[USC02] 18 USC Ch. 306: TRANSFER TO OR FROM FOREIGN COUNTRIES
Result 1 of 1
   
 
18 USC Ch. 306: TRANSFER TO OR FROM FOREIGN COUNTRIES
From Title 18—CRIMES AND CRIMINAL PROCEDUREPART III—PRISONS AND PRISONERS

CHAPTER 306—TRANSFER TO OR FROM FOREIGN COUNTRIES

Sec.
4100.
Scope and limitation of chapter.
4101.
Definitions.
4102.
Authority of the Attorney General.
4103.
Applicability of United States laws.
4104.
Transfer of offenders on probation.
4105.
Transfer of offenders serving sentence of imprisonment.
4106.
Transfer of offenders on parole; parole of offenders transferred.
4106A.
Transfer of offenders on parole; parole of offenders transferred.
4107.
Verification of consent of offender to transfer from the United States.
4108.
Verification of consent of offender to transfer to the United States.
4109.
Right to counsel, appointment of counsel.
4110.
Transfer of juveniles.
4111.
Prosecution barred by foreign conviction.
4112.
Loss of rights, disqualification.
4113.
Status of alien offender transferred to a foreign country.
4114.
Return of transferred offenders.
4115.
Execution of sentences imposing an obligation to make restitution or reparations.

        

Amendments

1988Pub. L. 100–690, title VII, §7101(c), Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4415, added item 4106A.

§4100. Scope and limitation of chapter

(a) The provisions of this chapter relating to the transfer of offenders shall be applicable only when a treaty providing for such a transfer is in force, and shall only be applicable to transfers of offenders to and from a foreign country pursuant to such a treaty. A sentence imposed by a foreign country upon an offender who is subsequently transferred to the United States pursuant to a treaty shall be subject to being fully executed in the United States even though the treaty under which the offender was transferred is no longer in force.

(b) An offender may be transferred from the United States pursuant to this chapter only to a country of which the offender is a citizen or national. Only an offender who is a citizen or national of the United States may be transferred to the United States. An offender may be transferred to or from the United States only with the offender's consent, and only if the offense for which the offender was sentenced satisfies the requirement of double criminality as defined in this chapter. Once an offender's consent to transfer has been verified by a verifying officer, that consent shall be irrevocable. If at the time of transfer the offender is under eighteen years of age, or is deemed by the verifying officer to be mentally incompetent or otherwise incapable of knowingly and voluntarily consenting to the transfer, the transfer shall not be accomplished unless consent to the transfer be given by a parent or guardian, guardian ad litem, or by an appropriate court of the sentencing country. The appointment of a guardian ad litem shall be independent of the appointment of counsel under section 4109 of this title.

(c) An offender shall not be transferred to or from the United States if a proceeding by way of appeal or of collateral attack upon the conviction or sentence be pending.

(d) The United States upon receiving notice from the country which imposed the sentence that the offender has been granted a pardon, commutation, or amnesty, or that there has been an ameliorating modification or a revocation of the sentence shall give the offender the benefit of the action taken by the sentencing country.

(Added Pub. L. 95–144, §1, Oct. 28, 1977, 91 Stat. 1212; amended Pub. L. 100–690, title VII, §7101(e), Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4416.)

Amendments

1988—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 100–690 inserted ", or is deemed by the verifying officer to be mentally incompetent or otherwise incapable of knowingly and voluntarily consenting to the transfer," after "under eighteen years of age", ", guardian ad litem," after "guardian", and "The appointment of a guardian ad litem shall be independent of the appointment of counsel under section 4109 of this title."

Authorization of Appropriations

Pub. L. 95–144, §5(a), Oct. 28, 1977, 91 Stat. 1221, provided that: "There is authorized to be appropriated such funds as may be required to carry out the purposes of this Act [which enacted this chapter and sections 955 of Title 10, Armed Forces, and 2256 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure, amended section 636 of Title 28, and enacted provisions set out as notes under sections 3006A, 4100, and 4102 of this title]".

Prisoner Transfer Treaties

Pub. L. 104–208, div. C, title III, §330, Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 3009–631, provided that:

"(a) Negotiations With Other Countries.—(1) Congress advises the President to begin to negotiate and renegotiate, not later than 90 days after the date of enactment of this Act [Sept. 30, 1996], bilateral prisoner transfer treaties, providing for the incarceration, in the country of the alien's nationality, of any alien who—

"(A) is a national of a country that is party to such a treaty; and

"(B) has been convicted of a criminal offense under Federal or State law and who—

"(i) is not in lawful immigration status in the United States, or

"(ii) on the basis of conviction for a criminal offense under Federal or State law, or on any other basis, is subject to deportation or removal under the Immigration and Nationality Act [8 U.S.C. 1101 et seq.],

for the duration of the prison term to which the alien was sentenced for the offense referred to in subparagraph (B). Any such agreement may provide for the release of such alien pursuant to parole procedures of that country.

"(2) In entering into negotiations under paragraph (1), the President may consider providing for appropriate compensation, subject to the availability of appropriations, in cases where the United States is able to independently verify the adequacy of the sites where aliens will be imprisoned and the length of time the alien is actually incarcerated in the foreign country under such a treaty.

"(b) Sense of Congress.—It is the sense of the Congress that—

"(1) the focus of negotiations for such agreements should be—

"(A) to expedite the transfer of aliens unlawfully in the United States who are (or are about to be) incarcerated in United States prisons,

"(B) to ensure that a transferred prisoner serves the balance of the sentence imposed by the United States courts,

"(C) to eliminate any requirement of prisoner consent to such a transfer, and

"(D) to allow the Federal Government or the States to keep their original prison sentences in force so that transferred prisoners who return to the United States prior to the completion of their original United States sentences can be returned to custody for the balance of their prisons [sic] sentences;

"(2) the Secretary of State should give priority to concluding an agreement with any country for which the President determines that the number of aliens described in subsection (a) who are nationals of that country in the United States represents a significant percentage of all such aliens in the United States; and

"(3) no new treaty providing for the transfer of aliens from Federal, State, or local incarceration facilities to a foreign incarceration facility should permit the alien to refuse the transfer.

"(c) Prisoner Consent.—Notwithstanding any other provision of law, except as required by treaty, the transfer of an alien from a Federal, State, or local incarceration facility under an agreement of the type referred to in subsection (a) shall not require consent of the alien.

"(d) Annual Report.—Not later than 90 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Sept. 30, 1996], and annually thereafter, the Attorney General shall submit a report to the Committees on the Judiciary of the House of Representatives and of the Senate stating whether each prisoner transfer treaty to which the United States is a party has been effective in the preceding 12 months in bringing about the return of deportable incarcerated aliens to the country of which they are nationals and in ensuring that they serve the balance of their sentences.

"(e) Training Foreign Law Enforcement Personnel.—(1) Subject to paragraph (2), the President shall direct the Border Patrol Academy and the Customs Service Academy to enroll for training an appropriate number of foreign law enforcement personnel, and shall make appointments of foreign law enforcement personnel to such academies, as necessary to further the following United States law enforcement goals:

"(A) Preventing of drug smuggling and other cross-border criminal activity.

"(B) Preventing illegal immigration.

"(C) Preventing the illegal entry of goods into the United States (including goods the sale of which is illegal in the United States, the entry of which would cause a quota to be exceeded, or the appropriate duty or tariff for which has not been paid).

"(2) The appointments described in paragraph (1) shall be made only to the extent there is capacity in such academies beyond what is required to train United States citizens needed in the Border Patrol and Customs Service, and only of personnel from a country with which the prisoner transfer treaty has been stated to be effective in the most recent report referred to in subsection (d).

"(f) Authorization of Appropriations.—There are authorized to be appropriated such sums as may be necessary to carry out this section."

[For transfer of functions, personnel, assets, and liabilities of the United States Customs Service of the Department of the Treasury, including functions of the Secretary of the Treasury relating thereto, to the Secretary of Homeland Security, and for treatment of related references, see sections 203(1), 551(d), 552(d), and 557 of Title 6, Domestic Security, and the Department of Homeland Security Reorganization Plan of November 25, 2002, as modified, set out as a note under section 542 of Title 6. For establishment of U.S. Customs and Border Protection in the Department of Homeland Security, treated as if included in Pub. L. 107–296 as of Nov. 25, 2002, see section 211 of Title 6, as amended generally by Pub. L. 114–125, and section 802(b) of Pub. L. 114–125, set out as a note under section 211 of Title 6.]

§4101. Definitions

As used in this chapter the term—

(a) "double criminality" means that at the time of transfer of an offender the offense for which he has been sentenced is still an offense in the transferring country and is also an offense in the receiving country. With regard to a country which has a federal form of government, an act shall be deemed to be an offense in that country if it is an offense under the federal laws or the laws of any state or province thereof;

(b) "imprisonment" means a penalty imposed by a court under which the individual is confined to an institution;

(c) "juvenile" means—

(1) a person who is under eighteen years of age; or

(2) for the purpose of proceedings and disposition under chapter 403 of this title because of an act of juvenile delinquency, a person who is under twenty-one years of age;


(d) "juvenile delinquency" means—

(1) a violation of the laws of the United States or a State thereof or of a foreign country committed by a juvenile which would have been a crime if committed by an adult; or

(2) noncriminal acts committed by a juvenile for which supervision or treatment by juvenile authorities of the United States, a State thereof, or of the foreign country concerned is authorized;


(e) "offender" means a person who has been convicted of an offense or who has been adjudged to have committed an act of juvenile delinquency;

(f) "parole" means any form of release of an offender from imprisonment to the community by a releasing authority prior to the expiration of his sentence, subject to conditions imposed by the releasing authority and to its supervision, including a term of supervised release pursuant to section 3583;

(g) "probation" means any form of a sentence under which the offender is permitted to remain at liberty under supervision and subject to conditions for the breach of which a penalty of imprisonment may be ordered executed;

(h) "sentence" means not only the penalty imposed but also the judgment of conviction in a criminal case or a judgment of acquittal in the same proceeding, or the adjudication of delinquency in a juvenile delinquency proceeding or dismissal of allegations of delinquency in the same proceedings;

(i) "State" means any State of the United States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, and any territory or possession of the United States;

(j) "transfer" means a transfer of an individual for the purpose of the execution in one country of a sentence imposed by the courts of another country; and

(k) "treaty" means a treaty under which an offender sentenced in the courts of one country may be transferred to the country of which he is a citizen or national for the purpose of serving the sentence.

(Added Pub. L. 95–144, §1, Oct. 28, 1977, 91 Stat. 1213; amended Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §223(m)(1), Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 2029.)

Amendments

1984—Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 98–473 inserted "including a term of supervised release pursuant to section 3583" after "supervision".

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 98–473 substituted "under which" for "to a penalty of imprisonment the execution of which is suspended" and "a" for "the suspended" before "penalty".

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 98–473 effective Nov. 1, 1987, and applicable only to offenses committed after the taking effect of such amendment, see section 235(a)(1) of Pub. L. 98–473, set out as an Effective Date note under section 3551 of this title.

§4102. Authority of the Attorney General

The Attorney General is authorized—

(1) to act on behalf of the United States as the authority referred to in a treaty;

(2) to receive custody of offenders under a sentence of imprisonment, on parole, or on probation who are citizens or nationals of the United States transferred from foreign countries and as appropriate confine them in penal or correctional institutions, or assign them to the parole or probation authorities for supervision;

(3) to transfer offenders under a sentence of imprisonment, on parole, or on probation to the foreign countries of which they are citizens or nationals;

(4) to make regulations for the proper implementation of such treaties in accordance with this chapter and to make regulations to implement this chapter;

(5) to render to foreign countries and to receive from them the certifications and reports required to be made under such treaties;

(6) to make arrangements by agreement with the States for the transfer of offenders in their custody who are citizens or nationals of foreign countries to the foreign countries of which they are citizens or nationals and for the confinement, where appropriate, in State institutions of offenders transferred to the United States;

(7) to make agreements and establish regulations for the transportation through the territory of the United States of offenders convicted in a foreign country who are being transported to a third country for the execution of their sentences, the expenses of which shall be paid by the country requesting the transportation;

(8) to make agreements with the appropriate authorities of a foreign country and to issue regulations for the transfer and treatment of juveniles who are transferred pursuant to treaty, the expenses of which shall be paid by the country of which the juvenile is a citizen or national;

(9) in concert with the Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare, to make arrangements with the appropriate authorities of a foreign country and to issue regulations for the transfer and treatment of individuals who are accused of an offense but who have been determined to be mentally ill; the expenses of which shall be paid by the country of which such person is a citizen or national;

(10) to designate agents to receive, on behalf of the United States, the delivery by a foreign government of any citizen or national of the United States being transferred to the United States for the purpose of serving a sentence imposed by the courts of the foreign country, and to convey him to the place designated by the Attorney General. Such agent shall have all the powers of a marshal of the United States in the several districts through which it may be necessary for him to pass with the offender, so far as such power is requisite for the offender's transfer and safekeeping; within the territory of a foreign country such agent shall have such powers as the authorities of the foreign country may accord him;

(11) to delegate the authority conferred by this chapter to officers of the Department of Justice.

(Added Pub. L. 95–144, §1, Oct. 28, 1977, 91 Stat. 1214.)

Change of Name

Secretary and Department of Health, Education, and Welfare redesignated Secretary and Department of Health and Human Services by Pub. L. 96–88, title V, §509(b), Oct. 17, 1979, 93 Stat. 695, which is classified to section 3508(b) of Title 20, Education.

Certification by Attorney General to Secretary of State for Reimbursement of Expenses Incurred Under Transfer Treaty

Pub. L. 95–144, §5(b), Oct. 28, 1977, 91 Stat. 1221, provided that: "The Attorney General shall certify to the Secretary of State the expenses of the United States related to the return of an offender to the foreign country of which the offender is a citizen or national for which the United States is entitled to seek reimbursement from that country under a treaty providing for transfer and reimbursement."

§4103. Applicability of United States laws

All laws of the United States, as appropriate, pertaining to prisoners, probationers, parolees, and juvenile offenders shall be applicable to offenders transferred to the United States, unless a treaty or this chapter provides otherwise.

(Added Pub. L. 95–144, §1, Oct. 28, 1977, 91 Stat. 1215.)

§4104. Transfer of offenders on probation

(a) Prior to consenting to the transfer to the United States of an offender who is on probation, the Attorney General shall determine that the appropriate United States district court is willing to undertake the supervision of the offender.

(b) Upon the receipt of an offender on probation from the authorities of a foreign country, the Attorney General shall cause the offender to be brought before the United States district court which is to exercise supervision over the offender.

(c) The court shall place the offender under supervision of the probation officer of the court. The offender shall be supervised by a probation officer, under such conditions as are deemed appropriate by the court as though probation had been imposed by the United States district court.

(d) The probation may be revoked in accordance with section 3565 of this title and the applicable provisions of the Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure. A violation of the conditions of probation shall constitute grounds for revocation. If probation is revoked the suspended sentence imposed by the sentencing court shall be executed.

(e) The provisions of sections 4105 and 4106 of this title shall be applicable following a revocation of probation.

(f) Prior to consenting to the transfer from the United States of an offender who is on probation, the Attorney General shall obtain the assent of the court exercising jurisdiction over the probationer.

(Added Pub. L. 95–144, §1, Oct. 28, 1977, 91 Stat. 1215; amended Pub. L. 107–273, div. B, title IV, §4002(e)(6), Nov. 2, 2002, 116 Stat. 1810.)

Amendments

2002—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 107–273 substituted "section 3565 of this title and the applicable provisions of" for "section 3653 of this title and rule 32(f) of".

§4105. Transfer of offenders serving sentence of imprisonment

(a) Except as provided elsewhere in this section, an offender serving a sentence of imprisonment in a foreign country transferred to the custody of the Attorney General shall remain in the custody of the Attorney General under the same conditions and for the same period of time as an offender who had been committed to the custody of the Attorney General by a court of the United States for the period of time imposed by the sentencing court.

(b) The transferred offender shall be given credit toward service of the sentence for any days, prior to the date of commencement of the sentence, spent in custody in connection with the offense or acts for which the sentence was imposed.

(c)(1) The transferred offender shall be entitled to all credits for good time, for labor, or any other credit toward the service of the sentence which had been given by the transferring country for time served as of the time of the transfer. Subsequent to the transfer, the offender shall in addition be entitled to credits toward service of sentence for satisfactory behavior, computed on the basis of the time remaining to be served at the time of the transfer and at the rate provided in section 3624(b) of this title for a sentence of the length of the total sentence imposed and certified by the foreign authorities. These credits shall be combined to provide a release date for the offender pursuant to section 3624(a) of this title.

(2) If the country from which the offender is transferred does not give credit for good time, the basis of computing the deduction from the sentence shall be the sentence imposed by the sentencing court and certified to be served upon transfer, at the rate provided in section 3624(b) of this title.

(3) Credit toward service of sentence may be withheld as provided in section 3624(b) of this title.

(4) Any sentence for an offense against the United States, imposed while the transferred offender is serving the sentence of imprisonment imposed in a foreign country, shall be aggregated with the foreign sentence, in the same manner as if the foreign sentence was one imposed by a United States district court for an offense against the United States.

(Added Pub. L. 95–144, §1, Oct. 28, 1977, 91 Stat. 1215; amended Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §223(m)(2), Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 2029.)

Amendments

1984—Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 98–473 substituted "toward service of sentence for satisfactory behavior" for "for good time", "3624(b)" for "4161", and "3624(a)" for "4164".

Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 98–473 substituted "3624(b)" for "4161".

Subsec. (c)(3), (4). Pub. L. 98–473 redesignated par. (4) as (3) and amended it generally, and struck out former par. (3). Prior to redesignation and amendment, former pars. (3) and (4) read as follows:

"(3) A transferred offender may earn extra good time deductions, as authorized in section 4162 of this title, from the time of transfer.

"(4) All credits toward service of the sentence, other than the credit for time in custody before sentencing, may be forfeited as provided in section 4165 of this title and may be restored by the Attorney General as provided in section 4166 of this title."

Subsec. (c)(5). Pub. L. 98–473 redesignated par. (5) as (4).

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 98–473 effective Nov. 1, 1987, and applicable only to offenses committed after the taking effect of such amendment, see section 235(a)(1) of Pub. L. 98–473, set out as an Effective Date note under section 3551 of this title.

§4106. Transfer of offenders on parole; parole of offenders transferred

(a) Upon the receipt of an offender who is on parole from the authorities of a foreign country, the Attorney General shall assign the offender to the United States Parole Commission for supervision.

(b) The United States Parole Commission and the Chairman of the Commission shall have the same powers and duties with reference to an offender transferred to the United States to serve a sentence of imprisonment or who at the time of transfer is on parole as they have with reference to an offender convicted in a court of the United States except as otherwise provided in this chapter or in the pertinent treaty. Sections 4201 through 4204; 4205(d), (e), and (h); 4206 through 4215; and 4218 1 of this title shall be applicable.

(c) An offender transferred to the United States to serve a sentence of imprisonment may be released on parole at such time as the Parole Commission may determine.

(d) This section shall apply only to offenses committed before November 1, 1987, and the Parole Commission's performance of its responsibilities under this section shall be subject to section 235 of the Comprehensive Crime Control Act of 1984.

(Added Pub. L. 95–144, §1, Oct. 28, 1977, 91 Stat. 1216; amended Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §223(m)(3), Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 2029; Pub. L. 100–182, §14, Dec. 7, 1987, 101 Stat. 1268; Pub. L. 100–690, title VII, §7072(c), Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4405.)

References in Text

Sections 4201 through 4204; 4205(d), (e), and (h); 4206 through 4215; and 4218 of this title, referred to in subsec. (b), were repealed effective Nov. 1, 1987, by Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §§218(a)(5), 235(a)(1), (b)(1), Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 2027, 2031, 2032, subject to remaining effective for five years after Nov. 1, 1987, in certain circumstances.

Section 235 of the Comprehensive Crime Control Act of 1984, referred to in subsec. (d), is set out as an Effective Date note under section 3551 of this title.

Amendments

1988—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 100–690 substituted "4215" for "4216".

1987Pub. L. 100–182 amended section generally. Prior to amendment, section read as follows:

"(a) Upon the receipt of an offender who is on parole from the authorities of a foreign country, the Attorney General shall assign the offender to the United States Probation System for supervision.

"(b) An offender transferred to the United States to serve a sentence of imprisonment shall be released pursuant to section 3624(a) of this title after serving the period of time specified in the applicable sentencing guideline promulgated pursuant to 28 U.S.C. 994(a)(1). He shall be released to serve a term of supervised release for any term specified in the applicable guideline. The provisions of section 3742 of this title apply to a sentence to a term of imprisonment under this subsection, and the United States court of appeals for the district in which the offender is imprisoned after transfer to the United States has jurisdiction to review the period of imprisonment as though it had been imposed by the United States district court."

1984—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 98–473 substituted "Probation System" for "Parole Commission".

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 98–473 amended subsec. (b) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (b) read as follows: "The United States Parole Commission and the Chairman of the Commission shall have the same powers and duties with reference to an offender transferred to the United States to serve a sentence of imprisonment or who at the time of transfer is on parole as they have with reference to an offender convicted in a court of the United States except as otherwise provided in this chapter or in the pertinent treaty. Sections 4201 through 4204; 4205(d), (e), and (h); 4206 through 4216; and 4218 of this title shall be applicable."

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 98–473 struck out subsec. (c) which read as follows: "An offender transferred to the United States to serve a sentence of imprisonment may be released on parole at such time as the Parole Commission may determine."

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 98–473 effective Nov. 1, 1987, and applicable only to offenses committed after the taking effect of such amendment, see section 235(a)(1) of Pub. L. 98–473, set out as an Effective Date note under section 3551 of this title.

1 See References in Text note below.

§4106A. Transfer of offenders on parole; parole of offenders transferred

(a) Upon the receipt of an offender who is on parole from the authorities of a foreign country, the Attorney General shall assign the offender to the United States Parole Commission for supervision.

(b)(1)(A) The United States Parole Commission shall, without unnecessary delay, determine a release date and a period and conditions of supervised release for an offender transferred to the United States to serve a sentence of imprisonment, as though the offender were convicted in a United States district court of a similar offense.

(B) In making such determination, the United States Parole Commission shall consider—

(i) any recommendation of the United States Probation Service, including any recommendation as to the applicable guideline range; and

(ii) any documents provided by the transferring country;


relating to that offender.

(C) The combined periods of imprisonment and supervised release that result from such determination shall not exceed the term of imprisonment imposed by the foreign court on that offender.

(D) The duties conferred on a United States probation officer with respect to a defendant by section 3552 of this title shall, with respect to an offender so transferred, be carried out by the United States Probation Service.

(2)(A) A determination by the United States Parole Commission under this subsection may be appealed to the United States court of appeals for the circuit in which the offender is imprisoned at the time of the determination of such Commission. Notice of appeal must be filed not later than 45 days after receipt of notice of such determination.

(B) The court of appeals shall decide and dispose of the appeal in accordance with section 3742 of this title as though the determination appealed had been a sentence imposed by a United States district court.

(3) During the supervised release of an offender under this subsection, the United States district court for the district in which the offender resides shall supervise the offender.

(c) This section shall apply only to offenses committed on or after November 1, 1987.

(Added Pub. L. 100–690, title VII, §7101(a), Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4415; amended Pub. L. 101–647, title XXXV, §§3599B, 3599C, Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 4931, 4932.)

Amendments

1990Pub. L. 101–647, §3599B, inserted "of" before second reference to "offenders" in section catchline.

Subsec. (b)(1)(C). Pub. L. 101–647, §3599C, inserted period at end.

§4107. Verification of consent of offender to transfer from the United States

(a) Prior to the transfer of an offender from the United States, the fact that the offender consents to such transfer and that such consent is voluntary and with full knowledge of the consequences thereof shall be verified by a United States magistrate judge or a judge as defined in section 451 of title 28, United States Code.

(b) The verifying officer shall inquire of the offender whether he understands and agrees that the transfer will be subject to the following conditions:

(1) only the appropriate courts in the United States may modify or set aside the conviction or sentence, and any proceedings seeking such action may only be brought in such courts;

(2) the sentence shall be carried out according to the laws of the country to which he is to be transferred and that those laws are subject to change;

(3) if a court in the country to which he is transferred should determine upon a proceeding initiated by him or on his behalf that his transfer was not accomplished in accordance with the treaty or laws of that country, he may be returned to the United States for the purpose of completing the sentence if the United States requests his return; and

(4) his consent to transfer, once verified by the verifying officer, is irrevocable.


(c) The verifying officer, before determining that an offender's consent is voluntary and given with full knowledge of the consequences, shall advise the offender of his right to consult with counsel as provided by this chapter. If the offender wishes to consult with counsel before giving his consent, he shall be advised that the proceedings will be continued until he has had an opportunity to consult with counsel.

(d) The verifying officer shall make the necessary inquiries to determine that the offender's consent is voluntary and not the result of any promises, threats, or other improper inducements, and that the offender accepts the transfer subject to the conditions set forth in subsection (b). The consent and acceptance shall be on an appropriate form prescribed by the Attorney General.

(e) The proceedings shall be taken down by a reporter or recorded by suitable sound recording equipment. The Attorney General shall maintain custody of the records.

(Added Pub. L. 95–144, §1, Oct. 28, 1977, 91 Stat. 1216; amended Pub. L. 101–650, title III, §321, Dec. 1, 1990, 104 Stat. 5117.)

Change of Name

"United States magistrate judge" substituted for "United States magistrate" in subsec. (a) pursuant to section 321 of Pub. L. 101–650, set out as a note under section 631 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure.

§4108. Verification of consent of offender to transfer to the United States

(a) Prior to the transfer of an offender to the United States, the fact that the offender consents to such transfer and that such consent is voluntary and with full knowledge of the consequences thereof, shall be verified in the country in which the sentence was imposed by a United States magistrate judge, or by a citizen specifically designated by a judge of the United States as defined in section 451 of title 28, United States Code. The designation of a citizen who is an employee or officer of a department or agency of the United States shall be with the approval of the head of that department or agency.

(b) The verifying officer shall inquire of the offender whether he understands and agrees that the transfer will be subject to the following conditions:

(1) only the country in which he was convicted and sentenced can modify or set aside the conviction or sentence, and any proceedings seeking such action may only be brought in that country;

(2) the sentence shall be carried out according to the laws of the United States and that those laws are subject to change;

(3) if a United States court should determine upon a proceeding initiated by him or on his behalf that his transfer was not accomplished in accordance with the treaty or laws of the United States, he may be returned to the country which imposed the sentence for the purpose of completing the sentence if that country requests his return; and

(4) his consent to transfer, once verified by the verifying officer, is irrevocable.


(c) The verifying officer, before determining that an offender's consent is voluntary and given with full knowledge of the consequences, shall advise the offender of his right to consult with counsel as provided by this chapter. If the offender wishes to consult with counsel before giving his consent, he shall be advised that the proceedings will be continued until he has had an opportunity to consult with counsel.

(d) The verifying officer shall make the necessary inquiries to determine that the offender's consent is voluntary and not the result of any promises, threats, or other improper inducements, and that the offender accepts the transfer subject to the conditions set forth in subsection (b). The consent and acceptance shall be on an appropriate form prescribed by the Attorney General.

(e) The proceedings shall be taken down by a reporter or recorded by suitable sound recording equipment. The Attorney General shall maintain custody of the records.

(Added Pub. L. 95–144, §1, Oct. 28, 1977, 91 Stat. 1217; amended Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §223(m)(4), Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 2030; Pub. L. 100–690, title VII, §7101(b), Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4415; Pub. L. 101–650, title III, §321, Dec. 1, 1990, 104 Stat. 5117.)

Amendments

1988—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 100–690 struck out "including any term of imprisonment or term of supervised release specified in the applicable sentencing guideline promulgated pursuant to 28 U.S.C. 944(a)(1)," after "consequences thereof,".

1984—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 98–473 inserted ", including any term of imprisonment or term of supervised release specified in the applicable sentencing guideline promulgated pursuant to 28 U.S.C. 994(a)(1)," after "consequences thereof".

Change of Name

"United States magistrate judge" substituted for "United States magistrate" in subsec. (a) pursuant to section 321 of Pub. L. 101–650, set out as a note under section 631 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure.

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 98–473 effective Nov. 1, 1987, and applicable only to offenses committed after the taking effect of such amendment, see section 235(a)(1) of Pub. L. 98–473, set out as an Effective Date note under section 3551 of this title.

§4109. Right to counsel, appointment of counsel

(a) In proceedings to verify consent of an offender for transfer, the offender shall have the right to advice of counsel. If the offender is financially unable to obtain counsel—

(1) counsel for proceedings conducted under section 4107 shall be appointed in accordance with section 3006A of this title. Such appointment shall be considered an appointment in a misdemeanor case for purposes of compensation under the Act; 1

(2) counsel for proceedings conducted under section 4108 shall be appointed by the verifying officer pursuant to such regulations as may be prescribed by the Director of the Administrative Office of the United States Courts. The Secretary of State shall make payments of fees and expenses of the appointed counsel, in amounts approved by the verifying officer, which shall not exceed the amounts authorized under section 3006A of this title for representation in a misdemeanor case. Payment in excess of the maximum amount authorized may be made for extended or complex representation whenever the verifying officer certifies that the amount of the excess payment is necessary to provide fair compensation, and the payment is approved by the chief judge of the United States court of appeals for the appropriate circuit. Counsel from other agencies in any branch of the Government may be appointed: Provided, That in such cases the Secretary of State shall pay counsel directly, or reimburse the employing agency for travel and transportation expenses. Notwithstanding section 3324(a) and (b) of title 31, the Secretary may make advance payments of travel and transportation expenses to counsel appointed under this subsection.


(b) Guardians ad litem appointed by the verifying officer under section 4100 of this title to represent offenders who are financially unable to provide for compensation and travel expenses of the guardian ad litem shall be compensated and reimbursed under subsection (a)(1) of this section.

(c) The offender shall have the right to advice of counsel in proceedings before the United States Parole Commission under section 4106A of this title and in an appeal from a determination of such Commission under such section. If the offender is financially unable to obtain counsel, counsel for such proceedings and appeal shall be appointed under section 3006A of this title.

(Added Pub. L. 95–144, §1, Oct. 28, 1977, 91 Stat. 1218; amended Pub. L. 97–258, §3(e)(2), Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 1064; Pub. L. 100–690, title VII, §7101(d), Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4416; Pub. L. 101–647, title XXXV, §3598, Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 4931.)

Amendments

1990—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 101–647 substituted "section 3006A of this title" for "the Criminal Justice Act (18 U.S.C. 3006A)" in par. (1) and for "the Criminal Justice Act (18 U.S.C. 3006(a))" in par. (2).

1988Pub. L. 100–690 designated existing provisions as subsec. (a) and added subsecs. (b) and (c).

1982—Par. (2). Pub. L. 97–258 substituted "section 3324(a) and (b) of title 31" for "section 3648 of the Revised Statutes as amended (31 U.S.C. 529)".

1 So in original. Probably should be "section 3006A of this title;". See 1990 Amendment note below.

§4110. Transfer of juveniles

An offender transferred to the United States because of an act which would have been an act of juvenile delinquency had it been committed in the United States or any State thereof shall be subject to the provisions of chapter 403 of this title except as otherwise provided in the relevant treaty or in an agreement pursuant to such treaty between the Attorney General and the authority of the foreign country.

(Added Pub. L. 95–144, §1, Oct. 28, 1977, 91 Stat. 1218.)

§4111. Prosecution barred by foreign conviction

An offender transferred to the United States shall not be detained, prosecuted, tried, or sentenced by the United States, or any State thereof for any offense the prosecution of which would have been barred if the sentence upon which the transfer was based had been by a court of the jurisdiction seeking to prosecute the transferred offender, or if prosecution would have been barred by the laws of the jurisdiction seeking to prosecute the transferred offender if the sentence on which the transfer was based had been issued by a court of the United States or by a court of another State.

(Added Pub. L. 95–144, §1, Oct. 28, 1977, 91 Stat. 1218.)

§4112. Loss of rights, disqualification

An offender transferred to the United States to serve a sentence imposed by a foreign court shall not incur any loss of civil, political, or civic rights nor incur any disqualification other than those which under the laws of the United States or of the State in which the issue arises would result from the fact of the conviction in the foreign country.

(Added Pub. L. 95–144, §1, Oct. 28, 1977, 91 Stat. 1218.)

§4113. Status of alien offender transferred to a foreign country

(a) An alien who is deportable from the United States but who has been granted voluntary departure pursuant to section 240B of the Immigration and Nationality Act and who is transferred to a foreign country pursuant to this chapter shall be deemed for all purposes to have voluntarily departed from this country.

(b) An alien who is the subject of an order of removal from the United States pursuant to section 240 of the Immigration and Nationality Act who is transferred to a foreign country pursuant to this chapter shall be deemed for all purposes to have been removed from this country.

(c) An alien who is the subject of an order of removal from the United States pursuant to section 240 of the Immigration and Nationality Act, who is transferred to a foreign country pursuant to this chapter shall be deemed for all purposes to have been excluded from admission and removed from the United States.

(Added Pub. L. 95–144, §1, Oct. 28, 1977, 91 Stat. 1219; amended Pub. L. 104–208, div. C, title III, §308(d)(4)(U), (e)(1)(Q), (2)(I), (g)(3)(B), (5)(A)(iv), Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 3009–619, 3009-620, 3009-622, 3009-623.)

References in Text

Section 240B of the Immigration and Nationality Act, referred to in subsec. (a), is classified to section 1229c of Title 8, Aliens and Nationality.

Section 240 of the Immigration and Nationality Act, referred to in subsecs. (b) and (c), is classified to section 1229a of Title 8.

Amendments

1996—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 104–208, §308(g)(5)(A)(iv)(I), substituted "section 240B of the Immigration and Nationality Act" for "section 1252(b) or section 1254(e) of title 8, United States Code,".

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 104–208, §308(g)(5)(A)(iv)(II), substituted "section 240 of the Immigration and Nationality Act" for "section 1252 of title 8, United States Code,".

Pub. L. 104–208, §308(e)(1)(Q), (2)(I), substituted "removal" for "deportation" and "removed" for "deported".

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 104–208, §308(g)(3)(B), substituted "240 of the Immigration and Nationality Act" for "1226 of title 8, United States Code".

Pub. L. 104–208, §308(d)(4)(U), (e)(2)(I), substituted "removal" for "exclusion and deportation" and "removed" for "deported".

Effective Date of 1997 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 104–208 effective, with certain transitional provisions, on the first day of the first month beginning more than 180 days after Sept. 30, 1996, see section 309 of Pub. L. 104–208, set out as a note under section 1101 of Title 8, Aliens and Nationality.

§4114. Return of transferred offenders

(a) Upon a final decision by the courts of the United States that the transfer of the offender to the United States was not in accordance with the treaty or the laws of the United States and ordering the offender released from serving the sentence in the United States the offender may be returned to the country from which he was transferred to complete the sentence if the country in which the sentence was imposed requests his return. The Attorney General shall notify the appropriate authority of the country which imposed the sentence, within ten days, of a final decision of a court of the United States ordering the offender released. The notification shall specify the time within which the sentencing country must request the return of the offender which shall be no longer than thirty days.

(b) Upon receiving a request from the sentencing country that the offender ordered released be returned for the completion of his sentence, the Attorney General may file a complaint for the return of the offender with any justice or judge of the United States or any authorized magistrate judge within whose jurisdiction the offender is found. The complaint shall be upon oath and supported by affidavits establishing that the offender was convicted and sentenced by the courts of the country to which his return is requested; the offender was transferred to the United States for the execution of his sentence; the offender was ordered released by a court of the United States before he had completed his sentence because the transfer of the offender was not in accordance with the treaty or the laws of the United States; and that the sentencing country has requested that he be returned for the completion of the sentence. There shall be attached to the complaint a copy of the sentence of the sentencing court and of the decision of the court which ordered the offender released.

A summons or a warrant shall be issued by the justice, judge or magistrate judge ordering the offender to appear or to be brought before the issuing authority. If the justice, judge, or magistrate judge finds that the person before him is the offender described in the complaint and that the facts alleged in the complaint are true, he shall issue a warrant for commitment of the offender to the custody of the Attorney General until surrender shall be made. The findings and a copy of all the testimony taken before him and of all documents introduced before him shall be transmitted to the Secretary of State, that a Return Warrant may issue upon the requisition of the proper authorities of the sentencing country, for the surrender of offender.

(c) A complaint referred to in subsection (b) must be filed within sixty days from the date on which the decision ordering the release of the offender becomes final.

(d) An offender returned under this section shall be subject to the jurisdiction of the country to which he is returned for all purposes.

(e) The return of an offender shall be conditioned upon the offender being given credit toward service of the sentence for the time spent in the custody of or under the supervision of the United States.

(f) Sections 3186, 3188 through 3191, and 3195 of this title shall be applicable to the return of an offender under this section. However, an offender returned under this section shall not be deemed to have been extradited for any purpose.

(g) An offender whose return is sought pursuant to this section may be admitted to bail or be released on his own recognizance at any stage of the proceedings.

(Added Pub. L. 95–144, §1, Oct. 28, 1977, 91 Stat. 1219; amended Pub. L. 101–650, title III, §321, Dec. 1, 1990, 104 Stat. 5117.)

Change of Name

Words "magistrate judge" substituted for "magistrate" wherever appearing in subsec. (b) pursuant to section 321 of Pub. L. 101–650, set out as a note under section 631 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure.

§4115. Execution of sentences imposing an obligation to make restitution or reparations

If in a sentence issued in a penal proceeding of a transferring country an offender transferred to the United States has been ordered to pay a sum of money to the victim of the offense for damage caused by the offense, that penalty or award of damages may be enforced as though it were a civil judgment rendered by a United States district court. Proceedings to collect the moneys ordered to be paid may be instituted by the Attorney General in any United States district court. Moneys recovered pursuant to such proceedings shall be transmitted through diplomatic channels to the treaty authority of the transferring country for distribution to the victim.

(Added Pub. L. 95–144, §1, Oct. 28, 1977, 91 Stat. 1220.)