[USC02] 12 USC CHAPTER 53, SUBCHAPTER I, Part A: Financial Stability Oversight Council
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12 USC CHAPTER 53, SUBCHAPTER I, Part A: Financial Stability Oversight Council
From Title 12—BANKS AND BANKINGCHAPTER 53—WALL STREET REFORM AND CONSUMER PROTECTIONSUBCHAPTER I—FINANCIAL STABILITY

Part A—Financial Stability Oversight Council

§5321. Financial Stability Oversight Council established

(a) Establishment

Effective on July 21, 2010, there is established the Financial Stability Oversight Council.

(b) Membership

The Council shall consist of the following members:

(1) Voting members

The voting members, who shall each have 1 vote on the Council shall be—

(A) the Secretary of the Treasury, who shall serve as Chairperson of the Council;

(B) the Chairman of the Board of Governors;

(C) the Comptroller of the Currency;

(D) the Director of the Bureau;

(E) the Chairman of the Commission;

(F) the Chairperson of the Corporation;

(G) the Chairperson of the Commodity Futures Trading Commission;

(H) the Director of the Federal Housing Finance Agency;

(I) the Chairman of the National Credit Union Administration Board; and

(J) an independent member appointed by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, having insurance expertise.

(2) Nonvoting members

The nonvoting members, who shall serve in an advisory capacity as a nonvoting member of the Council, shall be—

(A) the Director of the Office of Financial Research;

(B) the Director of the Federal Insurance Office;

(C) a State insurance commissioner, to be designated by a selection process determined by the State insurance commissioners;

(D) a State banking supervisor, to be designated by a selection process determined by the State banking supervisors; and

(E) a State securities commissioner (or an officer performing like functions), to be designated by a selection process determined by such State securities commissioners.

(3) Nonvoting member participation

The nonvoting members of the Council shall not be excluded from any of the proceedings, meetings, discussions, or deliberations of the Council, except that the Chairperson may, upon an affirmative vote of the member agencies, exclude the nonvoting members from any of the proceedings, meetings, discussions, or deliberations of the Council when necessary to safeguard and promote the free exchange of confidential supervisory information.

(c) Terms; vacancy

(1) Terms

The independent member of the Council shall serve for a term of 6 years, and each nonvoting member described in subparagraphs (C), (D), and (E) of subsection (b)(2) shall serve for a term of 2 years.

(2) Vacancy

Any vacancy on the Council shall be filled in the manner in which the original appointment was made.

(3) Acting officials may serve

In the event of a vacancy in the office of the head of a member agency or department, and pending the appointment of a successor, or during the absence or disability of the head of a member agency or department, the acting head of the member agency or department shall serve as a member of the Council in the place of that agency or department head.

(4) Term of independent member

Notwithstanding paragraph (1), if a successor to the independent member of the Council serving under subsection (b)(1)(J) is not appointed and confirmed by the end of the term of service of such member, such member may continue to serve until the earlier of—

(A) 18 months after the date on which the term of service ends; or

(B) the date on which a successor to such member is appointed and confirmed.

(d) Technical and professional advisory committees

The Council may appoint such special advisory, technical, or professional committees as may be useful in carrying out the functions of the Council, including an advisory committee consisting of State regulators, and the members of such committees may be members of the Council, or other persons, or both.

(e) Meetings

(1) Timing

The Council shall meet at the call of the Chairperson or a majority of the members then serving, but not less frequently than quarterly.

(2) Rules for conducting business

The Council shall adopt such rules as may be necessary for the conduct of the business of the Council. Such rules shall be rules of agency organization, procedure, or practice for purposes of section 553 of title 5.

(f) Voting

Unless otherwise specified, the Council shall make all decisions that it is authorized or required to make by a majority vote of the voting members then serving.

(g) Nonapplicability of FACA

The Federal Advisory Committee Act (5 U.S.C. App.) shall not apply to the Council, or to any special advisory, technical, or professional committee appointed by the Council, except that, if an advisory, technical, or professional committee has one or more members who are not employees of or affiliated with the United States Government, the Council shall publish a list of the names of the members of such committee.

(h) Assistance from Federal agencies

Any department or agency of the United States may provide to the Council and any special advisory, technical, or professional committee appointed by the Council, such services, funds, facilities, staff, and other support services as the Council may determine advisable.

(i) Compensation of members

(1) Federal employee members

All members of the Council who are officers or employees of the United States shall serve without compensation in addition to that received for their services as officers or employees of the United States.

(2) Omitted

(j) Detail of Government employees

Any employee of the Federal Government may be detailed to the Council without reimbursement, and such detail shall be without interruption or loss of civil service status or privilege. An employee of the Federal Government detailed to the Council shall report to and be subject to oversight by the Council during the assignment to the Council, and shall be compensated by the department or agency from which the employee was detailed.

(Pub. L. 111–203, title I, §111, July 21, 2010, 124 Stat. 1392; Pub. L. 115–61, §2, Sept. 27, 2017, 131 Stat. 1158.)

References in Text

The Federal Advisory Committee Act, referred to in subsec. (g), is Pub. L. 92–463, Oct. 6, 1972, 86 Stat. 770, which is set out in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

Codification

Section is comprised of section 111 of Pub. L. 111–203. Subsec. (i)(2) of section 111 of Pub. L. 111–203 amended section 5314 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

Amendments

2017—Subsec. (c)(4). Pub. L. 115–61 added par. (4).

§5322. Council authority

(a) Purposes and duties of the Council

(1) In general

The purposes of the Council are—

(A) to identify risks to the financial stability of the United States that could arise from the material financial distress or failure, or ongoing activities, of large, interconnected bank holding companies or nonbank financial companies, or that could arise outside the financial services marketplace;

(B) to promote market discipline, by eliminating expectations on the part of shareholders, creditors, and counterparties of such companies that the Government will shield them from losses in the event of failure; and

(C) to respond to emerging threats to the stability of the United States financial system.

(2) Duties

The Council shall, in accordance with this subchapter—

(A) collect information from member agencies, other Federal and State financial regulatory agencies, the Federal Insurance Office and, if necessary to assess risks to the United States financial system, direct the Office of Financial Research to collect information from bank holding companies and nonbank financial companies;

(B) provide direction to, and request data and analyses from, the Office of Financial Research to support the work of the Council;

(C) monitor the financial services marketplace in order to identify potential threats to the financial stability of the United States;

(D) to 1 monitor domestic and international financial regulatory proposals and developments, including insurance and accounting issues, and to advise Congress and make recommendations in such areas that will enhance the integrity, efficiency, competitiveness, and stability of the U.S. financial markets;

(E) facilitate information sharing and coordination among the member agencies and other Federal and State agencies regarding domestic financial services policy development, rulemaking, examinations, reporting requirements, and enforcement actions;

(F) recommend to the member agencies general supervisory priorities and principles reflecting the outcome of discussions among the member agencies;

(G) identify gaps in regulation that could pose risks to the financial stability of the United States;

(H) require supervision by the Board of Governors for nonbank financial companies that may pose risks to the financial stability of the United States in the event of their material financial distress or failure, or because of their activities pursuant to section 5323 of this title;

(I) make recommendations to the Board of Governors concerning the establishment of heightened prudential standards for risk-based capital, leverage, liquidity, contingent capital, resolution plans and credit exposure reports, concentration limits, enhanced public disclosures, and overall risk management for nonbank financial companies and large, interconnected bank holding companies supervised by the Board of Governors;

(J) identify systemically important financial market utilities and payment, clearing, and settlement activities (as that term is defined in subchapter IV);

(K) make recommendations to primary financial regulatory agencies to apply new or heightened standards and safeguards for financial activities or practices that could create or increase risks of significant liquidity, credit, or other problems spreading among bank holding companies, nonbank financial companies, and United States financial markets;

(L) review and, as appropriate, may submit comments to the Commission and any standard-setting body with respect to an existing or proposed accounting principle, standard, or procedure;

(M) provide a forum for—

(i) discussion and analysis of emerging market developments and financial regulatory issues; and

(ii) resolution of jurisdictional disputes among the members of the Council; and


(N) annually report to and testify before Congress on—

(i) the activities of the Council;

(ii) significant financial market and regulatory developments, including insurance and accounting regulations and standards, along with an assessment of those developments on the stability of the financial system;

(iii) potential emerging threats to the financial stability of the United States;

(iv) all determinations made under section 5323 of this title or subchapter IV, and the basis for such determinations;

(v) all recommendations made under section 5329 of this title and the result of such recommendations; and

(vi) recommendations—

(I) to enhance the integrity, efficiency, competitiveness, and stability of United States financial markets;

(II) to promote market discipline; and

(III) to maintain investor confidence.

(b) Statements by voting members of the Council

At the time at which each report is submitted under subsection (a), each voting member of the Council shall—

(1) if such member believes that the Council, the Government, and the private sector are taking all reasonable steps to ensure financial stability and to mitigate systemic risk that would negatively affect the economy, submit a signed statement to Congress stating such belief; or

(2) if such member does not believe that all reasonable steps described under paragraph (1) are being taken, submit a signed statement to Congress stating what actions such member believes need to be taken in order to ensure that all reasonable steps described under paragraph (1) are taken.

(c) Testimony by the Chairperson

The Chairperson shall appear before the Committee on Financial Services of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs of the Senate at an annual hearing, after the report is submitted under subsection (a)—

(1) to discuss the efforts, activities, objectives, and plans of the Council; and

(2) to discuss and answer questions concerning such report.

(d) Authority to obtain information

(1) In general

The Council may receive, and may request the submission of, any data or information from the Office of Financial Research, member agencies, and the Federal Insurance Office, as necessary—

(A) to monitor the financial services marketplace to identify potential risks to the financial stability of the United States; or

(B) to otherwise carry out any of the provisions of this subchapter.

(2) Submissions by the office and member agencies

Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the Office of Financial Research, any member agency, and the Federal Insurance Office, are authorized to submit information to the Council.

(3) Financial data collection

(A) In general

The Council, acting through the Office of Financial Research, may require the submission of periodic and other reports from any nonbank financial company or bank holding company for the purpose of assessing the extent to which a financial activity or financial market in which the nonbank financial company or bank holding company participates, or the nonbank financial company or bank holding company itself, poses a threat to the financial stability of the United States.

(B) Mitigation of report burden

Before requiring the submission of reports from any nonbank financial company or bank holding company that is regulated by a member agency or any primary financial regulatory agency, the Council, acting through the Office of Financial Research, shall coordinate with such agencies and shall, whenever possible, rely on information available from the Office of Financial Research or such agencies.

(C) Mitigation in case of foreign financial companies

Before requiring the submission of reports from a company that is a foreign nonbank financial company or foreign-based bank holding company, the Council shall, acting through the Office of Financial Research, to the extent appropriate, consult with the appropriate foreign regulator of such company and, whenever possible, rely on information already being collected by such foreign regulator, with English translation.

(4) Back-up examination by the Board of Governors

If the Council is unable to determine whether the financial activities of a U.S. nonbank financial company pose a threat to the financial stability of the United States, based on information or reports obtained under paragraphs (1) and (3), discussions with management, and publicly available information, the Council may request the Board of Governors, and the Board of Governors is authorized, to conduct an examination of the U.S. nonbank financial company for the sole purpose of determining whether the nonbank financial company should be supervised by the Board of Governors for purposes of this subchapter.

(5) Confidentiality

(A) In general

The Council, the Office of Financial Research, and the other member agencies shall maintain the confidentiality of any data, information, and reports submitted under this subchapter.

(B) Retention of privilege

The submission of any nonpublicly available data or information under this subsection and part B shall not constitute a waiver of, or otherwise affect, any privilege arising under Federal or State law (including the rules of any Federal or State court) to which the data or information is otherwise subject.

(C) Freedom of Information Act

Section 552 of title 5, including the exceptions thereunder, shall apply to any data or information submitted under this subsection and part B.

(Pub. L. 111–203, title I, §112, July 21, 2010, 124 Stat. 1394.)

References in Text

This subchapter, referred to in subsecs. (a)(2) and (d)(1)(B), (4), (5)(A), was in the original "this title", meaning title I of Pub. L. 111–203, July 21, 2010, 124 Stat. 1391, which is classified principally to this subchapter. For complete classification of title I to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 5301 of this title and Tables.

1 So in original. The word "to" probably should not appear.

§5323. Authority to require supervision and regulation of certain nonbank financial companies

(a) U.S. nonbank financial companies supervised by the Board of Governors

(1) Determination

The Council, on a nondelegable basis and by a vote of not fewer than 2/3 of the voting members then serving, including an affirmative vote by the Chairperson, may determine that a U.S. nonbank financial company shall be supervised by the Board of Governors and shall be subject to prudential standards, in accordance with this subchapter, if the Council determines that material financial distress at the U.S. nonbank financial company, or the nature, scope, size, scale, concentration, interconnectedness, or mix of the activities of the U.S. nonbank financial company, could pose a threat to the financial stability of the United States.

(2) Considerations

In making a determination under paragraph (1), the Council shall consider—

(A) the extent of the leverage of the company;

(B) the extent and nature of the off-balance-sheet exposures of the company;

(C) the extent and nature of the transactions and relationships of the company with other significant nonbank financial companies and significant bank holding companies;

(D) the importance of the company as a source of credit for households, businesses, and State and local governments and as a source of liquidity for the United States financial system;

(E) the importance of the company as a source of credit for low-income, minority, or underserved communities, and the impact that the failure of such company would have on the availability of credit in such communities;

(F) the extent to which assets are managed rather than owned by the company, and the extent to which ownership of assets under management is diffuse;

(G) the nature, scope, size, scale, concentration, interconnectedness, and mix of the activities of the company;

(H) the degree to which the company is already regulated by 1 or more primary financial regulatory agencies;

(I) the amount and nature of the financial assets of the company;

(J) the amount and types of the liabilities of the company, including the degree of reliance on short-term funding; and

(K) any other risk-related factors that the Council deems appropriate.

(b) Foreign nonbank financial companies supervised by the Board of Governors

(1) Determination

The Council, on a nondelegable basis and by a vote of not fewer than 2/3 of the voting members then serving, including an affirmative vote by the Chairperson, may determine that a foreign nonbank financial company shall be supervised by the Board of Governors and shall be subject to prudential standards, in accordance with this subchapter, if the Council determines that material financial distress at the foreign nonbank financial company, or the nature, scope, size, scale, concentration, interconnectedness, or mix of the activities of the foreign nonbank financial company, could pose a threat to the financial stability of the United States.

(2) Considerations

In making a determination under paragraph (1), the Council shall consider—

(A) the extent of the leverage of the company;

(B) the extent and nature of the United States related off-balance-sheet exposures of the company;

(C) the extent and nature of the transactions and relationships of the company with other significant nonbank financial companies and significant bank holding companies;

(D) the importance of the company as a source of credit for United States households, businesses, and State and local governments and as a source of liquidity for the United States financial system;

(E) the importance of the company as a source of credit for low-income, minority, or underserved communities in the United States, and the impact that the failure of such company would have on the availability of credit in such communities;

(F) the extent to which assets are managed rather than owned by the company and the extent to which ownership of assets under management is diffuse;

(G) the nature, scope, size, scale, concentration, interconnectedness, and mix of the activities of the company;

(H) the extent to which the company is subject to prudential standards on a consolidated basis in its home country that are administered and enforced by a comparable foreign supervisory authority;

(I) the amount and nature of the United States financial assets of the company;

(J) the amount and nature of the liabilities of the company used to fund activities and operations in the United States, including the degree of reliance on short-term funding; and

(K) any other risk-related factors that the Council deems appropriate.

(c) Antievasion

(1) Determinations

In order to avoid evasion of this subchapter, the Council, on its own initiative or at the request of the Board of Governors, may determine, on a nondelegable basis and by a vote of not fewer than 2/3 of the voting members then serving, including an affirmative vote by the Chairperson, that—

(A) material financial distress related to, or the nature, scope, size, scale, concentration, interconnectedness, or mix of, the financial activities conducted directly or indirectly by a company incorporated or organized under the laws of the United States or any State or the financial activities in the United States of a company incorporated or organized in a country other than the United States would pose a threat to the financial stability of the United States, based on consideration of the factors in subsection (a)(2) or (b)(2), as applicable;

(B) the company is organized or operates in such a manner as to evade the application of this subchapter; and

(C) such financial activities of the company shall be supervised by the Board of Governors and subject to prudential standards in accordance with this subchapter, consistent with paragraph (3).

(2) Report

Upon making a determination under paragraph (1), the Council shall submit a report to the appropriate committees of Congress detailing the reasons for making such determination.

(3) Consolidated supervision of only financial activities; establishment of an intermediate holding company

(A) Establishment of an intermediate holding company

Upon a determination under paragraph (1), the company that is the subject of the determination may establish an intermediate holding company in which the financial activities of such company and its subsidiaries shall be conducted (other than the activities described in section 5367(b)(2) of this title) in compliance with any regulations or guidance provided by the Board of Governors. Such intermediate holding company shall be subject to the supervision of the Board of Governors and to prudential standards under this subchapter as if the intermediate holding company were a nonbank financial company supervised by the Board of Governors.

(B) Action of the Board of Governors

To facilitate the supervision of the financial activities subject to the determination in paragraph (1), the Board of Governors may require a company to establish an intermediate holding company, as provided for in section 5367 of this title, which would be subject to the supervision of the Board of Governors and to prudential standards under this subchapter, as if the intermediate holding company were a nonbank financial company supervised by the Board of Governors.

(4) Notice and opportunity for hearing and final determination; judicial review

Subsections (d) through (h) shall apply to determinations made by the Council pursuant to paragraph (1) in the same manner as such subsections apply to nonbank financial companies.

(5) Covered financial activities

For purposes of this subsection, the term "financial activities"—

(A) means activities that are financial in nature (as defined in section 1843(k) of this title);

(B) includes the ownership or control of one or more insured depository institutions; and

(C) does not include internal financial activities conducted for the company or any affiliate thereof, including internal treasury, investment, and employee benefit functions.

(6) Only financial activities subject to prudential supervision

Nonfinancial activities of the company shall not be subject to supervision by the Board of Governors and prudential standards of the Board. For purposes of this Act, the financial activities that are the subject of the determination in paragraph (1) shall be subject to the same requirements as a nonbank financial company supervised by the Board of Governors. Nothing in this paragraph shall prohibit or limit the authority of the Board of Governors to apply prudential standards under this subchapter to the financial activities that are subject to the determination in paragraph (1).

(d) Reevaluation and rescission

The Council shall—

(1) not less frequently than annually, reevaluate each determination made under subsections (a) and (b) with respect to such nonbank financial company supervised by the Board of Governors; and

(2) rescind any such determination, if the Council, by a vote of not fewer than 2/3 of the voting members then serving, including an affirmative vote by the Chairperson, determines that the nonbank financial company no longer meets the standards under subsection (a) or (b), as applicable.

(e) Notice and opportunity for hearing and final determination

(1) In general

The Council shall provide to a nonbank financial company written notice of a proposed determination of the Council, including an explanation of the basis of the proposed determination of the Council, that a nonbank financial company shall be supervised by the Board of Governors and shall be subject to prudential standards in accordance with this subchapter.

(2) Hearing

Not later than 30 days after the date of receipt of any notice of a proposed determination under paragraph (1), the nonbank financial company may request, in writing, an opportunity for a written or oral hearing before the Council to contest the proposed determination. Upon receipt of a timely request, the Council shall fix a time (not later than 30 days after the date of receipt of the request) and place at which such company may appear, personally or through counsel, to submit written materials (or, at the sole discretion of the Council, oral testimony and oral argument).

(3) Final determination

Not later than 60 days after the date of a hearing under paragraph (2), the Council shall notify the nonbank financial company of the final determination of the Council, which shall contain a statement of the basis for the decision of the Council.

(4) No hearing requested

If a nonbank financial company does not make a timely request for a hearing, the Council shall notify the nonbank financial company, in writing, of the final determination of the Council under subsection (a) or (b), as applicable, not later than 10 days after the date by which the company may request a hearing under paragraph (2).

(f) Emergency exception

(1) In general

The Council may waive or modify the requirements of subsection (e) with respect to a nonbank financial company, if the Council determines, by a vote of not fewer than 2/3 of the voting members then serving, including an affirmative vote by the Chairperson, that such waiver or modification is necessary or appropriate to prevent or mitigate threats posed by the nonbank financial company to the financial stability of the United States.

(2) Notice

The Council shall provide notice of a waiver or modification under this subsection to the nonbank financial company concerned as soon as practicable, but not later than 24 hours after the waiver or modification is granted.

(3) International coordination

In making a determination under paragraph (1), the Council shall consult with the appropriate home country supervisor, if any, of the foreign nonbank financial company that is being considered for such a determination.

(4) Opportunity for hearing

The Council shall allow a nonbank financial company to request, in writing, an opportunity for a written or oral hearing before the Council to contest a waiver or modification under this subsection, not later than 10 days after the date of receipt of notice of the waiver or modification by the company. Upon receipt of a timely request, the Council shall fix a time (not later than 15 days after the date of receipt of the request) and place at which the nonbank financial company may appear, personally or through counsel, to submit written materials (or, at the sole discretion of the Council, oral testimony and oral argument).

(5) Notice of final determination

Not later than 30 days after the date of any hearing under paragraph (4), the Council shall notify the subject nonbank financial company of the final determination of the Council under this subsection, which shall contain a statement of the basis for the decision of the Council.

(g) Consultation

The Council shall consult with the primary financial regulatory agency, if any, for each nonbank financial company or subsidiary of a nonbank financial company that is being considered for supervision by the Board of Governors under this section before the Council makes any final determination with respect to such nonbank financial company under subsection (a), (b), or (c).

(h) Judicial review

If the Council makes a final determination under this section with respect to a nonbank financial company, such nonbank financial company may, not later than 30 days after the date of receipt of the notice of final determination under subsection (d)(2), (e)(3), or (f)(5), bring an action in the United States district court for the judicial district in which the home office of such nonbank financial company is located, or in the United States District Court for the District of Columbia, for an order requiring that the final determination be rescinded, and the court shall, upon review, dismiss such action or direct the final determination to be rescinded. Review of such an action shall be limited to whether the final determination made under this section was arbitrary and capricious.

(i) International coordination

In exercising its duties under this subchapter with respect to foreign nonbank financial companies, foreign-based bank holding companies, and cross-border activities and markets, the Council shall consult with appropriate foreign regulatory authorities, to the extent appropriate.

(Pub. L. 111–203, title I, §113, July 21, 2010, 124 Stat. 1398.)

References in Text

This subchapter, referred to in subsecs. (a)(1), (b)(1), (c)(1), (3), (6), (e)(1), and (i), was in the original "this title", meaning title I of Pub. L. 111–203, July 21, 2010, 124 Stat. 1391, which is classified principally to this subchapter. For complete classification of title I to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 5301 of this title and Tables.

This Act, referred to in subsec. (c)(6), is Pub. L. 111–203, July 21, 2010, 124 Stat. 1376, known as the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act, which enacted this chapter and chapters 108 (§8201 et seq.) and 109 (§8301 et seq.) of Title 15, Commerce and Trade, and enacted, amended, and repealed numerous other sections and notes in the Code. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 5301 of this title and Tables.

§5324. Registration of nonbank financial companies supervised by the Board of Governors

Not later than 180 days after the date of a final Council determination under section 5323 of this title that a nonbank financial company is to be supervised by the Board of Governors, such company shall register with the Board of Governors, on forms prescribed by the Board of Governors, which shall include such information as the Board of Governors, in consultation with the Council, may deem necessary or appropriate to carry out this subchapter.

(Pub. L. 111–203, title I, §114, July 21, 2010, 124 Stat. 1403.)

References in Text

This subchapter, referred to in text, was in the original "this title", meaning title I of Pub. L. 111–203, July 21, 2010, 124 Stat. 1391, which is classified principally to this subchapter. For complete classification of title I to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 5301 of this title and Tables.

§5325. Enhanced supervision and prudential standards for nonbank financial companies supervised by the Board of Governors and certain bank holding companies

(a) In general

(1) Purpose

In order to prevent or mitigate risks to the financial stability of the United States that could arise from the material financial distress, failure, or ongoing activities of large, interconnected financial institutions, the Council may make recommendations to the Board of Governors concerning the establishment and refinement of prudential standards and reporting and disclosure requirements applicable to nonbank financial companies supervised by the Board of Governors and large, interconnected bank holding companies, that—

(A) are more stringent than those applicable to other nonbank financial companies and bank holding companies that do not present similar risks to the financial stability of the United States; and

(B) increase in stringency, based on the considerations identified in subsection (b)(3).

(2) Recommended application of required standards

In making recommendations under this section, the Council may—

(A) differentiate among companies that are subject to heightened standards on an individual basis or by category, taking into consideration their capital structure, riskiness, complexity, financial activities (including the financial activities of their subsidiaries), size, and any other risk-related factors that the Council deems appropriate; or

(B) recommend an asset threshold that is higher than the applicable threshold for the application of any standard described in subsections (c) through (g).

(b) Development of prudential standards

(1) In general

The recommendations of the Council under subsection (a) may include—

(A) risk-based capital requirements;

(B) leverage limits;

(C) liquidity requirements;

(D) resolution plan and credit exposure report requirements;

(E) concentration limits;

(F) a contingent capital requirement;

(G) enhanced public disclosures;

(H) short-term debt limits; and

(I) overall risk management requirements.

(2) Prudential standards for foreign financial companies

In making recommendations concerning the standards set forth in paragraph (1) that would apply to foreign nonbank financial companies supervised by the Board of Governors or foreign-based bank holding companies, the Council shall—

(A) give due regard to the principle of national treatment and equality of competitive opportunity; and

(B) take into account the extent to which the foreign nonbank financial company or foreign-based bank holding company is subject on a consolidated basis to home country standards that are comparable to those applied to financial companies in the United States.

(3) Considerations

In making recommendations concerning prudential standards under paragraph (1), the Council shall—

(A) take into account differences among nonbank financial companies supervised by the Board of Governors and bank holding companies described in subsection (a), based on—

(i) the factors described in subsections (a) and (b) of section 5323 of this title;

(ii) whether the company owns an insured depository institution;

(iii) nonfinancial activities and affiliations of the company; and

(iv) any other factors that the Council determines appropriate;


(B) to the extent possible, ensure that small changes in the factors listed in subsections (a) and (b) of section 5323 of this title would not result in sharp, discontinuous changes in the prudential standards established under section 5365 of this title; and

(C) adapt its recommendations as appropriate in light of any predominant line of business of such company, including assets under management or other activities for which particular standards may not be appropriate.

(c) Contingent capital

(1) Study required

The Council shall conduct a study of the feasibility, benefits, costs, and structure of a contingent capital requirement for nonbank financial companies supervised by the Board of Governors and bank holding companies described in subsection (a), which study shall include—

(A) an evaluation of the degree to which such requirement would enhance the safety and soundness of companies subject to the requirement, promote the financial stability of the United States, and reduce risks to United States taxpayers;

(B) an evaluation of the characteristics and amounts of contingent capital that should be required;

(C) an analysis of potential prudential standards that should be used to determine whether the contingent capital of a company would be converted to equity in times of financial stress;

(D) an evaluation of the costs to companies, the effects on the structure and operation of credit and other financial markets, and other economic effects of requiring contingent capital;

(E) an evaluation of the effects of such requirement on the international competitiveness of companies subject to the requirement and the prospects for international coordination in establishing such requirement; and

(F) recommendations for implementing regulations.

(2) Report

The Council shall submit a report to Congress regarding the study required by paragraph (1) not later than 2 years after July 21, 2010.

(3) Recommendations

(A) In general

Subsequent to submitting a report to Congress under paragraph (2), the Council may make recommendations to the Board of Governors to require any nonbank financial company supervised by the Board of Governors and any bank holding company described in subsection (a) to maintain a minimum amount of contingent capital that is convertible to equity in times of financial stress.

(B) Factors to consider

In making recommendations under this subsection, the Council shall consider—

(i) an appropriate transition period for implementation of a conversion under this subsection;

(ii) the factors described in subsection (b)(3);

(iii) capital requirements applicable to a nonbank financial company supervised by the Board of Governors or a bank holding company described in subsection (a), and subsidiaries thereof;

(iv) results of the study required by paragraph (1); and

(v) any other factor that the Council deems appropriate.

(d) Resolution plan and credit exposure reports

(1) Resolution plan

The Council may make recommendations to the Board of Governors concerning the requirement that each nonbank financial company supervised by the Board of Governors and each bank holding company described in subsection (a) report periodically to the Council, the Board of Governors, and the Corporation, the plan of such company for rapid and orderly resolution in the event of material financial distress or failure.

(2) Credit exposure report

The Council may make recommendations to the Board of Governors concerning the advisability of requiring each nonbank financial company supervised by the Board of Governors and bank holding company described in subsection (a) to report periodically to the Council, the Board of Governors, and the Corporation on—

(A) the nature and extent to which the company has credit exposure to other significant nonbank financial companies and significant bank holding companies; and

(B) the nature and extent to which other such significant nonbank financial companies and significant bank holding companies have credit exposure to that company.

(e) Concentration limits

In order to limit the risks that the failure of any individual company could pose to nonbank financial companies supervised by the Board of Governors or bank holding companies described in subsection (a), the Council may make recommendations to the Board of Governors to prescribe standards to limit such risks, as set forth in section 5365 of this title.

(f) Enhanced public disclosures

The Council may make recommendations to the Board of Governors to require periodic public disclosures by bank holding companies described in subsection (a) and by nonbank financial companies supervised by the Board of Governors, in order to support market evaluation of the risk profile, capital adequacy, and risk management capabilities thereof.

(g) Short-term debt limits

The Council may make recommendations to the Board of Governors to require short-term debt limits to mitigate the risks that an over-accumulation of such debt could pose to bank holding companies described in subsection (a), nonbank financial companies supervised by the Board of Governors, or the financial system.

(Pub. L. 111–203, title I, §115, July 21, 2010, 124 Stat. 1403; Pub. L. 115–174, title IV, §401(c)(1)(A), May 24, 2018, 132 Stat. 1358.)

Delayed Effective Date of Amendment

For delayed effective date of amendment by Pub. L. 115–174, except with respect to certain bank holding companies, see Effective Date of 2018 Amendment note set out under section 5365 of this title.

Amendments

2018—Subsec. (a)(2)(B). Pub. L. 115–174 substituted "the applicable threshold" for "$50,000,000,000".

Effective Date of 2018 Amendment

Except as otherwise provided, amendment by Pub. L. 115–174 effective 18 months after May 24, 2018, see section 401(d) of Pub. L. 115–174, set out as a note under section 5365 of this title.

Construction of 2018 Amendment

For construction of amendment by Pub. L. 115–174 as applied to certain foreign banking organizations, see section 401(g) of Pub. L. 115–174, set out as a note under section 5365 of this title.

§5326. Reports

(a) In general

Subject to subsection (b), the Council, acting through the Office of Financial Research, may require a bank holding company with total consolidated assets of $250,000,000,000 or greater or a nonbank financial company supervised by the Board of Governors, and any subsidiary thereof, to submit certified reports to keep the Council informed as to—

(1) the financial condition of the company;

(2) systems for monitoring and controlling financial, operating, and other risks;

(3) transactions with any subsidiary that is a depository institution; and

(4) the extent to which the activities and operations of the company and any subsidiary thereof, could, under adverse circumstances, have the potential to disrupt financial markets or affect the overall financial stability of the United States.

(b) Use of existing reports

(1) In general

For purposes of compliance with subsection (a), the Council, acting through the Office of Financial Research, shall, to the fullest extent possible, use—

(A) reports that a bank holding company, nonbank financial company supervised by the Board of Governors, or any functionally regulated subsidiary of such company has been required to provide to other Federal or State regulatory agencies or to a relevant foreign supervisory authority;

(B) information that is otherwise required to be reported publicly; and

(C) externally audited financial statements.

(2) Availability

Each bank holding company described in subsection (a) and nonbank financial company supervised by the Board of Governors, and any subsidiary thereof, shall provide to the Council, at the request of the Council, copies of all reports referred to in paragraph (1).

(3) Confidentiality

The Council shall maintain the confidentiality of the reports obtained under subsection (a) and paragraph (1)(A) of this subsection.

(Pub. L. 111–203, title I, §116, July 21, 2010, 124 Stat. 1406; Pub. L. 115–174, title IV, §401(c)(1)(B), May 24, 2018, 132 Stat. 1358.)

Delayed Effective Date of Amendment

For delayed effective date of amendment by Pub. L. 115–174, except with respect to certain bank holding companies, see Effective Date of 2018 Amendment note set out under section 5365 of this title.

Amendments

2018—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 115–174 substituted "$250,000,000,000" for "$50,000,000,000" in introductory provisions.

Effective Date of 2018 Amendment

Except as otherwise provided, amendment by Pub. L. 115–174 effective 18 months after May 24, 2018, see section 401(d) of Pub. L. 115–174, set out as a note under section 5365 of this title.

Construction of 2018 Amendment

For construction of amendment by Pub. L. 115–174 as applied to certain foreign banking organizations, see section 401(g) of Pub. L. 115–174, set out as a note under section 5365 of this title.

§5327. Treatment of certain companies that cease to be bank holding companies

(a) Applicability

This section shall apply to—

(1) any entity that—

(A) was a bank holding company having total consolidated assets equal to or greater than $50,000,000,000 as of January 1, 2010; and

(B) received financial assistance under or participated in the Capital Purchase Program established under the Troubled Asset Relief Program authorized by the Emergency Economic Stabilization Act of 2008 [12 U.S.C. 5201 et seq.]; and


(2) any successor entity (as defined by the Board of Governors, in consultation with the Council) to an entity described in paragraph (1).

(b) Treatment

If an entity described in subsection (a) ceases to be a bank holding company at any time after January 1, 2010, then such entity shall be treated as a nonbank financial company supervised by the Board of Governors, as if the Council had made a determination under section 5323 of this title with respect to that entity.

(c) Appeal

(1) Request for hearing

An entity may request, in writing, an opportunity for a written or oral hearing before the Council to appeal its treatment as a nonbank financial company supervised by the Board of Governors in accordance with this section. Upon receipt of the request, the Council shall fix a time (not later than 30 days after the date of receipt of the request) and place at which such entity may appear, personally or through counsel, to submit written materials (or, at the sole discretion of the Council, oral testimony and oral argument).

(2) Decision

(A) Proposed decision

A Council decision to grant an appeal under this subsection shall be made by a vote of not fewer than 2/3 of the voting members then serving, including an affirmative vote by the Chairperson. Not later than 60 days after the date of a hearing under paragraph (1), the Council shall submit a report to, and may testify before, the Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs of the Senate and the Committee on Financial Services of the House of Representatives on the proposed decision of the Council regarding an appeal under paragraph (1), which report shall include a statement of the basis for the proposed decision of the Council.

(B) Notice of final decision

The Council shall notify the subject entity of the final decision of the Council regarding an appeal under paragraph (1), which notice shall contain a statement of the basis for the final decision of the Council, not later than 60 days after the later of—

(i) the date of the submission of the report under subparagraph (A); or

(ii) if, not later than 1 year after the date of submission of the report under subparagraph (A), the Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs of the Senate or the Committee on Financial Services of the House of Representatives holds one or more hearings regarding such report, the date of the last such hearing.

(C) Considerations

In making a decision regarding an appeal under paragraph (1), the Council shall consider whether the company meets the standards under section 5323(a) or 5323(b) of this title, as applicable, and the definition of the term "nonbank financial company" under section 5311 of this title. The decision of the Council shall be final, subject to the review under paragraph (3).

(3) Review

If the Council denies an appeal under this subsection, the Council shall, not less frequently than annually, review and reevaluate the decision.

(Pub. L. 111–203, title I, §117, July 21, 2010, 124 Stat. 1406.)

References in Text

The Emergency Economic Stabilization Act of 2008, referred to in subsec. (a)(1)(B), is div. A of Pub. L. 110–343, Oct. 3, 2008, 122 Stat. 3765, which is classified principally to chapter 52 (§5201 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 5201 of this title and Tables.

§5328. Council funding

Any expenses of the Council shall be treated as expenses of, and paid by, the Office of Financial Research.

(Pub. L. 111–203, title I, §118, July 21, 2010, 124 Stat. 1408.)

§5329. Resolution of supervisory jurisdictional disputes among member agencies

(a) Request for Council recommendation

The Council shall seek to resolve a dispute among 2 or more member agencies, if—

(1) a member agency has a dispute with another member agency about the respective jurisdiction over a particular bank holding company, nonbank financial company, or financial activity or product (excluding matters for which another dispute mechanism specifically has been provided under title X); 1

(2) the Council determines that the disputing agencies cannot, after a demonstrated good faith effort, resolve the dispute without the intervention of the Council; and

(3) any of the member agencies involved in the dispute—

(A) provides all other disputants prior notice of the intent to request dispute resolution by the Council; and

(B) requests in writing, not earlier than 14 days after providing the notice described in subparagraph (A), that the Council seek to resolve the dispute.

(b) Council recommendation

The Council shall seek to resolve each dispute described in subsection (a)—

(1) within a reasonable time after receiving the dispute resolution request;

(2) after consideration of relevant information provided by each agency party to the dispute; and

(3) by agreeing with 1 of the disputants regarding the entirety of the matter, or by determining a compromise position.

(c) Form of recommendation

Any Council recommendation under this section shall—

(1) be in writing;

(2) include an explanation of the reasons therefor; and

(3) be approved by the affirmative vote of 2/3 of the voting members of the Council then serving.

(d) Nonbinding effect

Any recommendation made by the Council under subsection (c) shall not be binding on the Federal agencies that are parties to the dispute.

(Pub. L. 111–203, title I, §119, July 21, 2010, 124 Stat. 1408.)

References in Text

Title X, referred to in subsec. (a)(1), is title X of Pub. L. 111–203, July 21, 2010, 124 Stat. 1955, known as the Consumer Financial Protection Act of 2010, which enacted subchapter V (§5481 et seq.) of this chapter and enacted, amended, and repealed numerous other sections and notes in the Code. For complete classification of title X to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 5301 of this title and Tables.

1 See References in Text note below.

§5330. Additional standards applicable to activities or practices for financial stability purposes

(a) In general

The Council may provide for more stringent regulation of a financial activity by issuing recommendations to the primary financial regulatory agencies to apply new or heightened standards and safeguards, including standards enumerated in section 5325 of this title, for a financial activity or practice conducted by bank holding companies or nonbank financial companies under their respective jurisdictions, if the Council determines that the conduct, scope, nature, size, scale, concentration, or interconnectedness of such activity or practice could create or increase the risk of significant liquidity, credit, or other problems spreading among bank holding companies and nonbank financial companies, financial markets of the United States, or low-income, minority, or underserved communities.

(b) Procedure for recommendations to regulators

(1) Notice and opportunity for comment

The Council shall consult with the primary financial regulatory agencies and provide notice to the public and opportunity for comment for any proposed recommendation that the primary financial regulatory agencies apply new or heightened standards and safeguards for a financial activity or practice.

(2) Criteria

The new or heightened standards and safeguards for a financial activity or practice recommended under paragraph (1)—

(A) shall take costs to long-term economic growth into account; and

(B) may include prescribing the conduct of the activity or practice in specific ways (such as by limiting its scope, or applying particular capital or risk management requirements to the conduct of the activity) or prohibiting the activity or practice.

(c) Implementation of recommended standards

(1) Role of primary financial regulatory agency

(A) In general

Each primary financial regulatory agency may impose, require reports regarding, examine for compliance with, and enforce standards in accordance with this section with respect to those entities for which it is the primary financial regulatory agency.

(B) Rule of construction

The authority under this paragraph is in addition to, and does not limit, any other authority of a primary financial regulatory agency. Compliance by an entity with actions taken by a primary financial regulatory agency under this section shall be enforceable in accordance with the statutes governing the respective jurisdiction of the primary financial regulatory agency over the entity, as if the agency action were taken under those statutes.

(2) Imposition of standards

The primary financial regulatory agency shall impose the standards recommended by the Council in accordance with subsection (a), or similar standards that the Council deems acceptable, or shall explain in writing to the Council, not later than 90 days after the date on which the Council issues the recommendation, why the agency has determined not to follow the recommendation of the Council.

(d) Report to Congress

The Council shall report to Congress on—

(1) any recommendations issued by the Council under this section;

(2) the implementation of, or failure to implement, such recommendation on the part of a primary financial regulatory agency; and

(3) in any case in which no primary financial regulatory agency exists for the nonbank financial company conducting financial activities or practices referred to in subsection (a), recommendations for legislation that would prevent such activities or practices from threatening the stability of the financial system of the United States.

(e) Effect of rescission of identification

(1) Notice

The Council may recommend to the relevant primary financial regulatory agency that a financial activity or practice no longer requires any standards or safeguards implemented under this section.

(2) Determination of primary financial regulatory agency to continue

(A) In general

Upon receipt of a recommendation under paragraph (1), a primary financial regulatory agency that has imposed standards under this section shall determine whether such standards should remain in effect.

(B) Appeal process

Each primary financial regulatory agency that has imposed standards under this section shall promulgate regulations to establish a procedure under which entities under its jurisdiction may appeal a determination by such agency under this paragraph that standards imposed under this section should remain in effect.

(Pub. L. 111–203, title I, §120, July 21, 2010, 124 Stat. 1408.)

§5331. Mitigation of risks to financial stability

(a) Mitigatory actions

If the Board of Governors determines that a bank holding company with total consolidated assets of $250,000,000,000 or more, or a nonbank financial company supervised by the Board of Governors, poses a grave threat to the financial stability of the United States, the Board of Governors, upon an affirmative vote of not fewer than 2/3 of the voting members of the Council then serving, shall—

(1) limit the ability of the company to merge with, acquire, consolidate with, or otherwise become affiliated with another company;

(2) restrict the ability of the company to offer a financial product or products;

(3) require the company to terminate one or more activities;

(4) impose conditions on the manner in which the company conducts 1 or more activities; or

(5) if the Board of Governors determines that the actions described in paragraphs (1) through (4) are inadequate to mitigate a threat to the financial stability of the United States in its recommendation, require the company to sell or otherwise transfer assets or off-balance-sheet items to unaffiliated entities.

(b) Notice and hearing

(1) In general

The Board of Governors, in consultation with the Council, shall provide to a company described in subsection (a) written notice that such company is being considered for mitigatory action pursuant to this section, including an explanation of the basis for, and description of, the proposed mitigatory action.

(2) Hearing

Not later than 30 days after the date of receipt of notice under paragraph (1), the company may request, in writing, an opportunity for a written or oral hearing before the Board of Governors to contest the proposed mitigatory action. Upon receipt of a timely request, the Board of Governors shall fix a time (not later than 30 days after the date of receipt of the request) and place at which such company may appear, personally or through counsel, to submit written materials (or, at the discretion of the Board of Governors, in consultation with the Council, oral testimony and oral argument).

(3) Decision

Not later than 60 days after the date of a hearing under paragraph (2), or not later than 60 days after the provision of a notice under paragraph (1) if no hearing was held, the Board of Governors shall notify the company of the final decision of the Board of Governors, including the results of the vote of the Council, as described in subsection (a).

(c) Factors for consideration

The Board of Governors and the Council shall take into consideration the factors set forth in subsection (a) or (b) of section 5323 of this title, as applicable, in making any determination under subsection (a).

(d) Application to foreign financial companies

The Board of Governors may prescribe regulations regarding the application of this section to foreign nonbank financial companies supervised by the Board of Governors and foreign-based bank holding companies—

(1) giving due regard to the principle of national treatment and equality of competitive opportunity; and

(2) taking into account the extent to which the foreign nonbank financial company or foreign-based bank holding company is subject on a consolidated basis to home country standards that are comparable to those applied to financial companies in the United States.

(Pub. L. 111–203, title I, §121, July 21, 2010, 124 Stat. 1410; Pub. L. 115–174, title IV, §401(c)(1)(C), May 24, 2018, 132 Stat. 1358.)

Delayed Effective Date of Amendment

For delayed effective date of amendment by Pub. L. 115–174, except with respect to certain bank holding companies, see Effective Date of 2018 Amendment note set out under section 5365 of this title.

Amendments

2018—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 115–174 substituted "$250,000,000,000" for "$50,000,000,000" in introductory provisions.

Effective Date of 2018 Amendment

Except as otherwise provided, amendment by Pub. L. 115–174 effective 18 months after May 24, 2018, see section 401(d) of Pub. L. 115–174, set out as a note under section 5365 of this title.

Construction of 2018 Amendment

For construction of amendment by Pub. L. 115–174 as applied to certain foreign banking organizations, see section 401(g) of Pub. L. 115–174, set out as a note under section 5365 of this title.

§5332. GAO audit of Council

(a) Authority to audit

The Comptroller General of the United States may audit the activities of—

(1) the Council; and

(2) any person or entity acting on behalf of or under the authority of the Council, to the extent that such activities relate to work for the Council by such person or entity.

(b) Access to information

(1) In general

Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the Comptroller General shall, upon request and at such reasonable time and in such reasonable form as the Comptroller General may request, have access to—

(A) any records or other information under the control of or used by the Council;

(B) any records or other information under the control of a person or entity acting on behalf of or under the authority of the Council, to the extent that such records or other information is relevant to an audit under subsection (a); and

(C) the officers, directors, employees, financial advisors, staff, working groups, and agents and representatives of the Council (as related to the activities on behalf of the Council of such agent or representative), at such reasonable times as the Comptroller General may request.

(2) Copies

The Comptroller General may make and retain copies of such books, accounts, and other records, access to which is granted under this section, as the Comptroller General considers appropriate.

(Pub. L. 111–203, title I, §122, July 21, 2010, 124 Stat. 1411.)

§5333. Study of the effects of size and complexity of financial institutions on capital market efficiency and economic growth

(a) Study required

(1) In general

The Chairperson of the Council shall carry out a study of the economic impact of possible financial services regulatory limitations intended to reduce systemic risk. Such study shall estimate the benefits and costs on the efficiency of capital markets, on the financial sector, and on national economic growth, of—

(A) explicit or implicit limits on the maximum size of banks, bank holding companies, and other large financial institutions;

(B) limits on the organizational complexity and diversification of large financial institutions;

(C) requirements for operational separation between business units of large financial institutions in order to expedite resolution in case of failure;

(D) limits on risk transfer between business units of large financial institutions;

(E) requirements to carry contingent capital or similar mechanisms;

(F) limits on commingling of commercial and financial activities by large financial institutions;

(G) segregation requirements between traditional financial activities and trading or other high-risk operations in large financial institutions; and

(H) other limitations on the activities or structure of large financial institutions that may be useful to limit systemic risk.

(2) Recommendations

The study required by this section shall include recommendations for the optimal structure of any limits considered in subparagraphs (A) through (E), in order to maximize their effectiveness and minimize their economic impact.

(b) Report

Not later than the end of the 180-day period beginning on July 21, 2010, and not later than every 5 years thereafter, the Chairperson shall issue a report to the Congress containing any findings and determinations made in carrying out the study required under subsection (a).

(Pub. L. 111–203, title I, §123, July 21, 2010, 124 Stat. 1412.)