[USC02] 18 USC Ch. 207: RELEASE AND DETENTION PENDING JUDICIAL PROCEEDINGS
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18 USC Ch. 207: RELEASE AND DETENTION PENDING JUDICIAL PROCEEDINGS
From Title 18—CRIMES AND CRIMINAL PROCEDUREPART II—CRIMINAL PROCEDURE

CHAPTER 207—RELEASE AND DETENTION PENDING JUDICIAL PROCEEDINGS

Sec.
3141.
Release and detention authority generally.
3142.
Release or detention of a defendant pending trial.
3143.
Release or detention of a defendant pending sentence or appeal.
3144.
Release or detention of a material witness.
3145.
Review and appeal of a release or detention order.
3146.
Penalty for failure to appear.
3147.
Penalty for an offense committed while on release.
3148.
Sanctions for violation of a release condition.
3149.
Surrender of an offender by a surety.
3150.
Applicability to a case removed from a State court.
[3150a.
Repealed.]
3151.
Refund of forfeited bail.
3152.
Establishment of pretrial services.
3153.
Organization and administration of pretrial services.
3154.
Functions and powers relating to pretrial services.
3155.
Annual reports.
3156.
Definitions.

        

Amendments

1988Pub. L. 100–690, title VII, §7084(b), Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4408, added item 3151.

1984Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §203(e), Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 1985, inserted "AND DETENTION PENDING JUDICIAL PROCEEDING" in chapter heading, added new items 3141 to 3150, and struck out former items 3141 to 3151 as follows: item 3141 "Power of courts and magistrates", item 3142 "Surrender by bail", item 3143 "Additional bail", item 3144 "Cases removed from State courts", item 3145 "Parties and witnesses—Rule", item 3146 "Release in noncapital cases prior to trial", item 3147 "Appeal from conditions of release", item 3148 "Release in capital cases or after conviction", item 3149 "Release of material witnesses", item 3150 "Penalties for failure to appear", item 3150a "Refund of forfeited bail", item 3151 "Contempt".

1982Pub. L. 97–267, §6, Sept. 27, 1982, 96 Stat. 1138, struck out "agencies" after "services" in item 3152, substituted "and administration of pretrial services" for "of pretrial services agencies" in item 3153, "relating to pretrial services" for "of pretrial services agencies" in item 3154, and "Annual reports" for "Report to Congress" in item 3155.

Pub. L. 97–258, §2(d)(3)(A), Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 1058, added item 3150a.

1975Pub. L. 93–619, title II, §202, Jan. 3, 1975, 88 Stat. 2089, added items 3153 to 3156, and in item 3152, substituted "Establishment of Pretrial Services Agencies" for "Definitions".

1966Pub. L. 89–465, §§3(b), 5(e)(1), June 22, 1966, 80 Stat. 216, 217, substituted "RELEASE" for "BAIL" in chapter heading and "Release in noncapital cases prior to trial" for "Jumping Bail" in item 3146, and added items 3147 to 3152.

1954—Act Aug. 20, 1954, ch. 772, §2, 68 Stat. 748, added item 3146.

§3141. Release and detention authority generally

(a) Pending Trial.—A judicial officer authorized to order the arrest of a person under section 3041 of this title before whom an arrested person is brought shall order that such person be released or detained, pending judicial proceedings, under this chapter.

(b) Pending Sentence or Appeal.—A judicial officer of a court of original jurisdiction over an offense, or a judicial officer of a Federal appellate court, shall order that, pending imposition or execution of sentence, or pending appeal of conviction or sentence, a person be released or detained under this chapter.

(Added Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §203(a), Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 1976; amended Pub. L. 99–646, §55(a), (b), Nov. 10, 1986, 100 Stat. 3607.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 3141, acts June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 821; June 22, 1966, Pub. L. 89–465, §5(b), 80 Stat. 217, related to powers of courts and magistrates with respect to release on bail or otherwise, prior to repeal in the revision of this chapter by section 203(a) of Pub. L. 98–473.

Amendments

1986—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 99–646, §55(a), (b), substituted "authorized to order the arrest of a person under section 3041 of this title before whom an arrested person is brought shall order that such person be released" for "who is authorized to order the arrest of a person pursuant to section 3041 of this title shall order that an arrested person who is brought before him be released" and "under this chapter" for "pursuant to the provisions of this chapter".

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 99–646, §55(a), substituted "under this chapter" for "pursuant to the provisions of this chapter".

Effective Date of 1986 Amendment

Pub. L. 99–646, §55(j), Nov. 10, 1986, 100 Stat. 3611, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 3142 to 3144, 3146 to 3148, and 3156 of this title] shall take effect 30 days after the date of enactment of this Act [Nov. 10, 1986]."

Short Title of 2004 Amendment

Pub. L. 108–458, title VI, §6951, Dec. 17, 2004, 118 Stat. 3775, provided that: "This subtitle [subtitle K (§§6951, 6952) of title VI of Pub. L. 108–458, amending section 3142 of this title] may be cited as the 'Pretrial Detention of Terrorists Act of 2004'."

Short Title of 1990 Amendment

Pub. L. 101–647, title IX, §901, Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 4826, provided that: "This title [amending sections 3143 and 3145 of this title] may be cited as the 'Mandatory Detention for Offenders Convicted of Serious Crimes Act'."

Short Title of 1984 Amendment

Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §202, Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 1976, provided that: "This chapter [chapter I (§§202–210) of title II of Pub. L. 98–473, enacting sections 3062 and 3141 to 3150 of this title, amending sections 3041, 3042, 3154, 3156, 3731, 3772, and 4282 of this title and section 636 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure, repealing sections 3043 and 3141 to 3151 of this title, and amending rules 5, 15, 40, 46, and 54 of the Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure, set out in the Appendix to this title, and rule 9 of the Federal Rules of Appellate Procedure, set out in the Appendix to Title 28] may be cited as the 'Bail Reform Act of 1984'."

Short Title of 1982 Amendment

Pub. L. 97–267, §1, Sept. 27, 1982, 96 Stat. 1136, provided: "That this Act [amending sections 3152 to 3155 of this title and section 604 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure, and enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 3141 and 3152 of this title] may be cited as the 'Pretrial Services Act of 1982'."

Short Title

Pub. L. 89–465, §1, June 22, 1966, 80 Stat. 214, provided: "That this Act [enacting sections 3146 to 3152 of this title, amending sections 3041, 3141 to 3143, and 3568 of this title, and enacting provisions set out as a note below] may be cited as the 'Bail Reform Act of 1966'."

Purpose of Bail Reform Act of 1966

Pub. L. 89–465, §2, June 22, 1966, 80 Stat. 214, provided that: "The purpose of this Act [enacting sections 3146 to 3152 of this title, amending sections 3041, 3141 to 3143, and 3568 of this title and enacting provisions set out as a note above] is to revise the practices relating to bail to assure that all persons, regardless of their financial status, shall not needlessly be detained pending their appearance to answer charges, to testify, or pending appeal, when detention serves neither the ends of justice nor the public interest."

§3142. Release or detention of a defendant pending trial

(a) In General.—Upon the appearance before a judicial officer of a person charged with an offense, the judicial officer shall issue an order that, pending trial, the person be—

(1) released on personal recognizance or upon execution of an unsecured appearance bond, under subsection (b) of this section;

(2) released on a condition or combination of conditions under subsection (c) of this section;

(3) temporarily detained to permit revocation of conditional release, deportation, or exclusion under subsection (d) of this section; or

(4) detained under subsection (e) of this section.


(b) Release on Personal Recognizance or Unsecured Appearance Bond.—The judicial officer shall order the pretrial release of the person on personal recognizance, or upon execution of an unsecured appearance bond in an amount specified by the court, subject to the condition that the person not commit a Federal, State, or local crime during the period of release and subject to the condition that the person cooperate in the collection of a DNA sample from the person if the collection of such a sample is authorized pursuant to section 3 of the DNA Analysis Backlog Elimination Act of 2000 (42 U.S.C. 14135a),1 unless the judicial officer determines that such release will not reasonably assure the appearance of the person as required or will endanger the safety of any other person or the community.

(c) Release on Conditions.—(1) If the judicial officer determines that the release described in subsection (b) of this section will not reasonably assure the appearance of the person as required or will endanger the safety of any other person or the community, such judicial officer shall order the pretrial release of the person—

(A) subject to the condition that the person not commit a Federal, State, or local crime during the period of release and subject to the condition that the person cooperate in the collection of a DNA sample from the person if the collection of such a sample is authorized pursuant to section 3 of the DNA Analysis Backlog Elimination Act of 2000 (42 U.S.C. 14135a); 1 and

(B) subject to the least restrictive further condition, or combination of conditions, that such judicial officer determines will reasonably assure the appearance of the person as required and the safety of any other person and the community, which may include the condition that the person—

(i) remain in the custody of a designated person, who agrees to assume supervision and to report any violation of a release condition to the court, if the designated person is able reasonably to assure the judicial officer that the person will appear as required and will not pose a danger to the safety of any other person or the community;

(ii) maintain employment, or, if unemployed, actively seek employment;

(iii) maintain or commence an educational program;

(iv) abide by specified restrictions on personal associations, place of abode, or travel;

(v) avoid all contact with an alleged victim of the crime and with a potential witness who may testify concerning the offense;

(vi) report on a regular basis to a designated law enforcement agency, pretrial services agency, or other agency;

(vii) comply with a specified curfew;

(viii) refrain from possessing a firearm, destructive device, or other dangerous weapon;

(ix) refrain from excessive use of alcohol, or any use of a narcotic drug or other controlled substance, as defined in section 102 of the Controlled Substances Act (21 U.S.C. 802), without a prescription by a licensed medical practitioner;

(x) undergo available medical, psychological, or psychiatric treatment, including treatment for drug or alcohol dependency, and remain in a specified institution if required for that purpose;

(xi) execute an agreement to forfeit upon failing to appear as required, property of a sufficient unencumbered value, including money, as is reasonably necessary to assure the appearance of the person as required, and shall provide the court with proof of ownership and the value of the property along with information regarding existing encumbrances as the judicial office may require;

(xii) execute a bail bond with solvent sureties; who will execute an agreement to forfeit in such amount as is reasonably necessary to assure appearance of the person as required and shall provide the court with information regarding the value of the assets and liabilities of the surety if other than an approved surety and the nature and extent of encumbrances against the surety's property; such surety shall have a net worth which shall have sufficient unencumbered value to pay the amount of the bail bond;

(xiii) return to custody for specified hours following release for employment, schooling, or other limited purposes; and

(xiv) satisfy any other condition that is reasonably necessary to assure the appearance of the person as required and to assure the safety of any other person and the community.


In any case that involves a minor victim under section 1201, 1591, 2241, 2242, 2244(a)(1), 2245, 2251, 2251A, 2252(a)(1), 2252(a)(2), 2252(a)(3), 2252A(a)(1), 2252A(a)(2), 2252A(a)(3), 2252A(a)(4), 2260, 2421, 2422, 2423, or 2425 of this title, or a failure to register offense under section 2250 of this title, any release order shall contain, at a minimum, a condition of electronic monitoring and each of the conditions specified at subparagraphs (iv), (v), (vi), (vii), and (viii).


(2) The judicial officer may not impose a financial condition that results in the pretrial detention of the person.

(3) The judicial officer may at any time amend the order to impose additional or different conditions of release.

(d) Temporary Detention To Permit Revocation of Conditional Release, Deportation, or Exclusion.—If the judicial officer determines that—

(1) such person—

(A) is, and was at the time the offense was committed, on—

(i) release pending trial for a felony under Federal, State, or local law;

(ii) release pending imposition or execution of sentence, appeal of sentence or conviction, or completion of sentence, for any offense under Federal, State, or local law; or

(iii) probation or parole for any offense under Federal, State, or local law; or


(B) is not a citizen of the United States or lawfully admitted for permanent residence, as defined in section 101(a)(20) of the Immigration and Nationality Act (8 U.S.C. 1101(a)(20)); and


(2) such person may flee or pose a danger to any other person or the community;


such judicial officer shall order the detention of such person, for a period of not more than ten days, excluding Saturdays, Sundays, and holidays, and direct the attorney for the Government to notify the appropriate court, probation or parole official, or State or local law enforcement official, or the appropriate official of the Immigration and Naturalization Service. If the official fails or declines to take such person into custody during that period, such person shall be treated in accordance with the other provisions of this section, notwithstanding the applicability of other provisions of law governing release pending trial or deportation or exclusion proceedings. If temporary detention is sought under paragraph (1)(B) of this subsection, such person has the burden of proving to the court such person's United States citizenship or lawful admission for permanent residence.

(e) Detention.—(1) If, after a hearing pursuant to the provisions of subsection (f) of this section, the judicial officer finds that no condition or combination of conditions will reasonably assure the appearance of the person as required and the safety of any other person and the community, such judicial officer shall order the detention of the person before trial.

(2) In a case described in subsection (f)(1) of this section, a rebuttable presumption arises that no condition or combination of conditions will reasonably assure the safety of any other person and the community if such judicial officer finds that—

(A) the person has been convicted of a Federal offense that is described in subsection (f)(1) of this section, or of a State or local offense that would have been an offense described in subsection (f)(1) of this section if a circumstance giving rise to Federal jurisdiction had existed;

(B) the offense described in subparagraph (A) was committed while the person was on release pending trial for a Federal, State, or local offense; and

(C) a period of not more than five years has elapsed since the date of conviction, or the release of the person from imprisonment, for the offense described in subparagraph (A), whichever is later.


(3) Subject to rebuttal by the person, it shall be presumed that no condition or combination of conditions will reasonably assure the appearance of the person as required and the safety of the community if the judicial officer finds that there is probable cause to believe that the person committed—

(A) an offense for which a maximum term of imprisonment of ten years or more is prescribed in the Controlled Substances Act (21 U.S.C. 801 et seq.), the Controlled Substances Import and Export Act (21 U.S.C. 951 et seq.), or chapter 705 of title 46;

(B) an offense under section 924(c), 956(a), or 2332b of this title;

(C) an offense listed in section 2332b(g)(5)(B) of title 18, United States Code, for which a maximum term of imprisonment of 10 years or more is prescribed;

(D) an offense under chapter 77 of this title for which a maximum term of imprisonment of 20 years or more is prescribed; or

(E) an offense involving a minor victim under section 1201, 1591, 2241, 2242, 2244(a)(1), 2245, 2251, 2251A, 2252(a)(1), 2252(a)(2), 2252(a)(3), 2252A(a)(1), 2252A(a)(2), 2252A(a)(3), 2252A(a)(4), 2260, 2421, 2422, 2423, or 2425 of this title.


(f) Detention Hearing.—The judicial officer shall hold a hearing to determine whether any condition or combination of conditions set forth in subsection (c) of this section will reasonably assure the appearance of such person as required and the safety of any other person and the community—

(1) upon motion of the attorney for the Government, in a case that involves—

(A) a crime of violence, a violation of section 1591, or an offense listed in section 2332b(g)(5)(B) for which a maximum term of imprisonment of 10 years or more is prescribed;

(B) an offense for which the maximum sentence is life imprisonment or death;

(C) an offense for which a maximum term of imprisonment of ten years or more is prescribed in the Controlled Substances Act (21 U.S.C. 801 et seq.), the Controlled Substances Import and Export Act (21 U.S.C. 951 et seq.), or chapter 705 of title 46;

(D) any felony if such person has been convicted of two or more offenses described in subparagraphs (A) through (C) of this paragraph, or two or more State or local offenses that would have been offenses described in subparagraphs (A) through (C) of this paragraph if a circumstance giving rise to Federal jurisdiction had existed, or a combination of such offenses; or

(E) any felony that is not otherwise a crime of violence that involves a minor victim or that involves the possession or use of a firearm or destructive device (as those terms are defined in section 921), or any other dangerous weapon, or involves a failure to register under section 2250 of title 18, United States Code; or


(2) upon motion of the attorney for the Government or upon the judicial officer's own motion in a case, that involves—

(A) a serious risk that such person will flee; or

(B) a serious risk that such person will obstruct or attempt to obstruct justice, or threaten, injure, or intimidate, or attempt to threaten, injure, or intimidate, a prospective witness or juror.


The hearing shall be held immediately upon the person's first appearance before the judicial officer unless that person, or the attorney for the Government, seeks a continuance. Except for good cause, a continuance on motion of such person may not exceed five days (not including any intermediate Saturday, Sunday, or legal holiday), and a continuance on motion of the attorney for the Government may not exceed three days (not including any intermediate Saturday, Sunday, or legal holiday). During a continuance, such person shall be detained, and the judicial officer, on motion of the attorney for the Government or sua sponte, may order that, while in custody, a person who appears to be a narcotics addict receive a medical examination to determine whether such person is an addict. At the hearing, such person has the right to be represented by counsel, and, if financially unable to obtain adequate representation, to have counsel appointed. The person shall be afforded an opportunity to testify, to present witnesses, to cross-examine witnesses who appear at the hearing, and to present information by proffer or otherwise. The rules concerning admissibility of evidence in criminal trials do not apply to the presentation and consideration of information at the hearing. The facts the judicial officer uses to support a finding pursuant to subsection (e) that no condition or combination of conditions will reasonably assure the safety of any other person and the community shall be supported by clear and convincing evidence. The person may be detained pending completion of the hearing. The hearing may be reopened, before or after a determination by the judicial officer, at any time before trial if the judicial officer finds that information exists that was not known to the movant at the time of the hearing and that has a material bearing on the issue whether there are conditions of release that will reasonably assure the appearance of such person as required and the safety of any other person and the community.

(g) Factors To Be Considered.—The judicial officer shall, in determining whether there are conditions of release that will reasonably assure the appearance of the person as required and the safety of any other person and the community, take into account the available information concerning—

(1) the nature and circumstances of the offense charged, including whether the offense is a crime of violence, a violation of section 1591, a Federal crime of terrorism, or involves a minor victim or a controlled substance, firearm, explosive, or destructive device;

(2) the weight of the evidence against the person;

(3) the history and characteristics of the person, including—

(A) the person's character, physical and mental condition, family ties, employment, financial resources, length of residence in the community, community ties, past conduct, history relating to drug or alcohol abuse, criminal history, and record concerning appearance at court proceedings; and

(B) whether, at the time of the current offense or arrest, the person was on probation, on parole, or on other release pending trial, sentencing, appeal, or completion of sentence for an offense under Federal, State, or local law; and


(4) the nature and seriousness of the danger to any person or the community that would be posed by the person's release. In considering the conditions of release described in subsection (c)(1)(B)(xi) or (c)(1)(B)(xii) of this section, the judicial officer may upon his own motion, or shall upon the motion of the Government, conduct an inquiry into the source of the property to be designated for potential forfeiture or offered as collateral to secure a bond, and shall decline to accept the designation, or the use as collateral, of property that, because of its source, will not reasonably assure the appearance of the person as required.


(h) Contents of Release Order.—In a release order issued under subsection (b) or (c) of this section, the judicial officer shall—

(1) include a written statement that sets forth all the conditions to which the release is subject, in a manner sufficiently clear and specific to serve as a guide for the person's conduct; and

(2) advise the person of—

(A) the penalties for violating a condition of release, including the penalties for committing an offense while on pretrial release;

(B) the consequences of violating a condition of release, including the immediate issuance of a warrant for the person's arrest; and

(C) sections 1503 of this title (relating to intimidation of witnesses, jurors, and officers of the court), 1510 (relating to obstruction of criminal investigations), 1512 (tampering with a witness, victim, or an informant), and 1513 (retaliating against a witness, victim, or an informant).


(i) Contents of Detention Order.—In a detention order issued under subsection (e) of this section, the judicial officer shall—

(1) include written findings of fact and a written statement of the reasons for the detention;

(2) direct that the person be committed to the custody of the Attorney General for confinement in a corrections facility separate, to the extent practicable, from persons awaiting or serving sentences or being held in custody pending appeal;

(3) direct that the person be afforded reasonable opportunity for private consultation with counsel; and

(4) direct that, on order of a court of the United States or on request of an attorney for the Government, the person in charge of the corrections facility in which the person is confined deliver the person to a United States marshal for the purpose of an appearance in connection with a court proceeding.


The judicial officer may, by subsequent order, permit the temporary release of the person, in the custody of a United States marshal or another appropriate person, to the extent that the judicial officer determines such release to be necessary for preparation of the person's defense or for another compelling reason.

(j) Presumption of Innocence.—Nothing in this section shall be construed as modifying or limiting the presumption of innocence.

(Added Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §203(a), Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 1976; amended Pub. L. 99–646, §§55(a), (c), 72, Nov. 10, 1986, 100 Stat. 3607, 3617; Pub. L. 100–690, title VII, §7073, Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4405; Pub. L. 101–647, title X, §1001(b), title XXXVI, §§3622–3624, Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 4827, 4965; Pub. L. 104–132, title VII, §§702(d), 729, Apr. 24, 1996, 110 Stat. 1294, 1302; Pub. L. 108–21, title II, §203, Apr. 30, 2003, 117 Stat. 660; Pub. L. 108–458, title VI, §6952, Dec. 17, 2004, 118 Stat. 3775; Pub. L. 109–162, title X, §1004(b), Jan. 5, 2006, 119 Stat. 3085; Pub. L. 109–248, title II, §216, July 27, 2006, 120 Stat. 617; Pub. L. 109–304, §17(d)(7), Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1707; Pub. L. 110–457, title II, §§222(a), 224(a), Dec. 23, 2008, 122 Stat. 5067, 5072.)

References in Text

Section 3 of the DNA Analysis Backlog Elimination Act of 2000, referred to in subsecs. (b) and (c)(1)(A), is section 3 of Pub. L. 106–546, which was classified to section 14135a of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification as section 40702 of Title 34, Crime Control and Law Enforcement.

The Controlled Substances Act, referred to in subsecs. (e) and (f)(1)(C), is title II of Pub. L. 91–513, Oct. 27, 1970, 84 Stat. 1242, as amended, which is classified principally to subchapter I (§801 et seq.) of chapter 13 of Title 21, Food and Drugs. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 801 of Title 21 and Tables.

The Controlled Substances Import and Export Act, referred to in subsecs. (e) and (f)(1)(C), is title III of Pub. L. 91–513, Oct. 27, 1970, 84 Stat. 1285, as amended, which is classified principally to subchapter II (§951 et seq.) of chapter 13 of Title 21. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 951 of Title 21 and Tables.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 3142, acts June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 821; June 22, 1966, Pub. L. 89–465, §5(c), 80 Stat. 217, set forth provisions relating to surrender by bail, prior to repeal in the revision of this chapter by section 203(a) of Pub. L. 98–473.

Amendments

2008—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 110–457, §222(a)(1)–(4), designated first through third sentences as pars. (1) to (3), respectively, and redesignated former pars. (1) to (3) as subpars. (A) to (C), respectively, of par. (2).

Subsec. (e)(2)(B), (C). Pub. L. 110–457, §222(a)(5), substituted "subparagraph (A)" for "paragraph (1) of this subsection".

Subsec. (e)(3). Pub. L. 110–457, §222(a)(6), substituted "committed—" for "committed", "46;" for "46,", "title;" for "title, or", and "10 years or more is prescribed;" for "10 years or more is prescribed or", inserted subpar. (A), (B), (C), and (E) designations, and added subpar. (D).

Subsecs. (f)(1)(A), (g)(1). Pub. L. 110–457, §224(a), substituted "violence, a violation of section 1591," for "violence,".

2006—Subsecs. (b), (c)(1)(A). Pub. L. 109–162 inserted "and subject to the condition that the person cooperate in the collection of a DNA sample from the person if the collection of such a sample is authorized pursuant to section 3 of the DNA Analysis Backlog Elimination Act of 2000 (42 U.S.C. 14135a)" after "period of release".

Subsec. (c)(1)(B). Pub. L. 109–248, §216(1), inserted concluding provisions.

Subsecs. (e), (f)(1)(C). Pub. L. 109–304 substituted "chapter 705 of title 46" for "the Maritime Drug Law Enforcement Act (46 U.S.C. App. 1901 et seq.)".

Subsec. (f)(1)(E). Pub. L. 109–248, §216(2), added subpar. (E).

Subsec. (g)(1). Pub. L. 109–248, §216(3), added par. (1) and struck out former par. (1) which read as follows: "the nature and circumstances of the offense charged, including whether the offense is a crime of violence, or an offense listed in section 2332b(g)(5)(B) for which a maximum term of imprisonment of 10 years or more is prescribed or involves a narcotic drug;".

2004—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 108–458, §6952(1), in concluding provisions, inserted "or" before "the Maritime" and "or an offense listed in section 2332b(g)(5)(B) of title 18, United States Code, for which a maximum term of imprisonment of 10 years or more is prescribed" after "or 2332b of this title,".

Subsecs. (f)(1)(A), (g)(1). Pub. L. 108–458, §6952(2), inserted ", or an offense listed in section 2332b(g)(5)(B) for which a maximum term of imprisonment of 10 years or more is prescribed" after "violence".

2003—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 108–21, in concluding provisions, substituted "1901 et seq.)," for "1901 et seq.), or" and "of this title, or an offense involving a minor victim under section 1201, 1591, 2241, 2242, 2244(a)(1), 2245, 2251, 2251A, 2252(a)(1), 2252(a)(2), 2252(a)(3), 2252A(a)(1), 2252A(a)(2), 2252A(a)(3), 2252A(a)(4), 2260, 2421, 2422, 2423, or 2425 of this title" for "of title 18 of the United States Code".

1996—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 104–132, §702(d), inserted ", 956(a), or 2332b" after "section 924(c)" in concluding provisions.

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 104–132, §729, in concluding provisions, inserted "(not including any intermediate Saturday, Sunday, or legal holiday)" after "five days" and after "three days".

1990—Subsec. (c)(1)(B)(xi). Pub. L. 101–647, §3622, amended cl. (xi) generally. Prior to amendment, cl. (xi) read as follows: "execute an agreement to forfeit upon failing to appear as required, such designated property, including money, as is reasonably necessary to assure the appearance of the person as required, and post with the court such indicia of ownership of the property or such percentage of the money as the judicial officer may specify;".

Subsec. (c)(1)(B)(xii). Pub. L. 101–647, §3623, amended cl. (xii) generally. Prior to amendment, cl. (xii) read as follows: "execute a bail bond with solvent sureties in such amount as is reasonably necessary to assure the appearance of the person as required;".

Subsecs. (e), (f)(1)(C). Pub. L. 101–647, §1001(b), substituted "the Maritime Drug Law Enforcement Act (46 U.S.C. App. 1901 et seq.)" for "section 1 of the Act of September 15, 1980 (21 U.S.C. 955a)".

Subsec. (g)(4). Pub. L. 101–647, §3624, substituted "subsection (c)(1)(B)(xi) or (c)(1)(B)(xii)" for "subsection (c)(2)(K) or (c)(2)(L)".

1988—Subsec. (c)(3). Pub. L. 100–690 substituted "the order" for "order".

1986—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 99–646, §55(a), (c)(1), in par. (1) struck out "his" after "released on" and substituted "under subsection (b) of this section" for "pursuant to the provisions of subsection (b)", in par. (2) substituted "under subsection (c) of this section" for "pursuant to the provisions of subsection (c)", in par. (3) substituted "under subsection (d) of this section" for "pursuant to provisions of subsection (d)", and in par. (4) substituted "under subsection (e) of this section" for "pursuant to provisions of subsection (e)".

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 99–646, §55(c)(2), struck out "his" after "person on" and "period of".

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 99–646, §55(c)(3), designated existing provision as par. (1) and redesignated former pars. (1) and (2) as subpars. (A) and (B), in provision preceding subpar. (A) substituted "subsection (b) of this section" for "subsection (b)" and "such judicial officer" for "he", in subpar. (B) redesignated subpars. (A) to (N) as cls. (i) to (xiv), in provision preceding cl. (i) substituted "such judicial officer" for "he", in cl. (i) substituted "assume supervision" for "supervise him", in cl. (iv) substituted "on personal" for "on his personal", in cl. (x) substituted "medical, psychological," for "medical", designated provision relating to the judicial officer not imposing a financial condition that results in the pretrial detention of a person as par. (2), and designated provision permitting the judicial officer to impose at any time additional or different conditions of release as par. (3), and in par. (3) struck out "his" after "amend".

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 99–646, §55(c)(4), in pars. (1) and (2) substituted "such person" for "the person" and in concluding provisions substituted "such person" for "the person" in four places, "such judicial officer" for "he", "paragraph (1)(B) of this subsection" for "paragraph (1)(B)", and "such person's United States citizenship or lawful admission" for "that he is a citizen of the United States or is lawfully admitted".

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 99–646, §55(c)(5), in introductory provisions inserted "of this section" after "subsection (f)" and substituted "such judicial officer" for "he", "before" for "prior to", "described in subsection (f)(1) of this section" for "described in (f)(1)", and "if such judicial officer" for "if the judge", in par. (1) inserted "of this section" after "subsection (f)(1)" in two places, and in pars. (2) and (3) inserted "of this section" after "paragraph (1)".

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 99–646, §72, in par. (1)(D) substituted "any felony if the person has been convicted of two or more offenses" for "any felony committed after the person had been convicted of two or more prior offenses" and inserted ", or a combination of such offenses", in par. (2)(A) inserted "or" after "flee;", and in concluding provisions, inserted provision permitting the hearing to be reopened at any time before trial if the judicial officer finds that information exists that was unknown to the movant at the time of the hearing and that has a material bearing on whether there are conditions of release that will reasonably assure the appearance of the person as required and the safety of any other person and the community.

Pub. L. 99–646, §55(c)(6), substituted "such person" for "the person" wherever appearing, in introductory provision inserted "of this section" after "subsection (c)" and struck out "in a case" after "community", in par. (1) inserted "in a case" and in subpar. (D) of par. (1) inserted "of this paragraph" in two places, in par. (2) substituted "upon" for "Upon" and inserted "in a case", and in concluding provisions, substituted "sua sponte" for "on his own motion", "whether such person is an addict" for "whether he is an addict", and "financially" for "he is financially", and struck out "for him" after "appointed" and "on his own behalf" after "witnesses".

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 99–646, §55(c)(7), in par. (3)(A) substituted "the person's" for "his", in par. (3)(B) substituted "the person" for "he", and in par. (4) inserted "of this section".

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 99–646, §55(a), (c)(8), in introductory provision substituted "under" for "pursuant to the provisions of" and inserted "of this section" and in par. (2)(C) struck out "the provisions of" before "sections 1503".

Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 99–646, §55(a), (c)(9), in introductory provision substituted "under" for "pursuant to the provisions of" and inserted "of this section" and in par. (3) struck out "his" after "consultation with".

Effective Date of 1990 Amendment

Amendment by sections 3622 to 3624 of Pub. L. 101–647 effective 180 days after Nov. 29, 1990, see section 3631 of Pub. L. 101–647, set out as an Effective Date note under section 3001 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure.

Effective Date of 1986 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 99–646 effective 30 days after Nov. 10, 1986, see section 55(j) of Pub. L. 99–646, set out as a note under section 3141 of this title.

Abolition of Immigration and Naturalization Service and Transfer of Functions

For abolition of Immigration and Naturalization Service, transfer of functions, and treatment of related references, see note set out under section 1551 of Title 8, Aliens and Nationality.

1 See References in Text note below.

§3143. Release or detention of a defendant pending sentence or appeal

(a) Release or Detention Pending Sentence.—(1) Except as provided in paragraph (2), the judicial officer shall order that a person who has been found guilty of an offense and who is awaiting imposition or execution of sentence, other than a person for whom the applicable guideline promulgated pursuant to 28 U.S.C. 994 does not recommend a term of imprisonment, be detained, unless the judicial officer finds by clear and convincing evidence that the person is not likely to flee or pose a danger to the safety of any other person or the community if released under section 3142(b) or (c). If the judicial officer makes such a finding, such judicial officer shall order the release of the person in accordance with section 3142(b) or (c).

(2) The judicial officer shall order that a person who has been found guilty of an offense in a case described in subparagraph (A), (B), or (C) of subsection (f)(1) of section 3142 and is awaiting imposition or execution of sentence be detained unless—

(A)(i) the judicial officer finds there is a substantial likelihood that a motion for acquittal or new trial will be granted; or

(ii) an attorney for the Government has recommended that no sentence of imprisonment be imposed on the person; and

(B) the judicial officer finds by clear and convincing evidence that the person is not likely to flee or pose a danger to any other person or the community.


(b) Release or Detention Pending Appeal by the Defendant.—(1) Except as provided in paragraph (2), the judicial officer shall order that a person who has been found guilty of an offense and sentenced to a term of imprisonment, and who has filed an appeal or a petition for a writ of certiorari, be detained, unless the judicial officer finds—

(A) by clear and convincing evidence that the person is not likely to flee or pose a danger to the safety of any other person or the community if released under section 3142(b) or (c) of this title; and

(B) that the appeal is not for the purpose of delay and raises a substantial question of law or fact likely to result in—

(i) reversal,

(ii) an order for a new trial,

(iii) a sentence that does not include a term of imprisonment, or

(iv) a reduced sentence to a term of imprisonment less than the total of the time already served plus the expected duration of the appeal process.


If the judicial officer makes such findings, such judicial officer shall order the release of the person in accordance with section 3142(b) or (c) of this title, except that in the circumstance described in subparagraph (B)(iv) of this paragraph, the judicial officer shall order the detention terminated at the expiration of the likely reduced sentence.

(2) The judicial officer shall order that a person who has been found guilty of an offense in a case described in subparagraph (A), (B), or (C) of subsection (f)(1) of section 3142 and sentenced to a term of imprisonment, and who has filed an appeal or a petition for a writ of certiorari, be detained.

(c) Release or Detention Pending Appeal by the Government.—The judicial officer shall treat a defendant in a case in which an appeal has been taken by the United States under section 3731 of this title, in accordance with section 3142 of this title, unless the defendant is otherwise subject to a release or detention order. Except as provided in subsection (b) of this section, the judicial officer, in a case in which an appeal has been taken by the United States under section 3742, shall—

(1) if the person has been sentenced to a term of imprisonment, order that person detained; and

(2) in any other circumstance, release or detain the person under section 3142.

(Added Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §203(a), Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 1981; amended Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §223(f), Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 2028; Pub. L. 99–646, §§51(a), (b), 55(a), (d), Nov. 10, 1986, 100 Stat. 3605–3607, 3609; Pub. L. 100–690, title VII, §7091, Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4410; Pub. L. 101–647, title IX, §902(a), (b), title X, §1001(a), Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 4826, 4827; Pub. L. 102–572, title VII, §703, Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4515.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 3143, acts June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 821; June 22, 1966, Pub. L. 89–465, §5(d), 80 Stat. 217, related to additional bail, prior to repeal in the revision of this chapter by section 203(a) of Pub. L. 98–473.

Amendments

1992—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 102–572 substituted "subparagraph (B)(iv) of this paragraph" for "paragraph (b)(2)(D)".

1990—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 101–647, §902(a), designated existing provisions as par. (1), substituted "Except as provided in paragraph (2), the judicial officer" for "The judicial officer", and added par. (2).

Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 101–647, §1001(a), substituted "awaiting" for "waiting".

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 101–647, §902(b), designated existing provisions as par. (1), substituted "Except as provided in paragraph (2), the judicial officer" for "The judicial officer", redesignated former pars. (1) and (2) as subpars. (A) and (B), redesignated former subpars. (A) to (D) as cls. (i) to (iv), respectively, of subpar. (B), and added par. (2).

1988—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 100–690, §7091(2), inserted ", except that in the circumstance described in paragraph (b)(2)(D), the judicial officer shall order the detention terminated at the expiration of the likely reduced sentence" before period at end.

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 100–690, §7091(1), added par. (2) and struck out former par. (2) which read as follows: "that the appeal is not for purpose of delay and raises a substantial question of law or fact likely to result in reversal, an order for a new trial, or a sentence that does not include a term of imprisonment."

1986—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 99–646, §55(d)(1), (2), (4), substituted "under" for "pursuant to" and "such judicial officer" for "he" and struck out "the provisions of" after "in accordance with".

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 99–646, §55(d)(1)–(4), in par. (1) substituted "under" for "pursuant to" and inserted "of this title" after "(c)", and in concluding provision, substituted "such judicial officer" for "he", struck out "the provisions of" after "in accordance with", and inserted "of this title" after "(c)".

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 99–646, §51(a)(1), substituted "reversal," for "reversal or" and inserted ", or a sentence that does not include a term of imprisonment".

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 99–646, §51(a)(2), inserted provision that, except as provided in subsec. (b), the judicial officer, in a case in which an appeal has been taken by the United States under section 3742, if the person has been sentenced to a term of imprisonment, order that person detained, and in any other circumstance, release or detain the person under section 3142.

Pub. L. 99–646, §55(a), (d)(2), (5), substituted "under section 3731" for "pursuant to the provisions of section 3731" and "with section 3142 of this title" for "with the provisions of section 3142".

Pub. L. 99–646, §51(b), provided that the amendment of subsec. (c) by section 223(f)(2) of Pub. L. 98–473 shall not take effect. See 1984 Amendment note below.

1984—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 98–473, §223(f)(1), inserted provisions relating to applicable guideline under section 994 of title 28.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 98–473, §223(f)(2), which would have added a final sentence requiring a judge to treat a defendant in a case in which an appeal had been taken by the United States pursuant to the provisions of section 3742 in accordance with the provisions of (1) subsection (a) if the person had been sentenced to a term of imprisonment; or (2) section 3142 if the person had not been sentenced to a term of imprisonment did not become effective pursuant to section 51(b) of Pub. L. 99–646. See 1986 Amendment note above.

Effective Date of 1992 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 102–572 effective Jan. 1, 1993, see section 1101 of Pub. L. 102–572, set out as a note under section 905 of Title 2, The Congress.

Effective Date of 1986 Amendment

Pub. L. 99–646, §51(c), Nov. 10, 1986, 100 Stat. 3606, provided that: "The amendment made by subsection (a)(2) [amending this section] shall take effect on the date of the taking of effect of section 3742 of title 18, United States Code [Nov. 1, 1987]."

Amendment by section 55(a), (d) of Pub. L. 99–646 effective 30 days after Nov. 10, 1986, see section 55(j) of Pub. L. 99–646, set out as a note under section 3141 of this title.

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 98–473 effective Nov. 1, 1987, and applicable only to offenses committed after the taking effect of such amendment, see section 235(a)(1) of Pub. L. 98–473, set out as an Effective Date note under section 3551 of this title.

§3144. Release or detention of a material witness

If it appears from an affidavit filed by a party that the testimony of a person is material in a criminal proceeding, and if it is shown that it may become impracticable to secure the presence of the person by subpoena, a judicial officer may order the arrest of the person and treat the person in accordance with the provisions of section 3142 of this title. No material witness may be detained because of inability to comply with any condition of release if the testimony of such witness can adequately be secured by deposition, and if further detention is not necessary to prevent a failure of justice. Release of a material witness may be delayed for a reasonable period of time until the deposition of the witness can be taken pursuant to the Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure.

(Added Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §203(a), Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 1982; amended Pub. L. 99–646, §55(e), Nov. 10, 1986, 100 Stat. 3609.)

References in Text

The Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure, referred to in text, are set out in the Appendix to this title.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 3144, act June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 821, related to cases removed from State courts, prior to repeal in the revision of this chapter by section 203(a) of Pub. L. 98–473.

Amendments

1986Pub. L. 99–646 substituted "subpoena" for "subpena" and inserted "of this title".

Effective Date of 1986 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 99–646 effective 30 days after Nov. 10, 1986, see section 55(j) of Pub. L. 99–646, set out as a note under section 3141 of this title.

§3145. Review and appeal of a release or detention order

(a) Review of a Release Order.—If a person is ordered released by a magistrate judge, or by a person other than a judge of a court having original jurisdiction over the offense and other than a Federal appellate court—

(1) the attorney for the Government may file, with the court having original jurisdiction over the offense, a motion for revocation of the order or amendment of the conditions of release; and

(2) the person may file, with the court having original jurisdiction over the offense, a motion for amendment of the conditions of release.


The motion shall be determined promptly.

(b) Review of a Detention Order.—If a person is ordered detained by a magistrate judge, or by a person other than a judge of a court having original jurisdiction over the offense and other than a Federal appellate court, the person may file, with the court having original jurisdiction over the offense, a motion for revocation or amendment of the order. The motion shall be determined promptly.

(c) Appeal From a Release or Detention Order.—An appeal from a release or detention order, or from a decision denying revocation or amendment of such an order, is governed by the provisions of section 1291 of title 28 and section 3731 of this title. The appeal shall be determined promptly. A person subject to detention pursuant to section 3143(a)(2) or (b)(2), and who meets the conditions of release set forth in section 3143(a)(1) or (b)(1), may be ordered released, under appropriate conditions, by the judicial officer, if it is clearly shown that there are exceptional reasons why such person's detention would not be appropriate.

(Added Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §203(a), Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 1982; amended Pub. L. 101–647, title IX, §902(c), Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 4827; Pub. L. 101–650, title III, §321, Dec. 1, 1990, 104 Stat. 5117.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 3145, act June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 821, provided cross references to the Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure for rules covering parties and witnesses, prior to repeal in the revision of this chapter by section 203(a) of Pub. L. 98–473.

Amendments

1990—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 101–647 inserted at end "A person subject to detention pursuant to section 3143(a)(2) or (b)(2), and who meets the conditions of release set forth in section 3143(a)(1) or (b)(1), may be ordered released, under appropriate conditions, by the judicial officer, if it is clearly shown that there are exceptional reasons why such person's detention would not be appropriate."

Change of Name

Words "magistrate judge" substituted for "magistrate" in subsecs. (a) and (b) pursuant to section 321 of Pub. L. 101–650, set out as a note under section 631 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure.

§3146. Penalty for failure to appear

(a) Offense.—Whoever, having been released under this chapter knowingly—

(1) fails to appear before a court as required by the conditions of release; or

(2) fails to surrender for service of sentence pursuant to a court order;


shall be punished as provided in subsection (b) of this section.

(b) Punishment.—(1) The punishment for an offense under this section is—

(A) if the person was released in connection with a charge of, or while awaiting sentence, surrender for service of sentence, or appeal or certiorari after conviction for—

(i) an offense punishable by death, life imprisonment, or imprisonment for a term of 15 years or more, a fine under this title or imprisonment for not more than ten years, or both;

(ii) an offense punishable by imprisonment for a term of five years or more, a fine under this title or imprisonment for not more than five years, or both;

(iii) any other felony, a fine under this title or imprisonment for not more than two years, or both; or

(iv) a misdemeanor, a fine under this title or imprisonment for not more than one year, or both; and


(B) if the person was released for appearance as a material witness, a fine under this chapter or imprisonment for not more than one year, or both.


(2) A term of imprisonment imposed under this section shall be consecutive to the sentence of imprisonment for any other offense.

(c) Affirmative Defense.—It is an affirmative defense to a prosecution under this section that uncontrollable circumstances prevented the person from appearing or surrendering, and that the person did not contribute to the creation of such circumstances in reckless disregard of the requirement to appear or surrender, and that the person appeared or surrendered as soon as such circumstances ceased to exist.

(d) Declaration of Forfeiture.—If a person fails to appear before a court as required, and the person executed an appearance bond pursuant to section 3142(b) of this title or is subject to the release condition set forth in clause (xi) or (xii) of section 3142(c)(1)(B) of this title, the judicial officer may, regardless of whether the person has been charged with an offense under this section, declare any property designated pursuant to that section to be forfeited to the United States.

(Added Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §203(a), Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 1982; amended Pub. L. 99–646, §55(f), Nov. 10, 1986, 100 Stat. 3609; Pub. L. 103–322, title XXXIII, §330016(2)(K), Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 2148; Pub. L. 104–294, title VI, §601(a)(4), Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3498.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 3146, added Pub. L. 89–465, §3(a), June 22, 1966, 80 Stat. 214; amended Pub. L. 97–291, §8, Oct. 12, 1982, 96 Stat. 1257, related to release in noncapital cases prior to trial, prior to repeal in the revision of this chapter by section 203(a) of Pub. L. 98–473.

Another prior section 3146, act Aug. 20, 1954, ch. 772, §1, 68 Stat. 747, which prescribed penalties for jumping bail, was repealed by Pub. L. 89–465, §3(a), June 22, 1966, 80 Stat. 214, and covered by former sections 3150 and 3151 of this title.

Amendments

1996—Subsec. (b)(1)(A)(iv). Pub. L. 104–294 substituted "a fine under this title" for "a fined under this title".

1994—Subsec. (b)(1)(A)(iv). Pub. L. 103–322 substituted "fined under this title" for "fine under this chapter".

1986—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 99–646, §55(f)(1), added subsec. (a) and struck out former subsec. (a) which read as follows: "A person commits an offense if, after having been released pursuant to this chapter—

"(1) he knowingly fails to appear before a court as required by the conditions of his release; or

"(2) he knowingly fails to surrender for service of sentence pursuant to a court order."

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 99–646, §55(f)(1), added subsec. (b) and struck out former subsec. (b) which was captioned "Grading", and which read as follows: "If the person was released—

"(1) in connection with a charge of, or while awaiting sentence, surrender for service of sentence, or appeal or certiorari after conviction, for—

"(A) an offense punishable by death, life imprisonment, or imprisonment for a term of fifteen years or more, he shall be fined not more than $25,000 or imprisoned for not more than ten years, or both;

"(B) an offense punishable by imprisonment for a term of five or more years, but less than fifteen years, he shall be fined not more than $10,000 or imprisoned for not more than five years, or both;

"(C) any other felony, he shall be fined not more than $5,000 or imprisoned for not more than two years, or both; or

"(D) a misdemeanor, he shall be fined not more than $2,000 or imprisoned for not more than one year, or both; or

"(2) for appearance as a material witness, he shall be fined not more than $1,000 or imprisoned for not more than one year, or both.

A term of imprisonment imposed pursuant to this section shall be consecutive to the sentence of imprisonment for any other offense."

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 99–646, §55(f)(2), substituted "requirement to appear" for "requirement that he appear" and "the person appeared" for "he appeared".

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 99–646, §55(f)(3), inserted "of this title" after "3142(b)" and substituted "clause (xi) or (xii) of section 3142(c)(1)(B) of this title" for "section 3142(c)(2)(K) or (c)(2)(L)".

Effective Date of 1986 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 99–646 effective 30 days after Nov. 10, 1986, see section 55(j) of Pub. L. 99–646, set out as a note under section 3141 of this title.

§3147. Penalty for an offense committed while on release

A person convicted of an offense committed while released under this chapter shall be sentenced, in addition to the sentence prescribed for the offense, to—

(1) a term of imprisonment of not more than ten years if the offense is a felony; or

(2) a term of imprisonment of not more than one year if the offense is a misdemeanor.


A term of imprisonment imposed under this section shall be consecutive to any other sentence of imprisonment.

(Added Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §203(a), Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 1983; amended Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §223(g), Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 2028; Pub. L. 99–646, §55(g), Nov. 10, 1986, 100 Stat. 3610.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 3147, added Pub. L. 89–465, §3(a), June 22, 1966, 80 Stat. 215, related to appeals from conditions of release, prior to repeal in the revision of this chapter by section 203(a) of Pub. L. 98–473.

Amendments

1986Pub. L. 99–646 substituted "under" for "pursuant to" in two places and "for the offense," for "for the offense".

1984Pub. L. 98–473, §223(g), struck out "not less than two years and" after "imprisonment of" in par. (1), and "not less than ninety days and" after "imprisonment of" in par. (2).

Effective Date of 1986 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 99–646 effective 30 days after Nov. 10, 1986, see section 55(j) of Pub. L. 99–646, set out as a note under section 3141 of this title.

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 98–473 effective Nov. 1, 1987, and applicable only to offenses committed after the taking effect of such amendment, see section 235(a)(1) of Pub. L. 98–473, set out as an Effective Date note under section 3551 of this title.

§3148. Sanctions for violation of a release condition

(a) Available Sanctions.—A person who has been released under section 3142 of this title, and who has violated a condition of his release, is subject to a revocation of release, an order of detention, and a prosecution for contempt of court.

(b) Revocation of Release.—The attorney for the Government may initiate a proceeding for revocation of an order of release by filing a motion with the district court. A judicial officer may issue a warrant for the arrest of a person charged with violating a condition of release, and the person shall be brought before a judicial officer in the district in which such person's arrest was ordered for a proceeding in accordance with this section. To the extent practicable, a person charged with violating the condition of release that such person not commit a Federal, State, or local crime during the period of release, shall be brought before the judicial officer who ordered the release and whose order is alleged to have been violated. The judicial officer shall enter an order of revocation and detention if, after a hearing, the judicial officer—

(1) finds that there is—

(A) probable cause to believe that the person has committed a Federal, State, or local crime while on release; or

(B) clear and convincing evidence that the person has violated any other condition of release; and


(2) finds that—

(A) based on the factors set forth in section 3142(g) of this title, there is no condition or combination of conditions of release that will assure that the person will not flee or pose a danger to the safety of any other person or the community; or

(B) the person is unlikely to abide by any condition or combination of conditions of release.


If there is probable cause to believe that, while on release, the person committed a Federal, State, or local felony, a rebuttable presumption arises that no condition or combination of conditions will assure that the person will not pose a danger to the safety of any other person or the community. If the judicial officer finds that there are conditions of release that will assure that the person will not flee or pose a danger to the safety of any other person or the community, and that the person will abide by such conditions, the judicial officer shall treat the person in accordance with the provisions of section 3142 of this title and may amend the conditions of release accordingly.

(c) Prosecution for Contempt.—The judicial officer may commence a prosecution for contempt, under section 401 of this title, if the person has violated a condition of release.

(Added Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §203(a), Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 1983; amended Pub. L. 99–646, §55(a), (h), Nov. 10, 1986, 100 Stat. 3607, 3610.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 3148, added Pub. L. 89–465, §3(a), June 22, 1966, 80 Stat. 215; amended Pub. L. 91–452, title X, §1002, Oct. 12, 1970, 84 Stat. 952, related to release in capital cases or after conviction, prior to repeal in the revision of this chapter by section 203(a) of Pub. L. 98–473.

Amendments

1986—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 99–646, §55(a), (h)(1), substituted "under section 3142 of this title" for "pursuant to the provisions of section 3142".

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 99–646, §55(h)(2), in introductory provision, substituted "such person's arrest" for "his arrest", "condition of release that such person not commit" for "condition of his release that he not commit", and "period of release," for "period of release", in par. (1)(B) substituted "condition of release" for "condition of his release", in par. (2)(A) inserted "of this title" after "section 3142(g)", and in concluding provision, substituted "the judicial officer shall" for "he shall" and inserted "of this title" after "section 3142".

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 99–646, §55(a), (h)(3), substituted "judicial officer" for "judge", "under section 401 of this title" for "pursuant to the provisions of section 401", and "condition of release" for "condition of his release".

Effective Date of 1986 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 99–646 effective 30 days after Nov. 10, 1986, see section 55(j) of Pub. L. 99–646, set out as a note under section 3141 of this title.

§3149. Surrender of an offender by a surety

A person charged with an offense, who is released upon the execution of an appearance bond with a surety, may be arrested by the surety, and if so arrested, shall be delivered promptly to a United States marshal and brought before a judicial officer. The judicial officer shall determine in accordance with the provisions of section 3148(b) whether to revoke the release of the person, and may absolve the surety of responsibility to pay all or part of the bond in accordance with the provisions of Rule 46 of the Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure. The person so committed shall be held in official detention until released pursuant to this chapter or another provision of law.

(Added Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §203(a), Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 1984.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 3149, added Pub. L. 89–465, §3(a), June 22, 1966, 80 Stat. 216, related to release of material witnesses, prior to repeal in the revision of this chapter by section 203(a) of Pub. L. 98–473.

§3150. Applicability to a case removed from a State court

The provisions of this chapter apply to a criminal case removed to a Federal court from a State court.

(Added Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §203(a), Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 1984.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 3150, added Pub. L. 89–465, §3(a), June 22, 1966, 80 Stat. 216, related to penalties for failure to appear, prior to repeal in the revision of this chapter by section 203(a) of Pub. L. 98–473.

[§3150a. Repealed. Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §203(a), Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 1976]

Section, added Pub. L. 97–258, §2(d)(3)(B), Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 1059; amended Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §1410, Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 2178, related to refund of forfeited bail. Section 1410 of Pub. L. 98–473 was subsequently repealed by Pub. L. 99–646, §49, Nov. 10, 1986, 100 Stat. 3605.

§3151. Refund of forfeited bail

Appropriations available to refund money erroneously received and deposited in the Treasury are available to refund any part of forfeited bail deposited into the Treasury and ordered remitted under the Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure.

(Added Pub. L. 100–690, title VII, §7084(a), Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4408.)

References in Text

The Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure, referred to in text, are set out in the Appendix to this title.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 3151, added Pub. L. 89–465, §3(a), June 22, 1966, 80 Stat. 216, related to contempt power of courts, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §203(a), Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 1976.

§3152. Establishment of pretrial services

(a) On and after the date of the enactment of the Pretrial Services Act of 1982, the Director of the Administrative Office of the United States Courts (hereinafter in this chapter referred to as the "Director") shall, under the supervision and direction of the Judicial Conference of the United States, provide directly, or by contract or otherwise (to such extent and in such amounts as are provided in appropriation Acts), for the establishment of pretrial services in each judicial district (other than the District of Columbia). Pretrial services established under this section shall be supervised by a chief probation officer appointed under section 3654 of this title or by a chief pretrial services officer selected under subsection (c) of this section.

(b) Beginning eighteen months after the date of the enactment of the Pretrial Services Act of 1982, if an appropriate United States district court and the circuit judicial council jointly recommend the establishment under this subsection of pretrial services in a particular district, pretrial services shall be established under the general authority of the Administrative Office of the United States Courts.

(c) The pretrial services established under subsection (b) of this section shall be supervised by a chief pretrial services officer appointed by the district court. The chief pretrial services officer appointed under this subsection shall be an individual other than one serving under authority of section 3602 of this title.

(Added Pub. L. 93–619, title II, §201, Jan. 3, 1975, 88 Stat. 2086; amended Pub. L. 97–267, §2, Sept. 27, 1982, 96 Stat. 1136; Pub. L. 110–406, §10, Oct. 13, 2008, 122 Stat. 4293.)

References in Text

The date of enactment of the Pretrial Services Act of 1982, referred to in subsecs. (a) and (b), is the date of enactment of Pub. L. 97–267, which was approved Sept. 27, 1982.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 3152, as added by Pub. L. 89–465, §3(a), June 22, 1966, 80 Stat. 216, defined the terms "judicial officer" and "offense", prior to repeal by Pub. L. 93–619, §201. See section 3156 of this title.

Amendments

2008—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 110–406 added subsec. (c) and struck out former subsec. (c) which related to supervision of pretrial services.

1982Pub. L. 97–267 struck out "agencies" after "services" in section catchline, divided previously unlettered text provisions into subsecs. (a), (b), and (c), and substituted revised provisions as so redesignated for provisions which required the Director of the Administrative Office of the United States Courts to establish, on a demonstration basis, in each of ten representative judicial districts (other than the District of Columbia), a pretrial services agency authorized to maintain effective supervision and control over, and to provide supportive services to, defendants released under this chapter such districts to be designated by the Chief Justice of the United States after consultation with the Attorney General, on the basis of such considerations as the number of criminal cases prosecuted annually in the district, the percentage of defendants in the district presently detained prior to trial, the incidence of crime charged against persons released pending trial under this chapter, and the availability of community resources to implement the conditions of release which may be imposed under this chapter.

Authorization of Appropriations

Pub. L. 97–267, §9, Sept. 27, 1982, 96 Stat. 1139, provided that:

"(a) There are authorized to be appropriated, for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1984, and each succeeding fiscal year thereafter, such sums as may be necessary to carry out the functions and powers of pretrial services established under section 3152(b) of title 18, United States Code.

"(b) There are authorized to be appropriated for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1983, and the fiscal year ending September 30, 1984, such sums as may be necessary to carry out the functions and powers of the pretrial services agencies established under section 3152 of title 18 of the United States Code in effect before the date of enactment of this Act [Sept. 27, 1982]."

Status of Pretrial Services Agencies in Effect Prior to September 27, 1982

Pub. L. 97–267, §8, Sept. 27, 1982, 96 Stat. 1139, provided that: "During the period beginning on the date of enactment of this Act [Sept. 27, 1982] and ending eighteen months after the date of the enactment of this Act, the pretrial services agencies established under section 3152 of title 18 of the United States Code in effect before the date of enactment of this Act may continue to operate, employ staff, provide pretrial services, and perform such functions and powers as are authorized under chapter 207 of title 18 of the United States Code [this chapter]."

§3153. Organization and administration of pretrial services

(a)(1) With the approval of the district court, the chief pretrial services officer in districts in which pretrial services are established under section 3152(b) of this title shall appoint such other personnel as may be required. The position requirements and rate of compensation of the chief pretrial services officer and such other personnel shall be established by the Director with the approval of the Judicial Conference of the United States, except that no such rate of compensation shall exceed the rate of basic pay in effect and then payable for grade GS–16 of the General Schedule under section 5332 of title 5, United States Code.

(2) The chief pretrial services officer in districts in which pretrial services are established under section 3152(b) of this title is authorized, subject to the general policy established by the Director and the approval of the district court, to procure temporary and intermittent services to the extent authorized by section 3109 of title 5, United States Code. The staff, other than clerical staff, may be drawn from law school students, graduate students, or such other available personnel.

(b) The chief probation officer in all districts in which pretrial services are established under section 3152(a) of this title shall designate personnel appointed under chapter 231 of this title to perform pretrial services under this chapter.

(c)(1) Except as provided in paragraph (2) of this subsection, information obtained in the course of performing pretrial services functions in relation to a particular accused shall be used only for the purposes of a bail determination and shall otherwise be confidential. Each pretrial services report shall be made available to the attorney for the accused and the attorney for the Government.

(2) The Director shall issue regulations establishing the policy for release of information made confidential by paragraph (1) of this subsection. Such regulations shall provide exceptions to the confidentiality requirements under paragraph (1) of this subsection to allow access to such information—

(A) by qualified persons for purposes of research related to the administration of criminal justice;

(B) by persons under contract under section 3154(4) of this title;

(C) by probation officers for the purpose of compiling presentence reports;

(D) insofar as such information is a pretrial diversion report, to the attorney for the accused and the attorney for the Government; and

(E) in certain limited cases, to law enforcement agencies for law enforcement purposes.


(3) Information made confidential under paragraph (1) of this subsection is not admissible on the issue of guilt in a criminal judicial proceeding unless such proceeding is a prosecution for a crime committed in the course of obtaining pretrial release or a prosecution for failure to appear for the criminal judicial proceeding with respect to which pretrial services were provided.

(Added Pub. L. 93–619, title II, §201, Jan. 3, 1975, 88 Stat. 2086; amended Pub. L. 97–287, §3, Sept. 27, 1982, 96 Stat. 1136.)

Amendments

1982Pub. L. 97–267 substantially revised section by substituting provisions relating to the organization and administration of pretrial services for provisions relating to organization and administration of pretrial services agencies which vested the powers of five such agencies in the Division of Probation of the Administrative Office of the United States Courts and the powers of the remaining five agencies in Boards of Trustees, set forth requirements for membership and terms of office with respect to such Boards, and provided for appointment of Federal probation officers in agencies governed by the Division of Probation, and chief pretrial service officers in agencies governed by Boards of Trustees, which designated officers would be responsible for the direction and supervision of their respective agencies.

References in Other Laws to GS–16, 17, or 18 Pay Rates

References in laws to the rates of pay for GS–16, 17, or 18, or to maximum rates of pay under the General Schedule, to be considered references to rates payable under specified sections of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees, see section 529 [title I, §101(c)(1)] of Pub. L. 101–509, set out in a note under section 5376 of Title 5.

§3154. Functions and powers relating to pretrial services

Pretrial services functions shall include the following:

(1) Collect, verify, and report to the judicial officer, prior to the pretrial release hearing, information pertaining to the pretrial release of each individual charged with an offense, including information relating to any danger that the release of such person may pose to any other person or the community, and, where appropriate, include a recommendation as to whether such individual should be released or detained and, if release is recommended, recommend appropriate conditions of release; except that a district court may direct that information not be collected, verified, or reported under this paragraph on individuals charged with Class A misdemeanors as defined in section 3559(a)(6) of this title.

(2) Review and modify the reports and recommendations specified in paragraph (1) of this section for persons seeking release pursuant to section 3145 of this chapter.

(3) Supervise persons released into its custody under this chapter.

(4) Operate or contract for the operation of appropriate facilities for the custody or care of persons released under this chapter including residential halfway houses, addict and alcoholic treatment centers, and counseling services, and contract with any appropriate public or private agency or person, or expend funds, to monitor and provide treatment as well as nontreatment services to any such persons released in the community, including equipment and emergency housing, corrective and preventative guidance and training, and other services reasonably deemed necessary to protect the public and ensure that such persons appear in court as required.

(5) Inform the court and the United States attorney of all apparent violations of pretrial release conditions, arrests of persons released to the custody of providers of pretrial services or under the supervision of providers of pretrial services, and any danger that any such person may come to pose to any other person or the community, and recommend appropriate modifications of release conditions.

(6) Serve as coordinator for other local agencies which serve or are eligible to serve as custodians under this chapter and advise the court as to the eligibility, availability, and capacity of such agencies.

(7) Assist persons released under this chapter in securing any necessary employment, medical, legal, or social services.

(8) Prepare, in cooperation with the United States marshal and the United States attorney such pretrial detention reports as are required by the provisions of the Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure relating to the supervision of detention pending trial.

(9) Develop and implement a system to monitor and evaluate bail activities, provide information to judicial officers on the results of bail decisions, and prepare periodic reports to assist in the improvement of the bail process.

(10) To the extent provided for in an agreement between a chief pretrial services officer in districts in which pretrial services are established under section 3152(b) of this title, or the chief probation officer in all other districts, and the United States attorney, collect, verify, and prepare reports for the United States attorney's office of information pertaining to the pretrial diversion of any individual who is or may be charged with an offense, and perform such other duties as may be required under any such agreement.

(11) Make contracts, to such extent and in such amounts as are provided in appropriation Acts, for the carrying out of any pretrial services functions.

(12)(A) As directed by the court and to the degree required by the regimen of care or treatment ordered by the court as a condition of release, keep informed as to the conduct and provide supervision of a person conditionally released under the provisions of section 4243, 4246, or 4248 of this title, and report such person's conduct and condition to the court ordering release and the Attorney General or his designee.

(B) Any violation of the conditions of release shall immediately be reported to the court and the Attorney General or his designee.

(13) If approved by the district court, be authorized to carry firearms under such rules and regulations as the Director of the Administrative Office of the United States Courts may prescribe.

(14) Perform, in a manner appropriate for juveniles, any of the functions identified in this section with respect to juveniles awaiting adjudication, trial, or disposition under chapter 403 of this title who are not detained.

(15) Perform such other functions as specified under this chapter.

(Added Pub. L. 93–619, title II, §201, Jan. 3, 1975, 88 Stat. 2087; amended Pub. L. 97–267, §4, Sept. 27, 1982, 96 Stat. 1137; Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §203(b), Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 1984; Pub. L. 101–647, title XXXV, §3576, Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 4929; Pub. L. 102–572, title VII, §701(b), title X, §1002, Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4515, 4521; Pub. L. 104–317, title I, §101(b), Oct. 19, 1996, 110 Stat. 3848; Pub. L. 110–406, §15(a), Oct. 13, 2008, 122 Stat. 4294; Pub. L. 111–174, §5, May 27, 2010, 124 Stat. 1216; Pub. L. 115–391, title VI, §609(b), Dec. 21, 2018, 132 Stat. 5245.)

Amendments

2018—Par. (12)(A). Pub. L. 115–391 substituted ", 4246, or 4248" for "or 4246".

2010—Pars. (14), (15). Pub. L. 111–174 added par. (14) and redesignated former par. (14) as (15).

2008—Par. (4). Pub. L. 110–406 inserted ", and contract with any appropriate public or private agency or person, or expend funds, to monitor and provide treatment as well as nontreatment services to any such persons released in the community, including equipment and emergency housing, corrective and preventative guidance and training, and other services reasonably deemed necessary to protect the public and ensure that such persons appear in court as required" before period at end.

1996—Pars. (13), (14). Pub. L. 104–317 added par. (13) and redesignated former par. (13) as (14).

1992—Par. (1). Pub. L. 102–572, §1002, inserted before period at end "; except that a district court may direct that information not be collected, verified, or reported under this paragraph on individuals charged with Class A misdemeanors as defined in section 3559(a)(6) of this title".

Pars. (12), (13). Pub. L. 102–572, §701(b), added par. (12) and redesignated former par. (12) as (13).

1990—Par. (1). Pub. L. 101–647 substituted "community, and, where appropriate, include a recommendation as to whether such individual should be released or detained and, if release is recommended, recommend appropriate conditions of release." for "community" and all that followed through end of par. (1).

1984—Par. (1). Pub. L. 98–473, §203(b)(1), which directed the amendment of par. (1), by striking out "and recommend appropriate release conditions for each such person" and inserting in lieu thereof "and, where appropriate, include a recommendation as to whether such individual should be released or detained and, if release is recommended, recommend appropriate conditions of release" could not be executed because such language did not appear. See 1990 Amendment note above.

Par. (2). Pub. L. 98–473, §203(b)(2), substituted "section 3145" for "section 3146(e) or section 3147".

1982Pub. L. 97–267 substituted "relating to pretrial services" for "of pretrial services agencies" in section catchline, in par. (1) struck out provisions relating to agency files concerning the pretrial release of persons charged with an offense, the establishment of regulations concerning the release of such files, and the access to and admissibility of these files, in par. (4) struck out provision relating to the cooperation of the Administrative Office of the United States Courts and the approval of the Attorney General and provision not limiting this paragraph to those facilities listed thereunder, in par. (5) inserted provisions that pretrial services may provide the United States Attorney as well as the court with information described under this paragraph and that such information also includes any danger that a person released to the custody of pretrial services may come to pose to any other person or the community, in par. (9) substituted provisions that pretrial services shall develop and implement a system to monitor and evaluate bail activities, provide information on the result of bail decisions, and prepare periodic reports to assist the improvement of the bail process for provisions that pretrial services agencies would perform such other functions as the court might assign, and added pars. (10)–(12).

Effective Date of 1992 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 102–572 effective Jan. 1, 1993, see section 1101 of Pub. L. 102–572, set out as a note under section 905 of Title 2, The Congress.

Demonstration Program for Drug Testing of Arrested Persons and Defendants on Probation or Supervised Release

Pub. L. 100–690, title VII, §7304, Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4464, provided that:

"(a) Establishment.—The Director of the Administrative Office of the United States Courts shall establish a demonstration program of mandatory testing of criminal defendants.

"(b) Length of Program.—The demonstration program shall begin not later than January 1, 1989, and shall last two years.

"(c) Selection of Districts.—The Judicial Conference of the United States shall select 8 Federal judicial districts in which to carry out the demonstration program, so that the group selected represents a mix of districts on the basis of criminal caseload and the types of cases in that caseload.

"(d) Inclusion in Pretrial Services.—In each of the districts in which the demonstration program takes place, pretrial services under chapter 207 of title 18, United States Code, shall arrange for the drug testing of defendants in criminal cases. To the extent feasible, such testing shall be completed before the defendant makes the defendant's initial appearance in the case before a judicial officer. The results of such testing shall be included in the report to the judicial officer under section 3154 of title 18, United States Code.

"(e) Mandatory Condition of Probation and Supervised Release.—In each of the judicial districts in which the demonstration program is in effect, it shall be an additional, mandatory condition of probation, and an additional mandatory condition of supervised release for offenses occurring or completed on or after January 1, 1989, for any defendant convicted of a felony, that such defendant refrain from any illegal use of any controlled substance (as defined in section 102 of the Controlled Substances Act [21 U.S.C. 802]) and submit to periodic drug tests for use of controlled substances at least once every 60 days. The requirement that drug tests be administered at least once every 60 days may be suspended upon motion of the Director of the Administrative Office, or the Director's designee, if, after at least one year of probation or supervised release, the defendant has passed all drug tests administered pursuant to this section. No action may be taken against a defendant pursuant to a drug test administered in accordance with this subsection unless the drug test confirmation is a urine drug test confirmed using gas chromatography techniques or such test as the Secretary of Health and Human Services may determine to be of equivalent accuracy.

"(f) Report to Congress.—Not later than 90 days after the first year of the demonstration program and not later than 90 days after the end of the demonstration program, the Director of the Administrative Office of the United States Courts shall report to Congress on the effectiveness of the demonstration program and include in such report recommendations as to whether mandatory drug testing of defendants should be made more general and permanent."

§3155. Annual reports

Each chief pretrial services officer in districts in which pretrial services are established under section 3152(b) of this title, and each chief probation officer in all other districts, shall prepare an annual report to the chief judge of the district court concerning the administration and operation of pretrial services and shall ensure that case file, statistical, and other information concerning the work of pretrial services is provided to the Director. The Director shall be required to include in the Director's annual report to the Judicial Conference under section 604 of title 28 a report on the administration and operation of the pretrial services for the previous year.

(Added Pub. L. 93–619, title II, §201, Jan. 3, 1975, 88 Stat. 2088; amended Pub. L. 97–267, §5, Sept. 27, 1982, 96 Stat. 1138; Pub. L. 113–235, div. E, title III, §308, Dec. 16, 2014, 128 Stat. 2352.)

Amendments

2014Pub. L. 113–235, in first sentence, struck out "and the Director" after "chief judge of the district court" and inserted at end "and shall ensure that case file, statistical, and other information concerning the work of pretrial services is provided to the Director".

1982Pub. L. 97–267 substituted provisions that each pretrial services officer or chief probation officer shall prepare an annual report to the chief judge of the district court and to the Director concerning the administration and operation of pretrial services and that the Director must include in the Director's annual report to the Judicial Conference a report on the administration and operation of the pretrial services for the previous year for provisions relating to the Director's annual report to Congress, the contents of the Director's fourth annual report, and that on or before the expiration of the forty-eighth-month period following July 1, 1975, the Director would file a comprehensive report with Congress concerning the administration and operation of the amendments made by the Speedy Trial Act of 1974, including his views and recommendations with respect thereto.

§3156. Definitions

(a) As used in sections 3141–3150 of this chapter

(1) the term "judicial officer" means, unless otherwise indicated, any person or court authorized pursuant to section 3041 of this title, or the Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure, to detain or release a person before trial or sentencing or pending appeal in a court of the United States, and any judge of the Superior Court of the District of Columbia;

(2) the term "offense" means any criminal offense, other than an offense triable by court-martial, military commission, provost court, or other military tribunal, which is in violation of an Act of Congress and is triable in any court established by Act of Congress;

(3) the term "felony" means an offense punishable by a maximum term of imprisonment of more than one year;

(4) the term "crime of violence" means—

(A) an offense that has as an element of the offense the use, attempted use, or threatened use of physical force against the person or property of another;

(B) any other offense that is a felony and that, by its nature, involves a substantial risk that physical force against the person or property of another may be used in the course of committing the offense; or

(C) any felony under chapter 77, 109A, 110, or 117; and


(5) the term "State" includes a State of the United States, the District of Columbia, and any commonwealth, territory, or possession of the United States.


(b) As used in sections 3152–3155 of this chapter

(1) the term "judicial officer" means, unless otherwise indicated, any person or court authorized pursuant to section 3041 of this title, or the Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure, to detain or release a person before trial or sentencing or pending appeal in a court of the United States, and

(2) the term "offense" means any Federal criminal offense which is in violation of any Act of Congress and is triable by any court established by Act of Congress (other than a Class B or C misdemeanor or an infraction, or an offense triable by court-martial, military commission, provost court, or other military tribunal).

(Added Pub. L. 93–619, title II, §201, Jan. 3, 1975, 88 Stat. 2088; amended Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §§203(c), 223(h), Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 1985, 2029; Pub. L. 99–646, §55(i), Nov. 10, 1986, 100 Stat. 3610; Pub. L. 103–322, title IV, §40501, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1945; Pub. L. 104–294, title VI, §607(i), Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3512; Pub. L. 105–314, title VI, §601, Oct. 30, 1998, 112 Stat. 2982; Pub. L. 114–22, title I, §112, May 29, 2015, 129 Stat. 240.)

Amendments

2015—Subsec. (a)(4)(C). Pub. L. 114–22 inserted "77," after "chapter".

1998—Subsec. (a)(4)(C). Pub. L. 105–314 added subpar. (C) and struck out former subpar. (C) which read as follows: "any felony under chapter 109A or chapter 110; and".

1996—Subsec. (a)(5). Pub. L. 104–294 added par. (5).

1994—Subsec. (a)(4)(C). Pub. L. 103–322 added subpar. (C).

1986—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 99–646 substituted "the term" for "The term" in pars. (1) to (4) and struck out "and" after "Congress;" in par. (2).

1984—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 98–473, §203(c)(1), substituted "3141" for "3146" in provision preceding par. (1).

Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 98–473, §203(c)(2), substituted "to detain or release" for "to bail or otherwise release" and struck out "and" after "District of Columbia;".

Subsec. (a)(3), (4). Pub. L. 98–473, §203(c)(3), (4), added pars. (3) and (4).

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 98–473, §203(c)(5), substituted "to detain or release" for "to bail or otherwise release".

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 98–473, §223(h), substituted "Class B or C misdemeanor or an infraction" for "petty offense as defined in section 1(3) of this title".

Effective Date of 1986 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 99–646 effective 30 days after Nov. 10, 1986, see section 55(j) of Pub. L. 99–646, set out as a note under section 3141 of this title.

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Amendment by section 223(h) of Pub. L. 98–473 effective Nov. 1, 1987, and applicable only to offenses committed after the taking effect of such amendment, see section 235(a)(1) of Pub. L. 98–473, set out as an Effective Date note under section 3551 of this title.