may prescribe, for capital offenses. Special courts-martial may, under such limitations as the President may prescribe, adjudge any punishment not forbidden by this chapter except death, dishonorable discharge, dismissal, confinement for more than one year, hard labor without confinement for more than three months, forfeiture of pay exceeding two-thirds pay per month, or forfeiture of pay for more than one year.

(b) Additional Limitation.—Neither a bad-conduct discharge, nor confinement for more than six months, nor forfeiture of pay for more than six months may be adjudged if charges and specifications are referred to a special court-martial consisting of a military judge alone under section 816(c)(2)(A) of this title (article 16(c)(2)(A)).

(c) Military Magistrate.—If charges and specifications are referred to a special court-martial consisting of a military judge alone under section 816(c)(2)(A) of this title (article 16(c)(2)(A)), the military judge, with the consent of the parties, may designate a military magistrate to preside over the special court-martial.

(Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, 70A Stat. 43; Pub. L. 90–632, §2(5), Oct. 24, 1968, 82 Stat. 1335; Pub. L. 106–65, div. A, title V, §577(a), Oct. 5, 1999, 113 Stat. 625; Pub. L. 107–107, div. A, title X, §1048(g)(4), Dec. 28, 2001, 115 Stat. 1228; Pub. L. 114–328, div. E, title LIV, §5163, Dec. 23, 2016, 130 Stat. 2898.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised sectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
819 50:579. May 5, 1950, ch. 169, §1 (Art. 19), 64 Stat. 114.

The word "shall" in the first sentence is omitted as surplusage. The words "for more than" are substituted for the words "in excess of". The words "more than" are substituted for the words "a period exceeding". The word "may" is substituted for the word "shall" in the last sentence.

Amendments

2016Pub. L. 114–328 designated existing provisions as subsec. (a) and inserted heading, struck out "A bad-conduct discharge, confinement for more than six months, or forfeiture of pay for more than six months may not be adjudged unless a complete record of the proceedings and testimony has been made, counsel having the qualifications prescribed under section 827(b) of this title (article 27(b)) was detailed to represent the accused, and a military judge was detailed to the trial, except in any case in which a military judge could not be detailed to the trial because of physical conditions or military exigencies. In any such case in which a military judge was not detailed to the trial, the convening authority shall make a detailed written statement, to be appended to the record, stating the reason or reasons a military judge could not be detailed." after "one year.", and added subsecs. (b) and (c).

2001Pub. L. 107–107, §1048(g)(4), amended directory language of Pub. L. 106–65, §577(a)(2). See 1999 Amendment note below.

1999Pub. L. 106–65, §577(a)(2), as amended by Pub. L. 107–107, §1048(g)(4), inserted ", confinement for more than six months, or forfeiture of pay for more than six months" after "A bad-conduct discharge" in third sentence.

Pub. L. 106–65, §577(a)(1), substituted "one year" for "six months" in two places in second sentence.

1968Pub. L. 90–632 provided that before a bad-conduct discharge may be adjudged by a special court-martial the accused must be detailed counsel who is legally qualified under the Code and a military judge must be detailed to the trial, with a detailed written statement appended to the record if a military judge was not detailed to the trial, because of physical conditions and military exigencies, stating the reasons that a military judge could not be so detailed.

Effective Date of 2016 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 114–328 effective on Jan. 1, 2019, as designated by the President, with implementing regulations and provisions relating to applicability to various situations, see section 5542 of Pub. L. 114–328 and Ex. Ord. No. 13825, set out as notes under section 801 of this title.

Effective Date of 2001 Amendment

Pub. L. 107–107, div. A, title X, §1048(g), Dec. 28, 2001, 115 Stat. 1228, provided that the amendment made by section 1048(g)(4) is effective as of Oct. 5, 1999, and as if included in Pub. L. 106–65 as enacted.

Effective Date of 1999 Amendment

Pub. L. 106–65, div. A, title V, §577(b), Oct. 5, 1999, 113 Stat. 625, provided that: "The amendments made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall take effect on the first day of the sixth month beginning after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 5, 1999] and shall apply with respect to charges referred on or after that effective date to trial by special courts-martial."

Effective Date of 1968 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 90–632 effective first day of tenth month following October 1968, see section 4 of Pub. L. 90–632, set out as a note under section 801 of this title.

§820. Art. 20. Jurisdiction of summary courts-martial

(a) In General.—Subject to section 817 of this title (article 17), summary courts-martial have jurisdiction to try persons subject to this chapter, except officers, cadets, aviation cadets, and midshipmen, for any noncapital offense made punishable by this chapter. No person with respect to whom summary courts-martial have jurisdiction may be brought to trial before a summary court-martial if he objects thereto. If objection to trial by summary court-martial is made by an accused, trial may be ordered by special or general court-martial as may be appropriate. Summary courts-martial may, under such limitations as the President may prescribe, adjudge any punishment not forbidden by this chapter except death, dismissal, dishonorable or bad-conduct discharge, confinement for more than one month, hard-labor without confinement for more than 45 days, restriction to specified limits for more than two months, or forfeiture of more than two-thirds of one month's pay.

(b) Non-criminal Forum.—A summary court-martial is a non-criminal forum. A finding of guilty at a summary court-martial does not constitute a criminal conviction.

(Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, 70A Stat. 43; Pub. L. 90–632, §2(6), Oct. 24, 1968, 82 Stat. 1336; Pub. L. 114–328, div. E, title LIV, §5164, Dec. 23, 2016, 130 Stat. 2899.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised sectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
820 50:580. May 5, 1950, ch. 169, §1 (Art. 20), 64 Stat. 114.

The word "shall" in the first sentence is omitted as surplusage. The word "may" is substituted for the word "shall" in the second sentence. The words "the provisions of" are omitted as surplusage. The word "If" is substituted for the word "Where". The words "for more than" are substituted for the words "in excess of". The words "more than" are substituted for the words "pay in excess of".

Amendments

2016Pub. L. 114–328 designated existing provisions as subsec. (a), inserted heading, and added subsec. (b).

1968Pub. L. 90–632 substituted provisions prohibiting trial by summary court-martial in all cases if the person objects thereto for provisions allowing such trial over the person's objection if he has previously been offered and has refused article 15 punishment.

Effective Date of 2016 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 114–328 effective on Jan. 1, 2019, as designated by the President, with implementing regulations and provisions relating to applicability to various situations, see section 5542 of Pub. L. 114–328 and Ex. Ord. No. 13825, set out as notes under section 801 of this title.

Effective Date of 1968 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 90–632 effective first day of tenth month following October 1968, see section 4 of Pub. L. 90–632, set out as a note under section 801 of this title.

§821. Art. 21. Jurisdiction of courts-martial not exclusive

The provisions of this chapter conferring jurisdiction upon courts-martial do not deprive military commissions, provost courts, or other military tribunals of concurrent jurisdiction with respect to offenders or offenses that by statute or by the law of war may be tried by military commissions, provost courts, or other military tribunals. This section does not apply to a military commission established under chapter 47A of this title.

(Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, 70A Stat. 44; Pub. L. 109–366, §4(a)(2), Oct. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 2631.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised sectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
821 50:581. May 5, 1950, ch. 169, §1 (Art. 21), 64 Stat. 115.

The words "do not deprive" are substituted for the words "shall not be construed as depriving". The words "with respect to" are substituted for the words "in respect of".

Amendments

2006Pub. L. 109–366 inserted last sentence.