[USC02] 15 USC CHAPTER 41, SUBCHAPTER I, Part A: General Provisions
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15 USC CHAPTER 41, SUBCHAPTER I, Part A: General Provisions
From Title 15—COMMERCE AND TRADECHAPTER 41—CONSUMER CREDIT PROTECTIONSUBCHAPTER I—CONSUMER CREDIT COST DISCLOSURE

Part A—General Provisions

§1601. Congressional findings and declaration of purpose

(a) Informed use of credit

The Congress finds that economic stabilization would be enhanced and the competition among the various financial institutions and other firms engaged in the extension of consumer credit would be strengthened by the informed use of credit. The informed use of credit results from an awareness of the cost thereof by consumers. It is the purpose of this subchapter to assure a meaningful disclosure of credit terms so that the consumer will be able to compare more readily the various credit terms available to him and avoid the uninformed use of credit, and to protect the consumer against inaccurate and unfair credit billing and credit card practices.

(b) Terms of personal property leases

The Congress also finds that there has been a recent trend toward leasing automobiles and other durable goods for consumer use as an alternative to installment credit sales and that these leases have been offered without adequate cost disclosures. It is the purpose of this subchapter to assure a meaningful disclosure of the terms of leases of personal property for personal, family, or household purposes so as to enable the lessee to compare more readily the various lease terms available to him, limit balloon payments in consumer leasing, enable comparison of lease terms with credit terms where appropriate, and to assure meaningful and accurate disclosures of lease terms in advertisements.

(Pub. L. 90–321, title I, §102, May 29, 1968, 82 Stat. 146; Pub. L. 93–495, title III, §302, Oct. 28, 1974, 88 Stat. 1511; Pub. L. 94–240, §2, Mar. 23, 1976, 90 Stat. 257.)

Amendments

1976Pub. L. 94–240 designated existing provisions as subsec. (a) and added subsec. (b).

1974Pub. L. 93–495 inserted provisions expanding purposes of subchapter to include protection of consumer against inaccurate and unfair credit billing and credit card practices.

Effective Date of 2010 Amendment

Pub. L. 111–203, title XIV, §1400(c), July 21, 2010, 124 Stat. 2136, provided that:

"(1) Regulations.—The regulations required to be prescribed under this title [see Tables for classification] or the amendments made by this title shall—

"(A) be prescribed in final form before the end of the 18-month period beginning on the designated transfer date; and

"(B) take effect not later than 12 months after the date of issuance of the regulations in final form.

"(2) Effective date established by rule.—Except as provided in paragraph (3), a section, or provision thereof, of this title shall take effect on the date on which the final regulations implementing such section, or provision, take effect.

"(3) Effective date.—A section of this title for which regulations have not been issued on the date that is 18 months after the designated transfer date shall take effect on such date."

Effective Date of 1976 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 94–240 effective on expiration of one year after Mar. 23, 1976, see section 6 of Pub. L. 94–240, set out as an Effective Date note under section 1667 of this title.

Effective Date of 1974 Amendment

For effective date of amendment by Pub. L. 93–495, see section 308 of Pub. L. 93–495, set out as an Effective Date note under section 1666 of this title.

Effective Date

Section 504(a) of Pub. L. 90–321 provided that this part is effective May 29, 1968.

Short Title of 2018 Amendment

Pub. L. 115–174, §1(a), May 24, 2018, 132 Stat. 1296, provided that: "This Act [see Tables for classification] may be cited as the 'Economic Growth, Regulatory Relief, and Consumer Protection Act'."

Short Title of 2015 Amendment

Pub. L. 114–94, div. G, title LXXXIX, §89001, Dec. 4, 2015, 129 Stat. 1799, provided that: "This title [amending sections 1639c and 1639d of this title and enacting provisions set out as a note under section 5512 of Title 12, Banks and Banking] may be cited as the 'Helping Expand Lending Practices in Rural Communities Act of 2015' or the 'HELP Rural Communities Act of 2015'."

Short Title of 2010 Amendment

Pub. L. 111–319, §1, Dec. 18, 2010, 124 Stat. 3457, provided that: "This Act [amending section 1681m of this title and enacting provisions set out as a note under section 1681m of this title] may be cited as the 'Red Flag Program Clarification Act of 2010'."

Pub. L. 111–203, title XIV, §1400(a), July 21, 2010, 124 Stat. 2136, provided that: "This title [see Tables for classification] may be cited as the 'Mortgage Reform and Anti-Predatory Lending Act'."

Short Title of 2009 Amendment

Pub. L. 111–93, §1, Nov. 6, 2009, 123 Stat. 2998, provided that: "This Act [amending section 1666b of this title] may be cited as the 'Credit CARD Technical Corrections Act of 2009'."

Pub. L. 111–24, §1(a), May 22, 2009, 123 Stat. 1734, provided that: "This Act [enacting sections 1616, 1651, 1665c to 1665e, 1666i–1, 1666i–2, and 1693l–1 of this title and section 1a–7b of Title 16, Conservation, amending sections 1602, 1632, 1637, 1640, 1650, 1666b, 1666c, 1666j, 1681b, 1681j, and 1693m to 1693r of this title, enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 1602, 1637, 1638, 1666b, 1681j, and 1693l–1 of this title and section 5311 of Title 31, Money and Finance, and amending provisions set out as notes under sections 1638 and 1693 of this title] may be cited as the 'Credit Card Accountability Responsibility and Disclosure Act of 2009' or the 'Credit CARD Act of 2009'."

Short Title of 2008 Amendment

Pub. L. 110–315, title X, §1001, Aug. 14, 2008, 122 Stat. 3478, provided that: "This title [enacting section 1650 of this title and sections 1019d and 9709 of Title 20, Education, amending sections 1602, 1603, 1638, and 1640 of this title, section 2903 of Title 12, Banks and Banking, and section 1092 of Title 20, and enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 1638 and 1640 of this title, section 2903 of Title 12, and section 9709 of Title 20] may be cited as the 'Private Student Loan Transparency and Improvement Act of 2008'."

Pub. L. 110–289, div. B, title V, §2501, July 30, 2008, 122 Stat. 2855, provided that: "This title [amending sections 1638 and 1640 of this title and sections 24 and 338a of Title 12, Banks and Banking, and enacting provisions set out as a note under section 1638 of this title] may be cited as the 'Mortgage Disclosure Improvement Act of 2008'."

Pub. L. 110–241, §1, June 3, 2008, 122 Stat. 1565, provided that: "This Act [amending section 1681n of this title and enacting provisions set out as notes under section 1681n of this title] may be cited as the 'Credit and Debit Card Receipt Clarification Act of 2007'."

Short Title of 2003 Amendment

Pub. L. 108–159, §1(a), Dec. 4, 2003, 117 Stat. 1952, provided that: "This Act [enacting sections 1681c–1, 1681c–2, 1681s–3, 1681w, and 1681x of this title and sections 9701 to 9708 of Title 20, Education, amending sections 1681a, 1681b, 1681c, 1681g, 1681i, 1681j, 1681m, 1681o, 1681p, 1681s, 1681s–2, 1681t, 1681u, and 1681v of this title and section 5318 of Title 31, Money and Finance, enacting provisions set out as notes under this section, sections 1681, 1681a, 1681b, 1681c, 1681c–1, 1681i, 1681j, 1681m, 1681n, 1681s–2, 1681s–3 of this title, and section 9701 of Title 20, and amending provisions set out as a note under this section] may be cited as the 'Fair and Accurate Credit Transactions Act of 2003'."

Short Title of 1999 Amendment

Pub. L. 106–102, title VII, §701, Nov. 12, 1999, 113 Stat. 1463, provided that: "This subtitle [subtitle A (§§701–705) of title VII of Pub. L. 106–102, amending sections 1693b, 1693c, and 1693h of this title] may be cited as the 'ATM Fee Reform Act of 1999'."

Short Title of 1998 Amendment

Pub. L. 105–347, §1, Nov. 2, 1998, 112 Stat. 3208, provided that: "This Act [amending sections 1681a to 1681c, 1681g, 1681i, 1681k, and 1681s of this title and enacting provisions set out as a note under section 1681a of this title] may be cited as the 'Consumer Reporting Employment Clarification Act of 1998'."

Short Title of 1996 Amendment

Pub. L. 104–208, div. A, title II, §2401, Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 3009–426, provided that: "This chapter [chapter 1 (§§2401–2422) of subtitle D of title II of div. A of Pub. L. 104–208, enacting section 1681s–2 of this title, amending sections 1681a to 1681e, 1681g to 1681j, 1681m to 1681o, 1681q to 1681s, and 1681t of this title, and enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 1681a, 1681b, and 1681g of this title] may be cited as the 'Consumer Credit Reporting Reform Act of 1996'."

Short Title of 1995 Amendments

Pub. L. 104–29, §1, Sept. 30, 1995, 109 Stat. 271, provided that: "This Act [enacting section 1649 of this title, amending sections 1605, 1631, 1635, 1640, and 1641 of this title, and enacting provisions set out as notes under section 1605 of this title] may be cited as the 'Truth in Lending Act Amendments of 1995'."

Pub. L. 104–12, §1, May 18, 1995, 109 Stat. 161, provided that: "This Act [amending section 1640 of this title] may be cited as the 'Truth in Lending Class Action Relief Act of 1995'."

Short Title of 1994 Amendment

Pub. L. 103–325, title I, §151, Sept. 23, 1994, 108 Stat. 2190, provided that: "This subtitle [subtitle B (§§151–158) of title I of Pub. L. 103–325, enacting sections 1639 and 1648 of this title, amending sections 1602, 1604, 1610, 1640, 1641, and 1647 of this title, and enacting provisions set out as notes under this section and section 1602 of this title] may be cited as the 'Home Ownership and Equity Protection Act of 1994'."

Short Title of 1992 Amendment

Pub. L. 102–537, §1, Oct. 27, 1992, 106 Stat. 3531, provided that: "This Act [enacting section 1681s–1 of this title, amending section 1681a of this title, and enacting provisions set out as a note under section 1681a of this title] may be cited as the 'Ted Weiss Child Support Enforcement Act of 1992'."

Short Title of 1988 Amendments

Pub. L. 100–709, §1, Nov. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 4725, provided that: "This Act [enacting sections 1637a, 1647, and 1665b of this title, amending sections 1632 and 1637 of this title, and enacting provisions set out as notes under section 1637a of this title] may be cited as the 'Home Equity Loan Consumer Protection Act of 1988'."

Pub. L. 100–583, §1, Nov. 3, 1988, 102 Stat. 2960, provided that: "This Act [amending sections 1610, 1632, 1637, 1640, and 1646 of this title and enacting provisions set out as a note under section 1637 of this title] may be cited as the 'Fair Credit and Charge Card Disclosure Act of 1988'."

Short Title of 1981 Amendment

Pub. L. 97–25, §1, July 27, 1981, 95 Stat. 144, provided: "That this Act [amending sections 1602 and 1666f of this title, section 29 of Title 12, Banks and Banking, and sections 205 and 212 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare; enacting provisions set out as notes under this section and sections 1602 and 1666f of this title; and amending provisions set out as notes under sections 1602 and 1666f of this title] may be cited as the 'Cash Discount Act'."

Short Title of 1980 Amendment

Pub. L. 96–221, title VI, §601, Mar. 31, 1980, 94 Stat. 168, provided that: "This title [enacting section 1646 of this title, amending sections 57a, 1602 to 1607, 1610, 1612, 1613, 1631, 1632, 1635, 1637, 1638, 1640, 1641, 1643, 1663, 1664, 1665a, 1666, 1666d, 1667d, and 1691f of this title, repealing sections 1614, 1636, and 1639 of this title, and enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 1602 and 1607 of this title] may be cited as the 'Truth in Lending Simplification and Reform Act'."

Short Title of 1976 Amendments

Pub. L. 94–240, §1, Mar. 23, 1976, 90 Stat. 257, provided that: "This Act [enacting sections 1667 to 1667e of this title, amending this section and section 1640 of this title, and enacting provisions set out as a note under section 1667 of this title] may be cited as the 'Consumer Leasing Act of 1976'."

Pub. L. 94–239, §1(a), Mar. 23, 1976, 90 Stat. 251, provided that: "This Act [enacting section 1691f of this title, amending this section and sections 1691b, 1691c, 1691d, 1691e of this title, repealing section 1609 of this title, enacting provisions set out as notes under this section, and repealing provision set out as a note under this section] may be cited as the 'Equal Credit Opportunity Act Amendments of 1976'."

Section 1(c) of Pub. L. 94–239 repealed section 501 of Pub. L. 93–495, title V, Oct. 28, 1974, 88 Stat. 1521, which provided that subchapter IV of this chapter and notes set out under section 1691 were to be cited as the "Equal Credit Opportunity Act".

Short Title of 1974 Amendment

Pub. L. 93–495, title III, §301, Oct. 28, 1974, 88 Stat. 1511, provided that: "This title [enacting sections 1666 to 1666j of this title, amending this section and sections 1602, 1610, 1631, 1632, and 1637 of this title, and enacting provision set out as a note under section 1666 of this title] may be cited as the 'Fair Credit Billing Act'."

Short Title

Pub. L. 90–321, §1, May 29, 1968, 82 Stat. 146, provided that: "This Act [enacting this chapter, sections 891 to 896 of Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure, and provisions set out as notes under this section, sections 1631 and 1671 of this title, and section 891 of Title 18] may be cited as the 'Consumer Credit Protection Act'."

Pub. L. 90–321, title I, §101, May 29, 1968, 82 Stat. 146, provided that: "This title [enacting this subchapter] may be cited as the 'Truth in Lending Act'."

Section 401 of title IV of Pub. L. 90–321, as added by Pub. L. 104–208, div. A, title II, §2451, Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 3009–454, provided that: "This title [enacting subchapter II–A of this chapter] may be cited as the 'Credit Repair Organizations Act'."

Section 601 of title VI of Pub. L. 90–321, as added by Pub. L. 91–508, title VI, §601, Oct. 26, 1970, 84 Stat. 1128, as amended by Pub. L. 108–159, title VIII, §811(a), Dec. 4, 2003, 117 Stat. 2011, provided that: "This title [enacting subchapter III of this chapter] may be cited as the 'Fair Credit Reporting Act'."

Section 709 of title VII of Pub. L. 90–321, as added by section 1(b) of Pub. L. 94–239, Mar. 23, 1976, 90 Stat. 251, provided that: "This title [enacting subchapter IV of this chapter and notes set out under section 1691 of this title] may be cited as the 'Equal Credit Opportunity Act'."

Section 801 of title VIII of Pub. L. 90–321, as added by Pub. L. 95–109, Sept. 20, 1977, 91 Stat. 874, provided that: "This title [enacting subchapter V of this chapter] may be cited as the 'Fair Debt Collection Practices Act'."

Section 901 of title IX of Pub. L. 90–321, as added Pub. L. 95–630, title XX, §2001, Nov. 10, 1978, 92 Stat. 3728, provided that: "This title [enacting subchapter VI of this chapter] may be cited as the 'Electronic Fund Transfer Act'."

Severability

Pub. L. 90–321, title V, §501, May 29, 1968, 82 Stat. 167, provided that: "If a provision enacted by this Act [see Short Title note above], is held invalid, all valid provisions that are severable from the invalid provision remain in effect. If a provision enacted by this Act is held invalid in one or more of its applications, the provision remains in effect in all valid applications that are severable from the invalid application or applications."

Exemption or Modification of Mortgage Disclosure Requirements

Pub. L. 111–203, title XIV, §1405(b), July 21, 2010, 124 Stat. 2142, provided that: "Notwithstanding any other provision of this title [see Tables for classification], in order to improve consumer awareness and understanding of transactions involving residential mortgage loans through the use of disclosures, the Board may, by rule, exempt from or modify disclosure requirements, in whole or in part, for any class of residential mortgage loans if the Board determines that such exemption or modification is in the interest of consumers and in the public interest."

Analysis of Further Restrictions on Offers of Credit or Insurance

Pub. L. 108–159, title II, §213(e), Dec. 4, 2003, 117 Stat. 1979, provided that:

"(1) In general.—The Board shall conduct a study of—

"(A) the ability of consumers to avoid receiving written offers of credit or insurance in connection with transactions not initiated by the consumer; and

"(B) the potential impact that any further restrictions on providing consumers with such written offers of credit or insurance would have on consumers.

"(2) Report.—The Board shall submit a report summarizing the results of the study required under paragraph (1) to the Congress not later than 12 months after the date of enactment of this Act [Dec. 4, 2003], together with such recommendations for legislative or administrative action as the Board may determine to be appropriate.

"(3) Content of report.—The report described in paragraph (2) shall address the following issues:

"(A) The current statutory or voluntary mechanisms that are available to a consumer to notify lenders and insurance providers that the consumer does not wish to receive written offers of credit or insurance.

"(B) The extent to which consumers are currently utilizing existing statutory and voluntary mechanisms to avoid receiving offers of credit or insurance.

"(C) The benefits provided to consumers as a result of receiving written offers of credit or insurance.

"(D) Whether consumers incur significant costs or are otherwise adversely affected by the receipt of written offers of credit or insurance.

"(E) Whether further restricting the ability of lenders and insurers to provide written offers of credit or insurance to consumers would affect—

"(i) the cost consumers pay to obtain credit or insurance;

"(ii) the availability of credit or insurance;

"(iii) consumers' knowledge about new or alternative products and services;

"(iv) the ability of lenders or insurers to compete with one another; and

"(v) the ability to offer credit or insurance products to consumers who have been traditionally underserved."

[For definitions of terms used in section 213(e) of Pub. L. 108–159, set out above, see section 2 of Pub. L. 108–159, set out as a Definitions note under section 1681 of this title.]

Federal Reserve Study of Home Equity Lending and Appropriate Interest Rate Index

Pub. L. 103–325, title I, §157, Sept. 23, 1994, 108 Stat. 2197, provided that during the period beginning 180 days after Sept. 23, 1994, and ending 2 years after that date, the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System was to conduct a study and submit to the Congress a report, including recommendations for any appropriate legislation, regarding whether consumers engaging in open end credit transactions as defined in secton 1602 of this title secured by principal dwellings have adequate Federal protection and whether a more appropriate interest rate index existed for purposes of section 1602(bb)(1)(A) of this title than the yield on Treasury securities.

Hearings on Home Equity Lending

Pub. L. 103–325, title I, §158, Sept. 23, 1994, 108 Stat. 2197, as amended by Pub. L. 111–203, title X, §1096, July 21, 2010, 124 Stat. 2102, provided that:

"(a) Hearings.—Not less than once during the 3-year period beginning on the date of enactment of this Act [Sept. 23, 1994], and regularly thereafter, the Bureau, in consultation with the Advisory Board to the Bureau, shall conduct a public hearing to examine the home equity loan market and the adequacy of existing regulatory and legislative provisions and the provisions of this subtitle [see Short Title of 1994 Amendment note above] in protecting the interests of consumers, and low-income consumers in particular.

"(b) Participation.—In conducting hearings required by subsection (a), the Bureau shall solicit participation from consumers, representatives of consumers, lenders, and other interested parties."

Study by Federal Reserve Board of Governors Covering Effect of Charge Card Transactions Upon Card Issuers, Merchants, and Consumers

Pub. L. 97–25, title II, §202, July 27, 1981, 95 Stat. 145, directed Board of Governors of Federal Reserve System, not later than 2 years after July 27, 1981, to prepare a study and submit its findings to Congress on the effect of charge card transactions upon card issuers, merchants, and consumers.

Inference of Legislative Intent in Section Captions and Catchlines

Pub. L. 90–321, title V, §502, May 29, 1968, 82 Stat. 167, provided that: "Captions and catchlines are intended solely as aids to convenient reference, and no inference as to the legislative intent with respect to any provision enacted by this Act [enacting this chapter, section 891 to 896 of Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure, and provisions set out as notes under this section, sections 1631 and 1671 of this title, and section 891 of Title 18] may be drawn from them."

Grammatical Usages

Pub. L. 90–321, title V, §503, May 30, 1968, 82 Stat. 167, provided that: "In this Act [enacting this chapter, sections 891 to 896 of Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure, and provisions set out as notes under this section, sections 1631 and 1671 of this title, and section 891 of Title 18]:

"(1) The word 'may' is used to indicate that an action either is authorized or is permitted.

"(2) The word 'shall' is used to indicate that an action is both authorized and required.

"(3) The phrase 'may not' is used to indicate that an action is both unauthorized and forbidden.

"(4) Rules of law are stated in the indicative mood."

Definition

Pub. L. 111–203, title XIV, §1495, July 21, 2010, 124 Stat. 2207, provided that: "For purposes of this title [see Tables for classification], the term 'designated transfer date' means the date established under section 1062 of this Act [12 U.S.C. 5582]."

§1602. Definitions and rules of construction

(a) The definitions and rules of construction set forth in this section are applicable for the purposes of this subchapter.

(b) Bureau.—The term "Bureau" means the Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection.

(c) The term "Board" refers to the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System.

(d) The term "organization" means a corporation, government or governmental subdivision or agency, trust, estate, partnership, cooperative, or association.

(e) The term "person" means a natural person or an organization.

(f) The term "credit" means the right granted by a creditor to a debtor to defer payment of debt or to incur debt and defer its payment.

(g) The term "creditor" refers only to a person who both (1) regularly extends, whether in connection with loans, sales of property or services, or otherwise, consumer credit which is payable by agreement in more than four installments or for which the payment of a finance charge is or may be required, and (2) is the person to whom the debt arising from the consumer credit transaction is initially payable on the face of the evidence of indebtedness or, if there is no such evidence of indebtedness, by agreement. Notwithstanding the preceding sentence, in the case of an open-end credit plan involving a credit card, the card issuer and any person who honors the credit card and offers a discount which is a finance charge are creditors. For the purpose of the requirements imposed under part D of this subchapter and sections 1637(a)(5), 1637(a)(6), 1637(a)(7), 1637(b)(1), 1637(b)(2), 1637(b)(3), 1637(b)(8), and 1637(b)(10) of this title, the term "creditor" shall also include card issuers whether or not the amount due is payable by agreement in more than four installments or the payment of a finance charge is or may be required, and the Bureau shall, by regulation, apply these requirements to such card issuers, to the extent appropriate, even though the requirements are by their terms applicable only to creditors offering open-end credit plans. Any person who originates 2 or more mortgages referred to in subsection (aa) in any 12-month period or any person who originates 1 or more such mortgages through a mortgage broker shall be considered to be a creditor for purposes of this subchapter. The term "creditor" includes a private educational lender (as that term is defined in section 1650 of this title) for purposes of this subchapter.

(h) The term "credit sale" refers to any sale in which the seller is a creditor. The term includes any contract in the form of a bailment or lease if the bailee or lessee contracts to pay as compensation for use a sum substantially equivalent to or in excess of the aggregate value of the property and services involved and it is agreed that the bailee or lessee will become, or for no other or a nominal consideration has the option to become, the owner of the property upon full compliance with his obligations under the contract.

(i) The adjective "consumer", used with reference to a credit transaction, characterizes the transaction as one in which the party to whom credit is offered or extended is a natural person, and the money, property, or services which are the subject of the transaction are primarily for personal, family, or household purposes.

(j) The terms "open end credit plan" and "open end consumer credit plan" mean a plan under which the creditor reasonably contemplates repeated transactions, which prescribes the terms of such transactions, and which provides for a finance charge which may be computed from time to time on the outstanding unpaid balance. A credit plan or open end consumer credit plan which is an open end credit plan or open end consumer credit plan within the meaning of the preceding sentence is an open end credit plan or open end consumer credit plan even if credit information is verified from time to time.

(k) The term "adequate notice," as used in section 1643 of this title, means a printed notice to a cardholder which sets forth the pertinent facts clearly and conspicuously so that a person against whom it is to operate could reasonably be expected to have noticed it and understood its meaning. Such notice may be given to a cardholder by printing the notice on any credit card, or on each periodic statement of account, issued to the cardholder, or by any other means reasonably assuring the receipt thereof by the cardholder.

(l) The term "credit card" means any card, plate, coupon book or other credit device existing for the purpose of obtaining money, property, labor, or services on credit.

(m) The term "accepted credit card" means any credit card which the cardholder has requested and received or has signed or has used, or authorized another to use, for the purpose of obtaining money, property, labor, or services on credit.

(n) The term "cardholder" means any person to whom a credit card is issued or any person who has agreed with the card issuer to pay obligations arising from the issuance of a credit card to another person.

(o) The term "card issuer" means any person who issues a credit card, or the agent of such person with respect to such card.

(p) The term "unauthorized use," as used in section 1643 of this title, means a use of a credit card by a person other than the cardholder who does not have actual, implied, or apparent authority for such use and from which the cardholder receives no benefit.

(q) The term "discount" as used in section 1666f of this title means a reduction made from the regular price. The term "discount" as used in section 1666f of this title shall not mean a surcharge.

(r) The term "surcharge" as used in this section and section 1666f of this title means any means of increasing the regular price to a cardholder which is not imposed upon customers paying by cash, check, or similar means."

(s) The term "State" refers to any State, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the District of Columbia, and any territory or possession of the United States.

(t) The term "agricultural purposes" includes the production, harvest, exhibition, marketing, transportation, processing, or manufacture of agricultural products by a natural person who cultivates, plants, propagates, or nurtures those agricultural products, including but not limited to the acquisition of farmland, real property with a farm residence, and personal property and services used primarily in farming.

(u) The term "agricultural products" includes agricultural, horticultural, viticultural, and dairy products, livestock, wildlife, poultry, bees, forest products, fish and shellfish, and any products thereof, including processed and manufactured products, and any and all products raised or produced on farms and any processed or manufactured products thereof.

(v) The term "material disclosures" means the disclosure, as required by this subchapter, of the annual percentage rate, the method of determining the finance charge and the balance upon which a finance charge will be imposed, the amount of the finance charge, the amount to be financed, the total of payments, the number and amount of payments, the due dates or periods of payments scheduled to repay the indebtedness, and the disclosures required by section 1639(a) of this title.

(w) The term "dwelling" means a residential structure or mobile home which contains one to four family housing units, or individual units of condominiums or cooperatives.

(x) The term "residential mortgage transaction" means a transaction in which a mortgage, deed of trust, purchase money security interest arising under an installment sales contract, or equivalent consensual security interest is created or retained against the consumer's dwelling to finance the acquisition or initial construction of such dwelling.

(y) As used in this section and section 1666f of this title, the term "regular price" means the tag or posted price charged for the property or service if a single price is tagged or posted, or the price charged for the property or service when payment is made by use of an open-end credit plan or a credit card if either (1) no price is tagged or posted, or (2) two prices are tagged or posted, one of which is charged when payment is made by use of an open-end credit plan or a credit card and the other when payment is made by use of cash, check, or similar means. For purposes of this definition, payment by check, draft, or other negotiable instrument which may result in the debiting of an open-end credit plan or a credit cardholder's open-end account shall not be considered payment made by use of the plan or the account.

(z) Any reference to any requirement imposed under this subchapter or any provision thereof includes reference to the regulations of the Bureau under this subchapter or the provision thereof in question.

(aa) The disclosure of an amount or percentage which is greater than the amount or percentage required to be disclosed under this subchapter does not in itself constitute a violation of this subchapter.

(bb) High-cost Mortgage.—

(1) Definition.—

(A) In general.—The term "high-cost mortgage", and a mortgage referred to in this subsection, means a consumer credit transaction that is secured by the consumer's principal dwelling, other than a reverse mortgage transaction, if—

(i) in the case of a credit transaction secured—

(I) by a first mortgage on the consumer's principal dwelling, the annual percentage rate at consummation of the transaction will exceed by more than 6.5 percentage points (8.5 percentage points, if the dwelling is personal property and the transaction is for less than $50,000) the average prime offer rate, as defined in section 1639c(b)(2)(B) of this title, for a comparable transaction; or

(II) by a subordinate or junior mortgage on the consumer's principal dwelling, the annual percentage rate at consummation of the transaction will exceed by more than 8.5 percentage points the average prime offer rate, as defined in section 1639c(b)(2)(B) of this title, for a comparable transaction;


(ii) the total points and fees payable in connection with the transaction, other than bona fide third party charges not retained by the mortgage originator, creditor, or an affiliate of the creditor or mortgage originator, exceed—

(I) in the case of a transaction for $20,000 or more, 5 percent of the total transaction amount; or

(II) in the case of a transaction for less than $20,000, the lesser of 8 percent of the total transaction amount or $1,000 (or such other dollar amount as the Board shall prescribe by regulation); or


(iii) the credit transaction documents permit the creditor to charge or collect prepayment fees or penalties more than 36 months after the transaction closing or such fees or penalties exceed, in the aggregate, more than 2 percent of the amount prepaid.


(B) Introductory rates taken into account.—For purposes of subparagraph (A)(i), the annual percentage rate of interest shall be determined based on the following interest rate:

(i) In the case of a fixed-rate transaction in which the annual percentage rate will not vary during the term of the loan, the interest rate in effect on the date of consummation of the transaction.

(ii) In the case of a transaction in which the rate of interest varies solely in accordance with an index, the interest rate determined by adding the index rate in effect on the date of consummation of the transaction to the maximum margin permitted at any time during the loan agreement.

(iii) In the case of any other transaction in which the rate may vary at any time during the term of the loan for any reason, the interest charged on the transaction at the maximum rate that may be charged during the term of the loan.


(C) Mortgage insurance.—For the purposes of computing the total points and fees under paragraph (4), the total points and fees shall exclude—

(i) any premium provided by an agency of the Federal Government or an agency of a State;

(ii) any amount that is not in excess of the amount payable under policies in effect at the time of origination under section 203(c)(2)(A) of the National Housing Act (12 U.S.C. 1709(c)(2)(A)), provided that the premium, charge, or fee is required to be refundable on a pro-rated basis and the refund is automatically issued upon notification of the satisfaction of the underlying mortgage loan; and

(iii) any premium paid by the consumer after closing.


(2)(A) After the 2-year period beginning on the effective date of the regulations promulgated under section 155 of the Riegle Community Development and Regulatory Improvement Act of 1994, and no more frequently than biennially after the first increase or decrease under this subparagraph, the Bureau may by regulation increase or decrease the number of percentage points specified in paragraph (1)(A), if the Bureau determines that the increase or decrease is—

(i) consistent with the consumer protections against abusive lending provided by the amendments made by subtitle B of title I of the Riegle Community Development and Regulatory Improvement Act of 1994; and

(ii) warranted by the need for credit.


(B) An increase or decrease under subparagraph (A)—

(i) may not result in the number of percentage points referred to in paragraph (1)(A)(i)(I) being less than 6 percentage points or greater than 10 percentage points; and

(ii) may not result in the number of percentage points referred to in paragraph (1)(A)(i)(II) being less than 8 percentage points or greater than 12 percentage points.


(C) In determining whether to increase or decrease the number of percentage points referred to in subparagraph (A), the Bureau shall consult with representatives of consumers, including low-income consumers, and lenders.

(3) The amount specified in paragraph (1)(B)(ii) shall be adjusted annually on January 1 by the annual percentage change in the Consumer Price Index, as reported on June 1 of the year preceding such adjustment.

(4) For purposes of paragraph (1)(B), points and fees shall include—

(A) all items included in the finance charge, except interest or the time-price differential;

(B) all compensation paid directly or indirectly by a consumer or creditor to a mortgage originator from any source, including a mortgage originator that is also the creditor in a table-funded transaction;

(C) each of the charges listed in section 1605(e) of this title (except an escrow for future payment of taxes), unless—

(i) the charge is reasonable;

(ii) the creditor receives no direct or indirect compensation; and

(iii) the charge is paid to a third party unaffiliated with the creditor; and


(D) premiums or other charges payable at or before closing for any credit life, credit disability, credit unemployment, or credit property insurance, or any other accident, loss-of-income, life or health insurance, or any payments directly or indirectly for any debt cancellation or suspension agreement or contract, except that insurance premiums or debt cancellation or suspension fees calculated and paid in full on a monthly basis shall not be considered financed by the creditor;

(E) the maximum prepayment fees and penalties which may be charged or collected under the terms of the credit transaction;

(F) all prepayment fees or penalties that are incurred by the consumer if the loan refinances a previous loan made or currently held by the same creditor or an affiliate of the creditor; and

(G) such other charges as the Bureau determines to be appropriate.


(5) Calculation of points and fees for open-end consumer credit plans.—In the case of open-end consumer credit plans, points and fees shall be calculated, for purposes of this section and section 1639 of this title, by adding the total points and fees known at or before closing, including the maximum prepayment penalties which may be charged or collected under the terms of the credit transaction, plus the minimum additional fees the consumer would be required to pay to draw down an amount equal to the total credit line.

(6) This subsection shall not be construed to limit the rate of interest or the finance charge that a person may charge a consumer for any extension of credit.

(cc) The term "reverse mortgage transaction" means a nonrecourse transaction in which a mortgage, deed of trust, or equivalent consensual security interest is created against the consumer's principal dwelling—

(1) securing one or more advances; and

(2) with respect to which the payment of any principal, interest, and shared appreciation or equity is due and payable (other than in the case of default) only after—

(A) the transfer of the dwelling;

(B) the consumer ceases to occupy the dwelling as a principal dwelling; or

(C) the death of the consumer.


(dd) Definitions Relating to Mortgage Origination and Residential Mortgage Loans.—

(1) Commission.—Unless otherwise specified, the term "Commission" means the Federal Trade Commission.

(2) Mortgage originator.—The term "mortgage originator"—

(A) means any person who, for direct or indirect compensation or gain, or in the expectation of direct or indirect compensation or gain—

(i) takes a residential mortgage loan application;

(ii) assists a consumer in obtaining or applying to obtain a residential mortgage loan; or

(iii) offers or negotiates terms of a residential mortgage loan;


(B) includes any person who represents to the public, through advertising or other means of communicating or providing information (including the use of business cards, stationery, brochures, signs, rate lists, or other promotional items), that such person can or will provide any of the services or perform any of the activities described in subparagraph (A);

(C) does not include any person who is—

(i) not otherwise described in subparagraph (A) or (B) and who performs purely administrative or clerical tasks on behalf of a person who is described in any such subparagraph; or

(ii) a retailer of manufactured or modular homes or an employee of the retailer if the retailer or employee, as applicable—

(I) does not receive compensation or gain for engaging in activities described in subparagraph (A) that is in excess of any compensation or gain received in a comparable cash transaction;

(II) discloses to the consumer—

(aa) in writing any corporate affiliation with any creditor; and

(bb) if the retailer has a corporate affiliation with any creditor, at least 1 unaffiliated creditor; and


(III) does not directly negotiate with the consumer or lender on loan terms (including rates, fees, and other costs).


(D) does not include a person or entity that only performs real estate brokerage activities and is licensed or registered in accordance with applicable State law, unless such person or entity is compensated by a lender, a mortgage broker, or other mortgage originator or by any agent of such lender, mortgage broker, or other mortgage originator;

(E) does not include, with respect to a residential mortgage loan, a person, estate, or trust that provides mortgage financing for the sale of 3 properties in any 12-month period to purchasers of such properties, each of which is owned by such person, estate, or trust and serves as security for the loan, provided that such loan—

(i) is not made by a person, estate, or trust that has constructed, or acted as a contractor for the construction of, a residence on the property in the ordinary course of business of such person, estate, or trust;

(ii) is fully amortizing;

(iii) is with respect to a sale for which the seller determines in good faith and documents that the buyer has a reasonable ability to repay the loan;

(iv) has a fixed rate or an adjustable rate that is adjustable after 5 or more years, subject to reasonable annual and lifetime limitations on interest rate increases; and

(v) meets any other criteria the Board may prescribe;


(F) does not include the creditor (except the creditor in a table-funded transaction) under paragraph (1), (2), or (4) of section 1639b(c) of this title; and

(G) does not include a servicer or servicer employees, agents and contractors, including but not limited to those who offer or negotiate terms of a residential mortgage loan for purposes of renegotiating, modifying, replacing and subordinating principal of existing mortgages where borrowers are behind in their payments, in default or have a reasonable likelihood of being in default or falling behind.


(3) Nationwide mortgage licensing system and registry.—The term "Nationwide Mortgage Licensing System and Registry" has the same meaning as in the Secure and Fair Enforcement for Mortgage Licensing Act of 2008 [12 U.S.C. 5101 et seq.].

(4) Other definitions relating to mortgage originator.—For purposes of this subsection, a person "assists a consumer in obtaining or applying to obtain a residential mortgage loan" by, among other things, advising on residential mortgage loan terms (including rates, fees, and other costs), preparing residential mortgage loan packages, or collecting information on behalf of the consumer with regard to a residential mortgage loan.

(5) Residential mortgage loan.—The term "residential mortgage loan" means any consumer credit transaction that is secured by a mortgage, deed of trust, or other equivalent consensual security interest on a dwelling or on residential real property that includes a dwelling, other than a consumer credit transaction under an open end credit plan or, for purposes of sections 1639b and 1639c of this title and section 1638(a) (16), (17), (18), and (19) of this title, and sections 1638(f) and 1640(k) of this title, and any regulations promulgated thereunder, an extension of credit relating to a plan described in section 101(53D) of title 11.

(6) Secretary.—The term "Secretary", when used in connection with any transaction or person involved with a residential mortgage loan, means the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development.

(7) Servicer.—The term "servicer" has the same meaning as in section 2605(i)(2) of title 12.


(ee) Bona Fide Discount Points and Prepayment Penalties.—For the purposes of determining the amount of points and fees for purposes of subsection (aa), either the amounts described in paragraph (1) or (2) of the following paragraphs, but not both, shall be excluded:

(1) Up to and including 2 bona fide discount points payable by the consumer in connection with the mortgage, but only if the interest rate from which the mortgage's interest rate will be discounted does not exceed by more than 1 percentage point—

(A) the average prime offer rate, as defined in section 1639c of this title; or

(B) if secured by a personal property loan, the average rate on a loan in connection with which insurance is provided under title I of the National Housing Act (12 U.S.C. 1702 et seq.).


(2) Unless 2 bona fide discount points have been excluded under paragraph (1), up to and including 1 bona fide discount point payable by the consumer in connection with the mortgage, but only if the interest rate from which the mortgage's interest rate will be discounted does not exceed by more than 2 percentage points—

(A) the average prime offer rate, as defined in section 1639c of this title; or

(B) if secured by a personal property loan, the average rate on a loan in connection with which insurance is provided under title I of the National Housing Act (12 U.S.C. 1702 et seq.).


(3) For purposes of paragraph (1), the term "bona fide discount points" means loan discount points which are knowingly paid by the consumer for the purpose of reducing, and which in fact result in a bona fide reduction of, the interest rate or time-price differential applicable to the mortgage.

(4) Paragraphs (1) and (2) shall not apply to discount points used to purchase an interest rate reduction unless the amount of the interest rate reduction purchased is reasonably consistent with established industry norms and practices for secondary mortgage market transactions.

(Pub. L. 90–321, title I, §103, May 29, 1968, 82 Stat. 147; Pub. L. 91–508, title V, §501, Oct. 26, 1970, 84 Stat. 1126; Pub. L. 93–495, title III, §303, Oct. 28, 1974, 88 Stat. 1511; Pub. L. 94–222, §3(a), Feb. 27, 1976, 90 Stat. 197; Pub. L. 96–221, title VI, §§602, 603(a), (b), 604, 612(a)(2), (b), Mar. 31, 1980, 94 Stat. 168, 169, 175, 176; Pub. L. 97–25, title I, §102, July 27, 1981, 95 Stat. 144; Pub. L. 97–320, title VII, §702(a), Oct. 15, 1982, 96 Stat. 1538; Pub. L. 103–325, title I, §§152(a)–(c), 154(a), Sept. 23, 1994, 108 Stat. 2190, 2191, 2196; Pub. L. 110–315, title X, §1011(b), Aug. 14, 2008, 122 Stat. 3481; Pub. L. 111–24, title I, §108, May 22, 2009, 123 Stat. 1743; Pub. L. 111–203, title X, §1100A(1), (2), title XIV, §§1401, 1431, July 21, 2010, 124 Stat. 2107, 2137, 2157; Pub. L. 115–174, title I, §107, May 24, 2018, 132 Stat. 1304.)

References in Text

The Riegle Community Development and Regulatory Improvement Act of 1994, referred to in subsec. (bb)(2)(A)(i), is Pub. L. 103–325, Sept. 23, 1994, 108 Stat. 2160. Section 155 of the Act is set out below. For classification of subtitle B of title I of the Act, known as the "Home Ownership and Equity Protection Act of 1994", see Short Title of 1994 Amendment note set out under section 1601 of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 4701 of Title 12, Banks and Banking, and Tables.

The Secure and Fair Enforcement for Mortgage Licensing Act of 2008, referred to in subsec. (dd)(3), is title V of div. A of Pub. L. 110–289, July 30, 2008, 122 Stat. 2810, also known as the S.A.F.E. Mortgage Licensing Act of 2008, which is classified generally to chapter 51 (§5101 et seq.) of Title 12, Banks and Banking. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 5101 of Title 12 and Tables.

The National Housing Act, referred to in subsec. (ee)(1)(B), (2)(B), is act June 27, 1934, ch. 847, 48 Stat. 1246. Title I of the Act is classified generally to subchapter II (§1702 et seq.) of chapter 13 of Title 12, Banks and Banking. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 1701 of Title 12 and Tables.

Amendments

2018—Subsecs. (cc), (dd). Pub. L. 115–174, §107(1), redesignated subsec. (cc), relating to definitions relating to mortgage origination and residential mortgage loans, as (dd). Former subsec. (dd) redesignated (ee).

Subsec. (dd)(2)(C). Pub. L. 115–174, §107(2), added subpar. (C) and struck out former subpar. (C) which read as follows: "does not include any person who is (i) not otherwise described in subparagraph (A) or (B) and who performs purely administrative or clerical tasks on behalf of a person who is described in any such subparagraph, or (ii) an employee of a retailer of manufactured homes who is not described in clause (i) or (iii) of subparagraph (A) and who does not advise a consumer on loan terms (including rates, fees, and other costs);".

Subsec. (ee). Pub. L. 115–174, §107(1), redesignated subsec. (dd) as (ee).

2010Pub. L. 111–203, §1100A(2), which directed substitution of "Bureau" for "Board" wherever appearing, was executed by making the substitution wherever appearing in subsecs. (g), (z), and (bb)(2)(A), (C), (4)(D), but not in subsec. (c), to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

Subsecs. (b) to (z). Pub. L. 111–203, §1100(A)(1), added subsec. (b) and redesignated former subsecs. (b) to (z) as (c) to (aa), respectively.

Subsec. (bb). Pub. L. 111–203, §1431(a), which directed amendment of subsec. (aa) by inserting subsec. heading, adding par. (1), and striking out former par. (1), was executed by making the amendment to subsec. (bb) to reflect the probable intent of Congress and the redesignation of subsec. (aa) as (bb) by Pub. L. 111–203, §1100(A)(1). See below. Text of former par. (1) read as follows: "A mortgage referred to in this subsection means a consumer credit transaction that is secured by the consumer's principal dwelling, other than a residential mortgage transaction, a reverse mortgage transaction, or a transaction under an open end credit plan, if—

"(A) the annual percentage rate at consummation of the transaction will exceed by more than 10 percentage points the yield on Treasury securities having comparable periods of maturity on the fifteenth day of the month immediately preceding the month in which the application for the extension of credit is received by the creditor; or

"(B) the total points and fees payable by the consumer at or before closing will exceed the greater of—

"(i) 8 percent of the total loan amount; or

"(ii) $400."

Pub. L. 111–203, §1100(A)(1), redesignated subsec. (aa) as (bb). Former subsec. (bb) redesignated (cc).

Subsec. (bb)(2)(B). Pub. L. 111–203, §1431(b), which directed amendment of subsec. (aa)(2) by adding subpar. (B) and striking out former subpar. (B), was executed by making the amendment to subsec. (bb)(2) to reflect the probable intent of Congress and the redesignation of subsec. (aa) as (bb) by Pub. L. 111–203, §1100(A)(1). See above. Text of former subpar. (B) read as follows: "An increase or decrease under subparagraph (A) may not result in the number of percentage points referred to in subparagraph (A) being—

"(i) less that 8 percentage points; or

"(ii) greater than 12 percentage points."

Subsec. (bb)(4)(B). Pub. L. 111–203, §1431(c)(1)(A), which directed amendment of subsec. (aa)(4) by adding subpar. (B) and struck out former subpar. (B), was executed by making the amendment to subsec. (bb)(4) to reflect the probable intent of Congress and the redesignation of subsec. (aa) as (bb) by Pub. L. 111–203, §1100(A)(1). See above. Text of former subpar. (B) read as follows: "all compensation paid to mortgage brokers;".

Subsec. (bb)(4)(D) to (G). Pub. L. 111–203, §1431(c)(1)(B), (C), which directed amendment of subsec. (aa)(4) by adding subpars. (D) to (F) and redesignating former subpar. (D) as (G), was executed by making the amendment to subsec. (bb)(4) to reflect the probable intent of Congress and the redesignation of subsec. (aa) as (bb) by Pub. L. 111–203, §1100(A)(1). See above.

Subsec. (bb)(5), (6). Pub. L. 111–203, §1431(c)(2), which directed amendment of subsec. (aa) by adding par. (5) and redesignating former par. (5) as (6), was executed by making the amendment to subsec. (bb) to reflect the probable intent of Congress and the redesignation of subsec. (aa) as (bb) by Pub. L. 111–203, §1100(A)(1). See above.

Subsec. (cc). Pub. L. 111–203, §1401, added subsec. (cc) relating to definitions relating to mortgage origination and residential mortgage loans.

Pub. L. 111–203, §1100(A)(1), redesignated subsec. (bb) as (cc) defining the term "reverse mortgage transaction".

Subsec. (dd). Pub. L. 111–203, §1431(d), added subsec. (dd).

2009—Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 111–24 substituted "terms 'open end credit plan' and 'open end consumer credit plan' mean" for "term 'open end credit plan' means" in first sentence and inserted "or open end consumer credit plan" after "credit plan" wherever appearing in second sentence.

2008—Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 110–315 inserted at end "The term 'creditor' includes a private educational lender (as that term is defined in section 1650 of this title) for purposes of this subchapter."

1994—Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 103–325, §152(c), inserted at end "Any person who originates 2 or more mortgages referred to in subsection (aa) in any 12-month period or any person who originates 1 or more such mortgages through a mortgage broker shall be considered to be a creditor for purposes of this subchapter."

Subsec. (u). Pub. L. 103–325, §152(b), substituted "the due dates" for "and the due dates" and inserted before period at end ", and the disclosures required by section 1639(a) of this title".

Subsec. (aa). Pub. L. 103–325, §152(a), added subsec. (aa).

Subsec. (bb). Pub. L. 103–325, §154(a), added subsec. (bb).

1982—Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 97–320 struck out provision that a person who regularly arranged for the extension of consumer credit payable in more than four installments or for which the payment of a finance charge was or might have been required from persons not creditors was a creditor, and provision that this subchapter applied to any creditor, irrespective of his or its status as a natural person or any type of organization, who was a card issuer.

1981—Subsecs. (x) to (z). Pub. L. 97–25 added subsec. (z) and, effective Apr. 10, 1982, redesignated subsecs. (x), (y), and (z) as (y), (z), and (x), respectively.

1980—Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 96–221, §602(a), substituted provisions defining term "creditor" as referring only to a person who both regularly extends consumer credit, subject to specified conditions, and is the person to whom the debt arising is initially payable on the face of the indebtedness or by agreement, and notwithstanding such provisions, also refers to a person regularly arranging for the extension of consumer credit, and a card issuer and any person honoring the credit card, subject to specified conditions, for provisions defining term "creditor" as referring only to creditors who regularly extend, or arrange for the extension of credit payable in more than four installments or where a finance charge is or may be required, and substituted "(a)(5)" for "(a)(6)", "(a)(6)" for "(a)(7)", "(a)(7)" for "(a)(8)", "(b)(8)" for "(b)(9)", and "(b)(10)" for "(b)(11)".

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 96–221, §602(b), substituted "in which the seller is a creditor" for "with respect to which credit is extended or arranged by the seller".

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 96–221, §603(a), struck out applicability to agricultural purposes.

Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 96–221, §604, inserted provisions respecting the reasonable contemplations of the creditor, and verification of credit information from time to time.

Subsecs. (s), (t). Pub. L. 96–221, §603(b), added subsecs. (s) and (t). Former subsecs. (s) and (t) redesignated (x) and (y), respectively.

Subsec. (u). Pub. L. 96–221, §612(a)(2), added subsec. (u).

Subsecs. (v), (w). Pub. L. 96–221, §612(b), added subsecs. (v) and (w).

Subsecs. (x), (y). Pub. L. 96–221, §603(b), redesignated former subsecs. (s) and (t) as (x) and (y), respectively.

1976—Subsecs. (p) to (t). Pub. L. 94–222 added subsecs. (p) and (q) and redesignated former subsecs. (p) to (r) as (r) to (t), respectively.

1974—Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 93–495 inserted provision requiring the credit to be payable by agreement in more than four installments and defining term "creditor" for the purposes of the requirements imposed under the enumerated sections of this chapter.

1970—Subsecs. (j) to (r). Pub. L. 91–508 added subsecs. (j) to (o) and redesignated former subsecs. (j) to (l) as (p) to (r), respectively.

Effective Date of 2010 Amendment

Amendment by section 1100A(1), (2) of Pub. L. 111–203 effective on the designated transfer date, see section 1100H of Pub. L. 111–203, set out as a note under section 552a of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

Amendment by sections 1401 and 1431 of Pub. L. 111–203 effective on the date on which final regulations implementing that amendment take effect, or on the date that is 18 months after the designated transfer date if such regulations have not been issued by that date, see section 1400(c) of Pub. L. 111–203, set out as a note under section 1601 of this title.

Effective Date of 2009 Amendment

Pub. L. 111–24, §3, May 22, 2009, 123 Stat. 1735, provided that: "This Act [enacting sections 1616, 1651, 1665c to 1665e, 1666i–1, 1666i–2, and 1693l–1 of this title and section 1a–7b of Title 16, Conservation, amending this section and sections 1632, 1637, 1640, 1650, 1666b, 1666c, 1666j, 1681b, 1681j, and 1693m to 1693r of this title, enacting provisions set out as notes under this section and sections 1637, 1638, 1666b, 1681j, and 1693l–1 of this title and section 5311 of Title 31, Money and Finance, and amending provisions set out as notes under sections 1638 and 1693 of this title] and the amendments made by this Act shall become effective 9 months after the date of enactment of this Act [May 22, 2009], except as otherwise specifically provided in this Act."

Effective Date of 1982 Amendment

Pub. L. 97–320, title VII, §702(b), Oct. 15, 1982, 96 Stat. 1538, provided that: "The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall take effect on the effective date of title VI of the Depository Institutions Deregulation and Monetary Control Act of 1980 [two years and six months after Mar. 31, 1980, see Effective Date of 1980 Amendment note below]."

Effective Date of 1981 Amendment

Section 102(b) of Pub. L. 97–25 provided that the amendment made by that section is effective Apr. 10, 1982.

Effective Date of 1980 Amendment

Pub. L. 96–221, title VI, §625, Mar. 31, 1980, 94 Stat. 185, as amended by Pub. L. 97–25, title III, §301, July 27, 1981, 95 Stat. 145; Pub. L. 97–110, title III, §301, Dec. 26, 1981, 95 Stat. 1515, provided that:

"(a) Except as provided in section 608(b) [set out as an Effective Date of 1980 Amendment note under section 1607 of this title], the amendments made by this title [enacting section 1646 of this title, amending sections 57a, 1602 to 1606, 1610, 1612, 1613, 1631, 1632, 1635, 1637, 1638, 1640, 1641, 1643, 1663, 1664, 1665a, 1666, 1666d, 1667d, and 1691f of this title, repealing sections 1614, 1636, and 1639 of this title, and enacting provisions set out as a note under section 1601 of this title] shall take effect upon the expiration of two years and six months after the date of enactment of this title [Mar. 31, 1980].

"(b) All regulations, forms, and clauses required to be prescribed under the amendments made by this title shall be promulgated at least one year prior to such effective date.

"(c) Notwithstanding subsections (a) and (b), any creditor may comply with the amendments made by this title, in accordance with the regulations, forms, and clauses prescribed by the Board, prior to such effective date. Any creditor who elects to comply with such amendments and any assignee of such a creditor shall be subject to the provisions of sections 130 and 131 of the Truth in Lending Act, as amended by sections 615 and 616, respectively, of this title [sections 1640 and 1641 of this title]."

Effective Date of 1974 Amendment

For effective date of amendment by Pub. L. 93–495, see section 308 of Pub. L. 93–495, set out as an Effective Date note under section 1666 of this title.

Regulations

Pub. L. 111–24, §2, May 22, 2009, 123 Stat. 1735, provided that: "The Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (in this Act [see Short Title of 2009 Amendment note set out under section 1601 of this title] referred to as the 'Board') may issue such rules and publish such model forms as it considers necessary to carry out this Act and the amendments made by this Act."

Pub. L. 103–325, title I, §155, Sept. 23, 1994, 108 Stat. 2197, provided that: "Not later than 180 days after the date of enactment of this Act [Sept. 23, 1994], the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System shall issue such regulations as may be necessary to carry out this subtitle [subtitle B (§§151–158) of title I of Pub. L. 103–325, see Short Title of 1994 Amendment note set out under section 1601 of this title], and such regulations shall become effective on the date on which disclosure regulations are required to become effective under section 105(d) of the Truth in Lending Act [15 U.S.C. §1604(d)]."

Applicability of 1994 Amendments and Regulations to Subsection (aa) Mortgages

Pub. L. 103–325, title I, §156, Sept. 23, 1994, 108 Stat. 2197, provided that: "This subtitle [subtitle B (§§151–158) of title I of Pub. L. 103–325, see Short Title of 1994 Amendment note set out under section 1601 of this title], and the amendments made by this subtitle, shall apply to every mortgage referred to in section 103(aa) of the Truth in Lending Act [now 15 U.S.C. 1602(bb)] (as added by section 152(a) of this Act) consummated on or after the date on which regulations issued under section 155 [set out above] become effective."

§1603. Exempted transactions

This subchapter does not apply to the following:

(1) Credit transactions involving extensions of credit primarily for business, commercial, or agricultural purposes, or to government or governmental agencies or instrumentalities, or to organizations.

(2) Transactions in securities or commodities accounts by a broker-dealer registered with the Securities and Exchange Commission.

(3) Credit transactions, other than those in which a security interest is or will be acquired in real property, or in personal property used or expected to be used as the principal dwelling of the consumer and other than private education loans (as that term is defined in section 1650(a) of this title), in which the total amount financed exceeds $50,000.1

(4) Transactions under public utility tariffs, if the Bureau determines that a State regulatory body regulates the charges for the public utility services involved, the charges for delayed payment, and any discount allowed for early payment.

(5) Transactions for which the Bureau, by rule, determines that coverage under this subchapter is not necessary to carry out the purposes of this subchapter.

(6) Repealed. Pub. L. 96–221, title VI, §603(c)(3), Mar. 31, 1980, 94 Stat. 169.

(7) Loans made, insured, or guaranteed pursuant to a program authorized by title IV of the Higher Education Act of 1965 [20 U.S.C. 1070 et seq.].

(Pub. L. 90–321, title I, §104, May 29, 1968, 82 Stat. 147; Pub. L. 93–495, title IV, §402, Oct. 28, 1974, 88 Stat. 1517; Pub. L. 96–221, title VI, §603(c), Mar. 31, 1980, 94 Stat. 169; Pub. L. 97–320, title VII, §701(a), Oct. 15, 1982, 96 Stat. 1538; Pub. L. 104–208, div. A, title II, §2102(a), Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 3009–398; Pub. L. 110–315, title X, §1022, Aug. 14, 2008, 122 Stat. 3488; Pub. L. 111–203, title X, §§1100A(2), 1100E(a)(1), July 21, 2010, 124 Stat. 2107, 2111.)

References in Text

The Higher Education Act of 1965, referred to in par. (7), is Pub. L. 89–329, Nov. 8, 1965, 79 Stat. 1219. Title IV of the Act is classified generally to subchapter IV (§1070 et seq.) of chapter 28 of Title 20, Education. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1001 of Title 20 and Tables.

Amendments

2010—Par. (3). Pub. L. 111–203, §1100E(a)(1), substituted "$50,000" for "$25,000".

Pars. (4), (5). Pub. L. 111–203, §1100A(2), substituted "Bureau" for "Board".

2008—Par. (3). Pub. L. 110–315 inserted "and other than private education loans (as that term is defined in section 1650(a) of this title)" after "consumer".

1996—Pars. (5) to (7). Pub. L. 104–208 added par. (5) and redesignated former pars. (5) and (6) as (6) and (7), respectively.

1982—Par. (6). Pub. L. 97–320 added par. (6).

1980—Par. (1). Pub. L. 96–221, §603(c)(1), inserted provision relating to applicability to agricultural purposes.

Par. (3). Pub. L. 96–221, §603(c)(2), substituted provision excepting security interest in real property, or in personal property used as the consumer's principal dwelling, for provisions excepting real property transactions.

Par. (5). Pub. L. 96–221, §603(c)(3), struck out par. (5) which related to credit transactions primarily for agricultural purposes where the amount financed exceeds $25,000.

1974—Par. (5). Pub. L. 93–495 added par. (5).

Effective Date of 2010 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 111–203 effective on the designated transfer date, see section 1100H of Pub. L. 111–203, set out as a note under section 552a of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

Effective Date of 1982 Amendment

Section 701(c) of Pub. L. 97–320, as amended by Pub. L. 97–457, §31, Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2511, provided that: "The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] and subsection (b) [enacting section 1099 of Title 20, Education] shall be effective with respect to loans made prior to, on, and after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 15, 1982]."

Effective Date of 1980 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 96–221 effective on expiration of two years and six months after Mar. 31, 1980, with all regulations, forms, and clauses required to be prescribed to be promulgated at least one year prior to such effective date, and allowing any creditor to comply with any amendments, in accordance with the regulations, forms, and clauses prescribed by the Board prior to such effective date, see section 625 of Pub. L. 96–221, set out as a note under section 1602 of this title.

Effective Date of 1974 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 93–495 effective Oct. 28, 1974, see section 416 of Pub. L. 93–495, set out as an Effective Date note under section 1665a of this title.

Exceptions in Areas Where Major Disaster Exists

Board of Governors of Federal Reserve System authorized to make exceptions to requirements of this subchapter for transactions within an area in which the President has determined that a major disaster exists, if Board determines that exception can reasonably be expected to alleviate hardships to the public that outweigh possible adverse effects, see section 50002 of Pub. L. 105–18, set out as a note under section 4008 of Title 12, Banks and Banking, and similar provisions listed thereunder.

Adjustments for Inflation

Pub. L. 111–203, title X, §1100E(b), July 21, 2010, 124 Stat. 2111, provided that: "On and after December 31, 2011, the Bureau [of Consumer Financial Protection] shall adjust annually the dollar amounts described in sections 104(3) and 181(1) of the Truth in Lending Act [15 U.S.C. 1603(3), 1667(1)] (as amended by this section), by the annual percentage increase in the Consumer Price Index for Urban Wage Earners and Clerical Workers, as published by the Bureau of Labor Statistics, rounded to the nearest multiple of $100, or $1,000, as applicable." Threshold amounts in effect during particular periods of time can be found in Code of Federal Regulations, Title 12, Supplement I to Part 1013, under Section 1013.2—Definitions, under 2(e)—Consumer Lease, paragraph 11.

1 See Adjustments for Inflation note below.

§1604. Disclosure guidelines

(a) Promulgation, contents, etc., of regulations

The Bureau shall prescribe regulations to carry out the purposes of this subchapter. Except with respect to the provisions of section 1639 of this title that apply to a mortgage referred to in section 1602(aa) 1 of this title, such regulations may contain such additional requirements, classifications, differentiations, or other provisions, and may provide for such adjustments and exceptions for all or any class of transactions, as in the judgment of the Bureau are necessary or proper to effectuate the purposes of this subchapter, to prevent circumvention or evasion thereof, or to facilitate compliance therewith.

(b) Model disclosure forms and clauses; publication, criteria, compliance, etc.

The Bureau shall publish a single, integrated disclosure for mortgage loan transactions (including real estate settlement cost statements) which includes the disclosure requirements of this subchapter in conjunction with the disclosure requirements of the Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act of 1974 [12 U.S.C. 2601 et seq.] that, taken together, may apply to a transaction that is subject to both or either provisions of law. The purpose of such model disclosure shall be to facilitate compliance with the disclosure requirements of this subchapter and the Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act of 1974, and to aid the borrower or lessee in understanding the transaction by utilizing readily understandable language to simplify the technical nature of the disclosures. In devising such forms, the Bureau shall consider the use by creditors or lessors of data processing or similar automated equipment. Nothing in this subchapter may be construed to require a creditor or lessor to use any such model form or clause prescribed by the Bureau under this section. A creditor or lessor shall be deemed to be in compliance with the disclosure provisions of this subchapter with respect to other than numerical disclosures if the creditor or lessor (1) uses any appropriate model form or clause as published by the Bureau, or (2) uses any such model form or clause and changes it by (A) deleting any information which is not required by this subchapter, or (B) rearranging the format, if in making such deletion or rearranging the format, the creditor or lessor does not affect the substance, clarity, or meaningful sequence of the disclosure.

(c) Procedures applicable for adoption of model forms and clauses

Model disclosure forms and clauses shall be adopted by the Bureau after notice duly given in the Federal Register and an opportunity for public comment in accordance with section 553 of title 5.

(d) Effective dates of regulations containing new disclosure requirements

Any regulation of the Bureau, or any amendment or interpretation thereof, requiring any disclosure which differs from the disclosures previously required by this part, part D, or part E or by any regulation of the Bureau promulgated thereunder shall have an effective date of that October 1 which follows by at least six months the date of promulgation, except that the Bureau may at its discretion take interim action by regulation, amendment, or interpretation to lengthen the period of time permitted for creditors or lessors to adjust their forms to accommodate new requirements or shorten the length of time for creditors or lessors to make such adjustments when it makes a specific finding that such action is necessary to comply with the findings of a court or to prevent unfair or deceptive disclosure practices. Notwithstanding the previous sentence, any creditor or lessor may comply with any such newly promulgated disclosure requirements prior to the effective date of the requirements.

(f) 2 Exemption authority

(1) In general

The Bureau may exempt, by regulation, from all or part of this subchapter all or any class of transactions, other than transactions involving any mortgage described in section 1602(aa) 1 of this title, for which, in the determination of the Bureau, coverage under all or part of this subchapter does not provide a meaningful benefit to consumers in the form of useful information or protection.

(2) Factors for consideration

In determining which classes of transactions to exempt in whole or in part under paragraph (1), the Bureau shall consider the following factors and publish its rationale at the time a proposed exemption is published for comment:

(A) The amount of the loan and whether the disclosures, right of rescission, and other provisions provide a benefit to the consumers who are parties to such transactions, as determined by the Bureau.

(B) The extent to which the requirements of this subchapter complicate, hinder, or make more expensive the credit process for the class of transactions.

(C) The status of the borrower, including—

(i) any related financial arrangements of the borrower, as determined by the Bureau;

(ii) the financial sophistication of the borrower relative to the type of transaction; and

(iii) the importance to the borrower of the credit, related supporting property, and coverage under this subchapter, as determined by the Bureau;


(D) whether the loan is secured by the principal residence of the consumer; and

(E) whether the goal of consumer protection would be undermined by such an exemption.

(g) Waiver for certain borrowers

(1) In general

The Bureau, by regulation, may exempt from the requirements of this subchapter certain credit transactions if—

(A) the transaction involves a consumer—

(i) with an annual earned income of more than $200,000; or

(ii) having net assets in excess of $1,000,000 at the time of the transaction; and


(B) a waiver that is handwritten, signed, and dated by the consumer is first obtained from the consumer.

(2) Adjustments by the Bureau

The Bureau, at its discretion, may adjust the annual earned income and net asset requirements of paragraph (1) for inflation.

(h) Deference

Notwithstanding any power granted to any Federal agency under this subchapter, the deference that a court affords to the Bureau with respect to a determination made by the Bureau relating to the meaning or interpretation of any provision of this subchapter, other than section 1639e or 1639h of this title, shall be applied as if the Bureau were the only agency authorized to apply, enforce, interpret, or administer the provisions of this subchapter.

(i) Authority of the Board to prescribe rules

Notwithstanding subsection (a), the Board shall have authority to prescribe rules under this subchapter with respect to a person described in section 5519(a) of title 12. Regulations prescribed under this subsection may contain such classifications, differentiations, or other provisions, as in the judgment of the Board are necessary or proper to effectuate the purposes of this subchapter, to prevent circumvention or evasion thereof, or to facilitate compliance therewith.

(Pub. L. 90–321, title I, §105, May 29, 1968, 82 Stat. 148; Pub. L. 96–221, title VI, §605, Mar. 31, 1980, 94 Stat. 170; Pub. L. 103–325, title I, §152(e)(2)(A), Sept. 23, 1994, 108 Stat. 2194; Pub. L. 104–208, div. A, title II, §§2102(b), 2104, Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 3009–399, 3009-401; Pub. L. 111–203, title X, §1100A(2), (4)–(7), title XIV, §1472(c), July 21, 2010, 124 Stat. 2107, 2108, 2190.)

References in Text

Section 1602(aa) of this title, referred to in subsecs. (a) and (f)(1), was redesignated section 1602(bb) of this title by Pub. L. 111–203, title X, §1100A(1)(A), July 21, 2010, 124 Stat. 2107.

The Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act of 1974, referred to in subsec. (b), is Pub. L. 93–533, Dec. 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 1724, which is classified principally to chapter 27 (§2601 et seq.) of Title 12, Banks and Banking. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2601 of Title 12 and Tables.

Amendments

2010—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 111–203, §1100A(2), (4), substituted "Bureau" for "Board" in two places, substituted "Except with respect to the provisions of section 1639 of this title that apply to a mortgage referred to in section 1602(aa) of this title, such regulations may contain such additional requirements,"for "Except in the case of a mortgage referred to in section 1602(aa) of this title, these regulations may contain such", and inserted "all or" after "exceptions for".

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 111–203, §1100A(2), (5), substituted "Bureau" for "Board" wherever appearing in last three sentences and substituted first two sentences for former first sentence which read as follows: "The Board shall publish model disclosure forms and clauses for common transactions to facilitate compliance with the disclosure requirements of this subchapter and to aid the borrower or lessee in understanding the transaction by utilizing readily understandable language to simplify the technical nature of the disclosures."

Subsecs. (c), (d). Pub. L. 111–203, §1100A(2), substituted "Bureau" for "Board" wherever appearing.

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 111–203, §1100A(2), (6), substituted "Bureau" for "Board" wherever appearing and inserted "all or" after "from all or part of this subchapter" in par. (1).

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 111–203, §1100A(2), substituted "Bureau" for "Board" in pars. (1) and (2).

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 111–203, §1472(c), which directed addition of subsec. (h) at end of section, was executed by adding subsec. (h) before subsec. (i), to reflect the probable intent of Congress and prior amendment by Pub. L. 111–203, §1100A(7). See below.

Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 111–203, §1100A(7), added subsec. (i).

1996—Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 104–208, §2102(b), added subsec. (f).

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 104–208, §2104, added subsec. (g).

1994—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 103–325 substituted "Except in the case of a mortgage referred to in section 1602(aa) of this title, these" for "These" in second sentence.

1980Pub. L. 96–221 designated existing provisions as subsec. (a) and added subsecs. (b) to (d).

Effective Date of 2010 Amendment

Amendment by section 1100A(2), (4)–(7) of Pub. L. 111–203 effective on the designated transfer date, see section 1100H of Pub. L. 111–203, set out as a note under section 552a of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

Amendment by section 1472(c) of Pub. L. 111–203 effective on the date on which final regulations implementing that amendment take effect, or on the date that is 18 months after the designated transfer date if such regulations have not been issued by that date, see section 1400(c) of Pub. L. 111–203, set out as a note under section 1601 of this title.

Effective Date of 1980 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 96–221 effective on expiration of two years and six months after Mar. 31, 1980, with all regulations, forms, and clauses required to be prescribed to be promulgated at least one year prior to such effective date, and allowing any creditor to comply with any amendments, in accordance with the regulations, forms, and clauses prescribed by the Board prior to such effective date, see section 625 of Pub. L. 96–221, set out as a note under section 1602 of this title.

1 See References in Text note below.

2 So in original. No subsec. (e) has been enacted.

§1605. Determination of finance charge

(a) "Finance charge" defined

Except as otherwise provided in this section, the amount of the finance charge in connection with any consumer credit transaction shall be determined as the sum of all charges, payable directly or indirectly by the person to whom the credit is extended, and imposed directly or indirectly by the creditor as an incident to the extension of credit. The finance charge does not include charges of a type payable in a comparable cash transaction. The finance charge shall not include fees and amounts imposed by third party closing agents (including settlement agents, attorneys, and escrow and title companies) if the creditor does not require the imposition of the charges or the services provided and does not retain the charges. Examples of charges which are included in the finance charge include any of the following types of charges which are applicable:

(1) Interest, time price differential, and any amount payable under a point, discount, or other system or additional charges.

(2) Service or carrying charge.

(3) Loan fee, finder's fee, or similar charge.

(4) Fee for an investigation or credit report.

(5) Premium or other charge for any guarantee or insurance protecting the creditor against the obligor's default or other credit loss.

(6) Borrower-paid mortgage broker fees, including fees paid directly to the broker or the lender (for delivery to the broker) whether such fees are paid in cash or financed.

(b) Life, accident, or health insurance premiums included in finance charge

Charges or premiums for credit life, accident, or health insurance written in connection with any consumer credit transaction shall be included in the finance charges unless

(1) the coverage of the debtor by the insurance is not a factor in the approval by the creditor of the extension of credit, and this fact is clearly disclosed in writing to the person applying for or obtaining the extension of credit; and

(2) in order to obtain the insurance in connection with the extension of credit, the person to whom the credit is extended must give specific affirmative written indication of his desire to do so after written disclosure to him of the cost thereof.

(c) Property damage and liability insurance premiums included in finance charge

Charges or premiums for insurance, written in connection with any consumer credit transaction, against loss of or damage to property or against liability arising out of the ownership or use of property, shall be included in the finance charge unless a clear and specific statement in writing is furnished by the creditor to the person to whom the credit is extended, setting forth the cost of the insurance if obtained from or through the creditor, and stating that the person to whom the credit is extended may choose the person through which the insurance is to be obtained.

(d) Items exempted from computation of finance charge in all credit transactions

If any of the following items is itemized and disclosed in accordance with the regulations of the Bureau in connection with any transaction, then the creditor need not include that item in the computation of the finance charge with respect to that transaction:

(1) Fees and charges prescribed by law which actually are or will be paid to public officials for determining the existence of or for perfecting or releasing or satisfying any security related to the credit transaction.

(2) The premium payable for any insurance in lieu of perfecting any security interest otherwise required by the creditor in connection with the transaction, if the premium does not exceed the fees and charges described in paragraph (1) which would otherwise be payable.

(3) Any tax levied on security instruments or on documents evidencing indebtedness if the payment of such taxes is a precondition for recording the instrument securing the evidence of indebtedness.

(e) Items exempted from computation of finance charge in extensions of credit secured by an interest in real property

The following items, when charged in connection with any extension of credit secured by an interest in real property, shall not be included in the computation of the finance charge with respect to that transaction:

(1) Fees or premiums for title examination, title insurance, or similar purposes.

(2) Fees for preparation of loan-related documents.

(3) Escrows for future payments of taxes and insurance.

(4) Fees for notarizing deeds and other documents.

(5) Appraisal fees, including fees related to any pest infestation or flood hazard inspections conducted prior to closing.

(6) Credit reports.

(f) Tolerances for accuracy

In connection with credit transactions not under an open end credit plan that are secured by real property or a dwelling, the disclosure of the finance charge and other disclosures affected by any finance charge—

(1) shall be treated as being accurate for purposes of this subchapter if the amount disclosed as the finance charge—

(A) does not vary from the actual finance charge by more than $100; or

(B) is greater than the amount required to be disclosed under this subchapter; and


(2) shall be treated as being accurate for purposes of section 1635 of this title if—

(A) except as provided in subparagraph (B), the amount disclosed as the finance charge does not vary from the actual finance charge by more than an amount equal to one-half of one percent of the total amount of credit extended; or

(B) in the case of a transaction, other than a mortgage referred to in section 1602(aa) 1 of this title, which—

(i) is a refinancing of the principal balance then due and any accrued and unpaid finance charges of a residential mortgage transaction as defined in section 1602(w) 1 of this title, or is any subsequent refinancing of such a transaction; and

(ii) does not provide any new consolidation or new advance;


if the amount disclosed as the finance charge does not vary from the actual finance charge by more than an amount equal to one percent of the total amount of credit extended.

(Pub. L. 90–321, title I, §106, May 29, 1968, 82 Stat. 148; Pub. L. 96–221, title VI §606, Mar. 31, 1980, 94 Stat. 170; Pub. L. 104–29, §§2(a), (b)(1), (c)–(e), 3(a), Sept. 30, 1995, 109 Stat. 271, 272; Pub. L. 111–203, title X, §1100A(2), July 21, 2010, 124 Stat. 2107.)

References in Text

Subsecs. (aa) and (w) of section 1602 of this title, referred to in subsec. (f)(2)(B), were redesignated subsecs. (bb) and (x), respectively, of section 1602 of this title by Pub. L. 111–203, title X, §1100A(1)(A), July 21, 2010, 124 Stat. 2107.

Amendments

2010—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 111–203 substituted "Bureau" for "Board" in introductory provisions.

1995—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 104–29, §2(a), in introductory provisions inserted after second sentence "The finance charge shall not include fees and amounts imposed by third party closing agents (including settlement agents, attorneys, and escrow and title companies) if the creditor does not require the imposition of the charges or the services provided and does not retain the charges."

Subsec. (a)(6). Pub. L. 104–29, §2(b)(1), added par. (6).

Subsec. (d)(3). Pub. L. 104–29, §2(c), added par. (3).

Subsec. (e)(2). Pub. L. 104–29, §2(d), amended par. (2) generally, substituting "loan-related" for "a deed, settlement statement, or other".

Subsec. (e)(5). Pub. L. 104–29, §2(e), inserted before period ", including fees related to any pest infestation or flood hazard inspections conducted prior to closing".

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 104–29, §3(a), added subsec. (f).

1980—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 96–221, §606(a), inserted provisions excluding charges of a type payable in comparable cash transactions and indicated that pars. (1) to (5) are examples of charges.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 96–221, §606(b), struck out pars. (3) and (4) setting forth applicability to taxes and any other type of charge, respectively.

Effective Date of 2010 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 111–203 effective on the designated transfer date, see section 1100H of Pub. L. 111–203, set out as a note under section 552a of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

Effective Date of 1995 Amendment

Pub. L. 104–29, §2(b)(2), Sept. 30, 1995, 109 Stat. 271, provided that: "The amendment made by paragraph (1) [amending this section] shall take effect on the earlier of—

"(A) 60 days after the date on which the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System issues final regulations under paragraph (3) [set out below]; or

"(B) the date that is 12 months after the date of the enactment of this Act [Sept. 30, 1995]."

Effective Date of 1980 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 96–221 effective on expiration of two years and six months after Mar. 31, 1980, with all regulations, forms, and clauses required to be prescribed to be promulgated at least one year prior to such effective date, and allowing any creditor to comply with any amendments, in accordance with the regulations, forms, and clauses prescribed by the Board prior to such effective date, see section 625 of Pub. L. 96–221, set out as a note under section 1602 of this title.

Regulations

Pub. L. 104–29, §2(b)(3), Sept. 30, 1995, 109 Stat. 271, provided that: "The Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System shall promulgate regulations implementing the amendment made by paragraph (1) [amending this section] by no later than 6 months after the date of the enactment of this Act [Sept. 30, 1995]."

Ensuring That Finance Charges Reflect Cost of Credit

Pub. L. 104–29, §2(f), Sept. 30, 1995, 109 Stat. 272, provided that:

"(1) Report.—

"(A) In general.—Not later than 6 months after the date of the enactment of this Act [Sept. 30, 1995], the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System shall submit to the Congress a report containing recommendations on any regulatory or statutory changes necessary—

"(i) to ensure that finance charges imposed in connection with consumer credit transactions more accurately reflect the cost of providing credit; and

"(ii) to address abusive refinancing practices engaged in for the purpose of avoiding rescission.

"(B) Report requirements.—In preparing the report under this paragraph, the Board shall—

"(i) consider the extent to which it is feasible to include in finance charges all charges payable directly or indirectly by the consumer to whom credit is extended, and imposed directly or indirectly by the creditor as an incident to the extension of credit (especially those charges excluded from finance charges under section 106 of the Truth in Lending Act [15 U.S.C. 1605] as of the date of the enactment of this Act), excepting only those charges which are payable in a comparable cash transaction; and

"(ii) consult with and consider the views of affected industries and consumer groups.

"(2) Regulations.—The Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System shall prescribe any appropriate regulation in order to effect any change included in the report under paragraph (1), and shall publish the regulation in the Federal Register before the end of the 1-year period beginning on the date of enactment of this Act."

1 See References in Text note below.

§1606. Determination of annual percentage rate

(a) "Annual percentage rate" defined

The annual percentage rate applicable to any extension of consumer credit shall be determined, in accordance with the regulations of the Bureau,

(1) in the case of any extension of credit other than under an open end credit plan, as

(A) that nominal annual percentage rate which will yield a sum equal to the amount of the finance charge when it is applied to the unpaid balances of the amount financed, calculated according to the actuarial method of allocating payments made on a debt between the amount financed and the amount of the finance charge, pursuant to which a payment is applied first to the accumulated finance charge and the balance is applied to the unpaid amount financed; or

(B) the rate determined by any method prescribed by the Bureau as a method which materially simplifies computation while retaining reasonable accuracy as compared with the rate determined under subparagraph (A).1


(2) in the case of any extension of credit under an open end credit plan, as the quotient (expressed as a percentage) of the total finance charge for the period to which it relates divided by the amount upon which the finance charge for that period is based, multiplied by the number of such periods in a year.

(b) Computation of rate of finance charges for balances within a specified range

Where a creditor imposes the same finance charge for balances within a specified range, the annual percentage rate shall be computed on the median balance within the range, except that if the Bureau determines that a rate so computed would not be meaningful, or would be materially misleading, the annual percentage rate shall be computed on such other basis as the Bureau may be regulation require.

(c) Allowable tolerances for purposes of compliance with disclosure requirements

The disclosure of an annual percentage rate is accurate for the purpose of this subchapter if the rate disclosed is within a tolerance not greater than one-eighth of 1 per centum more or less than the actual rate or rounded to the nearest one-fourth of 1 per centum. The Bureau may allow a greater tolerance to simplify compliance where irregular payments are involved.

(d) Use of rate tables or charts having allowable variance from determined rates

The Bureau may authorize the use of rate tables or charts which may provide for the disclosure of annual percentage rates which vary from the rate determined in accordance with subsection (a)(1)(A) by not more than such tolerances as the Bureau may allow. The Bureau may not allow a tolerance greater than 8 per centum of that rate except to simplify compliance where irregular payments are involved.

(e) Authorization of tolerances in determining annual percentage rates

In the case of creditors determining the annual percentage rate in a manner other than as described in subsection (d), the Bureau may authorize other reasonable tolerances.

(Pub. L. 90–321, title I, §107, May 29, 1968, 82 Stat. 149; Pub. L. 96–221, title VI, §607, Mar. 31, 1980, 94 Stat. 170; Pub. L. 111–203, title X, §1100A(2), July 21, 2010, 124 Stat. 2107.)

Amendments

2010Pub. L. 111–203 substituted "Bureau" for "Board" wherever appearing.

1980—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 96–221, §607(a), substituted provisions relating to allowable tolerances for purposes of compliance with disclosure requirements, for provisions relating to rounding off of annual percentage rates which are converted from single add-on or other rates.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 96–221, §607(b), struck out reference to subsection (c) of this section.

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 96–221, §607(c), struck out subsec. (f) setting forth requirements for form of expressing percentage rates prior to Jan. 1, 1971.

Effective Date of 2010 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 111–203 effective on the designated transfer date, see section 1100H of Pub. L. 111–203, set out as a note under section 552a of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

Effective Date of 1980 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 96–221 effective on expiration of two years and six months after Mar. 31, 1980, with all regulations, forms, and clauses required to be prescribed to be promulgated at least one year prior to such effective date, and allowing any creditor to comply with any amendments, in accordance with the regulations, forms, and clauses prescribed by the Board prior to such effective date, see section 625 of Pub. L. 96–221, set out as a note under section 1602 of this title.

1 So in original.

§1607. Administrative enforcement

(a) Enforcing agencies

Subject to subtitle B of the Consumer Financial Protection Act of 2010 [12 U.S.C. 5511 et seq.], compliance with the requirements imposed under this subchapter shall be enforced under—

(1) section 8 of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act [12 U.S.C. 1818], by the appropriate Federal banking agency, as defined in section 3(q) of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act (12 U.S.C. 1813(q)), with respect to—

(A) national banks, Federal savings associations, and Federal branches and Federal agencies of foreign banks;

(B) member banks of the Federal Reserve System (other than national banks), branches and agencies of foreign banks (other than Federal branches, Federal agencies, and insured State branches of foreign banks), commercial lending companies owned or controlled by foreign banks, and organizations operating under section 25 or 25A of the Federal Reserve Act [12 U.S.C. 601 et seq., 611 et seq.]; and

(C) banks and State savings associations insured by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (other than members of the Federal Reserve System), and insured State branches of foreign banks;


(2) the Federal Credit Union Act [12 U.S.C. 1751 et seq.], by the Director of the National Credit Union Administration, with respect to any Federal credit union;

(3) part A of subtitle VII of title 49, by the Secretary of Transportation, with respect to any air carrier or foreign air carrier subject to that part;

(4) the Packers and Stockyards Act, 1921 [7 U.S.C. 181 et seq.] (except as provided in section 406 of that Act [7 U.S.C. 226, 227]), by the Secretary of Agriculture, with respect to any activities subject to that Act;

(5) the Farm Credit Act of 1971 [12 U.S.C. 2001 et seq.], by the Farm Credit Administration with respect to any Federal land bank, Federal land bank association, Federal intermediate credit bank, or production credit association; and

(6) subtitle E of the Consumer Financial Protection Act of 2010 [12 U.S.C. 5561 et seq.], by the Bureau, with respect to any person subject to this subchapter.

(7) sections 21B and 21C of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 [15 U.S.C. 78u–2, 78u–3], in the case of a broker or dealer, other than a depository institution, by the Securities and Exchange Commission.

(b) Violations of this subchapter deemed violations of pre-existing statutory requirements; additional agency powers

For the purpose of the exercise by any agency referred to in subsection (a) of its powers under any Act referred to in that subsection, a violation of any requirement imposed under this subchapter shall be deemed to be a violation of a requirement imposed under that Act. In addition to its powers under any provision of law specifically referred to in subsection (a), each of the agencies referred to in that subsection may exercise, for the purpose of enforcing compliance with any requirement imposed under this subchapter, any other authority conferred on it by law.

(c) Overall enforcement authority of the Federal Trade Commission

Except to the extent that enforcement of the requirements imposed under this subchapter is specifically committed to some other Government agency under any of paragraphs (1) through (5) of subsection (a), and subject to subtitle B of the Consumer Financial Protection Act of 2010 [12 U.S.C. 5511 et seq.], the Federal Trade Commission shall be authorized to enforce such requirements. For the purpose of the exercise by the Federal Trade Commission of its functions and powers under the Federal Trade Commission Act [15 U.S.C. 41 et seq.], a violation of any requirement imposed under this subchapter shall be deemed a violation of a requirement imposed under that Act. All of the functions and powers of the Federal Trade Commission under the Federal Trade Commission Act are available to the Federal Trade Commission to enforce compliance by any person with the requirements under this subchapter, irrespective of whether that person is engaged in commerce or meets any other jurisdictional tests under the Federal Trade Commission Act.

(d) Rules and regulations

The authority of the Bureau to issue regulations under this subchapter does not impair the authority of any other agency designated in this section to make rules respecting its own procedures in enforcing compliance with requirements imposed under this subchapter.

(e) Adjustment of finance charges; procedures applicable, coverage, criteria, etc.

(1) In carrying out its enforcement activities under this section, each agency referred to in subsection (a) or (c), in cases where an annual percentage rate or finance charge was inaccurately disclosed, shall notify the creditor of such disclosure error and is authorized in accordance with the provisions of this subsection to require the creditor to make an adjustment to the account of the person to whom credit was extended, to assure that such person will not be required to pay a finance charge in excess of the finance charge actually disclosed or the dollar equivalent of the annual percentage rate actually disclosed, whichever is lower. For the purposes of this subsection, except where such disclosure error resulted from a willful violation which was intended to mislead the person to whom credit was extended, in determining whether a disclosure error has occurred and in calculating any adjustment, (A) each agency shall apply (i) with respect to the annual percentage rate, a tolerance of one-quarter of 1 percent more or less than the actual rate, determined without regard to section 1606(c) of this title, and (ii) with respect to the finance charge, a corresponding numerical tolerance as generated by the tolerance provided under this subsection for the annual percentage rate; except that (B) with respect to transactions consummated after two years following March 31, 1980, each agency shall apply (i) for transactions that have a scheduled amortization of ten years or less, with respect to the annual percentage rate, a tolerance not to exceed one-quarter of 1 percent more or less than the actual rate, determined without regard to section 1606(c) of this title, but in no event a tolerance of less than the tolerances allowed under section 1606(c) of this title, (ii) for transactions that have a scheduled amortization of more than ten years, with respect to the annual percentage rate, only such tolerances as are allowed under section 1606(c) of this title, and (iii) for all transactions, with respect to the finance charge, a corresponding numerical tolerance as generated by the tolerances provided under this subsection for the annual percentage rate.

(2) Each agency shall require such an adjustment when it determines that such disclosure error resulted from (A) a clear and consistent pattern or practice of violations, (B) gross negligence, or (C) a willful violation which was intended to mislead the person to whom the credit was extended. Notwithstanding the preceding sentence, except where such disclosure error resulted from a willful violation which was intended to mislead the person to whom credit was extended, an agency need not require such an adjustment if it determines that such disclosure error—

(A) resulted from an error involving the disclosure of a fee or charge that would otherwise be excludable in computing the finance charge, including but not limited to violations involving the disclosures described in sections 1605(b), (c) and (d) of this title, in which event the agency may require such remedial action as it determines to be equitable, except that for transactions consummated after two years after March 31, 1980, such an adjustment shall be ordered for violations of section 1605(b) of this title;

(B) involved a disclosed amount which was 10 per centum or less of the amount that should have been disclosed and (i) in cases where the error involved a disclosed finance charge, the annual percentage rate was disclosed correctly, and (ii) in cases where the error involved a disclosed annual percentage rate, the finance charge was disclosed correctly; in which event the agency may require such adjustment as it determines to be equitable;

(C) involved a total failure to disclose either the annual percentage rate or the finance charge, in which event the agency may require such adjustment as it determines to be equitable; or

(D) resulted from any other unique circumstance involving clearly technical and nonsubstantive disclosure violations that do not adversely affect information provided to the consumer and that have not misled or otherwise deceived the consumer.


In the case of other such disclosure errors, each agency may require such an adjustment.

(3) Notwithstanding paragraph (2), no adjustment shall be ordered—

(A) if it would have a significantly adverse impact upon the safety or soundness of the creditor, but in any such case, the agency may—

(i) require a partial adjustment in an amount which does not have such an impact; or

(ii) require the full adjustment, but permit the creditor to make the required adjustment in partial payments over an extended period of time which the agency considers to be reasonable, if (in the case of an agency referred to in paragraph (1), (2), or (3) of subsection (a)), the agency determines that a partial adjustment or making partial payments over an extended period is necessary to avoid causing the creditor to become undercapitalized pursuant to section 38 of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act [12 U.S.C. 1831o];


(B) the 1 amount of the adjustment would be less than $1, except that if more than one year has elapsed since the date of the violation, the agency may require that such amount be paid into the Treasury of the United States, or

(C) except where such disclosure error resulted from a willful violation which was intended to mislead the person to whom credit was extended, in the case of an open-end credit plan, more than two years after the violation, or in the case of any other extension of credit, as follows:

(i) with respect to creditors that are subject to examination by the agencies referred to in paragraphs (1) through (3) of subsection (a) of this section, except in connection with violations arising from practices identified in the current examination and only in connection with transactions that are consummated after the date of the immediately preceding examination, except that where practices giving rise to violations identified in earlier examinations have not been corrected, adjustments for those violations shall be required in connection with transactions consummated after the date of examination in which such practices were first identified;

(ii) with respect to creditors that are not subject to examination by such agencies, except in connection with transactions that are consummated after May 10, 1978; and

(iii) in no event after the later of (I) the expiration of the life of the credit extension, or (II) two years after the agreement to extend credit was consummated.


(4)(A) Notwithstanding any other provision of this section, an adjustment under this subsection may be required by an agency referred to in subsection (a) or (c) only by an order issued in accordance with cease and desist procedures provided by the provision of law referred to in such subsections.

(B) In case of an agency which is not authorized to conduct cease and desist proceedings, such an order may be issued after an agency hearing on the record conducted at least thirty but not more than sixty days after notice of the alleged violation is served on the creditor. Such a hearing shall be deemed to be a hearing which is subject to the provisions of section 8(h) of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act [12 U.S.C. 1818(h)] and shall be subject to judicial review as provided therein.

(5) Except as otherwise specifically provided in this subsection and notwithstanding any provision of law referred to in subsection (a) or (c), no agency referred to in subsection (a) or (c) may require a creditor to make dollar adjustments for errors in any requirements under this subchapter, except with regard to the requirements of section 1666d of this title.

(6) A creditor shall not be subject to an order to make an adjustment, if within sixty days after discovering a disclosure error, whether pursuant to a final written examination report or through the creditor's own procedures, the creditor notifies the person concerned of the error and adjusts the account so as to assure that such person will not be required to pay a finance charge in excess of the finance charge actually disclosed or the dollar equivalent of the annual percentage rate actually disclosed, whichever is lower.

(7) Notwithstanding the second sentence of subsection (e)(1), subsection (e)(3)(C)(i), and subsection (e)(3)(C)(ii), each agency referred to in subsection (a) or (c) shall require an adjustment for an annual percentage rate disclosure error that exceeds a tolerance of one quarter of one percent less than the actual rate, determined without regard to section 1606(c) of this title, with respect to any transaction consummated between January 1, 1977, and March 31, 1980.

(Pub. L. 90–321, title I, §108, May 29, 1968, 82 Stat. 150; Pub. L. 91–206, §3, Mar. 10, 1970, 84 Stat. 49; Pub. L. 93–495, title IV, §403, Oct. 28, 1974, 88 Stat. 1517; Pub. L. 95–630, title V, §501, Nov. 10, 1978, 92 Stat. 3680; Pub. L. 96–221, title VI, §608(a), (c), Mar. 21, 1980, 94 Stat. 171, 173; Pub. L. 98–443, §9(n), Oct. 4, 1984, 98 Stat. 1708; Pub. L. 101–73, title VII, §744(k), Aug. 9, 1989, 103 Stat. 439; Pub. L. 102–242, title II, §212(b), Dec. 19, 1991, 105 Stat. 2299; Pub. L. 102–550, title XVI, §1604(a)(5), Oct. 28, 1992, 106 Stat. 4082; Pub. L. 104–208, div. A, title II, §2106, Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 3009–402; Pub. L. 111–203, title X, §1100A(2), (8), title XIV, §1414(b), July 21, 2010, 124 Stat. 2107, 2108, 2152.)

References in Text

The Consumer Financial Protection Act of 2010, referred to in subsecs. (a) and (c), is title X of Pub. L. 111–203, July 21, 2010, 124 Stat. 1955. Subtitles B (§§1021–1029A) and E (§§1051–1058) of the Act are classified generally to parts B (§5511 et seq.) and E (§5561 et seq.), respectively, of subchapter V of chapter 53 of Title 12, Banks and Banking. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 5301 of Title 12 and Tables.

Sections 25 and 25A of the Federal Reserve Act, referred to in subsec. (a)(1)(B), are classified to subchapters I (§601 et seq.) and II (§611 et seq.), respectively, of chapter 6 of Title 12, Banks and Banking.

The Federal Credit Union Act, referred to in subsec. (a)(2), is act June 26, 1934, ch. 750, 48 Stat. 1216, which is classified generally to chapter 14 (§1751 et seq.) of Title 12. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 1751 of Title 12 and Tables.

The Packers and Stockyards Act, 1921, referred to in subsec. (a)(4), is act Aug. 15, 1921, ch. 64, 42 Stat. 159, which is classified generally to chapter 9 (§181 et seq.) of Title 7, Agriculture. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 181 of Title 7 and Tables.

The Farm Credit Act of 1971, referred to in subsec. (a)(5), is Pub. L. 92–181, Dec. 10, 1971, 85 Stat. 583, which is classified generally to chapter 23 (§2001 et seq.) of Title 12, Banks and Banking. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2001 of Title 12 and Tables.

The Federal Trade Commission Act, referred to in subsec. (c), is act Sept. 26, 1914, ch. 311, 38 Stat. 717, which is classified generally to subchapter I (§41 et seq.) of chapter 2 of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 58 of this title and Tables.

Codification

In subsec. (a)(3), "part A of subtitle VII of title 49" substituted for "the Federal Aviation Act of 1958" and "that part" substituted for "that Act" on authority of Pub. L. 103–272, §6(b), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1378, the first section of which enacted subtitles II, III, and V to X of Title 49, Transportation.

Amendments

2010—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 111–203, §1100A(8)(A), added subsec. (a) and struck out former subsec. (a) which listed agencies under which compliance with subchapter requirements would be enforced.

Subsec. (a)(7). Pub. L. 111–203, §1414(b), added par. (7).

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 111–203, §1100A(8)(B), added subsec. (c) and struck out former subsec. (c). Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "Except to the extent that enforcement of the requirements imposed under this subchapter is specifically committed to some other Government agency under subsection (a) of this section, the Federal Trade Commission shall enforce such requirements. For the purpose of the exercise by the Federal Trade Commission of its functions and powers under the Federal Trade Commission Act, a violation of any requirement imposed under this subchapter shall be deemed a violation of a requirement imposed under that Act. All of the functions and powers of the Federal Trade Commission under the Federal Trade Commission Act are available to the Commission to enforce compliance by any person with the requirements imposed under this subchapter, irrespective of whether that person is engaged in commerce or meets any other jurisdictional tests in the Federal Trade Commission Act."

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 111–203, §1100A(2), substituted "Bureau" for "Board".

1996—Subsec. (e)(3). Pub. L. 104–208 struck out "ordered (A) if" and inserted "ordered—

"(A) if";

struck out "may require a partial" and inserted "may—

"(i) require a partial";

struck out ", except that with respect to any transaction consumated after March 31, 1980, the agency shall require" and inserted "; or

"(ii) require";

directed the substitution of "reasonable, if (in the case of an agency referred to in paragraph (1), (2), or (3) of subsection (a)), the agency determines that a partial adjustment or making partial payments over an extended period is necessary to avoid causing the creditor to become undercapitalized pursuant to section 38 of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act;

"(B) the";

for "reasonable, (B) the", which was executed by making the substitution for "reasonable, (B) if the"; and struck out "(C) except" and inserted

"(C) except".

1992—Subsec. (a)(1)(C). Pub. L. 102–550 substituted semicolon for period at end.

1991—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 102–242, §212(b)(2), inserted at end "The terms used in paragraph (1) that are not defined in this subchapter or otherwise defined in section 3(s) of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act (12 U.S.C. 1813(s)) shall have the meaning given to them in section 1(b) of the International Banking Act of 1978 (12 U.S.C. 3101)."

Pub. L. 102–242, §212(b)(1), added par. (1) and struck out former par. (1) which read as follows: "section 8 of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act, in the case of

"(A) national banks, by the Comptroller of the Currency.

"(B) member banks of the Federal Reserve System (other than national banks), by the Board.

"(C) banks insured by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (other than members of the Federal Reserve System), by the Board of Directors of the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation."

1989—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 101–73 amended par. (2) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (2) read as follows: "section 5(d) of the Home Owner's Loan Act of 1933, section 407 of the National Housing Act, and sections 6(i) and 17 of the Federal Home Loan Bank Act, by the Federal Home Loan Bank Board (acting directly or through the Federal Savings and Loan Insurance Corporation), in the case of any institution subject to any of those provisions."

1984—Subsec. (a)(4). Pub. L. 98–443 substituted "Secretary of Transportation" for "Civil Aeronautics Board".

1980—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 96–221, §608(a), added subsec. (e).

Pub. L. 96–221, §608(c), struck out in pars. (1)(A)(i) and (7) ", except in the case of an irregular mortgage lending transaction" after "section 1606(c) of this title". See Effective Date of 1980 Amendment note below.

1974—Subsec. (a)(4) to (6). Pub. L. 93–495 redesignated pars. (5) and (6) as (4) and (5), respectively. Former par. (4), which related to enforcement by the Interstate Commerce Commission, was struck out.

Effective Date of 2010 Amendment

Amendment by section 1100A(2), (8) of Pub. L. 111–203 effective on the designated transfer date, see section 1100H of Pub. L. 111–203, set out as a note under section 552a of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

Amendment by section 1414(b) of Pub. L. 111–203 effective on the date on which final regulations implementing that amendment take effect, or on the date that is 18 months after the designated transfer date if such regulations have not been issued by that date, see section 1400(c) of Pub. L. 111–203, set out as a note under section 1601 of this title.

Effective Date of 1992 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 102–550 effective as if included in the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation Improvement Act of 1991, Pub. L. 102–242, as of Dec. 19, 1991, see section 1609(a) of Pub. L. 102–550, set out as a note under section 191 of Title 12, Banks and Banking.

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 98–443 effective Jan. 1, 1985, see section 9(v) of Pub. L. 98–443, set out as a note under section 5314 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

Effective Date of 1980 Amendment

Pub. L. 96–221, title VI, §608(b), Mar. 31, 1980, 94 Stat. 173, provided that: "This section [amending this section] shall take effect on the date of enactment of the Truth in Lending Simplification and Reform Act [Mar. 31, 1980]."

Pub. L. 96–221, title VI, §608(c), Mar. 31, 1980, 94 Stat. 173, provided that the amendment made by that section is effective one year after Mar. 31, 1980.

Effective Date of 1974 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 93–495 effective Oct. 28, 1974, see section 416 of Pub. L. 93–495, set out as an Effective Date note under section 1665a of this title.

Transfer of Functions

"National Credit Union Administration Board" substituted for "Director of the Bureau of Federal Credit Unions" in subsec. (a)(3) pursuant to section 3 of Pub. L. 91–206 and section 501 of Pub. L. 95–630 [12 U.S.C. 1752a] which transferred functions of Bureau of Federal Credit Unions, and Director thereof, to National Credit Union Administration and vested authority for management of Administration in National Credit Union Administration Board.

1 So in original. Probably should be preceded by "if".

§1608. Views of other agencies

In the exercise of its functions under this subchapter, the Bureau may obtain upon requests the views of any other Federal agency which, in the judgment of the Bureau, exercises regulatory or supervisory functions with respect to any class of creditors subject to this subchapter.

(Pub. L. 90–321, title I, §109, May 29, 1968, 82 Stat. 150; Pub. L. 111–203, title X, §1100A(2), July 21, 2010, 124 Stat. 2107.)

Amendments

2010Pub. L. 111–203 substituted "Bureau" for "Board" in two places.

Effective Date of 2010 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 111–203 effective on the designated transfer date, see section 1100H of Pub. L. 111–203, set out as a note under section 552a of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

§1609. Repealed. Pub. L. 94–239, §3(b)(1), Mar. 23, 1976, 90 Stat. 253

Section, Pub. L. 90–321, title I, §110, May 29, 1968, 82 Stat. 151, provided for establishment of an advisory committee authorized to seek to achieve a fair representation of interests of sellers of merchandise on credit, lenders, and the public.

Effective Date of Repeal

Repeal effective Mar. 23, 1976, see section 708 of Pub. L. 90–321, set out as an Effective Date note under section 1691 of this title.

§1610. Effect on other laws

(a) Inconsistent provisions; procedures applicable for determination

(1) Except as provided in subsection (e), this part and parts B and C, do not annul, alter, or affect the laws of any State relating to the disclosure of information in connection with credit transactions, except to the extent that those laws are inconsistent with the provisions of this subchapter, and then only to the extent of the inconsistency. Upon its own motion or upon the request of any creditor, State, or other interested party which is submitted in accordance with procedures prescribed in regulations of the Bureau, the Bureau shall determine whether any such inconsistency exists. If the Bureau determines that a State-required disclosure is inconsistent, creditors located in that State may not make disclosures using the inconsistent term or form, and shall incur no liability under the law of that State for failure to use such term or form, notwithstanding that such determination is subsequently amended, rescinded, or determined by judicial or other authority to be invalid for any reason.

(2) Upon its own motion or upon the request of any creditor, State, or other interested party which is submitted in accordance with procedures prescribed in regulations of the Bureau, the Bureau shall determine whether any disclosure required under the law of any State is substantially the same in meaning as a disclosure required under this subchapter. If the Bureau determines that a State-required disclosure is substantially the same in meaning as a disclosure required by this subchapter, then creditors located in that State may make such disclosure in compliance with such State law in lieu of the disclosure required by this subchapter, except that the annual percentage rate and finance charge shall be disclosed as required by section 1632 of this title, and such State-required disclosure may not be made in lieu of the disclosures applicable to certain mortgages under section 1639 of this title.

(b) State credit charge statutes

Except as provided in section 1639 of this title, this subchapter does not otherwise annul, alter or affect in any manner the meaning, scope or applicability of the laws of any State, including, but not limited to, laws relating to the types, amounts or rates of charges, or any element or elements of charges, permissible under such laws in connection with the extension or use of credit, nor does this subchapter extend the applicability of those laws to any class of persons or transactions to which they would not otherwise apply. The provisions of section 1639 of this title do not annul, alter, or affect the applicability of the laws of any State or exempt any person subject to the provisions of section 1639 of this title from complying with the laws of any State, with respect to the requirements for mortgages referred to in section 1602(aa) 1 of this title, except to the extent that those State laws are inconsistent with any provisions of section 1639 of this title, and then only to the extent of the inconsistency.

(c) Disclosure as evidence

In any action or proceeding in any court involving a consumer credit sale, the disclosure of the annual percentage rate as required under this subchapter in connection with that sale may not be received as evidence that the sale was a loan or any type of transaction other than a credit sale.

(d) Contract or other obligations under State or Federal law

Except as specified in sections 1635, 1640, and 1666e of this title, this subchapter and the regulations issued thereunder do not affect the validity or enforceability of any contract or obligation under State or Federal law.

(e) Certain credit and charge card application and solicitation disclosure provisions

The provisions of subsection (c) of section 1632 of this title and subsections (c), (d), (e), and (f) of section 1637 of this title shall supersede any provision of the law of any State relating to the disclosure of information in any credit or charge card application or solicitation which is subject to the requirements of section 1637(c) of this title or any renewal notice which is subject to the requirements of section 1637(d) of this title, except that any State may employ or establish State laws for the purpose of enforcing the requirements of such sections.

(Pub. L. 90–321, title I, §111, May 29, 1968, 82 Stat. 151; Pub. L. 93–495, title III, §307(b), Oct. 28, 1974, 88 Stat. 1516; Pub. L. 96–221, title VI, §609, Mar. 31, 1980, 94 Stat. 173; Pub. L. 100–583, §4, Nov. 3, 1988, 102 Stat. 2967; Pub. L. 103–325, title I, §152(e)(2)(B), (C), Sept. 23, 1994, 108 Stat. 2194; Pub. L. 111–203, title X, §1100A(2), July 21, 2010, 124 Stat. 2107.)

References in Text

Section 1602(aa) of this title, referred to in subsec. (b), was redesignated section 1602(bb) of this title by Pub. L. 111–203, title X, §1100A(1)(A), July 21, 2010, 124 Stat. 2107.

Amendments

2010—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 111–203 substituted "Bureau" for "Board" wherever appearing.

1994—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 103–325, §152(e)(2)(B), which directed the amendment of par. (2) by inserting ", and such State-required disclosure may not be made in lieu of the disclosures applicable to certain mortgages under section 1639 of this title" before period, was executed by making the insertion before period at end of par. (2), to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 103–325, §152(e)(2)(C), substituted "Except as provided in section 1639 of this title, this subchapter" for "This subchapter" and inserted at end "The provisions of section 1639 of this title do not annul, alter, or affect the applicability of the laws of any State or exempt any person subject to the provisions of section 1639 of this title from complying with the laws of any State, with respect to the requirements for mortgages referred to in section 1602(aa) of this title, except to the extent that those State laws are inconsistent with any provisions of section 1639 of this title, and then only to the extent of the inconsistency."

1988—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 100–583, §4(1), substituted "Except as provided in subsection (e), this part" for "This part".

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 100–583, §4(2), added subsec. (e).

1980—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 96–221 designated existing provisions as par. (1), substituted provisions respecting the effect of this part and parts B and C of this subchapter, and procedures applicable for determination, for provisions respecting the effect of this subchapter, and added par. (2).

1974—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 93–495 inserted reference to section 1666e of this title.

Effective Date of 2010 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 111–203 effective on the designated transfer date, see section 1100H of Pub. L. 111–203, set out as a note under section 552a of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

Effective Date of 1980 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 96–221 effective on expiration of two years and six months after Mar. 31, 1980, with all regulations, forms, and clauses required to be prescribed to be promulgated at least one year prior to such effective date, and allowing any creditor to comply with any amendments, in accordance with the regulations, forms, and clauses prescribed by the Board prior to such effective date, see section 625 of Pub. L. 96–221, set out as a note under section 1602 of this title.

Effective Date of 1974 Amendment

For effective date of amendment by Pub. L. 93–495, see section 308 of Pub. L. 93–495, set out as an Effective Date note under section 1666 of this title.

1 See References in Text note below.

§1611. Criminal liability for willful and knowing violation

Whoever willfully and knowingly

(1) gives false or inaccurate information or fails to provide information which he is required to disclose under the provisions of this subchapter or any regulation issued thereunder,

(2) uses any chart or table authorized by the Bureau under section 1606 of this title in such a manner as to consistently understate the annual percentage rate determined under section 1606(a)(1)(A) of this title, or

(3) otherwise fails to comply with any requirement imposed under this subchapter,


shall be fined not more than $5,000 or imprisoned not more than one year, or both.

(Pub. L. 90–321, title I, §112, May 29, 1968, 82 Stat. 151; Pub. L. 111–203, title X, §1100A(2), July 21, 2010, 124 Stat. 2107.)

Amendments

2010—Par. (2). Pub. L. 111–203 substituted "Bureau" for "Board".

Effective Date of 2010 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 111–203 effective on the designated transfer date, see section 1100H of Pub. L. 111–203, set out as a note under section 552a of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

§1612. Effect on government agencies

(a) Consultation requirements respecting compliance of credit instruments issued to participating creditor

Any department or agency of the United States which administers a credit program in which it extends, insures, or guarantees consumer credit and in which it provides instruments to a creditor which contain any disclosures required by this subchapter shall, prior to the issuance or continued use of such instruments, consult with the Bureau to assure that such instruments comply with this subchapter.

(b) Inapplicability of Federal civil or criminal penalties to Federal, State, and local agencies

No civil or criminal penalty provided under this subchapter for any violation thereof may be imposed upon the United States or any department or agency thereof, or upon any State or political subdivision thereof, or any agency of any State or political subdivision.

(c) Inapplicability of Federal civil or criminal penalties to participating creditor where violating instrument issued by United States

A creditor participating in a credit program administered, insured, or guaranteed by any department or agency or the United States shall not be held liable for a civil or criminal penalty under this subchapter in any case in which the violation results from the use of an instrument required by any such department or agency.

(d) Applicability of State penalties to violations by participating creditor

A creditor participating in a credit program administered, insured, or guaranteed by any department or agency of the United States shall not be held liable for a civil or criminal penalty under the laws of any State (other than laws determined under section 1610 of this title to be inconsistent with this subchapter) for any technical or procedural failure, such as a failure to use a specific form, to make information available at a specific place on an instrument, or to use a specific typeface, as required by State law, which is caused by the use of an instrument required to be used by such department or agency.

(Pub. L. 90–321, title I, §113, May 29, 1968, 82 Stat. 151; Pub. L. 96–221, title VI, §622(a), Mar. 31, 1980, 94 Stat. 184; Pub. L. 111–203, title X, §1100A(2), July 21, 2010, 124 Stat. 2107.)

Amendments

2010—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 111–203 substituted "Bureau" for "Board".

1980Pub. L. 96–221 amended section generally, designating existing provisions as subsec. (b) and adding subsecs. (a), (c), and (d).

Effective Date of 2010 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 111–203 effective on the designated transfer date, see section 1100H of Pub. L. 111–203, set out as a note under section 552a of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

Effective Date of 1980 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 96–221 effective on expiration of two years and six months after Mar. 31, 1980, with all regulations, forms, and clauses required to be prescribed to be promulgated at least one year prior to such effective date, and allowing any creditor to comply with any amendments, in accordance with the regulations, forms, and clauses prescribed by the Board prior to such effective date, see section 625 of Pub. L. 96–221, set out as a note under section 1602 of this title.

§1613. Annual reports to Congress by Bureau

Each year the Bureau shall make a report to the Congress concerning the administration of its functions under this subchapter, including such recommendations as the Bureau deems necessary or appropriate. In addition, each report of the Bureau shall include its assessment of the extent to which compliance with the requirements imposed under this subchapter is being achieved.

(Pub. L. 90–321, title I, §114, May 29, 1968, 82 Stat. 151; Pub. L. 96–221, title VI, §610(a), Mar. 31, 1980, 94 Stat. 174; Pub. L. 97–375, title II, §209(b), Dec. 21, 1982, 96 Stat. 1825; Pub. L. 111–203, title X, §1100A(2), July 21, 2010, 124 Stat. 2107.)

Amendments

2010Pub. L. 111–203 substituted "Bureau" for "Board" wherever appearing.

1982Pub. L. 97–375 struck out requirement that the Attorney General make a report on the same terms as the Board.

1980Pub. L. 96–221 substituted "Each year" for "Not later than January 3 of each year after 1969,".

Effective Date of 2010 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 111–203 effective on the designated transfer date, see section 1100H of Pub. L. 111–203, set out as a note under section 552a of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

Effective Date of 1980 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 96–221 effective on expiration of two years and six months after Mar. 31, 1980, with all regulations, forms, and clauses required to be prescribed to be promulgated at least one year prior to such effective date, and allowing any creditor to comply with any amendments, in accordance with the regulations, forms, and clauses prescribed by the Board prior to such effective date, see section 625 of Pub. L. 96–221, set out as a note under section 1602 of this title.

§1614. Repealed. Pub. L. 96–221, title VI, §616(b), Mar. 31, 1980, 94 Stat. 182

Section, Pub. L. 90–321, title I, §115, as added Pub. L. 93–495, title IV, §413(a), Oct. 28, 1974, 88 Stat. 1520, related to liability of assignees. See section 1641 of this title.

Effective Date of Repeal

Repeal effective on expiration of two years and six months after Mar. 31, 1980, with all regulations, forms, and clauses required to be prescribed to be promulgated at least one year prior to such effective date, and allowing any creditor to comply with any amendments, in accordance with the regulations, forms, and clauses prescribed by the Board prior to such effective date, see section 625 of Pub. L. 96–221, set out as an Effective Date of 1980 Amendment note under section 1602 of this title.

§1615. Prohibition on use of "Rule of 78's" in connection with mortgage refinancings and other consumer loans

(a) Prompt refund of unearned interest required

(1) In general

If a consumer prepays in full the financed amount under any consumer credit transaction, the creditor shall promptly refund any unearned portion of the interest charge to the consumer.

(2) Exception for refund of de minimus 1 amount

No refund shall be required under paragraph (1) with respect to the prepayment of any consumer credit transaction if the total amount of the refund would be less than $1.

(3) Applicability to refinanced transactions and acceleration by the creditor

This subsection shall apply with respect to any prepayment of a consumer credit transaction described in paragraph (1) without regard to the manner or the reason for the prepayment, including—

(A) any prepayment made in connection with the refinancing, consolidation, or restructuring of the transaction; and

(B) any prepayment made as a result of the acceleration of the obligation to repay the amount due with respect to the transaction.

(b) Use of "Rule of 78's" prohibited

For the purpose of calculating any refund of interest required under subsection (a) for any precomputed consumer credit transaction of a term exceeding 61 months which is consummated after September 30, 1993, the creditor shall compute the refund based on a method which is at least as favorable to the consumer as the actuarial method.

(c) Statement of prepayment amount

(1) In general

Before the end of the 5-day period beginning on the date an oral or written request is received by a creditor from a consumer for the disclosure of the amount due on any precomputed consumer credit account, the creditor or assignee shall provide the consumer with a statement of—

(A) the amount necessary to prepay the account in full; and

(B) if the amount disclosed pursuant to subparagraph (A) includes an amount which is required to be refunded under this section with respect to such prepayment, the amount of such refund.

(2) Written statement required if request is in writing

If the customer's request is in writing, the statement under paragraph (1) shall be in writing.

(3) 1 free annual statement

A consumer shall be entitled to obtain 1 statement under paragraph (1) each year without charge.

(4) Additional statements subject to reasonable fees

Any creditor may impose a reasonable fee to cover the cost of providing any statement under paragraph (1) to any consumer in addition to the 1 free annual statement required under paragraph (3) if the amount of the charge for such additional statement is disclosed to the consumer before furnishing such statement.

(d) Definitions

For the purpose of this section—

(1) Actuarial method

The term "actuarial method" means the method of allocating payments made on a debt between the amount financed and the finance charge pursuant to which a payment is applied first to the accumulated finance charge and any remainder is subtracted from, or any deficiency is added to, the unpaid balance of the amount financed.

(2) Consumer, credit

The terms "consumer" and "creditor" have the meanings given to such terms in section 1602 of this title.

(3) Creditor

The term "creditor"—

(A) has the meaning given to such term in section 1602 of this title; and

(B) includes any assignee of any creditor with respect to credit extended in connection with any consumer credit transaction and any subsequent assignee with respect to such credit.

(Pub. L. 102–550, title IX, §933, Oct. 28, 1992, 106 Stat. 3891.)

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the Housing and Community Development Act of 1992, and not as part of the Consumer Credit Protection Act which comprises this chapter.

1 So in original. Probably should be "de minimis".

§1616. Board review of consumer credit plans and regulations

(a) Required review

Not later than 2 years after the effective date of this Act and every 2 years thereafter, except as provided in subsection (c)(2), the Board shall conduct a review, within the limits of its existing resources available for reporting purposes, of the consumer credit card market, including—

(1) the terms of credit card agreements and the practices of credit card issuers;

(2) the effectiveness of disclosure of terms, fees, and other expenses of credit card plans;

(3) the adequacy of protections against unfair or deceptive acts or practices relating to credit card plans; and

(4) whether or not, and to what extent, the implementation of this Act and the amendments made by this Act has affected—

(A) cost and availability of credit, particularly with respect to non-prime borrowers;

(B) the safety and soundness of credit card issuers;

(C) the use of risk-based pricing; or

(D) credit card product innovation.

(b) Solicitation of public comment

In connection with conducting the review required by subsection (a), the Board shall solicit comment from consumers, credit card issuers, and other interested parties, such as through hearings or written comments.

(c) Regulations

(1) Notice

Following the review required by subsection (a), the Board shall publish a notice in the Federal Register that—

(A) summarizes the review, the comments received from the public solicitation, and other evidence gathered by the Board, such as through consumer testing or other research; and

(B) either—

(i) proposes new or revised regulations or interpretations to update or revise disclosures and protections for consumer credit cards, as appropriate; or

(ii) states the reason for the determination of the Board that new or revised regulations are not necessary.

(2) Revision of review period following material revision of regulations

In the event that the Board materially revises regulations on consumer credit card plans, a review need not be conducted until 2 years after the effective date of the revised regulations, which thereafter shall be treated as the new date for the biennial review required by subsection (a).

(d) Board report to the Congress

The Board shall report to Congress not less frequently than every 2 years, except as provided in subsection (c)(2), on the status of its most recent review, its efforts to address any issues identified from the review, and any recommendations for legislation.

(e) Additional reporting

The Federal banking agencies (as that term is defined in section 1813 of title 12) and the Federal Trade Commission shall provide annually to the Board, and the Board shall include in its annual report to Congress under section 247 of title 12, information about the supervisory and enforcement activities of the agencies with respect to compliance by credit card issuers with applicable Federal consumer protection statutes and regulations, including—

(1) this Act, the amendments made by this Act, and regulations prescribed under this Act and such amendments; and

(2) section 5 of the Federal Trade Commission Act [15 U.S.C. 45], and regulations prescribed under the Federal Trade Commission Act [15 U.S.C. 41 et seq.], including part 227 of title 12 of the Code of Federal Regulations, as prescribed by the Board (referred to as "Regulation AA").

(Pub. L. 111–24, title V, §502, May 22, 2009, 123 Stat. 1755.)

References in Text

The effective date of this Act, referred to in subsec. (a), is 9 months after May 22, 2009, except as otherwise specifically provided in Pub. L. 111–24, see section 3 of Pub. L. 111–24, set out as an Effective Date of 2009 Amendment note under section 1602 of this title.

This Act, referred to in subsecs. (a)(4) and (e)(1), is Pub. L. 111–24, May 22, 2009, 123 Stat. 1734, known as the Credit Card Accountability Responsibility and Disclosure Act of 2009, and also as the Credit CARD Act of 2009, which enacted this section and sections 1651, 1665c to 1665e, 1666i–1, 1666i–2, and 1693l–1 of this title and section 1a–7b of Title 16, Conservation, amended sections 1602, 1632, 1637, 1640, 1650, 1666b, 1666c, 1666j, 1681b, 1681j, and 1693m to 1693r of this title, enacted provisions set out as notes under sections 1602, 1637, 1638, 1666b, 1681j, and 1693l–1 of this title and section 5311 of Title 31, Money and Finance, and amended provisions set out as notes under sections 1638 and 1693 of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title of 2009 Amendment note set out under section 1601 of this title and Tables.

The Federal Trade Commission Act, referred to in subsec. (e)(2), is act Sept. 26, 1914, ch. 311, 38 Stat. 717, which is classified generally to subchapter I (§41 et seq.) of chapter 2 of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 58 of this title and Tables.

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the Credit Card Accountability Responsibility and Disclosure Act of 2009, also known as the Credit CARD Act of 2009, and not as part of the Consumer Credit Protection Act which comprises this chapter.

Effective Date

Section effective 9 months after May 22, 2009, except as otherwise specifically provided, see section 3 of Pub. L. 111–24, set out as an Effective Date of 2009 Amendment note under section 1602 of this title.

Definition

For definition of "Board", see section 2 of Pub. L. 111–24, set out as a Regulations note under section 1602 of this title.