[USC02] 15 USC CHAPTER 60, SUBCHAPTER V: ADMINISTRATION, ENFORCEMENT, AND REVIEW
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15 USC CHAPTER 60, SUBCHAPTER V: ADMINISTRATION, ENFORCEMENT, AND REVIEW
From Title 15—COMMERCE AND TRADECHAPTER 60—NATURAL GAS POLICY

SUBCHAPTER V—ADMINISTRATION, ENFORCEMENT, AND REVIEW

§3411. General rulemaking authority

(a) In general

Except where expressly provided otherwise, the Commission shall administer this chapter. The Commission, or any other Federal officer or agency in which any function under this chapter is vested or delegated, is authorized to perform any and all acts (including any appropriate enforcement activity), and to prescribe, issue, amend, and rescind such rules and orders as it may find necessary or appropriate to carry out its functions under this chapter.

(b) Authority to define terms

Except where otherwise expressly provided, the Commission is authorized to define, by rule, accounting, technical, and trade terms used in this chapter. Any such definition shall be consistent with the definitions set forth in this chapter.

(Pub. L. 95–621, title V, §501, Nov. 9, 1978, 92 Stat. 3396; Pub. L. 101–60, §3(b)(4), July 26, 1989, 103 Stat. 159.)

Amendments

1989—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 101–60 struck out subsec. (c) which authorized Commission to delegate to any State agency (with consent of such agency) any of its functions with respect to sections 3315, 3316(b), and 3319(a)(1) and (3) of this title.

Effective Date of 1989 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 101–60 effective Jan. 1, 1993, see section 3(b) of Pub. L. 101–60, set out as a note under section 3372 of this title.

§3412. Administrative procedure

(a) Administrative Procedure Act

Subject to subsection (b), the provisions of subchapter II of chapter 5 of title 5 shall apply to any rule or order issued under this chapter having the applicability and effect of a rule as defined in section 551(4) of title 5; except that sections 554, 556, and 557 of such title 5 shall not apply to any order under such section 3361, 3362, or 3363 of this title.

(b) Opportunity for oral presentations

To the maximum extent practicable, an opportunity for oral presentation of data, views, and arguments shall be afforded with respect to any proposed rule or order described in subsection (a) (other than an order under section 3361, 3362, or 3363 of this title). To the maximum extent practicable, such opportunity shall be afforded before the effective date of such rule or order. Such opportunity shall be afforded no later than 30 days after such date in the case of a waiver of the entire comment period under section 553(d)(3) of title 5, and no later than 45 days after such date in all other cases. A transcript shall be made of any such oral presentation.

(c) Adjustments

The Commission or any other Federal officer or agency authorized to issue rules or orders described in subsection (a) (other than an order under section 3361, 3362, or 3363 of this title) shall, by rule, provide for the making of such adjustments, consistent with the other purposes of this chapter, as may be necessary to prevent special hardship, inequity, or an unfair distribution of burdens. Such rule shall establish procedures which are available to any person for the purpose of seeking an interpretation, modification, or rescission of, exception to, or exemption from, such applicable rules or orders. If any person is aggrieved or adversely affected by the denial of a request for adjustment under the preceding sentence, such person may request a review of such denial by the officer or agency and may obtain judicial review in accordance with section 3416 of this title when such denial becomes final. The officer or agency shall, by rule, establish procedures, including an opportunity for oral presentation of data, views, and arguments, for considering requests for adjustment under this subsection.

(Pub. L. 95–621, title V, §502, Nov. 9, 1978, 92 Stat. 3397; Pub. L. 101–60, §3(a)(3), July 26, 1989, 103 Stat. 158.)

Amendments

1989—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 101–60 struck out subsec. (d) which directed that any determination made under section 3347(c) of this title be made in accordance with procedures applicable to the granting of any authority under the Natural Gas Act to import natural gas or liquefied natural gas (as the case might be).

§3413. Repealed. Pub. L. 101–60, §3(b)(5), July 26, 1989, 103 Stat. 159

Section, Pub. L. 95–621, title V, §503, Nov. 9, 1978, 92 Stat. 3397, related to various determinations to be made by State or Federal agencies for qualifying under certain categories of natural gas.

Effective Date of Repeal

Repeal effective Jan. 1, 1993, see section 3(b) of Pub. L. 101–60, set out as an Effective Date of 1989 Amendment note under section 3372 of this title.

§3414. Enforcement

(a) General rule

It shall be unlawful for any person to violate any provision of this chapter or any rule or order under this chapter.

(b) Civil enforcement

(1) In general

Except as provided in paragraph (2), whenever it appears to the Commission that any person is engaged or about to engage in any act or practice which constitutes or will constitute a violation of any provision of this chapter, or of any rule or order thereunder, the Commission may bring an action in the District Court of the United States for the District of Columbia or any other appropriate district court of the United States to enjoin such act or practice and to enforce compliance with this chapter, or any rule or order thereunder.

(2) Enforcement of emergency orders

Whenever it appears to the President that any person has engaged, is engaged, or is about to engage in acts or practices constituting a violation of any order under section 3362 of this title or any order or supplemental order issued under section 3363 of this title, the President may bring a civil action in any appropriate district court of the United States to enjoin such acts or practices.

(3) Repealed. Pub. L. 101–60, §3(a)(4)(B), July 26, 1989, 103 Stat. 158

(4) Relief available

In any action under paragraph (1) or (2), the court shall, upon a proper showing, issue a temporary restraining order or preliminary or permanent injunction without bond. In any such action, the court may also issue a mandatory injunction commanding any person to comply with any applicable provision of law, rule, or order, or ordering such other legal or equitable relief as the court determines appropriate, including refund or restitution.

(5) Criminal referral

The Commission may transmit such evidence as may be available concerning any acts or practices constituting any possible violations of the Federal antitrust laws to the Attorney General who may institute appropriate criminal proceedings.

(6) Civil penalties

(A) In general

Any person who knowingly violates any provision of this chapter, or any provision of any rule or order under this chapter, shall be subject to—

(i) except as provided in clause (ii) a civil penalty, which the Commission may assess, of not more than $1,000,000 for any one violation; and

(ii) a civil penalty, which the President may assess, of not more than $1,000,000, in the case of any violation of an order under section 3362 of this title or an order or supplemental order under section 3363 of this title.

(B) "Knowing" defined

For purposes of subparagraph (A) the term "knowing" means the having of—

(i) actual knowledge; or

(ii) the constructive knowledge deemed to be possessed by a reasonable individual who acts under similar circumstances.

(C) Each day separate violation

For purposes of this paragraph, in the case of a continuing violation, each day of violation shall constitute a separate violation.

(D) Statute of limitations

No person shall be subject to any civil penalty under this paragraph with respect to any violation occurring more than 3 years before the date on which such person is provided notice of the proposed penalty under subparagraph (E). The preceding sentence shall not apply in any case in which an untrue statement of material fact was made to the Commission or a State or Federal agency by, or acquiesced to by, the violator with respect to the acts or omissions constituting such violation, or if there was omitted a material fact necessary in order to make any statement made by, or acquiesced to by, the violator with respect to such acts or omissions not misleading in light of circumstances under such statement was made.

(E) Assessed by Commission

Before assessing any civil penalty under this paragraph, the Commission shall provide to such person notice of the proposed penalty. Following receipt of notice of the proposed penalty by such person, the Commission shall, by order, asssess 1 such penalty.

(F) Judicial review

If the civil penalty has not been paid within 60 calendar days after the assessment order has been made under subparagraph (E), the Commission shall institute an action in the appropriate district court of the United States for an order affirming the assessment of the civil penalty. The court shall have authority to review de novo the law and the facts involved, and shall have jurisdiction to enter a judgment enforcing, modifying, and enforcing as so modified, or setting aside in whole or in part, such assessment.

(c) Criminal penalties

(1) Violations of chapter

Except in the case of violations covered under paragraph (3), any person who knowingly and willfully violates any provision of this chapter shall be subject to—

(A) a fine of not more than $1,000,000; or

(B) imprisonment for not more than 5 years; or

(C) both such fine and such imprisonment.

(2) Violation of rules or orders generally

Except in the case of violations covered under paragraph (3), any person who knowingly and willfully violates any rule or order under this chapter (other than an order of the Commission assessing a civil penalty under subsection (b)(4)(E)), shall be subject to a fine of not more than $50,000 for each day on which the offense occurs.

(3) Violations of emergency orders

Any person who knowingly and willfully violates an order under section 3362 of this title or an order or supplemental order under section 3363 of this title shall be fined not more than $50,000 for each violation.

(4) Each day separate violation

For purposes of this subsection, each day of violation shall constitute a separate violation.

(5) "Knowingly" defined

For purposes of this subsection, the term "knowingly", when used with respect to any act or omission by any person, means such person—

(A) had actual knowledge; or

(B) had constructive knowledge deemed to be possessed by a reasonable individual who acts under similar circumstances.

(Pub. L. 95–621, title V, §504, Nov. 9, 1978, 92 Stat. 3401; Pub. L. 101–60, §3(a)(4), (b)(6), July 26, 1989, 103 Stat. 158, 159; Pub. L. 109–58, title III, §314(a)(2), (b)(2), Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 690, 691.)

Amendments

2005—Subsec. (b)(6)(A). Pub. L. 109–58, §314(b)(2), substituted "$1,000,000" for "$5,000" in cl. (i) and "$1,000,000" for "$25,000" in cl. (ii).

Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 109–58, §314(a)(2)(A), substituted "$1,000,000" for "$5,000" in subpar. (A) and "5 years" for "two years" in subpar. (B).

Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 109–58, §314(a)(2)(B), substituted "$50,000 for each day on which the offense occurs" for "$500 for each violation".

1989—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 101–60, §3(b)(6), struck out par. (2) designation and par. (1) making it unlawful to sell natural gas at a first sale price in excess of any applicable maximum lawful price under this chapter.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 101–60, §3(a)(4), substituted "paragraph (2)" for "paragraphs (2) and (3)" in par. (1), struck out par. (3) which related to enforcement of incremental pricing, and substituted "paragraph (1) or (2)" for "paragraph (1), (2), or (3)" in par. (4).

Effective Date of 1989 Amendment

Amendment by section 3(b)(6) of Pub. L. 101–60 effective Jan. 1, 1993, see section 3(b) of Pub. L. 101–60, set out as a note under section 3372 of this title.

1 So in original. Probably should be "assess".

§3415. Intervention

(a) Authority to intervene

(1) Intervention as matter of right

The Secretary of Energy may intervene as a matter of right in any proceeding relating to the prorationing of, or other limitations upon, natural gas production which is conducted by any State agency having regulatory jurisdiction over the production of natural gas.

(2) Enforcement of right to intervene

The Secretary may bring an action in any appropriate court of the United States to enforce his right to intervene under paragraph (1).

(3) Access to information

As an intervenor in a proceeding described in subsection (a), the Secretary shall have access to information available to other parties to the proceeding if such information is relevant to the issues to which his participation in such proceeding relates. Such information may be obtained through reasonable rules relating to discovery of information prescribed by the State agency.

(b) Access to State courts

(1) Review in State courts

The Secretary may obtain review of any determination made in any proceeding described in subsection (a)(1) in the appropriate State court if the Secretary intervened or otherwise participated in the original proceeding or if State law otherwise permits such review.

(2) Participation as amicus curiae

In addition to his authority to obtain review under paragraph (1), the Secretary may also participate an 1 amicus curiae in any judicial review of any proceeding described in subsection (a)(1).

(Pub. L. 95–621, title V, §505, Nov. 9, 1978, 92 Stat. 3403.)

1 So in original. Probably should be "as".

§3416. Judicial review

(a) Orders

(1) In general

The provisions of this subsection shall apply to judicial review of any order, within the meaning of section 551(6) of title 5 (other than an order assessing a civil penalty under section 3414(b)(4) of this title or any order under section 3362 of this title or any order under section 3363 of this title), issued under this chapter and to any final agency action under this chapter required to be made on the record after an opportunity for an agency hearing.

(2) Rehearing

Any person aggrieved by any order issued by the Commission in a proceeding under this chapter to which such person is a party may apply for a rehearing within 30 days after the issuance of such order. Any application for rehearing shall set forth the specific ground upon which such application is based. Upon the filing of such application, the Commission may grant or deny the requested rehearing or modify the original order without further hearing. Unless the Commission acts upon such application for rehearing within 30 days after it is filed, such application shall be deemed to have been denied. No person may bring an action under this section to obtain judicial review of any order of the Commission unless—

(A) such person shall have made application to the Commission for rehearing under this subsection; and

(B) the Commission shall have finally acted with respect to such application.


For purposes of this section, if the Commission fails to act within 30 days after the filing of such application, such failure to act shall be deemed final agency action with respect to such application.

(3) Authority to modify orders

At any time before the filing of the record of a proceeding in a United States Court of Appeals, pursuant to paragraph (4), the Commission may, after providing notice it determines reasonable and proper, modify or set aside, in whole or in part, any order issued under the provisions of this chapter.

(4) Judicial review

Any person who is a party to a proceeding under this chapter aggrieved by any final order issued by the Commission in such proceeding may obtain review of such order in the United States Court of Appeals for any circuit in which the party to which such order relates is located or has its principal place of business, or in the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia circuit. Review shall be obtained by filing a written petition, requesting that such order be modified or set aside in whole or in part, in such Court of Appeals within 60 days after the final action of the Commission on the application for rehearing required under paragraph (2). A copy of such petition shall forthwith be transmitted by the clerk of such court to any member of the Commission and thereupon the Commission shall file with the court the record upon which the order complained of was entered, as provided in section 2112 of title 28. Upon the filing of such petition such court shall have jurisdiction, which upon the filing of the record with it shall be exclusive, to affirm, modify, or set aside such order in whole or in part. No objection to such order of the Commission shall be considered by the court if such objection was not urged before the Commission in the application for rehearing unless there was reasonable ground for the failure to do so. The finding of the Commission as to the facts, if supported by substantial evidence, shall be conclusive. If any party shall apply to the court for leave to adduce additional evidence, and shall show to the satisfaction of the court that such additional evidence is material and that there were reasonable grounds for failure to adduce such evidence in the proceedings before the Commission, the court may order such additional evidence to be taken before the Commission and to be adduced upon the hearing in such manner and upon such terms and conditions as the court deems proper. The Commission may modify its findings as to the facts by reason of the additional evidence so taken, and shall file with the court such modified or new findings, which if supported by substantial evidence, shall be conclusive. The Commission shall also file with the court its recommendation, if any, for the modification or setting aside of the original order. The judgment and decree of the court, affirming, modifying, or setting aside, in whole or in part, any such order of the Commission, shall be final subject to review by the Supreme Court of the United States upon certiorari or certification as provided in section 1254 of title 28.

(5) Orders remain effective

The filing of an application for rehearing under paragraph (2) shall not, unless specifically ordered by the Commission, operate as a stay of the Commission's order. The commencement of proceedings under paragraph (4) shall not, unless specifically ordered by the court, operate as a stay of the Commission's order.

(b) Review of rules and orders

Except as provided in subsections (a) and (c), judicial review of any rule or order, within the meaning of section 551(4) of title 5, issued under this chapter may be obtained in the United States Court of Appeals for any appropriate circuit pursuant to the provisions of chapter 7 of title 5, except that the second sentence of section 705 thereof shall not apply.

(c) Judicial review of emergency orders

Except with respect to enforcement of orders or subpenas under section 3364(a) of this title, the United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit shall have exclusive original jurisdiction to review all civil cases and controversies under section 3361, 3362 or 3363 of this title, including any order issued, or other action taken, under such section. The United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit shall have exclusive jurisdiction of all appeals from the district courts of the United States in cases and controversies arising under section 3364(a)(2) of this title; such appeals shall be taken by the filing of a notice of appeal with the United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit within thirty days after the entry of judgment by the district court. Prior to a final judgment, no court shall have jurisdiction to grant any injunctive relief to stay or defer the implementation of any order issued, or action taken, under section 3361, 3362, or 3363 of this title.

(Pub. L. 95–621, title V, §506, Nov. 9, 1978, 92 Stat. 3404; Pub. L. 101–60, §3(a)(5), July 26, 1989, 103 Stat. 158; Pub. L. 102–572, title I, §102(b), Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4506.)

Amendments

1992—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 102–572 substituted "the United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit" for "the Temporary Emergency Court of Appeals, established pursuant to section 211(b) of the Economic Stabilization Act of 1970, as amended," before "shall have exclusive original jurisdiction" and substituted "United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit" for "Temporary Emergency Court of Appeals" in two places.

1989—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 101–60 struck out subsec. (d) which related to judicial review of certain incremental pricing determinations.

Effective Date of 1992 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 102–572 effective Jan. 1, 1993, see section 1101 of Pub. L. 102–572, set out as a note under section 905 of Title 2, The Congress.

§3417. Repealed. Pub. L. 101–60, §3(a)(6), July 26, 1989, 103 Stat. 158

Section, Pub. L. 95–621, title V, §507, Nov. 9, 1978, 92 Stat. 3406, related to congressional review of Presidential reimposition of maximum lawful prices under section 3332 of this title, congressional reimposition of maximum lawful prices under section 3332 of this title, and congressional disapproval of incremental pricing under section 3342(c) or 3346(d)(2) of this title.

§3418. Applicability of other Federal statutory provisions relating to information-gathering

In order to obtain information for the purpose of carrying out its functions under this chapter, the Commission shall have the same authority as is vested in the Secretary under 7151(a) of title 42 with respect to the exercise of authority under section 796(b) of this title and section 772(b), (c), and (d) of this title.

(Pub. L. 95–621, title V, §508(b), Nov. 9, 1978, 92 Stat. 3408.)