[USC02] 12 USC CHAPTER 2, SUBCHAPTER XIV: BANK CONSERVATION ACT
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12 USC CHAPTER 2, SUBCHAPTER XIV: BANK CONSERVATION ACT
From Title 12—BANKS AND BANKINGCHAPTER 2—NATIONAL BANKS

SUBCHAPTER XIV—BANK CONSERVATION ACT

§201. Short title

This subchapter may be cited as the "Bank Conservation Act."

(Mar. 9, 1933, ch. 1, title II, §201, 48 Stat. 2.)

§202. Definitions

As used in this subchapter, the term "bank" means any national banking association or any other financial institution chartered or licensed under Federal law and subject to the supervision of the Comptroller of the Currency; the term "voluntary dissolution and liquidation" means a transaction pursuant to section 181 of this title that involves the assumption of the bank's insured deposit liabilities and the sale of the bank, or of control of the bank, as a going concern; and the term "State" means any State, Territory, or possession of the United States, and the Canal Zone.

(Mar. 9, 1933, ch. 1, title II, §202, 48 Stat. 2; Pub. L. 101–73, title VIII, §801, Aug. 9, 1989, 103 Stat. 441; Pub. L. 109–351, title VII, §725(b), Oct. 13, 2006, 120 Stat. 2001; Pub. L. 109–356, title I, §123(b), Oct. 16, 2006, 120 Stat. 2028.)

References in Text

For definition of Canal Zone, referred to in text, see section 3602(b) of Title 22, Foreign Relations and Intercourse.

Amendments

2006—Pub. L. 109–351 and 109–356 amended section identically, substituting "means any national" for "means (1) any national" and striking out ", and (2) any bank or trust company located in the District of Columbia and operating under the supervision of the Comptroller of the Currency" before first semicolon.

1989Pub. L. 101–73, §801(1), in cl. (1), extended term "bank" to include any financial institution chartered or licensed under Federal law and subject to supervision of Comptroller of the Currency.

Pub. L. 101–73, §801(2), in cl. (2), inserted definition of term "voluntary dissolution and liquidation".

§203. Appointment of conservator

(a) Appointment

The Comptroller of the Currency may, without prior notice or hearings, appoint a conservator (which may be the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation) to the possession and control of a bank whenever the Comptroller of the Currency determines that 1 or more of the grounds specified in section 11(c)(5) of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act [12 U.S.C. 1821(c)(5)] exist.

(b) Judicial review

(1) In general

Not later than 20 days after the initial appointment of a conservator pursuant to this section, the bank may bring an action in the United States district court for the judicial district in which the home office of such bank is located, or in the United States District Court for the District of Columbia, for an order requiring the Comptroller to terminate the appointment of the conservator, and the court, upon the merits, shall dismiss such action or shall direct the Comptroller to terminate the appointment of such conservator. The Comptroller's decision to appoint a conservator pursuant to this section shall be set aside only if the court finds that such decision was arbitrary, capricious, an abuse of discretion, or otherwise not in accordance with law.

(2) Stay

The conservator may request that any judicial action or proceeding to which the conservator or the bank is or may become a party be stayed for a period of up to 45 days after the appointment of the conservator. Upon petition, the court shall grant such stay as to all parties.

(3) Actions and orders

Except as otherwise provided in this subsection, no court may take any action regarding the removal of a conservator, or restrain, or affect the exercise of powers or functions of a conservator. A court, upon application by the Comptroller, shall have jurisdiction to enforce an order of the Comptroller relating to—

(A) the conservatorship and the bank in conservatorship, or

(B) restraining or affecting the exercise of powers or functions of a conservator.

(c) Additional grounds for appointment

In addition to the foregoing provisions, the Comptroller may appoint a conservator for a bank if—

(1) the bank, by an affirmative vote of a majority of its board of directors or by an affirmative vote of a majority of its shareholders, consents to such appointment, or

(2) the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation terminates the bank's status as an insured bank.


The appointment of a conservator pursuant to this subsection shall not be subject to review.

(d) Exclusive authority

The Comptroller shall have exclusive power and jurisdiction to appoint a conservator for a bank. Whenever the Comptroller appoints a conservator for any bank, the Comptroller may appoint the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation conservator for such bank. The Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, as such conservator, shall have all the powers granted under the Federal Deposit Insurance Act [12 U.S.C. 1811 et seq.], and (when not inconsistent therewith) any other rights, powers, and privileges possessed by conservators of banks under this Act and any other provision of law. The Comptroller may also appoint another person as conservator, who shall be subject to the provisions of this Act.

(e) Replacement of conservator

The Comptroller may, without notice or hearing, replace a conservator with another conservator. Such replacement shall not affect the bank's right under subsection (b) to obtain judicial review of the Comptroller's original decision to appoint a conservator.

(Mar. 9, 1933, ch. 1, title II, §203, 48 Stat. 2; Pub. L. 101–73, title VIII, §802, Aug. 9, 1989, 103 Stat. 442; Pub. L. 102–242, title I, §133(c), Dec. 19, 1991, 105 Stat. 2271.)

References in Text

The Federal Deposit Insurance Act, referred to in subsec. (d), is act Sept. 21, 1950, ch. 967, §2, 64 Stat. 873, as amended, which is classified generally to chapter 16 (§1811 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1811 of this title and Tables.

This Act, referred to in subsec. (d), is act Mar. 9, 1933, ch. 1, 48 Stat. 1, popularly known as the Emergency Banking and Bank Conservation Act, which is classified to sections 51a, 51b, 51c, 51d, 95, 201 to 212, 248, 347b, 347c, 347d, 445 of this title and to section 4305 of Title 50, War and National Defense, and classified as a note under section 4305 of Title 50.

Section 51d of this title was repealed by act June 30, 1947, ch. 166, title II, §206(b), (o), 61 Stat. 208. For effect of the repeal on outstanding debentures held by banks, see References in Text note set out under section 51b–1 of this title.

Amendments

1991—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 102–242 amended subsec. (a) generally, substituting present provisions for provisions which specified circumstances under which Comptroller could appoint conservator.

1989Pub. L. 101–73 amended section generally, changing structure of section from a single unlettered paragraph to one consisting of subsections (a) to (e).

Effective Date of 1991 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 102–242 effective 1 year after Dec. 19, 1991, see section 133(g) of Pub. L. 102–242, set out as a note under section 191 of this title.

Exception as to Transfer of Functions

Functions vested by any provision of law in Comptroller of the Currency, referred to in this section, not included in transfer of functions to Secretary of the Treasury, see note set out under section 1 of this title.

Conservators of State Banks

Ex. Ord. No. 6080, Mar. 18, 1933, provided for appointment of conservators of State banks under certain regulations.

§204. Examinations

The Comptroller of the Currency (in consultation with the Board of Directors of the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation when the Corporation is appointed conservator) is authorized to examine and supervise the bank in conservatorship as long as the bank continues to operate as a going concern. The Comptroller may use reports and other information provided by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation for this purpose.

(Mar. 9, 1933, ch. 1, title II, §204, 48 Stat. 3; Pub. L. 101–73, title VIII, §803, Aug. 9, 1989, 103 Stat. 443.)

Amendments

1989Pub. L. 101–73 amended section generally. Prior to amendment, section read as follows: "The Comptroller of the Currency shall cause to be made such examinations of the affairs of such bank as shall be necessary to inform him as to the financial condition of such bank, and the examiner shall make a report thereon to the Comptroller of the Currency at the earliest practicable date."

Exception as to Transfer of Functions

Functions vested by any provision of law in Comptroller of the Currency, referred to in this section, not included in transfer of functions to Secretary of the Treasury, see note set out under section 1 of this title.

§205. Termination of conservatorship

(a) General rule

At any time the Comptroller 1 becomes satisfied that it may safely be done and that it would be in the public interest, the Comptroller (with the agreement of the Board of Directors of the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation when the Corporation has been appointed conservator) may—

(1) terminate the conservatorship and permit the involved bank to resume the transaction of its business subject to such terms, conditions, and limitations as the Comptroller may prescribe; or

(2) terminate the conservatorship upon a sale, merger, consolidation, purchase and assumption, change in control, or voluntary dissolution and liquidation of the involved bank.

(b) Other grounds for termination

The Comptroller also may terminate the conservatorship upon the appointment of a receiver pursuant to section 191 of this title.

(c) Enforcement under Federal Deposit Insurance Act

Such terms, conditions, and limitations as may be prescribed under subsection (a)(1) shall be enforceable under the provisions of section 8(i) of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act [12 U.S.C. 1818(i)], to the same extent as an order issued pursuant to section 8(b) of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act [12 U.S.C. 1818(b)] which has become final. The bank may bring an action in the United States district court for the judicial district in which the home office of such bank is located or in the United States District Court for the District of Columbia for an order requiring the Comptroller to terminate the order. An action for judicial review of the terms, conditions, and limitations may not be commenced later than 20 days from the date of the termination of the conservatorship or the imposition of the order, whichever is later.

(d) Action upon termination

(1) In general

Upon termination of the conservatorship under subsection (a)(2), the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, as conservator, or when another person is appointed conservator, such other person, shall conclude the affairs of the conservatorship in accordance with paragraph (2).

(2) Deposit and distribution of proceeds

(A) Within 180 days of the sale, merger, consolidation, purchase and assumption, change in control, or voluntary dissolution and liquidation, the conservator shall deposit all net proceeds received from the transaction, less any outstanding expenses of the conservatorship, with the United States district court for the judicial district in which the home office of such bank is located and shall cause notice to be published for three consecutive months and notify by mail all known and remaining creditors and shareholders. Within 60 days thereafter, any depositor, creditor, or other claimant of the bank, or any shareholder of the bank may bring an action in interpleader in that court for distribution of the proceeds. The district court shall distribute such funds equitably. If no such action is instituted within one year after the date the funds are deposited with the district court, title to such net proceeds shall revert to the United States and the district court shall remit the funds to the Treasury of the United States.

(B) The conservator shall be deemed to have discharged all responsibility of the conservatorship upon the deposit of the proceeds with the district court and giving the required notifications.

(Mar. 9, 1933, ch. 1, title II, §205, 48 Stat. 3; Pub. L. 101–73, title VIII, §804, Aug. 9, 1989, 103 Stat. 443.)

References in Text

The Federal Deposit Insurance Act, referred to in subsec. (c), is act Sept. 21, 1950, ch. 967, §2, 64 Stat. 873, as amended, which is classified generally to chapter 16 (§1811 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1811 of this title and Tables.

Amendments

1989Pub. L. 101–73 amended section generally. Prior to amendment, section read as follows: "If the Comptroller of the Currency becomes satisfied that it may safely be done and that it would be in the public interest, he may, in his discretion, terminate the conservatorship and permit such bank to resume the transaction of its business subject to such terms, conditions, restrictions and limitations as he may prescribe."

Exception as to Transfer of Functions

Functions vested by any provision of law in Comptroller of the Currency, referred to in this section, not included in transfer of functions to Secretary of the Treasury, see note set out under section 1 of this title.

1 So in original. Probably should be "Comptroller of the Currency".

§206. Conservator; powers and duties

(a) General powers

A conservator shall have all the powers of the shareholders, directors, and officers of the bank and may operate the bank in its own name unless the Comptroller 1 in the order of appointment limits the conservator's authority.

(b) Subject to rules of Comptroller

The conservator shall be subject to such rules, regulations, and orders as the Comptroller from time to time deems appropriate; and, except as otherwise specifically provided in such rules, regulations, or orders or in section 209 of this title, shall have the same rights and privileges and be subject to the same duties, restrictions, penalties, conditions, and limitations as apply to directors, officers, or employees of a national bank.

(c) Payment of depositors and creditors

The Comptroller may require the conservator to set aside and make available for withdrawal by depositors and payment to other creditors such amounts as in the opinion of the Comptroller may safely be used for that purpose. All depositors and creditors who are similarly situated shall be treated in the same manner.

(d) Compensation of conservator and employees

The conservator and professional employees appointed to represent or assist the conservator shall not be paid amounts greater than are payable to employees of the Federal Government for similar services, except that the Comptroller of the Currency may authorize payment at higher rates (but not in excess of rates prevailing in the private sector), if the Comptroller determines that paying such higher rates is necessary in order to recruit and retain competent personnel.

(e) Expenses

All expenses of any such conservatorship shall be paid by the bank and shall be a lien upon the bank which shall be prior to any other lien.

(Mar. 9, 1933, ch. 1, title II, §206, 48 Stat. 3; Pub. L. 101–73, title VIII, §805, Aug. 9, 1989, 103 Stat. 445.)

Amendments

1989Pub. L. 101–73 amended section generally. Prior to amendment, section read as follows: "While such bank is in the hands of the conservator appointed by the Comptroller of the Currency, the Comptroller may require the conservator to set aside and make available for withdrawal by depositors and payment to other creditors, on a ratable basis, such amounts as in the opinion of the Comptroller may safely be used for this purpose; and the Comptroller may, in his discretion, permit the conservator to receive deposits, but deposits received while the bank is in the hands of the conservator shall not be subject to any limitation as to payment or withdrawal, and such deposits shall be segregated and shall not be used to liquidate any indebtedness of such bank existing at the time that a conservator was appointed for it, or any subsequent indebtedness incurred for the purpose of liquidating any indebtedness of such bank existing at the time such conservator was appointed. Such deposits received while the bank is in the hands of the conservator shall be kept on hand in cash, invested in the direct obligations of the United States, or deposited with a Federal reserve bank. The Federal reserve banks are authorized to open and maintain separate deposit accounts for such purpose, or for the purpose of receiving deposits from State officials in charge of State banks under similar circumstances."

Exception as to Transfer of Functions

Functions vested by any provision of law in Comptroller of the Currency, referred to in this section, not included in transfer of functions to Secretary of the Treasury, see note set out under section 1 of this title.

1 So in original. Probably should be "Comptroller of the Currency".

§§207, 208. Repealed. Pub. L. 101–73, title VIII, §808, Aug. 9, 1989, 103 Stat. 446

Section 207, acts Mar. 9, 1933, ch. 1, title II, §207, 48 Stat. 3; May 20, 1933, ch. 34, 48 Stat. 72, prescribed conditions for reorganization of banks, requiring consent of depositors and other creditors, of stockholders, or of both depositors and other creditors and stockholders, namely that the reorganization plan be fair and equitable to depositors, other creditors, and stockholders and be in the public interest; that the plan be consented to in writing; and that the approved plan be binding on all consenting or nonconsenting depositors, creditors, and stockholders.

Section 208, act Mar. 9, 1933, ch. 1, title II, §208, 48 Stat. 4, made the provisions for segregation of deposits inapplicable after termination of conservatorship, and provided for termination of conservatorship after publication of notice of termination and mailing of a copy of such notice by registered mail to depositors of record.

§209. Liability protection

(a) Federal agency and employees

In any case in which the conservator is a Federal agency or an employee of the Government, the provisions of chapters 161 and 171 of title 28 shall apply with respect to such conservator's liability for acts or omissions performed pursuant to and in the course of the duties and responsibilities of the conservatorship.

(b) Other conservators

In any case where the conservator is not a conservator described in subsection (a), the conservator shall not be liable for damages in tort or otherwise for acts or omissions performed pursuant to and in the course of the duties and responsibilities of the conservatorship, unless such acts or omissions constitute gross negligence, including any similar conduct or any form of intentional tortious conduct, as determined by a court.

(c) Indemnification

The Comptroller 1 shall have authority to indemnify the conservator on such terms as the Comptroller deems proper.

(Mar. 9, 1933, ch. 1, title II, §209, 48 Stat. 5; Sept. 3, 1954, ch. 1263, §23, 68 Stat. 1234; Pub. L. 101–73, title VIII, §806, Aug. 9, 1989, 103 Stat. 445.)

Amendments

1989Pub. L. 101–73 amended section generally. Prior to amendment, section read as follows: "Conservators appointed pursuant to the provisions of this subchapter shall be subject to the provisions of and to the penalties prescribed by sections 334, 656, and 1005 of title 18; and sections 202, 216, 281, 431, 432, and 433 of title 18, in so far as applicable, are extended to apply to contracts, agreements, proceedings, dealings, claims and controversies by or with any such conservator or the Comptroller of the Currency under the provisions of this subchapter."

1954—Act Sept. 3, 1954, corrected references to title 18.

Exception as to Transfer of Functions

Functions vested by any provision of law in Comptroller of the Currency, referred to in this section, not included in transfer of functions to Secretary of the Treasury, see note set out under section 1 of this title.

1 So in original. Probably should be "Comptroller of the Currency".

§210. Governmental powers unimpaired

Nothing in this subchapter shall be construed to impair in any manner any powers of the President, the Secretary of the Treasury, the Comptroller of the Currency, or the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System.

(Mar. 9, 1933, ch. 1, title II, §210, 48 Stat. 5; Aug. 23, 1935, ch. 614, title II, §203(a), 49 Stat. 704.)

Change of Name

Act Aug. 23, 1935, ch. 614, title II, §203(a), 49 Stat. 704, changed the name of the Federal Reserve Board to Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System.

Exception as to Transfer of Functions

Functions vested by any provision of law in Comptroller of the Currency, referred to in this section, not included in transfer of functions to Secretary of the Treasury, see note set out under section 1 of this title.

§211. Rules and regulations

(a) In general

The Comptroller of the Currency may prescribe such rules and regulations as the Comptroller may deem necessary to carry out the provisions of this Act.

(b) F.D.I.C. as conservator

In any case in which the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation is the conservator, any rules or regulations prescribed by the Comptroller shall be consistent with any rules and regulations prescribed by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation pursuant to the Federal Deposit Insurance Act [12 U.S.C. 1811 et seq.].

(Mar. 9, 1933, ch. 1, title II, §211, 48 Stat. 5; Pub. L. 101–73, title VIII, §807, Aug. 9, 1989, 103 Stat. 446.)

References in Text

This Act, referred to in subsec. (a), is act Mar. 9, 1933, ch. 1, 48 Stat. 1, popularly known as the Emergency Banking and Bank Conservation Act, which is classified to sections 51a, 51b, 51c, 51d, 95, 201 to 212, 248, 347b, 347c, 347d, and 445 of this title and section 4305 of Title 50, War and National Defense, and classified as a note under section 4305 of Title 50.

Section 51d of this title was repealed by act June 30, 1947, ch. 166, title II, §206(b), (o), 61 Stat. 208. For effect of the repeal on outstanding debentures held by banks, see References in Text note set out under section 51b–1 of this title.

The Federal Deposit Insurance Act, referred to in subsec. (b), is act Sept. 21, 1950, ch. 967, §2, 64 Stat. 873, as amended, which is classified generally to chapter 16 (§1811 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1811 of this title and Tables.

Amendments

1989Pub. L. 101–73 amended section generally. Prior to amendment, section read as follows: "The Comptroller of the Currency is authorized and empowered, with the approval of the Secretary of the Treasury, to prescribe such rules and regulations as he may deem necessary in order to carry out the provisions of this subchapter. Whoever violates any rule or regulation made pursuant to this section shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not more than $5,000, or imprisoned not more than one year, or both."

Exception as to Transfer of Functions

Functions vested by any provision of law in Comptroller of the Currency, referred to in this section, not included in transfer of functions to Secretary of the Treasury, see note set out under section 1 of this title.

§212. Right to amend; separability

The right to alter, amend, or repeal this Act is expressly reserved. If any provision of this Act, or the application there of to any person or circumstances, is held invalid, the remainder of the Act, and the application of such provision to other persons or circumstances, shall not be affected thereby.

(Mar. 9, 1933, ch. 1, title V, §502, 48 Stat. 7.)

References in Text

This Act, referred to in text, is act Mar. 9, 1933, ch. 1, 48 Stat. 1, popularly known as the Emergency Banking and Bank Conservation Act, which is classified to sections 51a, 51b, 51c, 51d, 95, 201 to 212, 248, 347b, 347c, 347d, and 445 of this title and section 4305 of Title 50, War and National Defense, and classified as a note under section 4305 of Title 50.

Section 51d of this title was repealed by act June 30, 1947, ch. 166, title II, §206(b), (o), 61 Stat. 208. For effect of the repeal on outstanding debentures held by banks, see References in Text note set out under section 51b–1 of this title.

Codification

This section was not enacted as part of title II of act Mar. 9, 1933, ch. 1, 48 Stat. 2, which comprises this subchapter.

§213. Transferred

Codification

Section, act Jan. 30, 1934, ch. 6, §13, 48 Stat. 343, relating to ratification of acts of the President and Secretary of the Treasury, was transferred to section 824 of former Title 31, and subsequently repealed by Pub. L. 97–258, Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 1068, the first section of which enacted Title 31, Money and Finance.