[USC02] 19 USC Ch. 12: TRADE ACT OF 1974
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19 USC Ch. 12: TRADE ACT OF 1974
From Title 19—CUSTOMS DUTIES

CHAPTER 12—TRADE ACT OF 1974

Sec.
2101.
Short title.
2102.
Congressional statement of purpose.

        

SUBCHAPTER I—NEGOTIATING AND OTHER AUTHORITY

Part 1—Rates of Duty and Other Trade Barriers

2111.
Basic authority for trade agreements.
2112.
Barriers to and other distortions of trade.
2113.
Overall negotiating objective.
2114.
Sector negotiating objectives.
2114a.
Negotiating objectives with respect to trade in services, foreign direct investment, and high technology products.
2114b.
Provisions relating to international trade in services.
2114c.
Trade in services: development, coordination, and implementation of Federal policies; staff support and other assistance; specific service sector authorities unaffected; executive functions.
2114d.
Foreign export requirements; consultations and negotiations for reduction and elimination; restrictions on and exclusion from entry of products or services; savings provision; compensation authority applicable.
2114e.
Negotiation of agreements concerning high technology industries.
2115.
Bilateral trade agreements.
2116.
Agreements with developing countries.
2117.
International safeguard procedures.
2118.
Access to supplies.
2119.
Staging requirements and rounding authority.

        

Part 2—Other Authority

2131.
Authorization of appropriation for GATT revision.
2132.
Balance-of-payments authority.
2133.
Compensation authority.
2134.
Two-year residual authority to negotiate duties.
2135.
Termination and withdrawal authority.
2136.
Reciprocal nondiscriminatory treatment.
2137.
Reservation of articles for national security or other reasons.
2138.
Omitted.

        

Part 3—Hearings and Advice Concerning Negotiations

2151.
Advice from International Trade Commission.
2152.
Advice from executive departments and other sources.
2153.
Public hearings.
2154.
Prerequisites for offers.
2155.
Information and advice from private and public sectors.

        

Part 4—Office of the United States Trade Representative

2171.
Structure, functions, powers, and personnel.

        

Part 5—Congressional Procedures With Respect to Presidential Actions

2191.
Bills implementing trade agreements on nontariff barriers and resolutions approving commercial agreements with Communist countries.
2192.
Resolutions disapproving certain actions.
2193.
Resolutions relating to extension of waiver authority under section 402 of the Trade Act of 1974.
2194.
Special rules relating to Congressional procedures.

        

Part 6—Congressional Liaison and Reports

2211.
Congressional advisers for trade policy and negotiations.
2212.
Transmission of agreements to Congress.
2213.
Reports.

        

Part 7—United States International Trade Commission

2231.
Change of name.
2232.
Independent budget and authorization of appropriations.

        

Part 8—Identification of Market Barriers and Certain Unfair Trade Actions

2241.
Estimates of barriers to market access.
2242.
Identification of countries that deny adequate protection, or market access, for intellectual property rights.

        

SUBCHAPTER II—RELIEF FROM INJURY CAUSED BY IMPORT COMPETITION

Part 1—Positive Adjustment by Industries Injured by Imports

2251.
Action to facilitate positive adjustment to import competition.
2252.
Investigations, determinations, and recommendations by Commission.
2253.
Action by President after determination of import injury.
2254.
Monitoring, modification, and termination of action.
2255.
Trade monitoring.

        

Part 2—Adjustment Assistance for Workers

subpart a—petitions and determinations

2271.
Petitions.
2272.
Group eligibility requirements; agricultural workers; oil and natural gas industry.
2273.
Determinations by Secretary of Labor.
2274.
Study and notifications regarding certain affirmative determinations; industry notification of assistance.
2275.
Benefit information for workers.

        

subpart b—program benefits

Division I—Trade Readjustment Allowances

2291.
Qualifying requirements for workers.
2292.
Weekly amounts of readjustment allowance.
2293.
Limitations on trade readjustment allowances.
2294.
Application of State laws.

        

Division II—Training, Other Employment Services, and Allowances

2295.
Employment and case management services.
2295a.
Limitations on administrative expenses and employment and case management services.
2296.
Training.
2297.
Job search allowances.
2298.
Relocation allowances.

        

subpart c—general provisions

2311.
Agreements with States.
2312.
Administration absent State agreement.
2313.
Payments to States.
2314.
Liabilities of certifying and disbursing officers.
2315.
Fraud and recovery of overpayments.
2316.
Penalties.
2317.
Authorization of appropriations.
2318.
Reemployment trade adjustment assistance program.
2319.
Definitions.
2320.
Regulations.
2321.
Subpoena power.
2322.
Office of Trade Adjustment Assistance.
2323.
Collection and publication of data and reports; information to workers.

        

subpart d—nafta transitional adjustment assistance program

2331.
Repealed.

        

Part 3—Adjustment Assistance for Firms

2341.
Petitions and determinations.
2342.
Approval of adjustment proposals.
2343.
Technical assistance.
2344.
Oversight and administration.
2345.
Authorization of appropriations.
2345a.
Annual report on trade adjustment assistance for firms.
2346, 2347. Repealed.
2348.
Protective provisions.
2349.
Penalties.
2350.
Civil actions.
2351.
"Firm" defined.
2352.
Regulations.
2353.
Repealed.
2354.
Study by Secretary of Commerce when International Trade Commission begins investigation.
2355.
Assistance to industry; authorization of appropriations.
2356.
Repealed.

        

Part 4—Trade Adjustment Assistance for Communities

2371.
Community College and Career Training Grant Program.
2371a to 2371f. Repealed.
2372.
Authorization of appropriations.
2372a.
Transferred.
2373 to 2374. Repealed.

        

Part 5—Miscellaneous Provisions

2391.
GAO study and report.
2392.
Adjustment Assistance Coordinating Committee.
2393.
Trade monitoring and data collection.
2394.
Firms relocating in foreign countries.
2395.
Judicial review.
2396, 2397. Omitted.
2397a.
Sense of Congress.

        

Part 6—Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

2401.
Definitions.
2401a.
Petitions; group eligibility.
2401b.
Determinations by Secretary of Agriculture.
2401c.
Study by Secretary of Agriculture when International Trade Commission begins investigation.
2401d.
Benefit information to agricultural commodity producers.
2401e.
Qualifying requirements and benefits for agricultural commodity producers.
2401f.
Fraud and recovery of overpayments.
2401g.
Authorization of appropriations.

        

SUBCHAPTER III—ENFORCEMENT OF UNITED STATES RIGHTS UNDER TRADE AGREEMENTS AND RESPONSE TO CERTAIN FOREIGN TRADE PRACTICES

2411.
Actions by United States Trade Representative.
2412.
Initiation of investigations.
2413.
Consultation upon initiation of investigation.
2414.
Determinations by Trade Representative.
2415.
Implementation of actions.
2416.
Monitoring of foreign compliance.
2417.
Modification and termination of actions.
2418.
Request for information.
2419.
Administration.
2420.
Trade enforcement priorities.

        

SUBCHAPTER IV—TRADE RELATIONS WITH COUNTRIES NOT RECEIVING NONDISCRIMINATORY TREATMENT

Part 1—Trade Relations With Certain Countries

2431.
Exception of products of certain countries or areas.
2432.
Freedom of emigration in East-West trade.
2433.
United States personnel missing in action in Southeast Asia.
2434.
Extension of nondiscriminatory treatment.
2435.
Commercial agreements.
2436.
Market disruption.
2437.
Procedure for Congressional approval or disapproval of extension of nondiscriminatory treatment and Presidential reports.
2438.
Payment by Czechoslovakia of amounts owed United States citizens and nationals.
2439.
Freedom to emigrate to join a very close relative in United States.
2440, 2441. Repealed.

        

Part 2—Relief From Market Disruption to Industries and Diversion of Trade to the United States Market

2451 to 2451b. Omitted.

        

SUBCHAPTER V—GENERALIZED SYSTEM OF PREFERENCES

2461.
Authority to extend preferences.
2462.
Designation of beneficiary developing countries.
2463.
Designation of eligible articles.
2464.
Review and report to Congress.
2465.
Date of termination.
2466.
Agricultural exports of beneficiary developing countries.
2466a.
Designation of sub-Saharan African countries for certain benefits.
2466b.
Termination of benefits for sub-Saharan African countries.
2467.
Definitions.

        

SUBCHAPTER VI—GENERAL PROVISIONS

2481.
Definitions.
2482.
Exercise of functions of International Trade Commission.
2483.
Consequential changes in Tariff Schedules of the United States.
2484.
International drug control.
2485.
Voluntary limitations on exports of steel to United States.
2486.
Trade relations with North American countries.
2487.
Repealed.

        

SUBCHAPTER VII—TARIFF TREATMENT OF PRODUCTS OF, AND OTHER SANCTIONS AGAINST, UNCOOPERATIVE MAJOR DRUG PRODUCING OR DRUG-TRANSIT COUNTRIES

2491.
Short title.
2492.
Tariff treatment of products of uncooperative major drug producing or drug-transit countries.
2493.
Sugar quota.
2494.
Progress reports.
2495.
Definitions.

        

SUBCHAPTER VIII—SUPPLEMENTAL AGRICULTURAL DISASTER ASSISTANCE

2497.
Supplemental agricultural disaster assistance.
2497a.
Agricultural Disaster Relief Trust Fund.
2497b.
Jurisdiction.

        

§2101. Short title

This chapter may be cited as the "Trade Act of 1974".

(Pub. L. 93–618, §1, Jan. 3, 1975, 88 Stat. 1978.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in text, was in the original "this Act", meaning Pub. L. 93–618, which in addition to enacting this chapter enacted section 1863 of this title, amended sections 160, 162, 163, 164, 170a, 1202, 1303, 1315, 1321, 1330, 1332, 1333, 1337, 1352, 1484, 1516, 1806, 1862, 1872, 1885, and 1981 of this title, sections 5312, 5314, 5315, and 5316 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees, section 301 of Title 13, Census, section 3302 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code, sections 2631 and 2632 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure, and section 665 of former Title 31, Money and Finance, repealed sections 1802, 1803, 1804, 1805, 1822, 1831, 1832, 1833, 1841, 1842, 1843, 1844, 1845, 1846, 1861, 1871, 1873, 1882, 1883, 1884, 1886, 1901, 1902, 1911, 1912, 1913, 1914, 1915, 1917, 1931, 1941, 1942, 1943, 1944, 1951, 1952, 1961, 1962, 1963, 1971, 1972, 1973, 1974, 1975, 1976, 1977, 1978, and 1991 of this title, and enacted provisions set out as notes under this section and sections 160, 162, 1303, 1321, 1337, 1484, 1515, 1516, 1901, and 2271 of this title and section 301 of Title 13, Census.

References to Other Laws Deemed References to Trade Act of 1974

Pub. L. 93–618, title VI, §602(f), Jan. 3, 1975, 88 Stat. 2072, as amended by Pub. L. 96–39, title XI, §1106(h)(3), July 26, 1979, 93 Stat. 313, provided that: "All provisions of law (other than this Act [this chapter], the Trade Expansion Act of 1962 [chapter 7 of this title], and the Trade Agreements Extension Act of 1951 [see Short Title of 1951 Amendment note set out under section 1654 of this title]), in effect after the date of enactment of this Act [Jan. 3, 1975], referring to section 350 of the Tariff Act of 1930 [section 1351 of this title], to that section as amended, to the Act entitled 'An Act to amend the Tariff Act of 1930,' approved June 12, 1934 [enacting sections 1352, 1353, and 1354 and amending section 1351 of this title], to that Act as amended or to the Trade Expansion Act of 1962, or to agreements entered into, or proclamations issued, or actions taken under any of such provisions, shall be construed, unless clearly precluded by the context, to refer also to this Act, or to agreements entered into or proclamations or orders issued pursuant to this Act."

Short Title of 2015 Amendment

Pub. L. 114–27, §1(a), June 29, 2015, 129 Stat. 362, provided that: "This Act [see Tables for classification] may be cited as the 'Trade Preferences Extension Act of 2015'."

Pub. L. 114–27, title IV, §401, June 29, 2015, 129 Stat. 373, provided that: "This title [see Tables for classification] may be cited as the 'Trade Adjustment Assistance Reauthorization Act of 2015'."

Short Title of 2012 Amendment

Pub. L. 112–208, §1(a), Dec. 14, 2012, 126 Stat. 1496, provided that: "This Act [amending section 2241 of this title and enacting provisions set out as notes under section 2434 of this title and section 5811 of Title 22, Foreign Relations and Intercourse] may be cited as the 'Russia and Moldova Jackson-Vanik Repeal and Sergei Magnitsky Rule of Law Accountability Act of 2012'."

Short Title of 2011 Amendment

Pub. L. 112–40, title II, §200(a), Oct. 21, 2011, 125 Stat. 402, provided that: "This title [see Tables for classification] may be cited as the 'Trade Adjustment Assistance Extension Act of 2011'."

Short Title of 2010 Amendment

Pub. L. 111–344, §1(a), Dec. 29, 2010, 124 Stat. 3611, provided that: "This Act [amending sections 58c, 2296, 2317, 2318, 2345, 2371d to 2371f, 2372, 2373, 2373a, 2401g, 3202, 3203, and 3206 of this title, sections 35, 4980B, 7527, and 9801 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code, sections 1162, 1181, and 2918 of Title 29, Labor, and sections 300bb–2 and 300gg of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, enacting provisions set out as a note preceding section 2271 of this title and notes under sections 35, 4980B, 6655, 7527, and 9801 of Title 26, and amending provisions set out as notes preceding section 2271 of this title] may be cited as the 'Omnibus Trade Act of 2010'."

Short Title of 2009 Amendment

Pub. L. 111–5, div. B, title I, §1800, Feb. 17, 2009, 123 Stat. 367, provided that: "This subtitle [subtitle I (§§1800–1899L) of title I of div. B of Pub. L. 111–5, enacting part 4 (§2371 et seq.) of subchapter II of this chapter and sections 2295a, 2322, 2323, 2344, 2345, 2356, and 2397a of this title, amending sections 2271 to 2275, 2291 to 2295, 2296 to 2298, 2311, 2315 to 2321, 2341, 2343, 2348 to 2352, 2354, 2355, 2393, 2395, 2401 to 2401b, and 2401e to 2401g of this title, sections 35, 4980B, 7527, and 9801 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code, section 1581 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure, sections 1162, 1181, 2918, and 2919 of Title 29, Labor, and sections 300bb–2 and 300gg of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, repealing former sections 2344 to 2347 of this title, enacting provisions set out as notes preceding section 2271 and under sections 2271, 2295a, 2296, 2323, 2344, 2371, and 2393 of this title and sections 1, 35, 4980B, 7527, and 9801 of Title 26, and amending provisions set out as a note preceding section 2271 of this title] may be cited as the 'Trade and Globalization Adjustment Assistance Act of 2009'."

Short Title of 2002 Amendment

Pub. L. 107–210, div. A, §101, Aug. 6, 2002, 116 Stat. 935, provided that: "This division [enacting part 6 of subchapter II of this chapter, sections 1431a, 1583, and 2318 of this title, sections 35, 6050T, and 7527 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code, and section 300gg–45 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, amending sections 58c, 482, 1318, 1330, 1411, 1505, 1509, 2075, 2171, 2271 to 2273, 2275, 2291, 2293, 2295 to 2298, 2317, 2346, and 2395 of this title, sections 4980B, 6103, 6724, and 7213A of Title 26, sections 1165, 2862, 2918, and 2919 of Title 29, Labor, section 1324 of Title 31, Money and Finance, and section 300bb–5 of Title 42, renumbering section 35 of Title 26 as section 36 of Title 26, repealing sections 2318, 2322, and 2331 of this title, enacting provisions set out as notes preceding section 2271 and under sections 58c, 482, 1583, 1625, 1654, 2071, 2075, 2082, 2251, 2271, 2331, and 2401 of this title, sections 35 and 6050T of Title 26, and section 2918 of Title 29, and amending provisions set out as a note preceding section 2271 of this title] may be cited as the 'Trade Adjustment Assistance Reform Act of 2002'."

Short Title of 1996 Amendment

Pub. L. 104–188, title I, §1951, Aug. 20, 1996, 110 Stat. 1917, provided that: "This subtitle [subtitle J (§§1951–1954) of title I of Pub. L. 104–188, enacting sections 2461 to 2467 of this title, amending sections 2702, 3011, 3202, 3331, and 3551 of this title, section 1444–2 of Title 7, Agriculture, section 4711 of Title 15, Commerce and Trade, sections 262p–4p and 2191a of Title 22, Foreign Relations and Intercourse, and section 871 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code, and enacting provisions set out as a note under section 2461 of this title] may be cited as the 'GSP Renewal Act of 1996'."

Short Title of 1993 Amendment

Pub. L. 103–182, title V, §501, Dec. 8, 1993, 107 Stat. 2149, provided that: "This subtitle [subtitle A (§§501–507) of title V of Pub. L. 103–282, enacting sections 2322 and 2331 of this title, amending sections 2271 to 2273, 2275, 2317, and 2395 of this title, sections 3304 and 3306 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code, and section 503 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, enacting provisions set out as notes under section 2331 of this title and section 3306 of Title 26, and amending provisions set out as a note preceding section 2271 of this title] may be cited as the 'NAFTA Worker Security Act'."

Short Title of 1990 Amendment

Pub. L. 101–382, §1(a), Aug. 20, 1990, 104 Stat. 629, provided that: "This Act [see Tables for classification] may be cited as the 'Customs and Trade Act of 1990'."

Short Title of 1989 Amendment

Pub. L. 101–221, §1, Dec. 12, 1989, 103 Stat. 1886, provided that: "This Act [amending section 4611 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code, enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 2253 and 2703 of this title and section 4611 of Title 26, and amending provisions set out as notes under sections 2253 and 2703 of this title] may be cited as the 'Steel Trade Liberalization Program Implementation Act'."

Short Title of 1986 Amendment

Pub. L. 99–272, title XIII, §13001, Apr. 7, 1986, 100 Stat. 300, provided that: "This part [part 1 (§§13001–13009) of subtitle A, amending sections 2271, 2272, 2291 to 2293, 2296, 2297, 2311, 2317, 2319, 2341 to 2344, and 2346 of this title, enacting provisions set out as a note under section 2291 of this title, and amending provisions set out as a note preceding section 2271 of this title] may be cited as the 'Trade Adjustment Assistance Reform and Extension Act of 1986'."

Short Title of 1984 Amendment

Pub. L. 98–573, title III, §301(a), Oct. 30, 1984, 98 Stat. 3000, provided that: "This title [enacting sections 2114a to 2114e, 2138, and 2241 of this title, amending sections 2112, 2114, 2155, 2171, and 2411 to 2415 of this title and sections 3101 to 3104 of Title 22, Foreign Relations and Intercourse, and enacting provisions set out as notes under section 2102 of this title and section 3101 of Title 22] may be cited as the 'International Trade and Investment Act'."

Pub. L. 98–573, title V, §501(a), Oct. 30, 1984, 98 Stat. 3018, provided that: "This title [enacting section 2466 of this title, amending sections 2461 to 2465 of this title, and enacting provisions set out as notes under section 2461 of this title] may be cited as the 'Generalized System of Preferences Renewal Act of 1984'."

Separability

Pub. L. 93–618, title VI, §605, Jan. 3, 1975, 88 Stat. 2073, provided that: "If any provision of this Act [see References in Text note above], or the application of any provision to any circumstances or persons shall be held invalid, the validity of the remainder of this Act, and of the application of such provision to other circumstances or persons, shall not be affected thereby."

§2102. Congressional statement of purpose

The purposes of this chapter are, through trade agreements affording mutual benefits—

(1) to foster the economic growth of and full employment in the United States and to strengthen economic relations between the United States and foreign countries through open and nondiscriminatory world trade;

(2) to harmonize, reduce, and eliminate barriers to trade on a basis which assures substantially equivalent competitive opportunities for the commerce of the United States;

(3) to establish fairness and equity in international trading relations, including reform of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade;

(4) to provide adequate procedures to safeguard American industry and labor against unfair or injurious import competition, and to assist industries, firm,1 workers, and communities to adjust to changes in international trade flows;

(5) to open up market opportunities for United States commerce in nonmarket economies; and

(6) to provide fair and reasonable access to products of less developed countries in the United States market.

(Pub. L. 93–618, §2, Jan. 3, 1975, 88 Stat. 1981.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in text, was in the original "this Act", meaning Pub. L. 93–618, Jan. 3, 1975, 88 Stat. 1978, as amended, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see References in Text note set out under section 2101 of this title and Tables.

Statement of Purposes of 1984 Amendment

Pub. L. 98–573, title III, §302, Oct. 30, 1984, 98 Stat. 3000, provided that: "The purposes of this title [see Short Title of 1984 Amendment note set out under section 2101 of this title] are—

"(1) to foster the economic growth of, and full employment in, the United States by expanding competitive United States exports through the achievement of commercial opportunities in foreign markets substantially equivalent to those accorded by the United States;

"(2) to improve the ability of the President—

"(A) to identify and to analyze barriers to (and restrictions on) United States trade and investment, and

"(B) to achieve the elimination of such barriers and restrictions;

"(3) to encourage the expansion of—

"(A) international trade in services through the negotiation of agreements (both bilateral and multilateral) which reduce or eliminate barriers to international trade in services, and

"(B) United States service industries in foreign commerce; and

"(4) to enhance the free flow of foreign direct investment through the negotiation of agreements (both bilateral and multilateral) which reduce or eliminate the trade distortive effects of certain investment-related measures."

1 So in original.

SUBCHAPTER I—NEGOTIATING AND OTHER AUTHORITY

Part 1—Rates of Duty and Other Trade Barriers

§2111. Basic authority for trade agreements

(a) Presidential authority to enter into agreement; modification or continuance of existing duties

Whenever the President determines that any existing duties or other import restrictions of any foreign country or the United States are unduly burdening and restricting the foreign trade of the United States and that the purposes of this chapter will be promoted thereby, the President—

(1) during the 5-year period beginning on January 3, 1975, may enter into trade agreements with foreign countries or instrumentalities thereof; and

(2) may proclaim such modification or continuance of any existing duty, such continuance of existing duty-free or excise treatment, or such additional duties, as he determines to be required or appropriate to carry out any such trade agreement.

(b) Limitation on authority to decrease duty

(1) Except as provided in paragraph (2), no proclamation pursuant to subsection (a)(2) shall be made decreasing a rate of duty to a rate below 40 percent of the rate existing on January 1, 1975.

(2) Paragraph (1) shall not apply in the case of any article for which the rate of duty existing on January 1, 1975, is not more than 5 percent ad valorem.

(c) Limitation on authority to increase duty

No proclamation shall be made pursuant to subsection (a)(2) increasing any rate of duty to, or imposing a rate above, the higher of the following:

(1) the rate which is 50 percent above the rate set forth in rate column numbered 2 of the Tariff Schedules of the United States as in effect on January 1, 1975, or

(2) the rate which is 20 percent ad valorem above the rate existing on January 1, 1975.

(Pub. L. 93–618, title I, §101, Jan. 3, 1975, 88 Stat. 1982.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in subsec. (a), was in the original "this Act", meaning Pub. L. 93–618, Jan. 3, 1975, 88 Stat. 1978, as amended, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see References in Text note set out under section 2101 of this title and Tables.

The Tariff Schedules of the United States, referred to in subsec. (c)(1), to be treated as a reference to the Harmonized Tariff Schedule pursuant to section 3012 of this title. The Harmonized Tariff Schedule is not set out in the Code. See Publication of Harmonized Tariff Schedule note set out under section 1202 of this title.

Change of Name

The Office of the Special Representative for Trade Negotiations was redesignated the Office of the United States Trade Representative, and Special Representative for Trade Negotiations was redesignated the United States Trade Representative by Reorg. Plan No. 3 of 1979, §1(a), (b)(1), 44 F.R. 69273, 93 Stat. 1381, eff. Jan. 2, 1980, as provided by section 1–107(a) of Ex. Ord. No. 12188, Jan. 2, 1980, 45 F.R. 993, set out as notes under section 2171 of this title. See, also, section 2171 of this title as amended by Pub. L. 97–456.

Reorganizing and Restructuring of International Trade Functions of United States Government

Pub. L. 96–39, title XI, §1109, July 26, 1979, 93 Stat. 314, provided that the President submit to the Congress, not later than July 10, 1979, a proposal to restructure the international trade functions of the Executive Branch of the United States Government, and directed, in order to ensure that the 96th Congress takes final action on a comprehensive reorganization of trade functions as soon as possible, that the appropriate committee of each House of the Congress give the proposal by the President immediate consideration and make its best efforts to take final committee action to reorganize and restructure the international trade functions of the United States Government by Nov. 10, 1979.

Study of Export Trade Policy

Pub. L. 96–39, title XI, §1110, July 26, 1979, 93 Stat. 314, directed the President to review all export promotion functions of the executive branch and potential programmatic and regulatory disincentives to exports, and to submit to the Congress a report of that review not later than July 15, 1980, and not later than July 15, 1980, to submit to the Congress a study of the factors bearing on the competitive posture of United States producers and the policies and programs required to strengthen the relative competitive position of the United States in world markets.

Proc. No. 4707. Carrying Out the Geneva (1979) Protocol to the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade and for Other Purposes

Proc. No. 4707, Dec. 11, 1979, 44 F.R. 72348, as amended by Ex. Ord. No. 12204, Mar. 27, 1980, 45 F.R. 20740; Proc. No. 4792, Sept. 15, 1980, 45 F.R. 61589; Proc. No. 4889, Dec. 29, 1981, 47 F.R. 1; Proc. No. 4904, Feb. 27, 1982, 47 F.R. 8753; Ex. Ord. No. 12354, Mar. 30, 1982, 47 F.R. 13477; Ex. Ord. No. 12371, July 12, 1982, 47 F.R. 30449; Ex. Ord. No. 12389, Oct. 25, 1982, 47 F.R. 47529; Ex. Ord. No. 12413, Mar. 30, 1983, 48 F.R. 13921; Proc. No. 5050, Apr. 15, 1983, 48 F.R. 16639; Ex. Ord. No. 12459, Jan. 16, 1984, 49 F.R. 2089; Ex. Ord. No. 12471, Mar. 30, 1984, 49 F.R. 13101; Ex. Ord. No. 12519, June 13, 1985, 50 F.R. 25037; Proc. No. 5365, Aug. 30, 1985, 50 F.R. 36220; Proc. No. 5452, Mar. 31, 1986, 51 F.R. 11539, provided:

1. Pursuant to Section 101(a) of the Trade Act of 1974 (19 U.S.C. 2111(a)), I determined that certain existing duties and other import restrictions of the United States and of foreign countries were unduly burdening and restricting the foreign trade of the United States and that one or more of the purposes stated in Section 2 of the Trade Act of 1974 (19 U.S.C. 2102) would be promoted by entering into the trade agreements identified in the third and fourth recitals of this proclamation.

2. Sections 131, 132, 133, 134, 135, and 161(b) of the Trade Act of 1974 (19 U.S.C. 2151, 2152, 2153, 2154, 2155, and 2211(b)) and Section 4(c) of Executive Order No. 11846 of March 27, 1975, (3 CFR 1971–1975 Comp. 974) [set out below], have been complied with.

3. Pursuant to Section 101(a)(1) of the Trade Act of 1974 (19 U.S.C. 2111(a)(1)), I, through my duly empowered representative, (1) on July 11, 1979, entered into a trade agreement with other contracting parties to the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (61 Stat. (pts. 5 and 6)), as amended (the General Agreement), with countries seeking to accede to the General Agreement, and the European Economic Community, which agreement consists of the Geneva (1979) Protocol to the General Agreement, including a schedule of United States concessions annexed thereto (hereinafter referred to as "Schedule XX (Geneva-1979)"), a copy of which Geneva (1979) Protocol (including Schedule XX (Geneva-1979) annexed thereto) is annexed to this proclamation as Part 1 of Annex I [set out below], (2) on November 18, 1978, entered into a trade agreement with the Hungarian People's Republic, including a schedule of United States concessions annexed thereto, a copy of which agreement, and schedule, is annexed to this proclamation as Part 2 of Annex I [set out below], (3) on October 31, 1979, entered into a trade agreement with the United Mexican States, which agreement consists of an exchange of letters, one enclosing a schedule of United States concessions, a copy of which exchange of letters, including such enclosed schedule, is annexed to this proclamation as Part 3 of Annex I [set out below], and (4) on March 2, 1979, entered into a trade agreement with the Socialist Republic of Romania, which agreement consists of an exchange of letters, one enclosing a schedule of United States concessions, a copy of which exchange of letters, including such enclosed schedule, is annexed to this proclamation as Part 4 of Annex I [set out below], and on October 24, 1979, the American Institute in Taiwan entered into a trade agreement with the Coordination Council for North American Affairs (see the Taiwan Relations Act, Sections 4(b)(1), 6(a)(1), and 10(a), 93 Stat. 15, 17, and 18 [22 U.S.C. 3303(b)(1), 3305(a)(1), and 3309(a)], E.O. 12143, sections 1–203 and 1–204, 44 Fed. Reg. 37191) [former 22 U.S.C. 3301 note], which agreement consists of an exchange of letters, one enclosing a schedule of the United States concessions, a copy of which exchange of letters, including such enclosed schedule, is annexed to this proclamation as Part 5 of Annex I [set out below].

4. Pursuant to Section 102 of the Trade Act of 1974 (19 U.S.C. 2112), I have determined that barriers to (and other distortions of) international trade were unduly burdening and restricting the foreign trade of the United States, and, through the Special Representative for Trade Negotiations [now United States Trade Representative, see Change of Name note above] (the Special Representative [now Trade Representative]), I have consulted with the appropriate Committees of the Congress, notified the House of Representatives and the Senate of my intention to enter into the agreements identified in Section 2(c) of the Trade Agreements Act of 1979 (93 Stat. 148) [19 U.S.C. 2503(c)], transmitted to the Congress copies of such agreements (a copy of one of which agreements, with the Hungarian People's Republic, is annexed to this proclamation as Part 6 of Annex I [set out below]), together with a draft of an implementing bill and a statement of administrative action, and such implementing bill, approving the agreements and the proposed administrative action, has been enacted into law (Section 2(a) of the Trade Agreements Act of 1979 (93 Stat. 147) [19 U.S.C. 2503(a)]).

5. (a) Pursuant to Section 502 of the Trade Agreements Act of 1979 (93 Stat. 251) [Pub. L. 96–39, July 26, 1979], I have determined that appropriate concessions have been received from foreign countries under trade agreements entered into under Title I of the Trade Act of 1974 (19 U.S.C. 2111 et seq.);

(b) Pursuant to Section 601(a) of the Trade Agreements Act of 1979 (93 Stat. 267), I have determined that duty-free treatment for certain articles now classified in the items of the Tariff Schedules of the United States (19 U.S.C. 1202) (TSUS) [see Publication of Tariff Schedules note under section 1202 of this title] listed in, and certified pursuant to, Section 601(a)(2) of that Act (93 Stat. 267), will provide treatment comparable to that provided by foreign countries under the Agreement on Trade in Civil Aircraft;

(c) Pursuant to Section 503(a)(2)(A) of the Trade Agreements Act of 1979 (93 Stat. 251), I have determined, after providing interested parties an opportunity to comment, that each article identified in Annex IV to this proclamation [see note below] is not import sensitive;

(d) Pursuant to Section 855(a) of the Trade Agreements Act of 1979 (93 Stat. 295), I have determined that adequate reciprocal concessions have been received, under trade agreements entered into under the Trade Act of 1974 [this chapter], for the application of the rate of duty appearing in rate column numbered 1 on January 1, 1979, for the comparable item on a proof gallon basis in the case of alcoholic beverages classified in all items in subpart D of part 12 of schedule 1 of the TSUS, except items 168.09, 168.12, 168.43, 168.77, 168.81, 168.87, and 168.95 [see Publication of Tariff Schedules note under section 1202 of this title];

(e) Pursuant to Section 2(b)(2)(A) of the Trade Agreements Act of 1979 (93 Stat. 147) [19 U.S.C. 2503(b)(2)(A)], I have determined that obligations substantially the same as those applicable to developing countries set forth in the agreements listed in Section 2(c)(1), (2), (3), (4), and (5) of that Act (93 Stat. 148) [19 U.S.C. 2503(c)(1), (2), (3), (4), and (5)] will be observed in Taiwan.

6. Each modification of existing duty proclaimed herein which provides with respect to an article for a decrease in duty below the limitation specified in Sections 101(b)(1) or 109(a) of the Trade Act of 1974 (19 U.S.C. 2111(b)(1) or 2119(a)), and each modification of any other import restriction or tariff provision so proclaimed is authorized by one or more of the following provisions or statutes:

(a) Section 101(b)(2) of the Trade Act of 1974 (19 U.S.C. 2111(b)(2)), by virtue of the fact that the rate of duty existing on January 1, 1975, applicable to the article was not more than 5 percent ad valorem (or ad valorem equivalent);

(b) Section 109(b) of the Trade Act of 1974 (19 U.S.C. 2119(b)), by virtue of the fact that I have determined, pursuant to that section, that the decrease authorized by that section will simplify the computation of the amount of duty imposed with respect to the article;

(c) Sections 503(a)(2)(A) and 503(a)(3) to (6) of the Trade Agreements Act of 1979 (93 Stat. 251 and 252) [Pub. L. 96–39, July 26, 1979] by virtue of the fact that they permit departures from the staging provisions of Section 109(a) of the Trade Act of 1974 (19 U.S.C. 2119(a));

(d) Sections 502(a), 855(a), and 601(a) of the Trade Agreements Act of 1979 (93 Stat. 251, 295, and 267) by virtue of the authority in such sections for specified concessions based on reciprocity, but in the case of the last such section only after the conditions for acceptance of the Agreement on Trade in Civil Aircraft, identified in Section 2(c)(10) of that Act (93 Stat. 148) [19 U.S.C. 2503(c)(10)], are fulfilled;

(e) Sections 505 through 513, inclusive, of the Trade Agreements Act of 1979 (93 Stat. 252–257) by virtue of the fact that they permit exceeding the limitations specified in Sections 101 or 109 of the Trade Act of 1974 (19 U.S.C. 2111 or 2119);

(f) Section 255 of the Trade Expansion Act of 1962 (19 U.S.C. 1885) by virtue of the fact that it permits termination of proclamations issued pursuant to authority contained in that act;

(g) Section 2(a) of the Trade Agreements Act of 1979 (93 Stat. 147) [19 U.S.C. 2503(a)] by virtue of its approval of the agreements identified in Section 2(c) of that Act (93 Stat. 148) [19 U.S.C. 2503(c)], and

(h) Section 304(a)(3)(J) of the Tariff Act of 1930 (19 U.S.C. 1304(a)(3)(J)) and Section 602(f) of the Trade Act of 1974 (19 U.S.C. 2101 note), by virtue of the fact that I have found that the effectiveness of the proviso to Section 304(a)(3)(J) [19 U.S.C. 1304(a)(3)(J)] with respect to the marking of articles provided for in headnote 2 of part 1 of schedule 2 of the TSUS [see Publication of Tariff Schedules note under section 1202 of this title] is required or appropriate to carry out the first agreement identified in the third recital of this proclamation.

7. In the case of each decrease in duty, including those of the type specified in clause (a) or (b) of the sixth recital of this proclamation, which involves the determination of the ad valorem equivalent of a specific or compound rate of duty, and in the case of each modification in the form of an import duty, the United States International Trade Commission determined, pursuant to Section 601(4) of the Trade Act of 1974 (19 U.S.C. 2481(4)) in accordance with Section 4(e) of Executive Order No. 11846 of March 27, 1975, (3 CFR 1971–1975 Comp. 973) [set out below], and at my direction, the ad valorem equivalent of the specific or compound rate, on the basis of the value of imports of the article concerned during a period determined by it to be representative, utilizing, to the extent practicable, the standards of valuation contained in Sections 402 and 402a of the Tariff Act of 1930 (19 U.S.C. 1401a and 1402) applicable to the article during such representative period.

8. Pursuant to the Trade Act of 1974 [this chapter] and the Trade Agreements Act of 1979 [see 19 U.S.C. 2501], I determine that the modification or continuance of existing duties or other import restrictions or the continuance of existing duty-free or excise treatment hereinafter proclaimed is required or appropriate to carry out the trade agreements identified in the third recital of this proclamation or one or more of the trade agreements identified in Section 2(c) of the Trade Agreements Act of 1979 (93 Stat. 148) [19 U.S.C. 2503(c)].

9. Following unsatisfactory negotiations with the European Economic Community under Articles XXIV:6 and XXVIII of the General Agreement regarding the maintenance by the European Economic Community of unreasonable import restrictions upon imports of poultry from the United States, the President, by Proclamation 3564 of December 4, 1963 (77 Stat. 1035), suspended certain United States tariff concessions; as a result of the reciprocal concessions contained in the Geneva (1979) Protocol to the General Agreement, I determine that the termination of such suspension of tariff concessions contained in Proclamation 3564 (except those applicable to automobile trucks valued at $1,000 or more (provided for in TSUS item 692.02) [see Publication of Tariff Schedules note under section 1202 of this title]) is required to carry out the General Agreement.

NOW, THEREFORE, I, JIMMY CARTER, President of the United States of America, acting under the authority vested in me by the Constitution and the statutes, including but not limited to Title I and Section 604 of the Trade Act of 1974 [this subchapter and 19 U.S.C. 2483], Section 2 [19 U.S.C. 2503], and Titles V, VI, and VIII of the Trade Agreements Act of 1979 [Pub. L. 96–39, July 26, 1979] Section 255 of the Trade Expansion Act of 1962 [19 U.S.C. 1885], and Section 301 of Title 3 of the United States Code, do proclaim that:

(1) At the close of December 31, 1979, the suspension of tariff concessions contained in Proclamation 3564 (except those applicable to automobile trucks valued at $1,000 or more (provided for in TSUS item 692.02) [see Publication of Tariff Schedules note under section 1202 of this title]) shall terminate.

(2) The amendment to Section 466 of the Tariff Act of 1930 (19 U.S.C. 1466) provided for in Section 601(a)(3) of the Trade Agreements Act of 1979 (93 Stat. 268) shall be effective with respect to entries made under Section 466 on and after the date designated by the President under paragraph 5(b) of this proclamation.

(3) The rate of duty applicable to each item as to which the determination has been made in recital 5(d) is the rate of duty appearing in rate column numbered 1 on January 1, 1979, for the comparable item on a proof gallon basis or such rate as reduced under Section 101 of the Trade Act of 1974 (19 U.S.C. 2111).

(4) Subject to the provisions of the General Agreement, of the Geneva (1979) Protocol, of other agreements supplemental to the General Agreement, of the other agreements identified in recitals 3 and 4, and of United States law (including but not limited to provisions for more favorable treatment), the modification or continuance of existing duties or other import restrictions and the continuance of existing duty-free or excise treatment provided for in Schedule XX (Geneva-1979) (except those provided for in the items listed in Parts 1C, 1D, 2D, 2E, 2K, 3C, 3D, 4C, and 4D of Annex I to Schedule XX which are required to implement the Agreement on Implementation of Article VII of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, and those provided for in Section 1, Chapter 4, Unit C, Note 2 (cheese quotas), and in Section 1, Chapter 10, Unit B, note 2 (chocolate quotas), all of which will be the subject of one or more separate proclamations), in the agreements identified in the third and fourth recitals of this proclamation, and in trade agreements legislation, shall become effective on or after January 1, 1980, as provided for herein.

(5) To this end—

(a) Except as provided for in subparagraph (b), the modifications to the TSUS made by Annex II, Section A of Annex III, and Sections B(1) through (4) of Annex IV of this proclamation [see note below] shall be effective with respect to articles entered, or withdrawn from warehouse, for consumption on and after the effective dates specified in those annexes;

(b) The modifications provided for in Section A of Annex II to this proclamation [see note below] which are authorized by Section 601(a) of the Trade Agreements Act of 1979 (93 Stat. 267) shall apply to articles entered, or withdrawn from warehouse, for consumption on and after the date designated by the President when he determines that the requirements of Section 2(b) of the Trade Agreements Act of 1979 (93 Stat. 147) [19 U.S.C. 2503(b)] have been met with respect to the Agreement on Trade in Civil Aircraft;

(c) The Special Representative [now Trade Representative] shall make any determinations relevant to the designation of the effective dates of the modifications of the TSUS made by Sections B through G of Annex III, and Sections B (5) through (10) of Annex IV of this proclamation, [see note below] and shall publish in the Federal Register the effective date with respect to each of the modifications made by these sections; such modifications shall apply to articles entered, or withdrawn from warehouse, for consumption on and after such effective date;

(d) The modifications to the TSUS made by Section C of Annex IV to this proclamation, [see note below] relating to special treatment for the least developed developing countries (LDDC's), shall be effective with respect to articles entered, or withdrawn from warehouse, for consumption on and after the effective dates as provided for in Section B of Annex IV [see note below]; whenever the rate of duty specified in the column numbered 1 for any TSUS item is reduced to the same level as the corresponding rate of duty specified in the column entitled "LDDC" for such item, the rate of duty in the column entitled "LDDC" shall be deleted from the TSUS, and when the duty rates for all such items in Annex IV [see note below] have been deleted, the modifications to the TSUS made by Section C of Annex IV to this proclamation [see note below] shall be deleted;

(e) Section A of Annex IV [see note below] shall become effective on January 1, 1980.

IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand this eleventh day of December, in the year of our Lord nineteen hundred and seventy-nine, and of the Independence of the United States of America the two hundred and fourth.

Jimmy Carter.      

Annex I
Texts of Agreements Identified in the Third and Fourth Recitals of This Proclamation 1
  
Part 1 Geneva (1979) Protocol to the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (Including Schedules of Concessions)
Part 2 Trade Agreement with the People's Republic of Hungary Entered Into on November 18, 1979
Part 3 Trade Agreement with the United Mexican States Entered Into on October 31, 1979
Part 4 Trade Agreement with the Socialist Republic of Romania Entered Into on March 2, 1979
Part 5 Trade Agreement between the American Institute in Taiwan and the Coordination Council for North American Affairs Entered Into on October 24, 1979
Part 6 Agreement with the Hungarian People's Republic Entered Into on June 13, 1979

1 Not printed in the Federal Register. The text of the Geneva (1979) Protocol to the General Agreement in part 1 of Annex I has been printed by the Contracting Parties to the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade in four volumes entitled Geneva (1979) Protocol to the General Agreements on Tariffs and Trade. The Agreement with the Hungarian People's Republic in part 6 of Annex I has been printed in House Document 96–153, vol. 1, p. 703. The general provisions of all the agreements in parts 1 to 6 of Annex I, but not schedules of concessions by other parties, will be printed in the Customs Bulletin. The texts of all these agreements will be printed in Treaties and Other International Acts Series, and in the bound volumes of United States Treaties and Other International Agreements.

Annexes II to IV

Annexes II to IV of Proclamation 4707, which amended the Tariff Schedules of the United States, are not set out under this section because the Tariff Schedules were not set out in the Code. The Tariff Schedules of the United States were replaced by the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States which is not set out in the Code. See Publication of Harmonized Tariff Schedule note set out under section 1202 of this title.

Proc. No. 4768. Carrying Out the Agreement on Implementation of Articles VII of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade and for Other Purpose

Proc. No. 4768, June 28, 1980, 45 F.R. 45135, as amended by Proc. No. 4792, Sept. 15, 1980, 45 F.R. 61589; Ex. Ord. No. 12311, §5, June 29, 1981, 46 F.R. 34305; Proc. No. 4904, Feb. 27, 1982, 47 F.R. 8753; Ex. Ord. No. 12354, Mar. 30, 1982, 47 F.R. 13477; Ex. Ord. No. 12413, Mar. 30, 1983, 48 F.R. 13921; Ex. Ord. No. 12471, Mar. 30, 1984, 49 F.R. 13101; Ex. Ord. No. 12519, June 13, 1985, 50 F.R. 25037; Proc. No. 5365, Aug. 30, 1985, 50 F.R. 36220; Proc. No. 5452, Mar. 31, 1986, 51 F.R. 11539, provided:

1. Pursuant to Section 204(a)(2) of the Trade Agreements Act of 1979 (93 Stat. 203) [19 U.S.C. 1401a note] in order to implement, beginning on July 1, 1980, the new customs valuation standards as provided in Title II of that Act [Pub. L. 96–39, July 26, 1979, 93 Stat. 194], and for other purposes, I make the following determinations, and do proclaim as hereinafter set forth.

2. Section 225 of the Trade Agreements Act of 1979 (93 Stat. 235) [Pub. L. 96–39, July 26, 1979], Sections 131, 132, 133, 134, 135, and 161(b) of the Trade Act of 1974 (19 U.S.C. 2151, 2152, 2153, 2154, 2155, and 2211(b)) and Section 4(c) of Executive Order No. 11846 of March 27, 1975, (3 CFR 1971–1975 Comp 974) [set out below], have been complied with.

3. Pursuant to Section 101(a) of the Trade Act of 1974 (19 U.S.C. 2111(a)) and having made the determinations required by that section with regard to the following trade agreements, I, through my duly empowered representative, (1) on July 11, 1979, entered into a trade agreement with other contracting parties to the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (61 Stat. (pts. 5 and 6)), as amended (the General Agreement), with countries seeking to accede to the General Agreement, and the European Communities, which agreement consists of the Geneva (1979) Protocol to the General Agreement, including a schedule of United States concessions annexed thereto (hereinafter referred to as "Schedule XX (Geneva–1979)"), (2) on December 18, 1979, entered into a trade agreement with Switzerland, which agreement consists of an exchange of letters, a copy of which is annexed to this proclamation as Part 2 of Annex I, (3) on December 21 and 27, 1979, and on January 2, 1980, entered into trade agreements with the European Communities, which agreements consists of joint memoranda, copies of which are annexed to this proclamation as Part 3 of Annex I, (4) on January 2, 1980, entered into a trade agreement with the Dominican Republic, which agreement consists of an exchange of letters, a copy of which is annexed to this proclamation as Part 4 of Annex I, and (5) on December 29, 1979, entered into a trade agreement with Indonesia, which agreement consists of a memorandum and an exchange of letters, copies of which are annexed to this proclamation as Part 5 of Annex I.

4. After having complied with Section 102 of the Trade Act of 1974 (19 U.S.C. 2112), and having made the required determinations, I notified Congress of my intention to enter into the Agreement on Implementation of Article VII of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (a copy of which is annexed to this proclamation as Part 1 of Annex I); and an implementing bill, approving the agreement and the proposed administrative action, has been enacted into law (Section 2(a) of the Trade Agreements Act of 1979 (93 Stat. 147) [19 U.S.C. 2503(a)]).

5. (a) Pursuant to Section 2(b)(3) of the Trade Agreements Act of 1979 (93 Stat. 147) [19 U.S.C. 2503(b)(3)], I determine (1) that each major industrial country, as defined therein, with the exception of Canada, is accepting the Agreement on Implementation of Article VII of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, (2) that the acceptance of this Agreement by Canada is not essential to the effective operation of the Agreement, (3) that a significant portion of United States trade will benefit from the Agreement, notwithstanding such nonacceptance, and (4) that it is in the national interest of the United States to accept the Agreement (and have so reported to the Congress);

(b) Pursuant to Section 204(a)(2)(A) and (B) of the Trade Agreements Act of 1979 (93 Stat. 203) [19 U.S.C. 1401a note], I determine that the European Communities (including the European Economic Community) have accepted the obligations of the Agreement on Implementation of Article VII of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade with respect to the United States and each of the member states of the European Communities has implemented the Agreement under its laws (effective July 1, 1980);

(c) Pursuant to Section 503(a)(1) of the Trade Agreements Act of 1979 (93 Stat. 251) [Pub. L. 96–39, July 26, 1979], I determine, after interested parties were provided an opportunity to comment, that the articles classifiable in the following new items of the Tariff Schedules of the United States (TSUS) (19 U.S.C. 1202) [see Publication of Tariff Schedules note set out under section 1202 of this title], added thereto by Annex II to this proclamation, were not imported into the United States before January 1, 1978, and were not produced in the United States before May 1, 1978:

[Table of new items deleted]

(d) Pursuant to Section 503(a)(2)(A) of the Trade Agreements Act of 1979 (93 Stat. 251), I determine, after providing interested parties an opportunity to comment, that each article identified in Annex IV to this proclamation is not import sensitive.

6. Each modification of existing duty proclaimed herein which provides with respect to an article for a decrease in duty below the limitation specified in Sections 101(b)(1) or 109(a) of the Trade Act of 1974 (19 U.S.C. 2111(b)(1) or 2119(a)), and each modification of any other import restriction or tariff provision so proclaimed is authorized by one or more of the following provisions or statutes:

(a) Section 101(b)(2) of the Trade Act of 1974 (19 U.S.C. 2111(b)(2)), by virtue of the fact that the rate of duty existing on January 1, 1975, applicable to the article was not more than 5 percent ad valorem (or ad valorem equivalent);

(b) Section 109(b) of the Trade Act of 1974 (19 U.S.C. 2119(b)), by virtue of the fact that I have determined, pursuant to that section, that the decrease authorized by that section will simplify the computation of the amount of duty imposed with respect to the article; and

(c) The Trade Agreements Act of 1979 (93 Stat. 144 et seq.) [see 19 U.S.C. 2501] including, but not limited to, Sections 503(a)(1), (2)(A) and (6) (93 Stat. 251 and 252) [Pub. L. 96–39, July 26, 1979] by virtue of the fact that they permit departures from the staging provisions of Section 109(a) of the Trade Act of 1974 (19 U.S.C. 2119(a)).

7. In the case of each decrease in duty, including those of the type specific in clause (a) or (b) of the sixth recital of this proclamation, which involves the determination of the ad valorem equivalent of a specified or compound rate of duty, and in the case of each modification in the form of an import duty, the United States International Trade Commission has determined, pursuant to Section 601(4) of the Trade Act of 1974 (19 U.S.C. 2481(4)), in accordance with Section 4(e) of Executive Order No. 11846 of March 27, 1975 (3 CFR 1971–1975 Comp. 973) [set out below], and at my direction, the ad valorem equivalent of the specific or compound rate, on the basis of the value of imports of the article concerned during a period determined by it to be representative, utilizing, to the extent practicable, the standards of valuation contained in Sections 402 and 402a of the Tariff Act of 1930 (19 U.S.C. 1401a and 1402) applicable to the article during such representative period.

8. Pursuant to the Trade Act of 1974 [this chapter] and the Trade Agreements Act of 1979 [see 19 U.S.C. 2501], I determine that each modification or continuance of existing duties or other import restrictions and each continuance of existing duty-free or excise treatment hereinafter proclaimed is required or appropriate to carry out the trade agreements identified in the third recital of this proclamation or the Agreement on Implementation of Article VII of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade.

NOW, THEREFORE, I, JIMMY CARTER, President of the United States of America, acting under the authority vested in me by the Constitution and the statutes, including but not limited to Title I and Section 604 of the Trade Act of 1974 [this subchapter and 19 U.S.C. 2483], Section 2 [19 U.S.C. 2503] and Titles II and V of the Trade Agreements Act of 1979 [Pub. L. 96–39, July 26, 1979], and Section 301 of Title 3 of the United States Code, do proclaim that:

(1)(a) The valuation standards amendments made by Title II of the Trade Agreements Act of 1979 (93 Stat. 194 et seq.) to Sections 402 and 402a of the Tariff Act of 1930 (19 U.S.C. 1401a and 4102), and

(b) subject to the provisions of the General Agreement, of the Geneva (1979) Protocol, of other agreements supplemental to the General Agreement, of the other agreements identified in recitals 3 and 4, and of United States Law (including but not limited to provisions for more favorable treatment),—

(i) the modification or continuance of existing duties or other import restrictions, and

(ii) the continuance of existing duty-free or excise treatment provided for in these agreements and in trade agreements legislation, shall become effective on or after July 1, 1980, as provided for herein.

(2) To this end—

(a) The amendments made by Title II of the Trade Agreements Act of 1979 (93 Stat. 194 et seq.), except amendments made by section 223(b) [see Effective Date of 1979 Amendment note set out under section 1401a of this title], shall be effective with respect to articles exported to the United States on and after July 1, 1980;

(b) The TSUS is modified as provided in Annexes II, III and IV of the proclamation;

(c) The modifications to the TSUS made by Sections A and C of Annex II, and Section A of Annex III, of this proclamation shall be effective with respect to articles exported to the United States on and after the effective dates specified in those annexes;

(d) The modifications to the TSUS made by Sections B, D and E of Annex II, Section B of Annex III, and Sections A and B of Annex IV, of this proclamation shall be effective with respect to articles entered, or withdrawn from warehouse for consumption, on and after the effective dates specified in those annexes;

(e) The United States Trade Representative shall make the necessary determinations relevant to the designation of the effective dates of the modifications of the TSUS made by Sections F and G of Annex II and Section C of Annex III to this proclamation, and shall publish in the Federal Register the effective date with respect to each of the modifications made by these sections; such modifications shall apply to articles entered, or withdrawn from warehouse for consumption, on and after such effective date;

(f) With respect to the modifications to the TSUS made by Annex IV to this proclamation and Annex IV to Presidential Proclamation 4707 of December 11, 1979 [see note above], relating to special treatment for the least developed developing countries (LDDC's), whenever the rate of duty specified in the column numbered 1 for any TSUS item is reduced to the same level as the corresponding rate of duty specified in the column entitled "LDDC" for such item, or to a lower level, the rate of duty in the column entitled "LDDC" shall be deleted from the TSUS;

(g) Annexes III and IV of Presidential Proclamation 4707 of December 11, 1979 [see note above], are superseded to the extent inconsistent with this proclamation.

IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand this 28th day of June, in the year of our Lord nineteen hundred and eighty, and of the Independence of the United States of America the two hundred and fourth.

Jimmy Carter.      

Annexes I to IV

Annexes I to IV of Proclamation 4768, which amended the Tariff Schedules of the United States, are not set out under this section because the Tariff Schedules were not set out in the Code. The Tariff Schedules of the United States were replaced by the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States which is not set out in the Code. See Publication of Harmonized Tariff Schedule note set out under section 1202 of this title.

Ex. Ord. No. 11846. Administration of Trade Agreements Program

Ex. Ord. No. 11846, Mar. 27, 1975, 40 F.R. 14291, as amended by Ex. Ord. No. 11894, Jan. 3, 1976, 41 F.R. 1041; Ex. Ord. No. 11947, Nov. 8, 1976, 41 F.R. 49799; Ex. Ord. No. 12102, Nov. 17, 1978, 43 F.R. 54197; Ex Ord. No. 12163, Sept. 29, 1979, 44 F.R. 56673; Ex. Ord. No. 12188, Jan. 2, 1980, 45 F.R. 989; Ex. Ord. No. 13277, §4, Nov. 19, 2002, 67 F.R. 70306, provided:

By virtue of the authority vested in me by the Trade Act of 1974, hereinafter referred to as the Act (Public Law 93–618, 88 Stat. 1978) [this chapter], the Trade Expansion Act of 1962, as amended (19 U.S.C. 1801), Section 350 of the Tariff Act of 1930, as amended (19 U.S.C. 1351), and Section 301 of Title 3 of the United States Code, and as President of the United States, it is hereby ordered as follows:

Section 1. The Trade Agreements Program.

The "trade agreements program" includes all activities consisting of, or related to, the negotiation or administration of international agreements which primarily concern trade and which are concluded pursuant to the authority vested in the President by the Constitution, Section 350 of the Tariff Act of 1930 [section 1351 of this title], as amended, the Trade Expansion Act of 1962, as amended [section 1801 et seq. of this title], Divisions B [19 U.S.C. 3801 et seq.] and C of the Trade Act of 2002 [div. C of Pub. L. 107–210, see Short Title of 2002 Amendment note set out under section 3201 of this title],,[sic] or the Act [this chapter].

Sec. 2. The Special Representative for Trade Negotiations [now United States Trade Representative, see Change of Name note above].

(a) The Special Representative for Trade Negotiations [now United States Trade Representative], hereinafter referred to as the Special Representative [now Trade Representative], in addition to the functions conferred upon him by the Act [this chapter], including Section 141 thereof [section 2171 of this title], and in addition to the functions and responsibilities set forth in this Order, shall be responsible for such other functions as the President may direct.

(b) [Revoked by Ex. Ord. No. 12188, Jan. 2, 1980, 45 F.R. 989.]

(c) The Special Representative [now Trade Representative] shall prepare, for the President's transmission to Congress, the annual report on the trade agreements program required by Section 163(a) of the Act [section 2213(a) of this title]. At the request of the Special Representative [now Trade Representative], other agencies shall assist in the preparation of that report.

(d) The Special Representative [now Trade Representative], except where expressly otherwise provided or prohibited by statute, Executive order, or instructions of the President, shall be responsible for the proper administration of the trade agreements program, and may, as he deems necessary, assign to the head of any Executive agency or body the performance of his duties which are incidental to the administration of the trade agreements program.

(e) The Special Representative [now Trade Representative] shall consult with the Trade Policy Committee in connection with the performance of his functions, including those established or delegated by this Order and shall, as appropriate, consult with other Federal agencies or bodies. With respect to the performance of his functions under Title IV of the Act [section 2431 et seq. of this title], including those established or delegated by this Order, the Special Representative [now Trade Representative] shall also consult with the East-West Foreign Trade Board [abolished].

(f) The Special Representative [now Trade Representative] shall be responsible for the preparation and submission of any Proclamation which relates wholly or primarily to the trade agreements program. Any such Proclamation shall be subject to all the provisions of Executive Order No. 11030, as amended [set out under section 1505 of Title 44, Public Printing and Documents] except that such Proclamation need not be submitted to the Director of the Office of Management and Budget.

(g) The Secretary of State shall advise the Special Representative [now Trade Representative], and the Committee, on the foreign policy implications of any action under the trade agreements program. The Special Representative [now Trade Representative] shall invite appropriate departments to participate in trade negotiations of particular interest to such departments, and the Department of State shall participate in trade negotiations which have a direct and significant impact on foreign policy.

Sec. 3. The Trade Policy Committee.

(a) [Revoked by Ex. Ord. No. 12188, Jan. 2, 1980, 45 F.R. 989.]

(b) The Committee shall have the functions conferred by the Trade Expansion Act of 1962, as amended [section 1801 et seq. of this title], upon the inter-agency organization referred to in Section 242 thereof, as amended [section 1872 of this title], the functions delegated to it by the provisions of this Order, and such other functions as the President may from time to time direct. Recommendations and advice of the Committee shall be submitted to the President by the Chairman.

(c) The Special Representative [now Trade Representative] or any other officer who is chief representative of the United States in a negotiation in connection with the trade agreements program shall keep the Committee informed with respect to the status and conduct of negotiations and shall consult with the Committee regarding the basic policy issues arising in the course of negotiations.

(d) Before making recommendations to the President under Section 242(b)(2) of the Trade Expansion Act of 1962, as amended [section 1872(b)(2) of this title], the Committee shall, through the Special Representative [now Trade Representative], request the advice of the Adjustment Assistance Coordinating Committee, established by Section 281 of the Act [section 2392 of this title].

(e), (f) [Revoked by Ex. Ord. No. 12188, Jan. 2, 1980, 45 F.R. 989.]

(g) The Trade Expansion Act Advisory Committee established by Section 4 of Executive Order No. 11075 of January 15, 1963, is abolished and all of its records are transferred to the Trade Policy Committee.

Sec. 4. Trade Negotiations Under Title I of the Act.

(a) The functions of the President under Section 102 of the Act [section 2112 of this title] concerning notice to, and consultation with, Congress, in connection with agreements on nontariff barriers to, and other distortions of, trade, are hereby delegated to the Special Representative [now Trade Representative].

(b) The Special Representative [now Trade Representative], after consultation with the Committee, shall prepare, for the President's transmission to Congress, all proposed legislation and other documents necessary or appropriate for the implementation of, or otherwise required in connection with, trade agreements; provided, however, that where implementation of an agreement on nontariff barriers to, and other distortions of, trade requires a change in a domestic law, the department or agency having the primary interest in the administration of such domestic law shall prepare and transmit to the Special Representative [now Trade Representative] the proposed legislation necessary or appropriate for such implementation.

(c) The functions of the President under Section 131(a) of the Act [section 2151(a) of this title], with respect to publishing and furnishing to the International Trade Commission lists of articles, are delegated to the Special Representative [now Trade Representative]. The functions of the President under Section 131(c) of the Act [section 2151(c) of this title] with respect to advice of the International Trade Commission and under Section 132 of the Act [section 2152 of this title] with respect to advice of the departments of the Federal Government and other sources, are delegated to the Special Representative [now Trade Representative]. The functions of the President under Section 133 of the Act [section 2153 of this title] with respect to public hearings in connection with certain trade negotiations are delegated to the Special Representative [now Trade Representative], who shall designate an interagency committee to hold and conduct any such hearings.

(d) The functions of the President under Section 135 of the Act [section 2155 of this title] with respect to advisory committees and, notwithstanding the provisions of any other Executive order, the functions of the President under the Federal Advisory Committee Act (86 Stat. 770, 5 U.S.C. App.), except that of reporting annually to Congress, which are applicable to advisory committees under the Act [this chapter] are delegated to the Special Representative [now Trade Representative]. In establishing and organizing general policy advisory committees or sector advisory committees under Section 135(c) of the Act [section 2155(c) of this title], the Special Representative [now Trade Representative] shall act through the Secretaries of Commerce, Labor and Agriculture, as appropriate.

(e) The functions of the President with respect to determining ad valorem amounts and equivalents pursuant to Sections 601(3) and (4) of the Act [section 2481(3) and (4) of this title] are hereby delegated to the Special Representative [now Trade Representative]. The International Trade Commission is requested to advise the Special Representative [now Trade Representative] with respect to determining such ad valorem amounts and equivalents. The Special Representative [now Trade Representative] shall seek the advice of the Commission and consult with the Committee with respect to the determination of such ad valorem amounts and equivalents.

(f) Advice of the International Trade Commission under Section 131 of the Act [section 2151 of this title], and other advice or reports by the International Trade Commission to the President or the Special Representative [now Trade Representative], the release or disclosure of which is not specifically authorized or required by law, shall not be released or disclosed in any manner or to any extent not specifically authorized by the President or by the Special Representative [now Trade Representative].

(g) All reports, findings, advice, determinations, hearing transcripts, briefs, and information which, under the terms of the Act [this chapter], the International Trade Commission is required to furnish to the President shall be transmitted to the President through the Special Representative [now Trade Representative].

Sec. 5. Import Relief and Market Disruption.

(a) The Special Representative [now Trade Representative] is authorized to request from the International Trade Commission the information specified in Sections 202(d) and 203(i)(1) and (2) of the Act [sections 2252(d) and 2253(i)(1) and (2) of this title].

(b) The Secretary of the Treasury, in consultation with the Secretary of Commerce or the Secretary of Agriculture, as appropriate, is authorized to issue, under Section 203(g) of the Act [section 2253(g) of this title], regulations governing the administration of any quantitative restrictions proclaimed in order to provide import relief and is authorized to issue, under Section 203(g) of the Act or 352(b) of the Trade Expansion Act of 1962 [section 1982(b) of this title], regulations governing the entry, or withdrawal from warehouses for consumption, of articles pursuant to any orderly marketing agreement.

(c) The Secretary of Commerce shall exercise primary responsibility for monitoring imports under any orderly marketing agreement.

Sec. 6. [Revoked by Ex. Ord. No. 12188, Jan. 2, 1980, 45 F.R. 989.]

Sec. 7. East-West Foreign Trade Board [abolished].

(a) In accordance with Section 411 of the Act [section 2441 of this title], there is hereby established the East-West Foreign Trade Board [abolished], hereinafter referred to as the Board. The Board shall be composed of the following members and such additional members of the Executive branch as the President may designate:

(1) The Secretary of State.

(2) The Secretary of the Treasury.

(3) The Secretary of Defense.

(4) The Secretary of Agriculture.

(5) The Secretary of Commerce.

(6) The Special Representative for Trade Negotiations [now United States Trade Representative].

(7) The Director of the Office of Management and Budget.

(8) The Chairman of the Council of Economic Advisers.

(9) The President of the Export-Import Bank of the United States.

(10) [Deleted by Ex. Ord. No. 12102.]

The President shall designate the Chairman and the Deputy Chairman of the Board. The President may designate an Executive Secretary, who shall be Chairman of a working group which will include membership from the agencies represented on the Board.

(b) The Board shall perform such functions as are required by Section 411 of the Act [section 2441 of this title] and such other functions as the President may direct.

(c) The Board is authorized to promulgate such rules and regulations as are necessary or appropriate to carry out its responsibilities under the Act [this chapter] and this Order.

(d) The Secretary of State shall advise the President with respect to determinations required to be made in connection with Sections 402 and 409 of the Act (dealing with freedom of emigration) [sections 2432 and 2439 of this title] and Section 403 (dealing with United States personnel missing in action in Southeast Asia) [section 2433 of this title], and shall prepare, for the President's transmission to Congress, the reports and other documents required by Sections 402 and 409 of the Act.

(e) The President's Committee on East-West Trade Policy, established by Executive Order No. 11789 of June 25, 1974, as amended by Section 6(d) of Executive Order No. 11808 of September 30, 1974, is abolished and all of its records are transferred to the Board.

Sec. 8. Generalized System of Preferences.

(a) The Special Representative [now Trade Representative], in consultation with the Secretary of State, shall be responsible for the administration of the generalized system of preferences under Title V of the Act [section 2461 et seq. of this title].

(b) The Committee, through the Special Representative [now Trade Representative], shall advise the President as to which countries should be designated as beneficiary developing countries, and as to which articles should be designated as eligible articles for the purposes of the system of generalized preferences.

(c) The Committee, through the Special Representative [now Trade Representative], shall perform the functions of the President specified in Section 503(a) of the Act [section 2463(a) of this title], with respect to publishing and furnishing to the International Trade Commission lists of articles that may be considered for designation as eligible articles for purposes of the Generalized System of Preferences.

(d) The Committee, through the Special Representative [now Trade Representative], to the extent necessary to determine the applicability of the provisions of Section 504(d) of the Act [section 2464(d) of this title] to any eligible article, shall perform the functions of the President under Section 332(g) of the Tariff Act of 1930, as amended [section 1332(g) of this title], with respect to requests for investigations by, and reports from, the International Trade Commission.

Sec. 9. Prior Executive Orders.

(a) Executive Order No. 11789 of June 25, 1974, and Section 6(d) of Executive Order No. 11808 of September 30, 1974, relating to the President's Committee on East-West Trade Policy are hereby revoked.

(b)(1) Sections 5(b), 7, and 8 of Executive Order No. 11075 of January 15, 1963, are hereby revoked effective April 3, 1975; (2) the remainder of Executive Order No. 11075, and Executive Order No. 11106 of April 18, 1963 and Executive Order No. 11113 of June 13, 1963, are hereby revoked.

§2112. Barriers to and other distortions of trade

(a) Congressional findings; directives; disavowal of prior approval of legislation

The Congress finds that barriers to (and other distortions of) international trade are reducing the growth of foreign markets for the products of United States agriculture, industry, mining, and commerce, diminishing the intended mutual benefits of reciprocal trade concessions, adversely affecting the United States economy, preventing fair and equitable access to supplies, and preventing the development of open and nondiscriminatory trade among nations. The President is urged to take all appropriate and feasible steps within his power (including the full exercise of the rights of the United States under international agreements) to harmonize, reduce, or eliminate such barriers to (and other distortions of) international trade. The President is further urged to utilize the authority granted by subsection (b) to negotiate trade agreements with other countries and instrumentalities providing on a basis of mutuality for the harmonization, reduction, or elimination of such barriers to (and other distortions of) international trade. Nothing in this subsection shall be construed as prior approval of any legislation which may be necessary to implement an agreement concerning barriers to (or other distortions of) international trade.

(b) Presidential determinations prerequisite to entry into trade agreements; trade with Israel

(1) Whenever the President determines that any barriers to (or other distortions of) international trade of any foreign country or the United States unduly burden and restrict the foreign trade of the United States or adversely affect the United States economy, or that the imposition of such barriers is likely to result in such a burden, restriction, or effect, and that the purposes of this chapter will be promoted thereby, the President, during the 13-year period beginning on January 3, 1975, may enter into trade agreements with foreign countries or instrumentalities providing for the harmonization, reduction, or elimination of such barriers (or other distortions) or providing for the prohibition of or limitations on the imposition of such barriers (or other distortions).

(2)(A) Trade agreements that provide for the elimination or reduction of any duty imposed by the United States may be entered into under paragraph (1) only with Israel.

(B) The negotiation of any trade agreement entered into under paragraph (1) with Israel that provides for the elimination or reduction of any duty imposed by the United States shall take fully into account any product that benefits from a discriminatory preferential tariff arrangement between Israel and a third country if the tariff preference on such product has been the subject of a challenge by the United States Government under the authority of section 2411 of this title and the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade.

(C) Notwithstanding any other provision of this section, the requirements of subsections (c) and (e)(1) shall not apply to any trade agreement entered into under paragraph (1) with Israel that provides for the elimination or reduction of any duty imposed by the United States.

(3) Notwithstanding any other provision of law, no trade benefit shall be extended to any country by reason of the extension of any trade benefit to another country under a trade agreement entered into under paragraph (1) with such other country that provides for the elimination or reduction of any duty imposed by the United States.

(4)(A) Notwithstanding paragraph (2), a trade agreement that provides for the elimination or reduction of any duty imposed by the United States may be entered into under paragraph (1) with any country other than Israel if—

(i) such country requested the negotiation of such an agreement, and

(ii) the President, at least 60 days prior to the date notice is provided under subsection (e)(1)—

(I) provides written notice of such negotiations to the Committee on Finance of the Senate and the Committee on Ways and Means of the House of Representatives, and

(II) consults with such committees regarding the negotiation of such agreement.


(B) The provisions of section 2191 of this title shall not apply to an implementing bill (within the meaning of section 2191(b) of this title) if—

(i) such implementing bill contains a provision approving of any trade agreement which—

(I) is entered into under this section with any country other than Israel, and

(II) provides for the elimination or reduction of any duty imposed by the United States, and


(ii) either—

(I) the requirements of subparagraph (A) were not met with respect to the negotiation of such agreement, or

(II) the Committee on Finance of the Senate or the Committee on Ways and Means of the House of Representatives disapproved of the negotiation of such agreement before the close of the 60-day period which begins on the date notice is provided under subparagraph (A)(ii)(I) with respect to the negotiation of such agreement.


(C) The 60-day period described in subparagraphs (A)(ii) and (B)(ii)(II) shall be computed without regard to—

(i) the days on which either House of Congress is not in session because of an adjournment of more than 3 days to a day certain or an adjournment of the Congress sine die, and

(ii) any Saturday and Sunday, not excluded under clause (i), when either House of Congress is not in session.

(c) Presidential consultation with Congress prior to entry into trade agreements

Before the President enters into any trade agreement under this section providing for the harmonization, reduction, or elimination of a barrier to (or other distortion of) international trade, he shall consult with the Committee on Ways and Means of the House of Representatives, the Committee on Finance of the Senate, and with each committee of the House and the Senate and each joint committee of the Congress which has jurisdiction over legislation involving subject matters which would be affected by such trade agreement. Such consultation shall include all matters relating to the implementation of such trade agreement as provided in subsections (d) and (e). If it is proposed to implement such trade agreement, together with one or more other trade agreements entered into under this section, in a single implementing bill, such consultation shall include the desirability and feasibility of such proposed implementation.

(d) Submission to Congress of agreements, drafts of implementing bills, and statements of proposed administrative action

Whenever the President enters into a trade agreement under this section providing for the harmonization, reduction, or elimination of a barrier to (or other distortion of) international trade, he shall submit such agreement, together with a draft of an implementing bill (described in section 2191(b) of this title) and a statement of any administrative action proposed to implement such agreement, to the Congress as provided in subsection (e), and such agreement shall enter into force with respect to the United States only if the provisions of subsection (e) are complied with and the implementing bill submitted by the President is enacted into law.

(e) Steps prerequisite to entry into force of trade agreements

Each trade agreement submitted to the Congress under this subsection shall enter into force with respect to the United States if (and only if)—

(1) the President, not less than 90 days before the day on which he enters into such trade agreement, notifies the House of Representatives and the Senate of his intention to enter into such an agreement, and promptly thereafter publishes notice of such intention in the Federal Register;

(2) after entering into the agreement, the President transmits a document to the House of Representatives and to the Senate containing a copy of the final legal text of such agreement together with—

(A) a draft of an implementing bill and a statement of any administrative action proposed to implement such agreement, and an explanation as to how the implementing bill and proposed administrative action change or affect existing law, and

(B) a statement of his reasons as to how the agreement serves the interests of United States commerce and as to why the implementing bill and proposed administrative action is required or appropriate to carry out the agreement; and


(3) the implementing bill is enacted into law.

(f) Obligations imposed upon foreign countries or instrumentalities receiving benefits under trade agreements

To insure that a foreign country or instrumentality which receives benefits under a trade agreement entered into under this section is subject to the obligations imposed by such agreement, the President may recommend to Congress in the implementing bill and statement of administrative action submitted with respect to such agreement that the benefits and obligations of such agreement apply solely to the parties to such agreement, if such application is consistent with the terms of such agreement. The President may also recommend with respect to any such agreement that the benefits and obligations of such agreement not apply uniformly to all parties to such agreement, if such application is consistent with the terms of such agreement.

(g) Definitions

For purposes of this section—

(1) the term "barrier" includes—

(A) the American selling price basis of customs evaluation as defined in section 1401a or 1402 of this title, as appropriate, and

(B) any duty or other import restriction;


(2) the term "distortion" includes a subsidy; and

(3) the term "international trade" includes—

(A) trade in both goods and services, and

(B) foreign direct investment by United States persons, especially if such investment has implications for trade in goods and services.

(Pub. L. 93–618, title I, §102, Jan. 3, 1975, 88 Stat. 1982; Pub. L. 96–39, title XI, §§1101, 1106(c)(1), July 26, 1979, 93 Stat. 307, 311; Pub. L. 98–573, title III, §307(a), title IV, §401(a)–(c)(1), Oct. 30, 1984, 98 Stat. 3012, 3013-3015; Pub. L. 99–47, §8(b)(1), June 11, 1985, 99 Stat. 84; Pub. L. 99–514, title XVIII, §1887(a)(1), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2923.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in subsec. (b)(1), was in the original "this Act", meaning Pub. L. 93–618, Jan. 3, 1975, 88 Stat. 1978, as amended, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see References in Text note set out under section 2101 of this title and Tables.

Section 1402 of this title, referred to in subsec. (g)(1)(A), was repealed by Pub. L. 96–39.

Amendments

1986—Subsec. (b)(4)(B)(ii)(II). Pub. L. 99–514 substituted "subparagraph" for "subsection".

1985—Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 99–47 inserted "that provides for the elimination or reduction of any duty imposed by the United States" after "such other country".

1984—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 98–573, §401(a), designated existing provisions as par. (1) and added pars. (2) to (4).

Subsec. (g)(1). Pub. L. 98–573, §401(b), designated existing provisions as subpar. (A) and added subpar. (B).

Subsec. (g)(3). Pub. L. 98–573, §307(a), designated existing provisions as subpar. (A) and added subpar. (B).

1979—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 96–39, §1101, substituted "13-year period" for "5-year period".

Subsec. (e)(2). Pub. L. 96–39, §1106(c)(1), substituted "copy of the final legal text of such agreement" for "copy of such agreement".

Effective Date of 1979 Amendment

Amendment of subsec. (b) of this section by section 1101 of Pub. L. 96–39 effective July 26, 1979, see section 1114 of Pub. L. 96–39, set out as an Effective Date note under section 2581 of this title.

Pub. L. 96–39, title XI, §1106(c)(1), July 26, 1979, 93 Stat. 311, provided in part that the amendment of subsec. (e)(2) of this section by section 1106(c)(1) of Pub. L. 96–39 shall apply with respect to trade agreements submitted to the Congress under this section after July 26, 1979.

Protective Order Provisions Applicable With Respect to Countervailing and Antidumping Duty Investigations Involving Products of Canadian Origin

Pub. L. 101–382, title I, §135(c), Aug. 20, 1990, 104 Stat. 652, provided that: "For purposes of section 404 of the United States-Canada Free-Trade Agreement Implementation Act of 1988 [Pub. L. 100–449, set out in a note below], the amendments made by subsection (b) [amending section 1677f of this title] also apply with respect to investigations under title VII of the Tariff Act of 1930 [19 U.S.C. 1671 et seq.] involving products of Canadian origin."

United States-Jordan Free Trade Area Implementation

Pub. L. 107–43, Sept. 28, 2001, 115 Stat. 243, provided that:

"SECTION 1. SHORT TITLE.

"This Act may be cited as the 'United States-Jordan Free Trade Area Implementation Act'.

"SEC. 2. PURPOSES.

"The purposes of this Act are—

"(1) to implement the agreement between the United States and Jordan establishing a free trade area;

"(2) to strengthen and develop the economic relations between the United States and Jordan for their mutual benefit; and

"(3) to establish free trade between the 2 nations through the removal of trade barriers.

"SEC. 3. DEFINITIONS.

"For purposes of this Act:

"(1) Agreement.—The term 'Agreement' means the Agreement between the United States of America and the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan on the Establishment of a Free Trade Area, entered into on October 24, 2000.

"(2) HTS.—The term 'HTS' means the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States.

"TITLE I—TARIFF MODIFICATIONS; RULES OF ORIGIN

"SEC. 101. TARIFF MODIFICATIONS.

"(a) Tariff Modifications Provided for in the Agreement.—The President may proclaim—

"(1) such modifications or continuation of any duty;

"(2) such continuation of duty-free or excise treatment; or

"(3) such additional duties,

as the President determines to be necessary or appropriate to carry out article 2.1 of the Agreement and the schedule of duty reductions with respect to Jordan set out in Annex 2.1 of the Agreement.

"(b) Other Tariff Modifications.—The President may proclaim—

"(1) such modifications or continuation of any duty;

"(2) such continuation of duty-free or excise treatment; or

"(3) such additional duties,

as the President determines to be necessary or appropriate to maintain the general level of reciprocal and mutually advantageous concessions with respect to Jordan provided for by the Agreement.

"SEC. 102. RULES OF ORIGIN.

"(a) In General.—

"(1) Eligible articles.—

"(A) In general.—The reduction or elimination of any duty imposed on any article by the United States provided for in the Agreement shall apply only if—

"(i) that article is imported directly from Jordan into the customs territory of the United States; and

"(ii) that article—

     "(I) is wholly the growth, product, or manufacture of Jordan; or

     "(II) is a new or different article of commerce that has been grown, produced, or manufactured in Jordan and meets the requirements of subparagraph (B).

"(B) Requirements.—

"(i) General rule.—The requirements of this subparagraph are that with respect to an article described in subparagraph (A)(ii)(II), the sum of—

     "(I) the cost or value of the materials produced in Jordan, plus

     "(II) the direct costs of processing operations performed in Jordan,

 is not less than 35 percent of the appraised value of such article at the time it is entered.

"(ii) Materials produced in united states.—If the cost or value of materials produced in the customs territory of the United States is included with respect to an article to which this paragraph applies, an amount not to exceed 15 percent of the appraised value of the article at the time it is entered that is attributable to such United States cost or value may be applied toward determining the percentage referred to in clause (i).

"(2) Exclusions.—No article may be considered to meet the requirements of paragraph (1)(A) by virtue of having merely undergone—

"(A) simple combining or packaging operations; or

"(B) mere dilution with water or mere dilution with another substance that does not materially alter the characteristics of the article.

"(b) Direct Costs of Processing Operations.—

"(1) In general.—As used in this section, the term 'direct costs of processing operations' includes, but is not limited to—

"(A) all actual labor costs involved in the growth, production, manufacture, or assembly of the specific merchandise, including fringe benefits, on-the-job training, and the cost of engineering, supervisory, quality control, and similar personnel; and

"(B) dies, molds, tooling, and depreciation on machinery and equipment which are allocable to the specific merchandise.

"(2) Excluded costs.—The term 'direct costs of processing operations' does not include costs which are not directly attributable to the merchandise concerned, or are not costs of manufacturing the product, such as—

"(A) profit; and

"(B) general expenses of doing business which are either not allocable to the specific merchandise or are not related to the growth, production, manufacture, or assembly of the merchandise, such as administrative salaries, casualty and liability insurance, advertising, and salesmen's salaries, commissions, or expenses.

"(c) Textile and Apparel Articles.—

"(1) In general.—A textile or apparel article imported directly from Jordan into the customs territory of the United States shall be considered to meet the requirements of paragraph (1)(A) of subsection (a) only if—

"(A) the article is wholly obtained or produced in Jordan;

"(B) the article is a yarn, thread, twine, cordage, rope, cable, or braiding, and—

"(i) the constituent staple fibers are spun in Jordan, or

"(ii) the continuous filament is extruded in Jordan;

"(C) the article is a fabric, including a fabric classified under chapter 59 of the HTS, and the constituent fibers, filaments, or yarns are woven, knitted, needled, tufted, felted, entangled, or transformed by any other fabric-making process in Jordan; or

"(D) the article is any other textile or apparel article that is wholly assembled in Jordan from its component pieces.

"(2) Definition.—For purposes of paragraph (1), an article is 'wholly obtained or produced in Jordan' if it is wholly the growth, product, or manufacture of Jordan.

"(3) Special rules.—

"(A) Certain made-up articles, textile articles in the piece, and certain other textiles and textile articles.—Notwithstanding paragraph (1)(D) and except as provided in subparagraphs (C) and (D) of this paragraph, subparagraph (A), (B), or (C) of paragraph (1), as appropriate, shall determine whether a good that is classified under one of the following headings or subheadings of the HTS shall be considered to meet the requirements of paragraph (1)(A) of subsection (a): 5609, 5807, 5811, 6209.20.50.40, 6213, 6214, 6301, 6302, 6304, 6305, 6306, 6307.10, 6307.90, 6308, and 9404.90.

"(B) Certain knit-to-shape textiles and textile articles.—Notwithstanding paragraph (1)(D) and except as provided in subparagraphs (C) and (D) of this paragraph, a textile or apparel article which is knit-to-shape in Jordan shall be considered to meet the requirements of paragraph (1)(A) of subsection (a).

"(C) Certain dyed and printed textiles and textile articles.—Notwithstanding paragraph (1)(D), a good classified under heading 6117.10, 6213.00, 6214.00. 6302.22, 6302.29, 6302.52, 6302.53, 6302.59, 6302.92, 6302.93, 6302.99, 6303.92, 6303.99, 6304.19, 6304.93, 6304.99, 9404.90.85, or 9404.90.95 of the HTS, except for a good classified under any such heading as of cotton or of wool or consisting of fiber blends containing 16 percent or more by weight of cotton, shall be considered to meet the requirements of paragraph (1)(A) of subsection (a) if the fabric in the good is both dyed and printed in Jordan, and such dyeing and printing is accompanied by 2 or more of the following finishing operations: bleaching, shrinking, fulling, napping, decating, permanent stiffening, weighting, permanent embossing, or moireing.

"(D) Fabrics of silk, cotton, manmade fiber or vegetable fiber.—Notwithstanding paragraph (1)(C), a fabric classified under the HTS as of silk, cotton, man-made fiber, or vegetable fiber shall be considered to meet the requirements of paragraph (1)(A) of subsection (a) if the fabric is both dyed and printed in Jordan, and such dyeing and printing is accompanied by 2 or more of the following finishing operations: bleaching, shrinking, fulling, napping, decating, permanent stiffening, weighting, permanent embossing, or moireing.

"(4) Multicountry rule.—If the origin of a textile or apparel article cannot be determined under paragraph (1) or (3), then that article shall be considered to meet the requirements of paragraph (1)(A) of subsection (a) if—

"(A) the most important assembly or manufacturing process occurs in Jordan; or

"(B) if the applicability of paragraph (1)(A) of subsection (a) cannot be determined under subparagraph (A), the last important assembly or manufacturing occurs in Jordan.

"(d) Exclusion.—A good shall not be considered to meet the requirements of paragraph (1)(A) of subsection (a) if the good—

"(1) is imported into Jordan, and, at the time of importation, would be classified under heading 0805 of the HTS; and

"(2) is processed in Jordan into a good classified under any of subheadings 2009.11 through 2009.30 of the HTS.

"(e) Regulations.—The Secretary of the Treasury, after consultation with the United States Trade Representative, shall prescribe such regulations as may be necessary to carry out this section.

"TITLE II—RELIEF FROM IMPORTS

"Subtitle A—General Provisions

"SEC. 201. DEFINITIONS.

"As used in this title:

"(1) Commission.—The term 'Commission' means the United States International Trade Commission.

"(2) Jordanian article.—The term 'Jordanian article' means an article that qualifies for reduction or elimination of a duty under section 102.

"Subtitle B—Relief From Imports Benefiting From The Agreement

"SEC. 211. COMMENCING OF ACTION FOR RELIEF.

"(a) Filing of Petition.—

"(1) In general.—A petition requesting action under this subtitle for the purpose of adjusting to the obligations of the United States under the Agreement may be filed with the Commission by an entity, including a trade association, firm, certified or recognized union, or group of workers that is representative of an industry. The Commission shall transmit a copy of any petition filed under this subsection to the United States Trade Representative.

"(2) Provisional relief.—An entity filing a petition under this subsection may request that provisional relief be provided as if the petition had been filed under section 202(a) of the Trade Act of 1974 [19 U.S.C. 2252(a)].

"(3) Critical circumstances.—Any allegation that critical circumstances exist shall be included in the petition.

"(b) Investigation and Determination.—

"(1) In general.—Upon the filing of a petition under subsection (a), the Commission, unless subsection (d) applies, shall promptly initiate an investigation to determine whether, as a result of the reduction or elimination of a duty provided for under the Agreement, a Jordanian article is being imported into the United States in such increased quantities, in absolute terms or relative to domestic production, and under such conditions that imports of the Jordanian article alone constitute a substantial cause of serious injury or threat thereof to the domestic industry producing an article that is like, or directly competitive with, the imported article.

"(2) Causation.—For purposes of this subtitle, a Jordanian article is being imported into the United States in increased quantities as a result of the reduction or elimination of a duty provided for under the Agreement if the reduction or elimination is a cause that contributes significantly to the increase in imports. Such cause need not be equal to or greater than any other cause.

"(c) Applicable Provisions.—The following provisions of section 202 of the Trade Act of 1974 (19 U.S.C. 2252) apply with respect to any investigation initiated under subsection (b):

"(1) Paragraphs (1)(B) and (3) of subsection (b).

"(2) Subsection (c).

"(3) Subsection (d).

"(d) Articles Exempt From Investigation.—No investigation may be initiated under this section with respect to any Jordanian article if import relief has been provided under this subtitle with respect to that article.

"SEC. 212. COMMISSION ACTION ON PETITION.

"(a) Determination.—By no later than 120 days (180 days if critical circumstances have been alleged) after the date on which an investigation is initiated under section 211(b) with respect to a petition, the Commission shall make the determination required under that section.

"(b) Additional Finding and Recommendation if Determination Affirmative.—If the determination made by the Commission under subsection (a) with respect to imports of an article is affirmative, the Commission shall find, and recommend to the President in the report required under subsection (c), the amount of import relief that is necessary to remedy or prevent the injury found by the Commission in the determination and to facilitate the efforts of the domestic industry to make a positive adjustment to import competition. The import relief recommended by the Commission under this subsection shall be limited to that described in section 213(c).

"(c) Report to President.—No later than the date that is 30 days after the date on which a determination is made under subsection (a) with respect to an investigation, the Commission shall submit to the President a report that shall include—

"(1) a statement of the basis for the determination;

"(2) dissenting and separate views; and

"(3) any finding made under subsection (b) regarding import relief.

"(d) Public Notice.—Upon submitting a report to the President under subsection (c), the Commission shall promptly make public such report (with the exception of information which the Commission determines to be confidential) and shall cause a summary thereof to be published in the Federal Register.

"(e) Applicable Provisions.—For purposes of this subtitle, the provisions of paragraphs (1), (2), and (3) of section 330(d) of the Tariff Act of 1930 (19 U.S.C. 1330(d)) shall be applied with respect to determinations and findings made under this section as if such determinations and findings were made under section 202 of the Trade Act of 1974 (19 U.S.C. 2252).

"SEC. 213. PROVISION OF RELIEF.

"(a) In General.—No later than the date that is 30 days after the date on which the President receives the report of the Commission containing an affirmative determination of the Commission under section 212(a), the President shall provide relief from imports of the article that is the subject of such determination to the extent that the President determines necessary to prevent or remedy the injury found by the Commission and to facilitate the efforts of the domestic industry to make a positive adjustment to import competition, unless the President determines that the provision of such relief is not in the national economic interest of the United States or, in extraordinary circumstances, that the provision of such relief would cause serious harm to the national security of the United States.

"(b) National Economic Interest.—The President may determine under subsection (a) that providing import relief is not in the national economic interest of the United States only if the President finds that taking such action would have an adverse impact on the United States economy clearly greater than the benefits of taking such action.

"(c) Nature of Relief.—The import relief (including provisional relief) that the President is authorized to provide under this subtitle with respect to imports of an article is—

"(1) the suspension of any further reduction provided for under the United States Schedule to Annex 2.1 of the Agreement in the duty imposed on that article;

"(2) an increase in the rate of duty imposed on such article to a level that does not exceed the lesser of—

"(A) the column 1 general rate of duty imposed under the HTS on like articles at the time the import relief is provided; or

"(B) the column 1 general rate of duty imposed under the HTS on like articles on the day before the date on which the Agreement enters into force; or

"(3) in the case of a duty applied on a seasonal basis to that article, an increase in the rate of duty imposed on the article to a level that does not exceed the column 1 general rate of duty imposed under the HTS on the article for the corresponding season occurring immediately before the date on which the Agreement enters into force.

"(d) Period of Relief.—The import relief that the President is authorized to provide under this section may not exceed 4 years.

"(e) Rate After Termination of Import Relief.—When import relief under this subtitle is terminated with respect to an article—

"(1) the rate of duty on that article after such termination and on or before December 31 of the year in which termination occurs shall be the rate that, according to the United States Schedule to Annex 2.1 of the Agreement for the staged elimination of the tariff, would have been in effect 1 year after the initiation of the import relief action under section 211; and

"(2) the tariff treatment for that article after December 31 of the year in which termination occurs shall be, at the discretion of the President, either—

"(A) the rate of duty conforming to the applicable rate set out in the United States Schedule to Annex 2.1; or

"(B) the rate of duty resulting from the elimination of the tariff in equal annual stages ending on the date set out in the United States Schedule to Annex 2.1 for the elimination of the tariff.

"SEC. 214. TERMINATION OF RELIEF AUTHORITY.

"(a) General Rule.—Except as provided in subsection (b), no import relief may be provided under this subtitle after the date that is 15 years after the date on which the Agreement enters into force.

"(b) Exception.—Import relief may be provided under this subtitle in the case of a Jordanian article after the date on which such relief would, but for this subsection, terminate under subsection (a), but only if the Government of Jordan consents to such provision.

"SEC. 215. COMPENSATION AUTHORITY.

"For purposes of section 123 of the Trade Act of 1974 (19 U.S.C. 2133), any import relief provided by the President under section 213 shall be treated as action taken under chapter 1 of title II of such Act [19 U.S.C. 2251 et seq.].

"SEC. 216. SUBMISSION OF PETITIONS.

"A petition for import relief may be submitted to the Commission under—

"(1) this subtitle;

"(2) chapter 1 of title II of the Trade Act of 1974 [19 U.S.C. 2251 et seq.]; or

"(3) under both this subtitle and such chapter 1 at the same time, in which case the Commission shall consider such petitions jointly.

"Subtitle C—Cases Under Title II of The Trade Act of 1974

"SEC. 221. FINDINGS AND ACTION ON JORDANIAN IMPORTS.

"(a) Effect of Imports.—If, in any investigation initiated under chapter 1 of title II of the Trade Act of 1974 [19 U.S.C. 2251 et seq.], the Commission makes an affirmative determination (or a determination which the President may treat as an affirmative determination under such chapter by reason of section 330(d) of the Tariff Act of 1930 [19 U.S.C. 1330(d)]), the Commission shall also find (and report to the President at the time such injury determination is submitted to the President) whether imports of the article from Jordan are a substantial cause of serious injury or threat thereof.

"(b) Presidential Action Regarding Jordanian Imports.—In determining the nature and extent of action to be taken under chapter 1 of title II of the Trade Act of 1974, the President shall determine whether imports from Jordan are a substantial cause of the serious injury found by the Commission and, if such determination is in the negative, may exclude from such action imports from Jordan.

"SEC. 222. TECHNICAL AMENDMENT.

[Amended section 2252 of this title.]

"TITLE III—TEMPORARY ENTRY

"SEC. 301. NONIMMIGRANT TRADERS AND INVESTORS.

"Upon the basis of reciprocity secured by the Agreement, an alien who is a national of Jordan (and any spouse or child (as defined in section 101(b)(1) of the Immigration and Nationality Act (8 U.S.C. 1101(b)(1)) of the alien, if accompanying or following to join the alien) shall be considered as entitled to enter the United States under and in pursuance of the provisions of the Agreement as a nonimmigrant described in section 101(a)(15)(E) of the Immigration and Nationality Act (8 U.S.C. 1101(a)(15)(E)), if the entry is solely for a purpose described in clause (i) or (ii) of such section and the alien is otherwise admissible to the United States as such a nonimmigrant.

"TITLE IV—GENERAL PROVISIONS

"SEC. 401. RELATIONSHIP OF THE AGREEMENT TO UNITED STATES AND STATE LAW.

"(a) Relationship of Agreement to United States Law.—

"(1) United states law to prevail in conflict.—No provision of the Agreement, nor the application of any such provision to any person or circumstance, that is inconsistent with any law of the United States shall have effect.

"(2) Construction.—Nothing in this Act shall be construed—

"(A) to amend or modify any law of the United States; or

"(B) to limit any authority conferred under any law of the United States,

unless specifically provided for in this Act.

"(b) Relationship of Agreement to State Law.—

"(1) Legal challenge.—No State law, or the application thereof, may be declared invalid as to any person or circumstance on the ground that the provision or application is inconsistent with the Agreement, except in an action brought by the United States for the purpose of declaring such law or application invalid.

"(2) Definition of state law.—For purposes of this subsection, the term 'State law' includes—

"(A) any law of a political subdivision of a State; and

"(B) any State law regulating or taxing the business of insurance.

"(c) Effect of Agreement With Respect to Private Remedies.—No person other than the United States—

"(1) shall have any cause of action or defense under the Agreement; or

"(2) may challenge, in any action brought under any provision of law, any action or inaction by any department, agency, or other instrumentality of the United States, any State, or any political subdivision of a State on the ground that such action or inaction is inconsistent with the Agreement.

"SEC. 402. AUTHORIZATION OF APPROPRIATIONS.

"There are authorized to be appropriated for each fiscal year after fiscal year 2001 to the Department of Commerce not more than $100,000 for the payment of the United States share of the expenses incurred in dispute settlement proceedings under article 17 of the Agreement.

"SEC. 403. IMPLEMENTING REGULATIONS.

"After the date of enactment of this Act [Sept. 28, 2001]—

"(1) the President may proclaim such actions; and

"(2) other appropriate officers of the United States may issue such regulations,

as may be necessary to ensure that any provision of this Act, or amendment made by this Act, that takes effect on the date the Agreement enters into force is appropriately implemented on such date, but no such proclamation or regulation may have an effective date earlier than the date the Agreement enters into force.

"SEC. 404. EFFECTIVE DATES; EFFECT OF TERMINATION.

"(a) Effective Dates.—Except as provided in subsection (b), the provisions of this Act and the amendments made by this Act take effect on the date the Agreement enters into force [Dec. 17, 2001].

"(b) Exceptions.—Sections 1 through 3 and this title take effect on the date of the enactment of this Act [Sept. 28, 2001].

"(c) Termination of the Agreement.—On the date on which the Agreement ceases to be in force, the provisions of this Act (other than this subsection) and the amendments made by this Act, shall cease to be effective."

[The Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States is not set out in the Code. See Publication of Harmonized Tariff Schedule note set out under section 1202 of this title.]

United States-Canada Free-Trade Agreement Implementation

Pub. L. 100–449, Sept. 28, 1988, 102 Stat. 1851, as amended by Pub. L. 101–207, §1(b), Dec. 7, 1989, 103 Stat. 1833; Pub. L. 101–382, title I, §§103(b), 134(b), Aug. 20, 1990, 104 Stat. 635, 651; Pub. L. 103–182, title I, §107, title III, §308(a), title IV, §413, Dec. 8, 1993, 107 Stat. 2065, 2104, 2147; Pub. L. 104–66, title I, §1021(d), Dec. 21, 1995, 109 Stat. 712; Pub. L. 105–206, title V, §5003(b)(3), July 22, 1998, 112 Stat. 789; Pub. L. 114–125, title VIII, §802(d)(2), Feb. 24, 2016, 130 Stat. 210, provided that:

"SECTION 1. SHORT TITLE AND TABLE OF CONTENTS.

"(a) Short Title.—This Act [enacting section 1584 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure, amending sections 58c, 81c, 1305, 1306, 1311, 1312, 1313, 1502, 1508, 1514, 1516a, 1562, 1677, 1677f, and 2518 of this title, sections 150bb, 150cc, 154, 156, 624, 1582, and 2803 of Title 7, Agriculture, section 1184 of Title 8, Aliens and Nationality, section 24 of Title 12, Banks and Banking, section 152 of Title 21, Food and Drugs, sections 1581, 2201, and 2643 of Title 28, section 2201 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, section 4606 of Title 50, War and National Defense, enacting provisions set out as notes below, and amending provisions set out as a note under section 2253 of this title] may be cited as the 'United States-Canada Free-Trade Agreement Implementation Act of 1988'.

"(b) Table of Contents.—[Omitted.]

"SEC. 2. PURPOSES.

"The purposes of this Act are—

"(1) to approve and implement the Free-Trade Agreement between the United States and Canada negotiated under the authority of section 102 of the Trade Act of 1974 [19 U.S.C. 2112];

"(2) to strengthen and develop economic relations between the United States and Canada for their mutual benefit;

"(3) to establish a free-trade area between the two nations through the reduction and elimination of barriers to trade in goods and services and to investment; and

"(4) to lay the foundation for further cooperation to expand and enhance the benefits of such Agreement.

"TITLE I—APPROVAL OF UNITED STATES-CANADA FREE-TRADE AGREEMENT AND RELATIONSHIP OF AGREEMENT TO UNITED STATES LAW

"SEC. 101. APPROVAL OF UNITED STATES-CANADA FREE-TRADE AGREEMENT.

"(a) Approval of Agreement and Statement of Administrative Action.—Pursuant to sections 102 and 151 of the Trade Act of 1974 (19 U.S.C. 2112 and 2191), the Congress approves—

"(1) the United States-Canada Free-Trade Agreement (hereinafter in this Act referred to as the 'Agreement') entered into on January 2, 1988, and submitted to the Congress on July 25, 1988;

"(2) the letters exchanged between the Governments of the United States and Canada—

"(A) dated January 2, 1988, relating to negotiations regarding articles 301 (Rules of Origin) and 401 (Tariff Elimination) of the Agreement, and

"(B) dated January 2, 1988, relating to negotiations regarding article 2008 (Plywood Standards) of the Agreement; and

"(3) the statement of administrative action proposed to implement the Agreement that was submitted to the Congress on July 25, 1988.

"(b) Conditions for Entry Into Force of the Agreement.—At such time as the President determines that Canada has taken measures necessary to comply with the obligations of the Agreement, the President is authorized to exchange notes with the Government of Canada providing for the entry into force, on or after January 1, 1989, of the Agreement with respect to the United States.

"(c) Report on Canadian Practices.—Within 60 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Sept. 28, 1988] (but not later than December 15, 1988), the United States Trade Representative shall submit to the Congress a report identifying, to the maximum extent practicable, major current Canadian practices (and the legal authority for such practices) that, in the opinion of the United States Trade Representative—

"(1) are not in conformity with the Agreement; and

"(2) require a change of Canadian law, regulation, policy, or practice to enable Canada to conform with its international obligations under the Agreement.

"SEC. 102. RELATIONSHIP OF THE AGREEMENT TO UNITED STATES LAW.

"(a) United States Laws To Prevail in Conflict.—No provision of the Agreement, nor the application of any such provision to any person or circumstance, which is in conflict with any law of the United States shall have effect.

"(b) Relationship of Agreement to State and Local Law.—

"(1) The provisions of the Agreement prevail over—

"(A) any conflicting State law; and

"(B) any conflicting application of any State law to any person or circumstance;

to the extent of the conflict.

"(2) Upon the enactment of this Act, the President shall, in accordance with section 306(c)(2)(A) of the Trade and Tariff Act of 1984 (19 U.S.C. 2114c), initiate consultations with the State governments on the implementation of the obligations of the United States under the Agreement. Such consultations shall be held—

"(A) through the intergovernmental policy advisory committees on trade established under such section for the purpose of achieving conformity of State laws and practices with the Agreement; and

"(B) with the individual States as necessary to deal with particular questions that may arise.

"(3) The United States may bring an action challenging any provision of State law, or the application thereof to any person or circumstance, on the ground that the provision or application is inconsistent with the Agreement.

"(4) For purposes of this subsection, the term 'State law' includes—

"(A) any law of a political subdivision of a State; and

"(B) any State law regulating or taxing the business of insurance.

"(c) Effect of Agreement With Respect to Private Remedies.—No person other than the United States shall—

"(1) have any cause of action or defense under the Agreement or by virtue of congressional approval thereof, or

"(2) challenge, in any action brought under any provision of law, any action or inaction by any department, agency, or other instrumentality of the United States, any State, or any political subdivision of a State on the ground that such action or inaction is inconsistent with the Agreement.

"(d) Initial Implementing Regulations.—Initial regulations necessary or appropriate to carry out the actions proposed in the statement of administrative action submitted under section 101(a)(3) to implement the Agreement shall, to the maximum extent feasible, be issued within 1 year after the date of entry into force of the Agreement [Jan. 1, 1989]. In the case of any implementing action that takes effect after the date of entry into force of the Agreement, initial regulations to carry out that action shall, to the maximum extent feasible, be issued within 1 year after such effective date.

"(e) Changes in Statutes To Implement a Requirement, Amendment, or Recommendation.—The provisions of section 3(c) of the Trade Agreements Act of 1979 (19 U.S.C. 2504(c)) shall apply as if the Agreement were an agreement approved under section 2(a) of that Act [19 U.S.C. 2503(a)] whenever the President determines that it is necessary or appropriate to amend, repeal, or enact a statute of the United States in order to implement any requirement of, amendment to, or recommendation, finding or opinion under, the Agreement; but such provisions shall not apply to any bill to implement any such requirement, amendment, recommendation, finding, or opinion that is submitted to the Congress after the close of the 30th month after the month in which the Agreement enters into force [January 1989].

"SEC. 103. CONSULTATION AND LAY-OVER REQUIREMENTS FOR, AND EFFECTIVE DATE OF, PROCLAIMED ACTIONS.

"(a) Consultation and Lay-Over Requirements.—If a provision of this Act provides that the implementation of an action by the President by proclamation is subject to the consultation and lay-over requirements of this section, such action may be proclaimed only if—

"(1) the President has obtained advice regarding the proposed action from—

"(A) the appropriate advisory committees established under section 135 of the Trade Act of 1974 [19 U.S.C. 2155], and

"(B) the United States International Trade Commission;

"(2) the President has submitted a report to the Committee on Ways and Means of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Finance of the Senate that sets forth—

"(A) the action proposed to be proclaimed and the reasons therefor, and

"(B) the advice obtained under paragraph (1);

"(3) a period of at least 60 calendar days that begins on the first day on which the President has met the requirements of paragraphs (1) and (2) with respect to such action has expired; and

"(4) the President has consulted with such Committees regarding the proposed action during the period referred to in paragraph (3).

"(b) Effective Date of Certain Proclaimed Actions.—No action proclaimed by the President under the authority of this Act, if such action is not subject to the consultation and lay-over requirements under subsection (a), may take effect before the 15th day after the date on which the text of the proclamation is published in the Federal Register.

"SEC. 104. HARMONIZED SYSTEM.

"(a) Definition.—As used in this Act, the term 'Harmonized System' means the nomenclature system established under the International Convention on the Harmonized Commodity Description and Coding System (done at Brussels on June 14, 1983, and the protocol thereto, done at Brussels on June 24, 1986) as implemented under United States law.

"(b) Interim Application of TSUS.—The following apply if the International Convention, and the protocol thereto, referred to in subsection (a) are not implemented under United States law before the Agreement enters into force:

"(1) The President, subject to subsection (c), shall proclaim such modifications to the Tariff Schedules of the United States (19 U.S.C. 1202) as may be necessary to give effect, until such time as such Convention and protocol are so implemented, to the rules of origin, schedule of rate reductions, and other provisions that would, but for the absence of such implementation, be proclaimed under the authority of this Act to, or in terms of, the Harmonized System to implement the obligations of the United States under the Agreement.

"(2) Until such time as such Convention and protocol are so implemented, any reference in this Act to the nomenclature of such Convention and protocol shall be treated as a reference to the corresponding nomenclature of the Tariff Schedules of the United States as modified under paragraph (1).

"(c) Restrictions.—

"(1) No modification described in subsection (b)(1) that is to take effect concurrently with the entry into force of the Agreement may be proclaimed unless the text of the modification is published in the Federal Register at least 30 days before the date of entry into force [Jan. 1, 1989].

"(2) All modifications proclaimed under the authority of subsection (b)(1) after the Agreement enters into force with respect to the United States are subject to the consultation and lay-over requirements of section 103(a).

"SEC. 105. IMPLEMENTING ACTIONS IN ANTICIPATION OF ENTRY INTO FORCE.

"Subject to section 103 or 104(c), as appropriate, and any other applicable restriction or limitation in this Act on the proclaiming of actions or the issuing of regulations to carry out this Act or any amendment made by this Act, after the date of the enactment of this Act [Sept. 28, 1988]—

"(1) the President may proclaim such actions; and

"(2) other appropriate officers of the United States Government may issue such regulations;

as may be necessary to ensure that any provision of this Act, or amendment made by this Act, that takes effect on the date the Agreement enters into force [Jan. 1, 1989] is appropriately implemented on such date, but no such proclamation or regulation may have an effective date earlier than the date of entry into force.

"TITLE II—TARIFF MODIFICATIONS, RULES OF ORIGIN, USER FEES, DRAWBACK, ENFORCEMENT, AND OTHER CUSTOMS PROVISIONS

"SEC. 201. TARIFF MODIFICATIONS.

"(a) Tariff Modifications Specified in the Agreement.—The President may proclaim—

"(1) such modifications or continuance of any existing duty;

"(2) such continuance of existing duty-free or excise treatment; or

"(3) such additional duties;

as the President determines to be necessary or appropriate to carry out article 401 of the Agreement and the schedule of duty reductions with respect to Canada set forth in Annexes 401.2 and 401.7 to the Agreement, as approved under section 101(a)(1). For purposes of proclaiming necessary modifications under such Annex 401.2, any article covered under subheading 9813.00.05 (contained in the United States Schedule in such Annex) shall, unless such article is a drawback eligible good under section 204(a), be treated as being subject to any otherwise applicable customs duty if the article, or merchandise incorporating such article, is exported to Canada.

"(b) Other Tariff Modifications.—Subject to the consultation and lay-over requirements of section 103(a), the President may proclaim—

"(1) such modifications as the United States and Canada may agree to regarding the staging of any duty treatment set forth in Annexes 401.2 and 401.7 of the Agreement;

"(2) such modifications or continuance of any existing duty;

"(3) such continuance of existing duty-free or excise treatment; or

"(4) such additional duties;

as the President determines to be necessary or appropriate to maintain the general level of reciprocal and mutually advantageous concessions with respect to Canada provided for by the Agreement.

"(c) Modifications Affecting Plywood.—

"(1) The Congress encourages the President to facilitate the preparation, and the implementation with Canada, of common performance standards for the use of softwood plywood and other structural panels in construction applications in the United States and Canada.

"(2) The President shall report to the Congress on the incorporation of common plywood performance standards into building codes in the United States and Canada and may implement the provisions of article 2008 of the Agreement when he determines that the necessary conditions have been met.

"(3) Any tariff reduction undertaken pursuant to paragraph (2) shall be in equal annual increments ending January 1, 1998, unless those reductions commence after January 1, 1991.

"SEC. 202. RULES OF ORIGIN.

"(a) In General.—

"(1) For purposes of implementing the tariff treatment contemplated under the Agreement, goods originate in the territory of a Party if—

"(A) they are wholly obtained or produced in the territory of either Party or both Parties; or

"(B) they—

"(i) have been transformed in the territory of either Party or both Parties so as to be subject to a change in tariff classification as described in the Annex rules or to such other requirements as the Annex rules may provide when no change in tariff classifications occurs, and

"(ii) meet the other conditions set out in the Annex.

"(2) A good shall not be considered to originate in the territory of a party [Party] under paragraph (1)(B) merely by virtue of having undergone—

"(A) simple packaging or, except as expressly provided by the Annex rules, combining operations;

"(B) mere dilution with water or another substance that does not materially alter the characteristics of the good; or

"(C) any process or work in respect of which it is established, or in respect of which the facts as ascertained clearly justify the presumption, that the sole object was to circumvent the provisions of chapter 3 of the Agreement.

"(3) Accessories, spare parts, or tools delivered with any piece of equipment, machinery, apparatus, or vehicle that form part of its standard equipment shall be treated as having the same origin as that equipment, machinery, apparatus, or vehicle if the quantities and values of such accessories, spare parts, or tools are customary for the equipment, machinery, apparatus, or vehicle.

"(b) Transshipment.—Goods exported from the territory of one Party originate in the territory of that Party only if—

"(1) the goods meet the applicable requirements of subsection (a) and are shipped to the territory of the other Party without having entered the commerce of any third country;

"(2) the goods, if shipped through the territory of a third country, do not undergo any operation other than unloading, reloading, or any operation necessary to transport them to the territory of the other Party or to preserve them in good condition; and

"(3) the documents related to the exportation and shipment of the goods from the territory of a Party show the territory of the other Party as their final destination.

"(c) Interpretation.—In interpreting this section, the following apply:

"(1) Whenever the processing or assembly of goods in the territory of either Party or both Parties results in one of the changes in tariff classification described in the Annex rules, such goods shall be considered to have been transformed in the territory of that Party and shall be treated as goods originating in the territory of that Party if—

"(A) such processing or assembly occurs entirely within the territory of either Party or both Parties; and

"(B) such goods have not subsequently undergone any processing or assembly outside the territories of the Parties that improves the goods in condition or advances them in value.

"(2) Whenever the assembly of goods in the territory of a Party fails to result in a change of tariff classification because either—

"(A) the goods were imported into the territory of the Party in an unassembled or a disassembled form and were classified as unassembled or disassembled goods pursuant to General Rule of Interpretation 2(a) of the Harmonized System; or

"(B) the tariff subheading for the goods provides for both the goods themselves and their parts;

such goods shall not be treated as goods originating in the territory of a Party.

"(3) Notwithstanding paragraph (2), goods described in that paragraph shall be considered to have been transformed in the territory of a Party and be treated as goods originating in the territory of the Party if—

"(A) the value of materials originating in the territory of either Party or both Parties used or consumed in the production of the goods plus the direct cost of assembling the goods in the territory of either Party or both Parties constitute not less than 50 percent of the value of the goods when exported to the territory of the other Party; and

"(B) the goods have not subsequent to assembly undergone processing or further assembly in a third country and they meet the requirements of subsection (b).

"(4) The provisions of paragraph (3) shall not apply to goods of chapters 61–63 of the Harmonized System.

"(5) In making the determination required by paragraph (3)(A) and in making the same or a similar determination when required by the Annex rules, where materials originating in the territory of either Party or both Parties and materials obtained or produced in a third country are used or consumed together in the production of goods in the territory of a Party, the value of materials originating in the territory of either Party or both Parties may be treated as such only to the extent that it is directly attributable to the goods under consideration.

"(6) In applying the Annex rules, a specific rule shall take precedence over a more general rule.

"(d) Annex Rules.—

"(1) The President is authorized to proclaim, as a part of the Harmonized System, the rules set forth under the heading 'Rules' in Annex 301.2 of the Agreement. For purposes of carrying out this paragraph—

"(A) the phrase 'headings 2207–2209' in paragraph 7 of section IV of such Annex 301.2 shall be treated as a reference to headings 2203–2209; and

"(B) the phrase 'any other heading' in paragraph 11 of section XV in such Annex 301.2 shall be treated as a reference to any other heading of chapter 74 of the Harmonized System.

"(2) Subject to the consultation and lay-over requirements of section 103, the President is authorized to proclaim such modifications to the rules as may from time-to-time be agreed to by the United States and Canada.

"(e) Automotive Products.—

"(1) The President is authorized to proclaim such modifications to the definition of Canadian articles (relating to the administration of the Automotive Products Trade Act of 1965 [19 U.S.C. 2001 et seq.]) in the general notes of the Harmonized System as may be necessary to conform that definition with chapter 3 of the Agreement.

"(2) For purposes of administering the value requirement (as defined in section 304(c)(3)) with respect to vehicles, the Secretary of the Treasury shall prescribe regulations governing the averaging of the value content of vehicles of the same class, or of sister vehicles, assembled in the same plant as an alternative to the calculation of the value content of each vehicle.

"(f) Definitions.—For purposes of this section:

"(1) The term 'Annex' means—

"(A) the interpretative guidelines set forth in subsection (c); and

"(B) the Annex rules.

"(2) The term 'Annex rules' means the rules proclaimed under subsection (d).

"(3) The term 'direct cost of processing or direct cost of assembling' means the costs directly incurred in, or that can reasonably be allocated to, the production of goods, including—

"(A) the cost of all labor, including benefits and on-the-job training, labor provided in connection with supervision, quality control, shipping, receiving, storage, packaging, management at the location of the process or assembly, and other like labor, whether provided by employees or independent contractors;

"(B) the cost of inspecting and testing the goods;

"(C) the cost of energy, fuel, dies, molds, tooling, and the depreciation and maintenance of machinery and equipment, without regard to whether they originate within the territory of a Party;

"(D) development, design, and engineering costs;

"(E) rent, mortgage interest, depreciation on buildings, property insurance premiums, maintenance, taxes and the cost of utilities for real property used in the production of goods; and

"(F) royalty, licensing, or other like payments for the right to the goods;

but not including—

"(i) costs relating to the general expense of doing business, such as the cost of providing executive, financial, sales, advertising, marketing, accounting and legal services, and insurance;

"(ii) brokerage charges relating to the importation and exportation of goods;

"(iii) the costs for telephone, mail, and other means of communication;

"(iv) packing costs for exporting the goods;

"(v) royalty payments related to a licensing agreement to distribute or sell the goods;

"(vi) rent, mortgage interest, depreciation on buildings, property insurance premiums, maintenance, taxes, and the cost of utilities for real property used by personnel charged with administrative functions; or

"(vii) profit on the goods.

"(4) The term 'goods wholly obtained or produced in the territory of either Party or both Parties' means—

"(A) mineral goods extracted in the territory of either Party or both Parties;

"(B) goods harvested in the territory of either Party or both Parties;

"(C) live animals born and raised in the territory of either Party or both Parties;

"(D) goods (fish, shellfish, and other marine life) taken from the sea by vessels registered or recorded with a Party and flying its flag;

"(E) goods produced on board factory ships from the goods referred to in subparagraph (D) provided such factory ships are registered or recorded with that Party and fly its flag;

"(F) goods taken by a Party or a person of a Party from the seabed or beneath the seabed outside territorial waters, provided that Party has rights to exploit such seabed;

"(G) goods taken from space, provided they are obtained by a Party or a person of a Party and not processed in a third country;

"(H) waste and scrap derived from manufacturing operations and used goods, provided they were collected in the territory of either Party or both Parties and are fit only for the recovery of raw materials; and

"(I) goods produced in the territory of either Party or both Parties exclusively from goods referred to in subparagraphs (A) to (H) inclusive or from their derivatives, at any stage of production.

"(5) The term 'materials' means goods, other than those included as part of the direct cost of processing or assembling, used or consumed in the production of other goods.

"(6) The term 'Party' means Canada or the United States.

"(7) The term 'territory' means—

"(A) with respect to Canada, the territory to which its customs laws apply, including any areas beyond the territorial seas of Canada within which, in accordance with international law and its domestic laws, Canada may exercise rights with respect to the seabed and subsoil and their natural resources; and

"(B) with respect to the United States—

"(i) the customs territory of the United States, which includes the fifty States, the District of Columbia and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico,

"(ii) the foreign trade zones located in the United States, and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, and

"(iii) any area beyond the territorial seas of the United States within which, in accordance with international law and its domestic laws, the United States may exercise rights with respect to the seabed and subsoil and their natural resources.

"(8) The term 'third country' means any country other than Canada or the United States or any territory not a part of the territory of either.

"(9) The term 'value of materials originating in the territory of either Party or both Parties' means the aggregate of—

"(A) the price paid by the producer of an exported good for materials originating in the territory of either Party or both Parties or for materials imported from a third country used or consumed in the production of such originating materials; and

"(B) when not included in that price, the following costs related thereto—

"(i) freight, insurance, packing, and all other costs incurred in transporting any of the materials referred to in subparagraph (A) to the location of the producer;

"(ii) duties, taxes, and brokerage fees on such materials paid in the territory of either Party or both Parties;

"(iii) the cost of waste or spoilage resulting from the use or consumption of such materials, less the value of renewable scrap or byproduct; and

"(iv) the value of goods and services relating to such materials determined in accordance with subparagraph 1(b) of article 8 of the Agreement on Implementation of article VII of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade.

"(10) The term 'value of the goods when exported to the territory of the other Party' means the aggregate of—

"(A) the price paid by the producer for all materials, whether or not the materials originate in either Party or both Parties, and, when not included in the price paid for the materials, the costs related to—

"(i) freight, insurance, packing, and all other costs incurred in transporting all materials to the location of the producer;

"(ii) duties, taxes, and brokerage fees on all materials paid in the territory of either Party or both Parties;

"(iii) the cost of waste or spoilage resulting from the use or consumption of such materials, less the value of renewable scrap or byproduct; and

"(iv) the value of goods and services relating to all materials determined in accordance with subparagraph 1(b) of article 8 of the Agreement on Implementation of article VII of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade; and

"(B) the direct cost of processing or the direct cost of assembling the goods.

"(g) Special Provision Regarding Application of Rules of Origin to Certain Apparel.—The Secretary of Commerce is authorized to issue regulations governing the exportation to Canada of apparel products that are cut, or knit to shape, and sewn, or otherwise assembled, in either Party from fabric produced or obtained in a third country for the purpose of establishing which exports of such products shall be permitted to claim preferential tariff treatment under the rules of origin of the Agreement, to the extent that the Agreement provides for quantitative limits on the availability of preferential tariff treatment for such products.

"SEC. 203. CUSTOMS USER FEES.

[Amended section 58c of this title.]

"SEC. 204. DRAWBACK.

"(a) Definition.—For purposes of this section, the term 'drawback eligible goods' means—

"(1) goods provided for under paragraph 8 of article 404 of the Agreement;

"(2) goods provided for under paragraphs 4 and 5 of such article; and

"(3) goods other than those referred to in paragraphs (1) and (2) that the United States and Canada agree are not subject to paragraphs 1, 2, and 3 of such article.

No drawback may be paid with respect to countervailing duties or antidumping duties imposed on drawback eligible goods.

"(b) Implementation of Article 404.—The President is authorized—

"(1) to proclaim the identity, in accordance with the nomenclature of the Harmonized System, of goods referred to in subsection (a)(1); and

"(2) subject to the consultation and lay-over requirements of section 103(a), to proclaim—

"(A) the identity, in accordance with the nomenclature of the Harmonized System, of goods referred to in subsection (a)(3); and

"(B) a delay in the taking effect of article 404 of the Agreement to a date later than January 1, 1994, with respect to any merchandise if the United States and Canada agree to the delay under paragraph 7 of such article.

"(c) Consequential Amendments.—

"(1) Bonded manufacturing warehouses.—[Amended section 1311 of this title.]

"(2) Bonded smelting and refining warehouses.—[Amended section 1312 of this title.]

"(3) Drawback.—[Amended section 1313 of this title.]

"(4) Manipulation in warehouse.—[Amended section 1562 of this title.]

"(5) Foreign trade zones.—[Amended section 81c of this title.]

"SEC. 205. ENFORCEMENT.

"(a) Certifications of Origin.—

"(1) Any person that certifies in writing that goods exported to Canada meet the rules of origin under section 202 of the United States-Canada Free-Trade Agreement Implementation Act of 1988 [section 202 of this note] shall provide, upon request by any customs official, a copy of that certification.

"(2) Any person that fails to provide a copy of a certification requested under paragraph (1) shall be liable to the United States for a civil penalty not to exceed $10,000.

"(3) Any person that certifies falsely that goods exported to Canada meet the rules of origin under such section 202 shall be liable to the United States for the same civil penalties provided under section 592 of the Tariff Act of 1930 (19 U.S.C. 1592) for a violation of section 592(a) of such Act by fraud, gross negligence, or negligence, as the case may be. The procedures and provisions of section 592 of such Act that are applicable to a violation under section 592(a) of such Act shall apply with respect to such false certification.

"(b) Housekeeping Requirements.—[Amended section 1508 of this title.]

"SEC. 206. EXEMPTION FROM LOTTERY TICKET EMBARGO

[Amended section 1305 of this title.]

"SEC. 207. PRODUCTION-BASED DUTY REMISSION PROGRAMS WITH RESPECT TO AUTOMOTIVE PRODUCTS.

"(a) USTR Study.—The United States Trade Representative shall—

"(1) undertake a study to determine whether any of the production-based duty remission programs of Canada with respect to automotive products is either—

"(A) inconsistent with the provisions of, or otherwise denies the benefits to the United States under, the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, or

"(B) being implemented inconsistently with the obligations under article 1002 of the Agreement not—

"(i) to expand the extent or the application, or

"(ii) to extend the duration,

  of such programs; and

"(2) determine whether to initiate an investigation under section 302 of the Trade Act of 1974 [19 U.S.C. 2412] with respect to any of such production-based duty remission programs.

"(b) Report and Monitoring.—

"(1) The United States Trade Representative shall submit a report to Congress no later than June 30, 1989 (or no later than September 30, 1989, if the Trade Representative considers an extension to be necessary) containing—

"(A) the results of the study under subsection (a)(1), as well as a description of the basis used for measuring and verifying compliance with the obligations referred to in subsection (a)(1)(B); and

"(B) any determination made under subsection (a)(2) and the reasons therefor.

"(2) Notwithstanding the submission of the report under paragraph (1), the Trade Representative shall continue to monitor the degree of compliance with the obligations referred to in subsection (a)(1)(B).

"TITLE III—APPLICATION OF AGREEMENT TO SECTORS AND SERVICES

"SEC. 301. AGRICULTURE.

"(a) Special Tariff Provisions for Fresh Fruits and Vegetables.—

"(1) The Secretary of Agriculture (hereafter in this section referred to as the 'Secretary') may recommend to the President the imposition of a temporary duty on any Canadian fresh fruit or vegetable entered into the United States if the Secretary determines that both of the following conditions exist at the time that imposition of the duty is recommended:

"(A) For each of 5 consecutive working days the import price of the Canadian fresh fruit or vegetable is below 90 percent of the corresponding 5-year average monthly import price for such fruit or vegetable.

"(B) The planted acreage in the United States for the like fresh fruit or vegetable is no higher than the average planted acreage over the preceding 5 years, excluding the years with the highest and lowest acreage. For the purposes of applying this subparagraph, any acreage increase attributed directly to a reduction in the acreage that was planted to wine grapes as of October 4, 1987, shall be excluded.

Whenever the Secretary makes a determination that the conditions referred to in subparagraphs (A) and (B) regarding any Canadian fresh fruit or vegetable exist, the Secretary shall immediately submit for publication in the Federal Register notice of the determination.

"(2) No later than 6 days after publication in the Federal Register of the notice described in paragraph (1), the Secretary shall decide whether to recommend the imposition of a temporary duty to the President, and if the Secretary decides to make such a recommendation, the recommendation shall be forwarded immediately to the President.

"(3) In determining whether to recommend the imposition of a temporary duty to the President under paragraph (1), the Secretary shall consider whether the conditions in subparagraphs (A) and (B) of such paragraph have led to a distortion in trade between the United States and Canada of the fresh fruit or vegetable and, if so, whether the imposition of the duty is appropriate, including consideration of whether it would significantly correct this distortion.

"(4) Not later than 7 days after receipt of a recommendation of the Secretary under paragraph (1), the President, after taking into account the national economic interests of the United States, shall determine whether to impose a temporary duty on the Canadian fresh fruit or vegetable concerned. If the determination is affirmative, the President shall proclaim the imposition and the rate of the temporary duty, but such duty shall not apply to the entry of articles that were in transit to the United States on the first day on which the temporary duty is in effect.

"(5) A temporary duty imposed under paragraph (4) shall cease to apply with respect to articles that are entered on or after the earlier of—

"(A) the day following the last of 5 consecutive working days with respect to which the Secretary determines that the point of shipment price in Canada for the Canadian fruit or vegetable concerned exceeds 90 percent of the corresponding 5-year average monthly import price; or

"(B) the 180th day after the date on which the temporary duty first took effect.

"(6) No temporary duty may be imposed under this subsection on a Canadian fresh fruit or vegetable during such time as import relief is provided with respect to such fresh fruit or vegetable under chapter 1 of title II of the Trade Act of 1974 [19 U.S.C. 2251 et seq.].

"(7) For purposes of this subsection:

"(A) The term 'Canadian fresh fruit or vegetable' means any article originating in Canada (as determined in accordance with section 202) and classified within any of the following headings of the Harmonized System:

"(i) 07.01 (relating to potatoes, fresh or chilled);

"(ii) 07.02 (relating to tomatoes, fresh or chilled);

"(iii) 07.03 (relating to onions, shallots, garlic, leeks and other alliaceous vegetables, fresh or chilled);

"(iv) 07.04 (relating to cabbages, cauliflowers, kohlrabi, kale and similar edible brassicas, fresh or chilled);

"(v) 07.05 (relating to lettuce (lactuca sativa) and chicory (cichorium spp.), fresh or chilled);

"(vi) 07.06 (relating to carrots, salad beets or beetroot, salsify, celeriac, radishes and similar edible roots (excluding turnips), fresh or chilled);

"(vii) 07.07 (relating to cucumbers and gherkins, fresh or chilled);

"(viii) 07.08 (relating to leguminous vegetables, shelled or unshelled, fresh or chilled);

"(ix) 07.09 (relating to other vegetables (excluding truffles), fresh or chilled);

"(x) 08.06.10 (relating to grapes, fresh);

"(xi) 08.08.20 (relating to pears and quinces, fresh);

"(xii) 08.09 (relating to apricots, cherries, peaches (including nectarines), plums and sloes, fresh); and

"(xiii) 08.10 (relating to other fruit (excluding cranberries and blueberries), fresh).

"(B) The term 'corresponding 5-year average monthly import price' for a particular day means the average import price of a Canadian fresh fruit or vegetable, for the calendar month in which that day occurs, for that month in each of the preceding 5 years, excluding the years with the highest and lowest monthly averages.

"(C) The term 'import price' has the meaning given such term in article 711 of the Agreement.

"(D) The rate of a temporary duty imposed under this subsection with respect to a Canadian fresh fruit or vegetable means a rate that, including the rate of any other duty in effect for such fruit or vegetable, does not exceed the lesser of—

"(i) the duty that was in effect for the fresh fruit or vegetable before January 1, 1989, under column one of the Tariff Schedules of the United States for the applicable season in which the temporary duty is applied; or

"(ii) the duty in effect for the fresh fruit or vegetable under column one of such Schedules, or column 1 (General) of the Harmonized System, at the time the temporary duty is applied.

"(8)(A) The Secretary shall, to the extent practicable, administer the provisions of this subsection to the 8-digit level of classification under the Harmonized System.

"(B) The Secretary may issue such regulations as may be necessary to implement the provisions of this subsection.

"(9) For purposes of assisting the Secretary in carrying out this subsection—

"(A) the Commissioner of U.S. Customs and Border Protection and the Director of the Bureau of Census shall cooperate in providing the Secretary with timely information and data relating to the importation of Canadian fresh fruits and vegetables, and

"(B) importers shall report such information relating to Canadian fresh fruits and vegetables to the Commissioner of U.S. Customs and Border Protection at such time and in such manner as the Commissioner requires.

"(10) The authority to impose temporary duties under this subsection expires on the 20th anniversary of the date on which the Agreement enters into force.

"(b) Meat Import Act of 1979.—[Amended section 2 of Pub. L. 88–482, set out as a note under section 2253 of this title.]

"(c) Agricultural Adjustment Act.—[Amended section 624 of Title 7, Agriculture.]

"(d) Importation of Animal Vaccines.—[Amended section 152 of Title 21, Food and Drugs.]

"(e) Importation of Seeds.—[Amended section 1582 of Title 7, Agriculture.]

"(f) Plant and Animal Health Regulations.—

"(1) [Amended section 150bb of Title 7.]

"(2) [Amended section 150cc of Title 7.]

"(3) [Amended sections 154 and 156 of Title 7.]

"(4) [Amended section 2803 of Title 7.]

"(5) [Amended section 1306 of this title.]

"SEC. 302. RELIEF FROM IMPORTS.

"(a) Relief From Imports of Canadian Articles.—

"(1) A petition requesting action under this section for the purpose of adjusting to the obligations of the United States under the Agreement may be filed with the United States International Trade Commission (hereafter in this section referred to as the 'Commission') by an entity, including a trade association, firm, certified or recognized union, or group of workers, which is representative of an industry. The Commission shall transmit a copy of any petition filed under this paragraph to the United States Trade Representative.

"(2)(A) Upon the filing of a petition under paragraph (1), the Commission shall promptly initiate an investigation to determine whether, as a result of a reduction or elimination of a duty provided for under the United States-Canada Free-Trade Agreement, an article originating in Canada is being imported into the United States in such increased quantities, in absolute terms, and under such conditions, so that imports of such Canadian article, alone, constitute a substantial cause of serious injury to the domestic industry producing an article like, or directly competitive with, the imported article.

"(B) The provisions of—

"(i) paragraphs (2), (3), (4), (6), and (7) of subsection (b), other than paragraph (2)(B), and

"(ii) subsection (c),

of section 201 of the Trade Act of 1974 (19 U.S.C. 2251), as in effect on June 1, 1988, shall apply with respect to any investigation initiated under subparagraph (A).

"(C) By no later than the date that is 120 days after the date on which an investigation is initiated under subparagraph (A), the Commission shall make a determination under subparagraph (A) with respect to such investigation.

"(D) If the determination made by the Commission under subparagraph (A) with respect to imports of an article is affirmative, the Commission shall find and recommend to the President the amount of import relief that is necessary to remedy the injury found by the Commission in such affirmative determination, which shall be limited to that set forth in paragraph (3)(C).

"(E)(i) By no later than the date that is 30 days after the date on which a determination is made under subparagraph (A) with respect to an investigation, the Commission shall submit to the President a report on the determination and the basis for the determination. The report shall include any dissenting or separate views and a transcript of the hearings and any briefs which were submitted to the Commission in the course of the investigation initiated under subparagraph (A).

"(ii) Any finding made under subparagraph (D) shall be included in the report submitted to the President under clause (i).

"(F) Upon submitting a report to the President under subparagraph (E), the Commission shall promptly make public such report (with the exception of information which the Commission determines to be confidential) and shall cause a summary thereof to be published in the Federal Register.

"(G) For purposes of this subsection—

"(i) The provisions of paragraphs (1), (2), and (3) of section 330(d) of the Tariff Act of 1930 (19 U.S.C. 1330(d)) shall be applied with respect to determinations and findings made under this paragraph as if such determinations and findings were made under section 201 of the Trade Act of 1974 (19 U.S.C. 2251).

"(ii) The determination of whether an article originates in Canada shall be made in accordance with section 202 (including any proclamations issued under section 202).

"(3)(A) By no later than the date that is 30 days after the date on which the President receives the report of the Commission containing an affirmative determination made by the Commission under paragraph (2)(A), the President shall provide relief from imports of the article originating in Canada that is the subject of such determination to the extent that, and for such time (not to exceed 3 years) as the President determines to be necessary to remedy the injury found by the Commission.

"(B) The President is not required to provide import relief by reason of this paragraph if the President determines that the provision of such import relief is not in the national economic interest.

"(C) The import relief that the President is authorized to provide by reason of this paragraph with respect to an article originating in Canada is limited to—

"(i) the suspension of any further reductions provided for under the Agreement in the duty imposed on such article originating in Canada,

"(ii) an increase in the rate of duty imposed on such article originating in Canada to a level that does not exceed the lesser of—

"(I) the general subcolumn of the column 1 rate of duty set forth in the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States that is imposed by the United States on such article from any other foreign country at the time such import relief is provided, or

"(II) the general subcolumn of the column 1 rate of duty set forth in the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States that is imposed by the United States on such article from any other foreign country on the day before the date on which the Agreement enters into force [Jan. 1, 1989], or

"(iii) in the case of a duty applied on a seasonal basis to such article originating in Canada, an increase in the rate of duty imposed on such article originating in Canada to a level that does not exceed the general subcolumn of the column 1 rate of duty set forth in the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States imposed by the United States on such article originating in Canada for the corresponding season immediately prior to the date on which the Agreement enters into force.

"(4)(A) No investigation may be initiated under paragraph (2)(A) with respect to any article for which import relief has been provided under this subsection.

"(B) No import relief may be provided under this subsection after the date that is 10 years after the date on which the Agreement enters into force [Jan. 1, 1989].

"(5) For purposes of section 123 of the Trade Act of 1974 (19 U.S.C. 2133), any import relief provided by the President under paragraph (3) shall be treated as action taken under chapter I [1] of title II of such Act [19 U.S.C. 2251 et seq.].

"(b) Relief From Imports From All Countries.—

"(1)(A) If, in any investigation initiated under chapter 1 of title II of the Trade Act of 1974 [19 U.S.C. 2251 et seq.], the Commission makes an affirmative determination (or a determination which is treated as an affirmative determination under such chapter by reason of section 330(d) of the Tariff Act of 1930 [19 U.S.C. 1330(d)]) that an article is being imported into the United States in such increased quantities as to be a substantial cause of serious injury, or the threat thereof, to the domestic industry, the Commission shall also find (and report to the President at the time such injury determination is submitted to the President), whether imports from Canada of the article that is the subject of such investigation are substantial and are contributing importantly to such injury or threat thereof.

"(B)(i) In determining under subparagraph (A) whether imports of an article from Canada are substantial, the Commission shall not normally consider imports from Canada in the range of 5 to 10 percent or less of total imports of such article to be substantial.

"(ii) For purposes of this paragraph, the term 'contributing importantly' means an important cause, but not necessarily the most important cause, of the serious injury or threat thereof caused by imports.

"(2)(A) In determining whether to take action under chapter 1 of title II of the Trade Act of 1974 with respect to imports from Canada, the President shall determine whether imports from Canada of such article are substantial and contributing importantly to the serious injury or threat of serious injury found by the Commission.

"(B) In determining the nature and extent of action to be taken under chapter 1 of title II of the Trade Act of 1974, the President shall exclude from such action imports from Canada if the President has made a negative determination under subparagraph (A) regarding imports from Canada.

"(3)(A) If, under paragraph (2)(B), the President excludes imports from Canada from action taken under chapter 1 of title II of the Trade Act of 1974, the President may, if the President thereafter determines that a surge in imports from Canada of the article that is the subject of the action is undermining the effectiveness of the action, take appropriate action under such chapter with respect to such imports from Canada to include such imports in such action.

"(B)(i) If, under paragraph (2)(B), the President excludes imports from Canada from action taken under chapter 1 of title II of the Trade Act of 1974, any entity, including a trade association, firm, certified or recognized union, or group of workers, that is representative of an industry for which such action is being taken under such chapter may request the Commission to conduct an investigation of imports from Canada of the article that is the subject of such action.

"(ii) Upon receiving a request under clause (i), the Commission shall conduct an investigation to determine whether a surge in imports from Canada of the article that is the subject of action being taken under chapter 1 of title II of the Trade Act of 1974 undermines the effectiveness of such action. The Commission shall submit the findings of such investigation to the President by no later than the date that is 30 days after the date on which such request is received by the Commission.

"(C) For purposes of this paragraph, the term 'surge' means a significant increase in imports over the trend for a reasonable, recent base period for which data are available.

"(c) Any entity that is representative of an industry may submit a petition for relief under subsection (a), under chapter 1 of title II of the Trade Act of 1974, or under both subsection (a) and such chapter at the same time. If petitions are submitted by such an entity under subsection (a) and such chapter at the same time, the Commission shall consider such petitions jointly.

"SEC. 303. ACTS IDENTIFIED IN NATIONAL TRADE ESTIMATES.

"With respect to any act, policy, or practice of Canada that is identified in the annual report submitted under section 181 of the Trade Act of 1974 (19 U.S.C. 2241), the United States Trade Representative shall include—

"(1) information with respect to the action taken regarding such act, policy, or practice, including but not limited to—

"(A) any action under section 301 of the Trade Act of 1974 [19 U.S.C. 2411] (including resolution through appropriate dispute settlement procedures),

"(B) any action under section 307 of the Trade and Tariff Act of 1984 [section 307 of Pub. L. 98–573, enacting section 2114d of this title and amending this section], and

"(C) negotiations or consultations, whether on a bilateral or multilateral basis; or

"(2) the reasons that no action was taken regarding such act, policy, or practice.

"SEC. 304. NEGOTIATIONS REGARDING CERTAIN SECTORS; BIENNIAL REPORTS.

"(a) In General.—

"(1) The President is authorized to enter into negotiations with the Government of Canada for the purpose of concluding an agreement (including an agreement amending the Agreement) or agreements to—

"(A) liberalize trade in services in accordance with article 1405 of the Agreement;

"(B) liberalize investment rules;

"(C) improve the protection of intellectual property rights;

"(D) increase the value requirement applied for purposes of determining whether an automotive product is treated as originating in Canada or the United States; and

"(E) liberalize government procurement practices, particularly with regard to telecommunications.

"(2) As an exercise of the foreign relations powers of the President under the Constitution, the President will enter into immediate consultations with the Government of Canada to obtain the exclusion from the transport rates established under Canada's Western Grain Transportation Act of agricultural goods that originate in Canada and are shipped via east coast ports for consumption in the United States.

"(b) Negotiating Objectives Regarding Services, Investment, and Intellectual Property Rights.—

"(1) The objectives of the United States in negotiations conducted under subsection (a)(1)(A) to liberalize trade in services include—

"(A) with respect to developing services sectors not covered in the Agreement, the elimination of those tariff, nontariff, and subsidy trade distortions that have potential to affect significant bilateral trade;

"(B) the elimination or reduction of measures grandfathered by the Agreement that deny or restrict national treatment in the provision of services;

"(C) the elimination of local presence requirements; and

"(D) the liberalization of government procurement of services.

In conducting such negotiations, the President shall consult with the services advisory committees established under section 135 of the Trade Act of 1974 (19 U.S.C. 2155).

"(2) The objectives of the United States in any negotiations conducted under subsection (a)(1)(B) to liberalize investment rules include—

"(A) the elimination of direct investment screening;

"(B) the extension of the principles of the Agreement to energy and cultural industries, to the extent such industries are not currently covered by the Agreement;

"(C) the elimination of technology transfer requirements and other performance requirements not currently barred by the Agreement; and

"(D) the subjection of all investment disputes to dispute resolution under chapter 18 of the Agreement.

In conducting such negotiations, the President shall consult with persons representing diverse interests in the United States in investment.

"(3) The objectives of the United States in any negotiations conducted under subsection (a)(1)(C) to improve the protection of intellectual property rights include—

"(A) the recognition and adequate protection of intellectual property, including copyrights, patents, process patents, trademarks, mask works, and trade secrets; and

"(B) the establishment of dispute resolution procedures and binational enforcement of intellectual property standards.

In conducting such negotiations, the President shall consult with persons representing diverse interests in the United States in intellectual property.

"(c) Negotiating Objectives Regarding Automotive Products.—

"(1) In conducting negotiations under subsection (a)(1)(D) regarding the value requirement for automotive products, the President shall seek to conclude an agreement by no later than January 1, 1990, to increase the value requirement from 50 percent to at least 60 percent.

"(2) The President is authorized, through January 1, 1999, to proclaim any agreed increase in the value requirement.

"(3) As used in this section, the term 'value requirement' means the minimum percentage of the value of an automotive product that must be accounted for by the value of the materials in the product that originated in the United States or Canada, or both, plus the direct cost of processing or assembly performed in the United States or Canada, or both, with respect to the product.

"(d) Negotiation of Limitation on Potato Trade.—

"(1) During the 5-year period beginning on the date of enactment of this Act [Sept. 28, 1988], the President is authorized to enter into negotiations with Canada for the purpose of obtaining an agreement to limit the exportation and importation of all potatoes between the United States and Canada, including seed potatoes, fresh, chilled or frozen potatoes, dried, desiccated or dehydrated potatoes, and potatoes otherwise prepared or preserved. Any agreement negotiated under this subsection shall provide for an annual limitation divided equally into each half of the year.

"(2) For the purpose of conducting negotiations under paragraph (1), the Secretary of Agriculture and the United States Trade Representative shall consult with representatives of the potato producing industry, including the Ad Hoc Potato Advisory Group and the United States/Canada Horticultural Industry Advisory Committee, to solicit their views on negotiations with Canada for reciprocal quantitative limits on the potato trade.

"(3) The President is authorized to direct the Secretary of the Treasury to—

"(A) carry out such actions as may be necessary or appropriate to ensure the attainment of the objectives of any agreement that is entered into under this section; and

"(B) enforce any quantitative limitation, restriction, and other terms contained in the agreement.

Such actions may include, but are not limited to, requirements that valid export licenses or other documentation issued by a foreign government be presented as a condition for the entry into the United States of any article that is subject to the agreement.

"(4) The provisions of section 1204 of the Agriculture and Food Act of 1981 (7 U.S.C. 1736j) and the last sentence of section 812 of the Agricultural Act of 1970 (7 U.S.C. 612c–3) shall not apply in the case of actions taken pursuant to this subsection.

"(e) Canadian Controls on Fish.—

"(1) Within 30 days of the application by Canada of export controls on unprocessed fish under statutes exempted from the Agreement under article 1203, or the application of landing requirements for fish caught in Canadian waters, the President shall take appropriate action to enforce United States rights under the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade that are retained in article 1205 of the Agreement.

"(2) In enforcing the United States rights referred to in paragraph (1), the President has discretion to—

"(A) bring a challenge to the offending Canadian practices before the GATT;

"(B) retaliate against such offending practices;

"(C) seek resolution directly with Canada;

"(D) refer the matter for dispute resolution to the Canada-United States Trade Commission; or

"(E) take other action that the President considers appropriate to enforce such United States rights.

"(f) Biennial Report.—The President shall submit to the Congress, at the close of each biennial period occurring after the date on which the Agreement enters into force [Jan. 1, 1989], a report regarding—

"(1) the status of the negotiations regarding agreements that the President is authorized to enter into with Canada under this section;

"(2) the effectiveness and operation of any agreement entered into under section 304 that is in force with respect to the United States;

"(3) the effectiveness of operation of the Agreement generally; and

"(4) the actions taken by the United States and Canada to implement further the objectives of the Agreement.

"SEC. 305. ENERGY.

"(a) Alaskan Oil.—[Amended section 4606 of Title 50, War and National Defense.]

"(b) Uranium.—[Amended section 2201 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare.]

"SEC. 306. LOWERED THRESHOLD FOR GOVERNMENT PROCUREMENT UNDER TRADE AGREEMENTS ACT OF 1979 IN THE CASE OF CERTAIN CANADIAN PRODUCTS.

[Amended section 2518 of this title.]

"SEC. 307. TEMPORARY ENTRY FOR BUSINESS PERSONS.

"(a) Nonimmigrant Traders and Investors.—Upon a basis of reciprocity secured by the United States-Canada Free-Trade Agreement, a citizen of Canada, and the spouse and children of any such citizen if accompanying or following to join such citizen, may, if otherwise eligible for a visa and if otherwise admissible into the United States under the Immigration and Nationality Act (8 U.S.C. 1101 et seq.), be considered to be classifiable as a nonimmigrant under section 101(a)(15)(E) of such Act (8 U.S.C. 1101(a)(15)(E)) if entering solely for a purpose specified in Annex 1502.1 (United States of America), Part B—Traders and Investors, of such Agreement, but only if any such purpose shall have been specified in such Annex as of the date of entry into force of such Agreement [Jan. 1, 1989].

"(b) Nonimmigrant Professionals.—[Amended section 1184 of Title 8, Aliens and Nationality.]

"SEC. 308. AMENDMENT TO SECTION 5136 OF THE REVISED STATUTES.

[Amended section 24 of Title 12, Banks and Banking.]

"SEC. 309. STEEL PRODUCTS.

"Nothing in this Act shall preclude any discussion or negotiation between the United States and Canada in order to conclude voluntary restraint agreements or mutually agreed quantitative restrictions on the volume of steel products entering the United States from Canada.

"TITLE IV—BINATIONAL PANEL DISPUTE SETTLEMENT IN ANTIDUMPING AND COUNTERVAILING DUTY CASES.

"SEC. 401. AMENDMENTS TO SECTION 516A OF THE TARIFF ACT OF 1930.

[Amended section 1516a of this title.]

"SEC. 402. AMENDMENTS TO TITLE 28, UNITED STATES CODE.

"(a) Jurisdiction of Court of International Trade.—[Amended section 1581 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure.]

"(b) Relief in Court of International Trade.—[Amended section 2643 of Title 28.]

"(c) Declaratory Judgments.—[Amended section 2201 of Title 28.]

"(d) Actions Under the Agreement.—[Enacted section 1584 of Title 28.]

"SEC. 403. CONFORMING AMENDMENTS TO THE TARIFF ACT OF 1930.

[Amended sections 1502, 1514, 1677, and 1677f of this title.]

"SEC. 404. AMENDMENTS TO ANTIDUMPING AND COUNTERVAILING DUTY LAW.

"Any amendment enacted after the Agreement enters into force with respect to the United States [Jan. 1, 1989] that is made to—

"(1) section 303 [19 U.S.C. 1303] or title VII of the Tariff Act of 1930 [19 U.S.C. 1671 et seq.], or any successor statute, or

"(2) any other statute which—

"(A) provides for judicial review of final determinations under such section, title, or statute, or

"(B) indicates the standard of review to be applied,

shall apply to Canada only to the extent specified in such amendment.

"SEC. 405. ORGANIZATIONAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS REGARDING THE IMPLEMENTATION OF CHAPTERS 18 AND 19 OF THE AGREEMENT.

"(a) Appointment of Individuals to Panels and Committees.—

"(1)(A) There is established within the interagency organization established under section 242 of the Trade Expansion Act of 1962 (19 U.S.C. 1872) an interagency group which shall—

"(i) be chaired by the United States Trade Representative (hereafter in this section referred to as the 'Trade Representative'), and

"(ii) consist of such officers (or the designees thereof) of the Government of the United States as the Trade Representative considers appropriate.

"(B) The interagency group established under subparagraph (A) shall, in a manner consistent with chapter 19 of the Agreement—

"(i) prepare by January 3 of each calendar year—

"(I) a list of individuals who are qualified to serve as members of binational panels convened under chapter 19 of the Agreement, and

"(II) a list of individuals who are qualified to serve on extraordinary challenge committees convened under such chapter,

"(ii) if the Trade Representative makes a request under paragraph (5)(A)(i) with respect to a final candidate list during any calendar year, prepare by July 1 of such calendar year a list of those individuals who are qualified to be added to that final candidate list,

"(iii) exercise oversight of the administration of the United States Secretariat that is authorized to be established under subsection (e), and

"(iv) make recommendations to the Trade Representative regarding the convening of extraordinary challenge committees under chapter 19 of the Agreement.

"(2)(A) The Trade Representative shall select individuals from the respective lists prepared by the interagency group under paragraph (1)(B)(i) for placement on a preliminary candidate list of individuals eligible to serve as members of binational panels under Annex 1901.2 of the Agreement and a preliminary candidate list of individuals eligible for selection as members of extraordinary challenge committees under Annex 1904.13 of the Agreement.

"(B) The selection of individuals for—

"(i) placement on lists prepared by the interagency group under clause (i) or (ii) of paragraph (1)(B),

"(ii) placement on preliminary candidate lists under subparagraph (A),

"(iii) placement on final candidate lists under paragraph (3),

"(iv) placement by the Trade Representative on the rosters described in Annex 1901.2(1) and Annex 1904.13(1) of the Agreement, and

"(v) appointment by the Trade Representative for service on binational panels and extraordinary challenge committees convened under chapter 19 of the Agreement,

shall be made on the basis of the criteria provided in Annex 1901.2(1) and Annex 1904.13(1) of the Agreement and shall be made without regard to political affiliation.

"(C) For purposes of applying section 1001 of title 18, United States Code, the written or oral responses of individuals to inquiries of the interagency group established under paragraph (1) or the Trade Representative regarding their personal and professional qualifications, and financial and other relevant interests, that bear on their suitability for the placements and appointments described in subparagraph (B), shall be treated as matters within the jurisdiction of an agency of the United States.

"(3)(A) By no later than January 3 of each calendar year, the Trade Representative shall submit to the Committee on Finance of the Senate and the Committee on Ways and Means of the House of Representatives (hereafter in this section referred to as the 'appropriate Congressional Committees') the preliminary candidate lists of those individuals selected by the Trade Representative under paragraph (2)(A) to be candidates eligible to serve on binational panels or extraordinary challenge committees convened pursuant to chapter 19 of the Agreement during the 1-year period beginning on April 1 of such calendar year.

"(B) Upon submission of the preliminary candidate lists under subparagraph (A) to the appropriate Congressional Committees, the Trade Representative shall consult with the appropriate Congressional Committees with regard to the individuals listed on the preliminary candidate lists.

"(C) The Trade Representative may add or delete individuals from the preliminary candidate lists submitted under subparagraph (A) after consulting the appropriate Congressional Committees with regard to such addition or deletion. The Trade Representative shall provide to the appropriate Congressional Committees written notice of any addition or deletion of an individual from the preliminary candidate lists.

"(4)(A) By no later than March 31 of each calendar year, the Trade Representative shall submit to the appropriate Congressional Committees the final candidate lists of those individuals selected by the Trade Representative to be candidates eligible to serve on binational panels and extraordinary challenge committees convened pursuant to chapter 19 of the Agreement during the 1-year period beginning on April 1 of such calendar year. An individual may be included on a final candidate list only if written notice of the addition of such individual to the preliminary candidate list was submitted to the appropriate Congressional Committees at least 15 days before the date on which that final candidate list is submitted to the appropriate Congressional Committees under this subparagraph.

"(B) Except as provided in paragraph (5), no additions may be made to the final candidate lists after the final candidate lists are submitted to the appropriate Congressional Committees under subparagraph (A).

"(5)(A) If, after the Trade Representative has submitted the final candidate lists to the appropriate Congressional Committees under paragraph (4)(A) for a calendar year and before July 1 of such calendar year, the Trade Representative determines that additional individuals need to be added to a final candidate list, the Trade Representative shall—

"(i) request the interagency group established under paragraph (1)(A) to prepare a list of individuals who are qualified to be added to such candidate list,

"(ii) select individuals from the list prepared by the interagency group under paragraph (1)(B)(ii) to be included in a proposed amendment to such final candidate list, and

"(iii) by no later than July 1 of such calendar year, submit to the appropriate Congressional Committees the proposed amendments to such final candidate list developed by the Trade Representative under clause (ii).

"(B) Upon submission of a proposed amendment under subparagraph (A)(iii) to the appropriate Congressional Committees, the Trade Representative shall consult with the appropriate Congressional Committees with regard to the individuals included in the proposed amendment.

"(C) The Trade Representative may add or delete individuals from any proposed amendment submitted under subparagraph (A)(iii) after consulting the appropriate Congressional Committees with regard to such addition or deletion. The Trade Representative shall provide to the appropriate Congressional Committees written notice of any addition or deletion of an individual from the proposed amendment.

"(D)(i) If the Trade Representative submits under subparagraph (A)(iii) in any calendar year a proposed amendment to a final candidate list, the Trade Representative shall, by no later than September 30 of such calendar year, submit to the appropriate Congressional Committees the final form of such amendment. On October 1 of such calendar year, such amendment shall take effect and the individuals included in the final form of such amendment shall be added to the final candidate list.

"(ii) An individual may be included in the final form of an amendment submitted under clause (i) only if written notice of the addition of such individual to the proposed form of such amendment was submitted to the appropriate Congressional Committees at least 15 days before the date on which the final form of such amendment is submitted under clause (i).

"(iii) Individuals added to a final candidate list under clause (i) shall be eligible to serve on binational panels or extraordinary challenge committees convened pursuant to chapter 19 of the Agreement, as the case may be, during the 6-month period beginning on October 1 of the calendar year in which such addition occurs.

"(iv) No additions may be made to the final form of an amendment described in clause (i) after the final form of such amendment is submitted to the appropriate Congressional Committees under clause (i).

"(6)(A) The Trade Representative is the only officer of the Government of the United States authorized to act on behalf of the Government of the United States in making any selection or appointment of an individual to—

"(i) the rosters described in Annex 1901.2(1) and Annex 1904.13(1) of the Agreement, or

"(ii) the binational panels or extraordinary challenge committees convened pursuant to chapter 19 of the Agreement,

that is to be made solely or jointly by the Government of the United States under the terms of the Agreement.

"(B) Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (7)(B), the Trade Representative may—

"(i) select an individual for placement on the rosters described in Annex 1901.2(1) and Annex 1904.13(1) of the Agreement during the 1-year period beginning on April 1 of any calendar year,

"(ii) appoint an individual to serve as one of those members of any binational panel or extraordinary challenge committee convened pursuant to chapter 19 of the Agreement during such 1-year period who, under the terms of the Agreement, are to be appointed solely by the Government of the United States, or

"(iii) act to make a joint appointment with the Government of Canada, under the terms of the Agreement, of any individual who is a citizen or national of the United States to serve as any other member of such a panel or committee,

only if such individual is on the appropriate final candidate list that was submitted to the appropriate Congressional Committees under paragraph (4)(A) during such calendar year or on such list as it may be amended under paragraph (5)(D)(i).

"(7)(A) Except as otherwise provided in this paragraph, no individual may—

"(i) be selected by the Government of the United States for placement on the rosters described in Annex 1901.2(1) and Annex 1904.13(1) of the Agreement, or

"(ii) be appointed solely or jointly by the Government of the United States to serve as a member of a binational panel or extraordinary challenge committee convened pursuant to chapter 19 of the Agreement,

during the 1-year period beginning on April 1 of any calendar year for which the Trade Representative has not met the requirements of this subsection.

"(B)(i) Notwithstanding paragraphs (3), (4), or (6)(B) (other than paragraph (3)(A)), individuals listed on the preliminary candidate lists submitted to the appropriate Congressional Committees under paragraph (3)(A) may—

"(I) be selected by the Trade Representative for placement on the rosters described in Annex 1901.2(1) and Annex 1904.13(1) of the Agreement during the 3-month period beginning on the date on which the Agreement enters into force, and

"(II) be appointed solely or jointly by the Trade Representative under the terms of the Agreement to serve as members of binational panels or extraordinary challenge committees that are convened pursuant to chapter 19 of the Agreement during such 3-month period.

"(ii) If the Agreement enters into force after January 3, 1989, the provisions of this subsection shall be applied with respect to the calendar year in which the Agreement enters into force—

"(I) by substituting 'the date that is 30 days after the date on which the Agreement enters into force' for 'January 3 of each calendar year' in paragraphs (1)(B)(i) and (3)(A), and

"(II) by substituting 'the date that is 3 months after the date on which the Agreement enters into force' for 'March 31 of each calendar year' in paragraph (4)(A).

"(b) Status of Panelists.—Notwithstanding any other provision of law, individuals appointed by the United States to serve on panels or committees convened pursuant to chapter 19 of the Agreement, and individuals designated to assist such appointed individuals, shall not be considered to be employees or special employees of, or to be otherwise affiliated with, the Government of the United States.

"(c) Immunity of Panelists.—With the exception of acts described in section 777f(d)(3) [777(d)(3)] of the Tariff Act of 1930, as added by this Act [19 U.S.C. 1677f(d)(3)], individuals serving on panels or committees convened pursuant to chapter 19 of the Agreement, and individuals designated to assist the individuals serving on such panels or committees, shall be immune from suit and legal process relating to acts performed by such individuals in their official capacity and within the scope of their functions as such panelists or committee members or assistants to such panelists or committee members.

"(d) Regulations.—The administering authority under title VII of the Tariff Act of 1930 [19 U.S.C. 1671 et seq.], the United States International Trade Commission, and the United States Trade Representative may promulgate such regulations as are necessary or appropriate to carry out actions in order to implement their respective responsibilities under chapters 18 and 19 of the Agreement. Initial regulations to carry out such functions shall be issued prior to the date of entry into force of the Agreement [Jan. 1, 1989].

"(e) Establishment of United States Secretariat.—

"(1) The President is authorized to establish within any department or agency of the Federal Government a United States Secretariat which, subject to the oversight of the interagency group established under subsection (a)(1)(A), shall facilitate—

"(A) the operation of chapters 18 and 19 of the Agreement, and

"(B) the work of the binational panels and extraordinary challenge committees convened under chapters 18 and 19 of the Agreement.

"(2) The United States Secretariat established by the President under paragraph (1) shall not be considered to be an agency for purposes of section 552 of title 5, United States Code.

"SEC. 406. AUTHORIZATION OF APPROPRIATIONS FOR THE SECRETARIAT, THE PANELS, AND THE COMMITTEES.

"(a) The Secretariat.—There are authorized to be appropriated to the department or agency within which the United States Secretariat described in chapter 19 of the Agreement is established the lesser of—

"(1) such sums as may be necessary, or

"(2) $5,000,000,

for each fiscal year succeeding fiscal year 1988 for the establishment and operations of such United States Secretariat and for the payment of the United States share of the expenses of the dispute settlement proceedings under chapter 18 of the Agreement.

"(b) Panels and Committees.—

"(1) There are authorized to be appropriated to the Office of the United States Trade Representative for fiscal year 1990, $1,492,000 to pay during such fiscal year the United States share of the expenses of binational panels and extraordinary challenge committees convened pursuant to chapter 19 of the Agreement.

"(2) The United States Trade Representative is authorized to transfer to any department or agency of the United States, from sums appropriated pursuant to the authorization provided under paragraph (1) or section 141(g)(1) of the Trade Act of 1974 [19 U.S.C. 2171(g)(1)], such funds as may be necessary to facilitate the payment of the expenses described in paragraph (1).

"(3) Funds appropriated for the payment of expenses described in paragraph (1) during any fiscal year may be expended only to the extent such funds do not exceed the amount authorized to be appropriated under paragraph (1) for such fiscal year. This paragraph shall apply, notwithstanding any law enacted after the date of enactment of this Act [Sept. 28, 1988], unless such subsequent law specifically provides that this paragraph shall not apply and specifically cites this paragraph.

"(4) If the Canadian Secretariat described in chapter 19 of the Agreement provides funds during any fiscal year for the purpose of paying, in accordance with Annex 1901.2 of the Agreement, the Canadian share of the expenses of binational panels, the United States Secretariat established under section 405(e)(1) may hereafter retain and use such funds for such purposes.

"SEC. 407. TESTIMONY AND PRODUCTION OF PAPERS IN EXTRAORDINARY CHALLENGES.

"(a) Authority of Extraordinary Challenge Committee To Obtain Information.—If an extraordinary challenge committee (hereinafter referred to in this section as the 'committee') is convened pursuant to article 1904(13) of the Agreement, and the allegations before the committee include a matter referred to in article 1904(13)(a)(i) of the Agreement, for the purposes of carrying out its functions and duties under Annex 1904.13 of the Agreement, the committee—

"(1) shall have access to, and the right to copy, any document, paper, or record pertinent to the subject matter under consideration, in the possession of any individual, partnership, corporation, association, organization, or other entity,

"(2) may summon witnesses, take testimony, and administer oaths,

"(3) may require any individual, partnership, corporation, association, organization, or other entity to produce documents, books, or records relating to the matter in question, and

"(4) may require any individual, partnership, corporation, association, organization, or other entity to furnish in writing, in such detail and in such form as the committee may prescribe, information in its possession pertaining to the matter.

Any member of the committee may sign subpoenas, and members of the committee, when authorized by the committee, may administer oaths and affirmations, examine witnesses, take testimony, and receive evidence.

"(b) Witnesses and Evidence.—The attendance of witnesses who are authorized to be summoned, and the production of documentary evidence authorized to be ordered, under subsection (a) may be required from any place in the United States at any designated place of hearing. In the case of disobedience to a subpoena authorized under subsection (a), the committee may request the Attorney General of the United States to invoke the aid of any district or territorial court of the United States in requiring the attendance and testimony of witnesses and the production of documentary evidence. Such court, within the jurisdiction of which such inquiry is carried on, may, in case of contumacy or refusal to obey a subpoena issued to any individual, partnership, corporation, association, organization, or other entity, issue an order requiring such individual or entity to appear before the committee, or to produce documentary evidence if so ordered or to give evidence concerning the matter in question. Any failure to obey such order of the court may be punished by such court as a contempt thereof.

"(c) Mandamus.—Any court referred to in subsection (b) shall have jurisdiction to issue writs of mandamus commanding compliance with the provisions of this section or any order of the committee made in pursuance thereof.

"(d) Depositions.—The committee may order testimony to be taken by deposition at any stage of the committee review. Such deposition may be taken before any person designated by the committee and having power to administer oaths. Such testimony shall be reduced to writing by the person taking the deposition, or under the direction of such person, and shall then be subscribed by the deponent. Any individual, partnership, corporation, association, organization or other entity may be compelled to appear and depose and to produce documentary evidence in the same manner as witnesses may be compelled to appear and testify and produce documentary evidence before the committee, as provided in this section.

"SEC. 408. REQUESTS FOR REVIEW OF CANADIAN ANTIDUMPING AND COUNTERVAILING DUTY DETERMINATIONS.

"(a) Requests for Review by the United States.—In the case of a final antidumping or countervailing duty determination of a competent investigating authority of Canada, as defined in article 1911 of the Agreement, requests by the United States for binational panel review under article 1904 of the Agreement shall be made by the United States Secretary, described in article 1909(4) of the Agreement.

"(b) Requests for Review by a Person.—In the case of a final antidumping or countervailing duty determination of a competent investigating authority of Canada, as defined in article 1911 of the Agreement, a person, within the meaning of article 1904(5) of the Agreement, may request a binational panel review of such determination by filing with the United States Secretary, described in article 1909(4) of the Agreement, such a request within the time limit provided for in article 1904(4) of the Agreement. The receipt of such request by the United States Secretary shall be deemed to be a request for binational panel review within the meaning of article 1904(4) of the Agreement. Such request shall contain such information and be in such form, manner, and style as the administering authority shall prescribe by regulations. The request for such panel review shall not preclude the United States, Canada, or any other person from challenging before a binational panel the basis for a particular request for review.

"(c) Service of Request for Review.—Whenever binational panel review is requested under this section, the United States Secretary shall serve a copy of the request on all persons who would otherwise be entitled under Canadian law to commence procedures for judicial review of a final antidumping or countervailing duty determination made by a competent investigating authority of Canada.

"SEC. 409. SUBSIDIES.

"(a) Negotiating Authority.—

"(1) The President is authorized to enter into an agreement with Canada, including an agreement to amend the Agreement, on rules applicable to trade between the United States and Canada that—

"(A) deal with unfair pricing and government subsidization, and

"(B) provide for increased discipline on subsidies.

"(2)(A) The objectives of the United States in negotiating an agreement under paragraph (1) include (but are not limited to)—

"(i) achievement, on an expedited basis, of increased discipline on government production and export subsidies that have a significant impact, directly or indirectly, on bilateral trade between the United States and Canada; and

"(ii) attainment of increased and more effective discipline on those Canadian Government (including provincial) subsidies having the most significant adverse impact on United States producers that compete with subsidized products of Canada in the markets of the United States and Canada.

"(B) Special emphasis should be given in negotiating an agreement under paragraph (1) to obtain discipline on Canadian subsidy programs that adversely affect United States industries which directly compete with subsidized imports.

"(3) The United States members of the working group established under article 1907 of the Agreement shall consult regularly with the Committee on Finance of the Senate, the Committee on Ways and Means of the House of Representatives, and advisory committees established under section 135 of the Trade Act of 1974 [19 U.S.C. 2155] regarding—

"(A) the issues being considered by the working group; and

"(B) as appropriate, the objectives and strategy of the United States in the negotiations.

"(4) Notwithstanding any other provision of this Act or of any other law, the provisions of section 151 of the Trade Act of 1974 (19 U.S.C. 2191) shall not apply to any bill or joint resolution that implements an agreement entered into under paragraph (1), unless the President determines and notifies the Congress that such agreement—

"(A) will provide greater discipline over government subsidies and no less discipline over unfair pricing practices by producers than that provided by the agreements described in paragraphs (5) and (6) of section 2[(c)] of the Trade Agreements Act of 1979 [19 U.S.C. 2503(c)(5), (6)] (the Subsidies Code and Antidumping Code), respectively, taking into account the effects of the Agreement, and

"(B) will neither undermine such multilateral discipline nor detract from United States efforts to increase such discipline on a multilateral basis in, or subsequent to, the Uruguay Round of multilateral trade negotiations.

"(b) Identification of Industries Facing Subsidized Imports.—

"(1) Any entity, including a trade association, firm, certified or recognized union, or group of workers, that is representative of a United States industry and has reason to believe that—

"(A)(i) as a result of implementation of provisions of the Agreement, the industry is likely to face increased competition from subsidized Canadian imports with which it directly competes; or

"(ii) the industry is likely to face increased competition from subsidized imports with which it directly competes from any other country designated by the President, following consultations with the Congress, as benefitting from a reduction of tariffs or other trade barriers under a trade agreement that enters into force after January 1, 1989; and

"(B) the industry is likely to experience a deterioration of its competitive position before rules and disciplines relating to the use of government subsidies have been developed with respect to such country;

may file a petition with the United States Trade Representative (hereafter referred to in this section as the 'Trade Representative') to be identified under this section.

"(2) Within 90 days of receipt of a petition under paragraph (1), the Trade Representative, in consultation with the Secretary of Commerce, shall decide whether to identify the industry on the basis that there is a reasonable likelihood that the industry may face both the subsidization described in paragraph (1)(A) and the deterioration described in paragraph (1)(B).

"(3) At the request of an entity that is representative of an industry identified under paragraph (2), the Trade Representative shall—

"(A) compile and make available to the industry information under section 308 of the Trade Act of 1974 [19 U.S.C. 2418],

"(B) recommend to the President that an investigation by the United States International Trade Commission be requested under section 332 of the Tariff Act of 1930 [19 U.S.C. 1332], or

"(C) take actions described in both subparagraphs (A) and (B).

The industry may request the Trade Representative to take appropriate action to update (as often as annually) any information obtained under subparagraph (A) or (B), or both, as the case may be, until an agreement on adequate rules and disciplines relating to government subsidies is reached.

"(4)(A) The Trade Representative and the Secretary of Commerce shall review information obtained under paragraph (3) and consult with the industry identified under paragraph (2) with a view to deciding whether any action is appropriate under section 301 of the Trade Act of 1974 [19 U.S.C. 2411], including the initiation of an investigation under section 302(c) of that Act [19 U.S.C. 2412(c)] (in the case of the Trade Representative), or under subtitle A of title VII of the Tariff Act of 1930 [19 U.S.C. 1671 et seq.], including the initiation of an investigation under section 702(a) of that Act [19 U.S.C. 1671a(a)] (in the case of the Secretary of Commerce).

"(B) In determining whether to initiate any investigation under section 301 of the Trade Act of 1974 [19 U.S.C. 2411] or any other trade law, other than title VII of the Tariff Act of 1930 [19 U.S.C. 1671 et seq.], the Trade Representative, after consultation with the Secretary of Commerce—

"(i) shall seek the advice of the advisory committees established under section 135 of the Trade Act of 1974 [19 U.S.C. 2155];

"(ii) shall consult with the Committee on Finance of the Senate and the Committee on Ways and Means of the House of Representatives;

"(iii) shall coordinate with the interagency committee established under section 242 of the Trade Expansion Act of 1962 [19 U.S.C. 1872]; and

"(iv) may ask the President to request advice from the United States International Trade Commission.

"(C) In the event an investigation is initiated under section 302(c) of the Trade Act of 1974 [19 U.S.C. 2412(c)] as a result of a review under this paragraph and the President, following such investigation (including any applicable dispute settlement proceedings under the Agreement or any other trade agreement), determines to take action under section 301(a) of such Act [19 U.S.C. 2411(a)], the President shall give preference to actions that most directly affect the products that benefit from governmental subsidies and were the subject of the investigation, unless there are no significant imports of such products or the President otherwise determines that application of the action to other products would be more effective.

"(5) Any decision, whether positive or negative, or any action by the Trade Representative or the Secretary of Commerce under this section shall not in any way—

"(A) prejudice the right of any industry to file a petition under any trade law,

"(B) prejudice, affect, or substitute for, any proceeding, investigation, determination, or action by the Secretary of Commerce, the United States International Trade Commission, or the Trade Representative pursuant to such a petition,

"(C) prejudice, affect, substitute for, or obviate any proceeding, investigation, or determination under section 301 of the Trade Act of 1974 [19 U.S.C. 2411], title VII of the Tariff Act of 1930 [19 U.S.C. 1671 et seq.], or any other trade law.

"(6) Nothing in this subsection may be construed to alter in any manner the requirements in effect before the enactment of this Act [Sept. 28, 1988] for standing under any law of the United States or to add any additional requirements for standing under any law of the United States.

"SEC. 410. TERMINATION OF AGREEMENT.

"(a) In General.—If—

"(1) no agreement is entered into between the United States and Canada on a substitute system of rules for antidumping and countervailing duties before the date that is 7 years after the date on which the Agreement enters into force [Jan. 1, 1989], and

"(2) the President decides not to exercise the rights of the United States under article 1906 of the Agreement to terminate the Agreement,

the President shall submit to the Congress a report on such decision which explains why continued adherence to the Agreement is in the national economic interest of the United States. In calculating the 7-year period referred to in paragraph (1), any time during which Canada is a NAFTA country (as defined in section 2(4) of the North American Free Trade Agreement Implementation Act [19 U.S.C. 3301(4)]) shall be disregarded.

"(b) Transition Provisions.—

"(1) If on the date on which the Agreement should cease to be in force an investigation or enforcement proceeding concerning the violation of a protective order issued under section 777(d) of the Tariff Act of 1930 (as amended by this Act) [19 U.S.C. 1677f(d)] or a Canadian undertaking is pending, such investigation or proceeding shall continue and sanctions may continue to be imposed in accordance with the provisions of such section.

"(2) If on the date on which the Agreement should cease to be in force a binational panel review under article 1904 of the Agreement is pending, or has been requested, with respect to a determination to which section 516A(g)(2) of the Tariff Act of 1930 (as added by this Act) [19 U.S.C. 1516a(g)(2)] applies, such determination shall be reviewable under section 516A(a) of the Tariff Act of 1930. In the case of a determination to which the provisions of this paragraph apply, the time limits for commencing an action under section 516A(a)(2)(A) of the Tariff Act of 1930 shall not begin to run until the date on which the Agreement ceases to be in force.

"TITLE V—EFFECTIVE DATES AND SEVERABILITY

"SEC. 501. EFFECTIVE DATES.

"(a) In General.—Except as provided in subsection (b), the provisions of this Act, and the amendments made by this Act, shall take effect on the date the Agreement enters into force [Jan. 1, 1989].

[A Presidential Memorandum on the Canada-United States Free-Trade Agreement, dated Dec. 31, 1988, directing the Secretary of State to exchange notes with the Government of Canada to provide for the entry into force of the Agreement on Jan. 1, 1989, is set out in 24 Weekly Compilation of Presidential Documents 1688, Jan. 2, 1989. See, also, confirmation by Office of the United States Trade Representative, 54 F.R. 505.]

"(b) Exceptions.—Sections 1 and 2, title I, section 304 (except subsection (f)), section 309, this section and section 502 shall take effect on the date of enactment of this Act [Sept. 28, 1988].

"(c) Termination or Suspension of Agreement.—

"(1) Termination of agreement.—On the date the Agreement ceases to be in force, the provisions of this Act (other than this paragraph and section 410(b)), and the amendments made by this Act, shall cease to have effect.

"(2) Effect of agreement suspension.—An agreement by the United States and Canada to suspend the operation of the Agreement shall not be deemed to cause the Agreement to cease to be in force within the meaning of paragraph (1).

"(3) Suspension resulting from nafta.—On the date the United States and Canada agree to suspend the operation of the Agreement by reason of the entry into force between them of the North American Free Trade Agreement, the following provisions of this Act are suspended and shall remain suspended until such time as the suspension of the Agreement may be terminated:

"(A) Sections 204(a) and (b) and 205(a).

"(B) Sections 302 and 304(f).

"(C) Sections 404, 409, and 410(b).

"SEC. 502. SEVERABILITY.

"If any provision of this Act, any amendment made by this Act, or the application of such a provision or amendment to any person or circumstances is held to be invalid, the remainder of this Act, the remaining amendments made by this Act, and the application of such provision or amendment to persons or circumstances other than those to which it is held invalid, shall not be affected thereby."

[For transfer of functions, personnel, assets, and liabilities of the United States Customs Service of the Department of the Treasury, including functions of the Secretary of the Treasury relating thereto, to the Secretary of Homeland Security, and for treatment of related references, see sections 203(1), 551(d), 552(d), and 557 of Title 6, Domestic Security, and the Department of Homeland Security Reorganization Plan of November 25, 2002, as modified, set out as a note under section 542 of Title 6. For establishment of U.S. Customs and Border Protection in the Department of Homeland Security, treated as if included in Pub. L. 107–296 as of Nov. 25, 2002, see section 211 of Title 6, as amended generally by Pub. L. 114–125, and section 802(b) of Pub. L. 114–125, set out as a note under section 211 of Title 6.]

[Amendment by section 107 of Pub. L. 103–182 to section 501(c) of Pub. L. 100–449, set out above, effective on the date the North American Free Trade Agreement enters into force between the United States and Canada [Jan. 1, 1994], see section 109(a)(2) of Pub. L. 103–182, set out as an Effective Date; Termination of NAFTA Status note under section 3311 of this title.]

[Pub. L. 103–182, title III, §308(b), Dec. 8, 1993, 107 Stat. 2105, provided that: "The amendments made by subsection (a) [amending section 301(a) of Pub. L. 100–449, set out above] take effect on the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 8, 1993]."]

[Amendment by section 413 of Pub. L. 103–182 to section 410(a) of Pub. L. 100–449, set out above, effective on the date the North American Free Trade Agreement enters into force with respect to the United States [Jan. 1, 1994], but not applicable to any final determination described in section 1516a(a)(1)(B) or (2)(B)(i) to (iii) of this title, notice of which is published in the Federal Register before such date, or to a determination described in section 1516a(a)(2)(B)(vi) of this title, notice of which is received by the Government of Canada before such date, or to any binational panel review under the United States-Canada Free-Trade Agreement, or any extraordinary challenge arising out of such review, that was commenced before such date, see section 416 of Pub. L. 103–182, set out as an Effective Date note under section 3431 of this title.]

[For provisions relating to effect of termination of NAFTA country status on the provisions of sections 401 to 416 of Pub. L. 103–182, see section 3451 of this title.]

Plan Amendments Not Required Until January 1, 1989

For provisions directing that if any amendments made by subtitle A or subtitle C of title XI [§§1101–1147 and 1171–1177] or title XVIII [§§1801–1899A] of Pub. L. 99–514 require an amendment to any plan, such plan amendment shall not be required to be made before the first plan year beginning on or after Jan. 1, 1989, see section 1140 of Pub. L. 99–514, as amended, set out as a note under section 401 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

United States-Israel Free Trade Area Implementation

Pub. L. 99–47, June 11, 1985, 99 Stat. 82, as amended by Pub. L. 104–234, §1, Oct. 2, 1996, 110 Stat. 3058, provided that:

"SECTION 1. SHORT TITLE.

"This Act may be cited as the 'United States-Israel Free Trade Area Implementation Act of 1985'.

"SEC. 2. PURPOSES.

"The purposes of this Act are—

"(1) to approve and implement the agreement on the establishment of a free trade area between the United States and Israel negotiated under the authority of section 102 of the Trade Act of 1974 [19 U.S.C. 2112];

"(2) to strengthen and develop the economic relations between the United States and Israel for their mutual benefit; and

"(3) to establish free trade between the two nations through the removal of trade barriers.

"SEC. 3. APPROVAL OF A FREE TRADE AREA AGREEMENT.

"Pursuant to sections 102 and 151 of the Trade Act of 1974 (19 U.S.C. 2112; 2191), the Congress approves—

"(1) the Agreement on the Establishment of a Free Trade Area between the Government of the United States of America and the Government of Israel (hereinafter in this Act referred to as 'the Agreement') entered into on April 22, 1985, and submitted to the Congress on April 29, 1985, and

"(2) the statement of administrative action proposed to implement the Agreement that was submitted to the Congress on April 29, 1985.

"SEC. 4. PROCLAMATION AUTHORITY.

"(a) Tariff Modifications.—Except as provided in subsection (c), the President may proclaim—

"(1) such modifications or continuance of any existing duty,

"(2) such continuance of existing duty-free or excise treatment, or

"(3) such additional duties,

as the President determines to be required or appropriate to carry out the schedule of duty reductions with respect to Israel set forth in annex 1 of the Agreement.

"(b) Additional Tariff Modification Authority.—Except as provided in subsection (c), whenever the President determines that it is necessary to maintain the general level of reciprocal and mutually advantageous concessions with respect to Israel provided for by the Agreement, the President may proclaim—

"(1) such withdrawal, suspension, modification, or continuance of any duty,

"(2) such continuance of existing duty-free or excise treatment, or

"(3) such additional duties,

as the President determines to be required or appropriate to carry out the Agreement.

"(c) Exception to Authority.—No modification of any duty imposed on any article provided for in paragraph (4) of annex 1 of the Agreement that may be proclaimed under subsection (a) or (b) shall take effect prior to January 1, 1995.

"SEC. 5. RELATIONSHIP OF THE AGREEMENT TO UNITED STATES LAW.

"(a) United States Statutes To Prevail in Conflict.—No provision of the Agreement, nor the application of any such provision to any person or circumstance, which is in conflict with—

"(1) title IV of the Trade and Tariff Act of 1984 [title IV of Pub. L. 98–573, amending this section and enacting provisions set out below], or

"(2) any other statute of the United States,

shall be given effect under the laws of the United States.

"(b) Implementing Regulations.—Regulations that are necessary or appropriate to carry out actions proposed in any statement of proposed administrative action submitted to the Congress under section 102 of the Trade Act of 1974 (19 U.S.C. 2112) in order to implement the Agreement shall be prescribed. Initial regulations to carry out such action shall be issued within one year after the date of the entry into force of the Agreement.

"(c) Changes in Statutes To Implement a Requirement, Amendment, or Recommendation.—

"(1) Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (2), the provisions of section 3(c) of the Trade Agreements Act of 1979 (19 U.S.C. 2504(c)) shall apply with respect to the Agreement and—

"(A) no requirement of, amendment to, or recommendation under the Agreement shall be implemented under United States law, and

"(B) no amendment, repeal, or enactment of a statute of the United States to implement any such requirement, amendment, or recommendation shall enter into force with respect to the United States,

unless there has been compliance with the provisions of section 3(c) of the Trade Agreements Act of 1979.

"(2) The provisions of section 3(c)(4) of the Trade Agreements Act of 1979 (19 U.S.C. 2504(c)(4)) shall apply to any bill implementing any requirement of, amendment to, or recommendation made under, the Agreement that reduces or eliminates any duty imposed on any article provided for in paragraph (4) of Annex 1 of the Agreement only if—

"(A) any reduction of such duty provided in such bill—

"(i) takes effect after December 31, 1989, and

"(ii) takes effect gradually over the period that begins on January 1, 1990, and ends on December 31, 1994,

"(B) any elimination of such duty provided in such bill does not take effect prior to January 1, 1995, and

"(C) the consultations required under section 3(c)(1) of such Act occur at least ninety days prior to the date on which such bill is submitted to the Congress under section 3(c) of such Act.

"(d) Private Remedies Not Created.—Neither the entry into force of the Agreement with respect to the United States, nor the enactment of this Act, shall be construed as creating any private right of action or remedy for which provision is not explicitly made under this Act or under the laws of the United States.

"SEC. 6. TERMINATION.

"The provisions of section 125(a) of the Trade Act of 1974 (19 U.S.C. 2135(a)) shall not apply to the Agreement.

"SEC. 7. LOWERED THRESHOLD FOR GOVERNMENT PROCUREMENT UNDER TRADE AGREEMENTS ACT OF 1979 IN THE CASE OF CERTAIN ISRAELI PRODUCTS.

[Section amended section 2518(4)(C) of this title.]

"SEC. 8. TECHNICAL AMENDMENTS.

[Section amended title IV of Pub. L. 98–573, set out as a note below, this section, and sections 2462 to 2464 of this title.]

"SEC. 9. ADDITIONAL PROCLAMATION AUTHORITY.

"(a) Elimination or Modifications of Duties.—The President is authorized to proclaim elimination or modification of any existing duty as the President determines is necessary to exempt any article from duty if—

"(1) that article is wholly the growth, product, or manufacture of the West Bank, the Gaza Strip, or a qualifying industrial zone or is a new or different article of commerce that has been grown, produced, or manufactured in the West Bank, the Gaza Strip, or a qualifying industrial zone;

"(2) that article is imported directly from the West Bank, the Gaza Strip, Israel, or a qualifying industrial zone; and

"(3) the sum of—

"(A) the cost or value of the materials produced in the West Bank, the Gaza Strip, Israel, or a qualifying industrial zone, plus

"(B) the direct costs of processing operations performed in the West Bank, the Gaza Strip, Israel, or a qualifying industrial zone,

is not less than 35 percent of the appraised value of the product at the time it is entered into the United States.

For purposes of determining the 35 percent content requirement contained in paragraph (3), the cost or value of materials which are used in the production of an article in the West Bank, the Gaza Strip, or a qualifying industrial zone, and are the products of the United States, may be counted in an amount up to 15 percent of the appraised value of the article.

"(b) Applicability of Certain Provisions of the Agreement.—

"(1) Nonqualifying operations.—No article shall be considered a new or different article of commerce under this section, and no material shall be included for purposes of determining the 35 percent requirement of subsection (a)(3), by virtue of having merely undergone—

"(A) simple combining or packaging operations, or

"(B) mere dilution with water or with another substance that does not materially alter the characteristics of the article or material.

"(2) Requirements for new or different article of commerce.—For purposes of subsection (a)(1), an article is a 'new or different article of commerce' if it is substantially transformed into an article having a new name, character, or use.

"(3) Cost or value of materials.—(A) For purposes of this section, the cost or value of materials produced in the West Bank, the Gaza Strip, or a qualifying industrial zone includes—

"(i) the manufacturer's actual cost for the materials;

"(ii) when not included in the manufacturer's actual cost for the materials, the freight, insurance, packing, and all other costs incurred in transporting the materials to the manufacturer's plant;

"(iii) the actual cost of waste or spoilage, less the value of recoverable scrap; and

"(iv) taxes or duties imposed on the materials by the West Bank, the Gaza Strip, or a qualifying industrial zone, if such taxes or duties are not remitted on exportation.

"(B) If a material is provided to the manufacturer without charge, or at less than fair market value, its cost or value shall be determined by computing the sum of—

"(i) all expenses incurred in the growth, production, or manufacture of the material, including general expenses;

"(ii) an amount for profit; and

"(iii) freight, insurance, packing, and all other costs incurred in transporting the material to the manufacturer's plant.

If the information necessary to compute the cost or value of a material is not available, the Customs Service may ascertain or estimate the value thereof using all reasonable methods.

"(4) Direct costs of processing operations.—(A) For purposes of this section, the 'direct costs of processing operations performed in the West Bank, Gaza Strip, or a qualifying industrial zone' with respect to an article are those costs either directly incurred in, or which can be reasonably allocated to, the growth, production, manufacture, or assembly, of that article. Such costs include, but are not limited to, the following to the extent that they are includible in the appraised value of articles imported into the United States:

"(i) All actual labor costs involved in the growth, production, manufacture, or assembly of the article, including fringe benefits, on-the-job training, and costs of engineering, supervisory, quality control, and similar personnel.

"(ii) Dies, molds, tooling, and depreciation on machinery and equipment which are allocable to the article.

"(iii) Research, development, design, engineering, and blueprint costs insofar as they are allocable to the article.

"(iv) Costs of inspecting and testing the article.

"(B) Those items that are not included as direct costs of processing operations with respect to an article are those which are not directly attributable to the article or are not costs of manufacturing the article. Such items include, but are not limited to—

"(i) profit; and

"(ii) general expenses of doing business which are either not allocable to the article or are not related to the growth, production, manufacture, or assembly of the article, such as administrative salaries, casualty and liability insurance, advertising, and salesmen's salaries, commissions, or expenses.

"(5) Imported directly.—For purposes of this section—

"(A) articles are 'imported directly' if—

"(i) the articles are shipped directly from the West Bank, the Gaza Strip, a qualifying industrial zone, or Israel into the United States without passing through the territory of any intermediate country; or

"(ii) if shipment is through the territory of an intermediate country, the articles in the shipment do not enter into the commerce of any intermediate country and the invoices, bills of lading, and other shipping documents specify the United States as the final destination; or

"(B) if articles are shipped through an intermediate country and the invoices and other documents do not specify the United States as the final destination, then the articles in the shipment, upon arrival in the United States, are imported directly only if they—

"(i) remain under the control of the customs authority in an intermediate country;

"(ii) do not enter into the commerce of an intermediate country except for the purpose of a sale other than at retail, but only if the articles are imported as a result of the original commercial transactions between the importer and the producer or the producer's sales agent; and

"(iii) have not been subjected to operations other than loading, unloading, or other activities necessary to preserve the article in good condition.

"(6) Documentation required.—An article is eligible for the duty exemption under this section only if—

"(A) the importer certifies that the article meets the conditions for the duty exemption; and

"(B) when requested by the Customs Service, the importer, manufacturer, or exporter submits a declaration setting forth all pertinent information with respect to the article, including the following:

"(i) A description of the article, quantity, numbers, and marks of packages, invoice numbers, and bills of lading.

"(ii) A description of the operations performed in the production of the article in the West Bank, the Gaza Strip, a qualifying industrial zone, or Israel and identification of the direct costs of processing operations.

"(iii) A description of any materials used in production of the article which are wholly the growth, product, or manufacture of the West Bank, the Gaza Strip, a qualifying industrial zone, Israel or United States, and a statement as to the cost or value of such materials.

"(iv) A description of the operations performed on, and a statement as to the origin and cost or value of, any foreign materials used in the article which are claimed to have been sufficiently processed in the West Bank, the Gaza Strip, a qualifying industrial zone, or Israel so as to be materials produced in the West Bank, the Gaza Strip, a qualifying industrial zone, or Israel.

"(v) A description of the origin and cost or value of any foreign materials used in the article which have not been substantially transformed in the West Bank, the Gaza Strip, or a qualifying industrial zone.

"(c) Shipment of Articles of Israel Through West Bank or Gaza Strip.—The President is authorized to proclaim that articles of Israel may be treated as though they were articles directly shipped from Israel for the purposes of the Agreement even if shipped to the United States from the West Bank, the Gaza Strip, or a qualifying industrial zone, if the articles otherwise meet the requirements of the Agreement.

"(d) Treatment of Cost or Value of Materials.—The President is authorized to proclaim that the cost or value of materials produced in the West Bank, the Gaza Strip, or a qualifying industrial zone may be included in the cost or value of materials produced in Israel under section 1(c)(i) of Annex 3 of the Agreement, and the direct costs of processing operations performed in the West Bank, the Gaza Strip, or a qualifying industrial zone may be included in the direct costs of processing operations performed in Israel under section 1(c)(ii) of Annex 3 of the Agreement.

"(e) Qualifying Industrial Zone Defined.—For purposes of this section, a 'qualifying industrial zone' means any area that—

"(1) encompasses portions of the territory of Israel and Jordan or Israel and Egypt;

"(2) has been designated by local authorities as an enclave where merchandise may enter without payment of duty or excise taxes; and

"(3) has been specified by the President as a qualifying industrial zone."

[For transfer of functions, personnel, assets, and liabilities of the United States Customs Service of the Department of the Treasury, including functions of the Secretary of the Treasury relating thereto, to the Secretary of Homeland Security, and for treatment of related references, see sections 203(1), 551(d), 552(d), and 557 of Title 6, Domestic Security, and the Department of Homeland Security Reorganization Plan of November 25, 2002, as modified, set out as a note under section 542 of Title 6. For establishment of U.S. Customs and Border Protection in the Department of Homeland Security, treated as if included in Pub. L. 107–296 as of Nov. 25, 2002, see section 211 of Title 6, as amended generally by Pub. L. 114–125, and section 802(b) of Pub. L. 114–125, set out as a note under section 211 of Title 6.]

Trade Agreements With Israel

Pub. L. 98–573, title IV, §§402–405, formerly §§402–404, 406, Oct. 30, 1984, 98 Stat. 3015–3017, as renumbered and amended by Pub. L. 99–47, §8(a), June 11, 1985, 99 Stat. 84; Pub. L. 99–514, title XVIII, §1889(6), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2926; Pub. L. 100–418, title I, §§1214(s)(4), 1401(b)(3), Aug. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 1160, 1240, provided that:

"SEC. 402. CRITERIA FOR DUTY-FREE TREATMENT OF ARTICLES.

"(a)(1) The reduction or elimination of any duty imposed on any article by the United States provided for in a trade agreement entered into with Israel under section 102(b)(1) of the Trade Act of 1974 [19 U.S.C. 2112(b)(1)] shall apply only if—

"(A) that article is the growth, product, or manufacture of Israel or is a new or different article of commerce that has been grown, produced, or manufactured in Israel;

"(B) that article is imported directly from Israel into the customs territory of the United States; and

"(C) the sum of—

"(i) the cost of value of the materials produced in Israel, plus

"(ii) the direct costs of processing operations performed in Israel,

is not less than 35 percent of the appraised value of such article at the time it is entered.

If the cost or value of materials produced in the customs territory of the United States is included with respect to an article to which this subsection applies, an amount not to exceed 15 percent of the appraised value of the article at the time it is entered that is attributable to such United States cost or value may be applied toward determining the percentage referred to in subparagraph (C).

"(2) No article may be considered to meet the requirements of paragraph (1)(A) by virtue of having merely undergone—

"(A) simple combining or packaging operations; or

"(B) mere dilution with water or mere dilution with another substance that does not materially alter the characteristics of the article.

"(b) As used in this section, the phrase 'direct costs of processing operations' includes, but is not limited to—

"(1) all actual labor costs involved in the growth, production, manufacture, or assembly of the specific merchandise, including fringe benefits, on-the-job training and the cost of engineering, supervisory, quality control, and similar personnel; and

"(2) dies, molds, tooling, and depreciation on machinery and equipment which are allocable to the specific merchandise.

Such phrase does not include costs which are not directly attributable to the merchandise concerned, or are not costs of manufacturing the product, such as (A) profit, and (B) general expenses of doing business which are either not allocable to the specific merchandise or are not related to the growth, production, manufacture, or assembly of the merchandise, such as administrative salaries, casualty and liability insurance, advertising, and salesmen's salaries, commissions or expenses.

"(c) Regulations.—The Secretary of the Treasury, after consultation with the United States Trade Representative, shall prescribe such regulations as may be necessary to carry out this section.

"SEC. 403. APPLICATION OF CERTAIN OTHER TRADE LAW PROVISIONS.

"(a) Suspension of Duty-Free Treatment.—The President may by proclamation suspend the reduction or elimination of any duty provided under any trade agreement provision entered into with Israel under the authority of section 102(b)(1) of the Trade Act of 1974 [19 U.S.C. 2112(b)(1)] with respect to any article and may proclaim a duty rate for such article if such action is proclaimed under section 203 of the Trade Act of 1974 [19 U.S.C. 2253] or section 232 of the Trade Expansion Act of 1962 [19 U.S.C. 1862].

"(b) ITC Reports.—In any report by the United States International Trade Commission (hereinafter referred to in this title [this note] as the 'Commission') to the President under section 202(f) of the Trade Act of 1974 [19 U.S.C. 2252(f)] regarding any article for which a reduction or elimination of any duty is provided under a trade agreement entered into with Israel under section 102(b)(1) of the Trade Act of 1974 [19 U.S.C. 2112(b)(1)], the Commission shall state whether and to what extent its findings and recommendations apply to such an article when imported from Israel.

"(c) For purposes of section 203 of the Trade Act of 1974 [19 U.S.C. 2253], the suspension of the reduction or elimination of a duty under subsection (a) shall be treated as an increase in duty.

"(d) No proclamation which provides solely for a suspension referred to in subsection (a) with respect to any article shall be made under section 203 of the Trade Act of 1974 [19 U.S.C. 2253], unless the Commission, in addition to making an affirmative determination with respect to such article under section 202(b) of the Trade Act of 1974 [19 U.S.C. 2252(b)], determines in the course of its investigation under that section that the serious injury (or threat thereof) substantially caused by imports to the domestic industry producing a like or directly competitive article results from the reduction or elimination of any duty provided under any trade agreement provision entered into with Israel under section 102(b)(1) of the Trade Act of 1974 [19 U.S.C. 2112(b)(1)].

"(e)(1) Any proclamation issued under section 203 of the Trade Act of 1974 [19 U.S.C. 2253] that is in effect when an agreement with Israel is entered into under section 102(b)(1) of the Trade Act of 1974 [19 U.S.C. 2112(b)(1)] shall remain in effect until modified or terminated.

"(2) If any article is subject to import relief at the time an agreement is entered into with Israel under section 102(b)(1) of the Trade Act of 1974 [19 U.S.C. 2112(b)(1)], the President may reduce or terminate the application of such import relief to the importation of such article before the otherwise scheduled date on which such reduction or termination would occur pursuant to the criteria and procedures of sections 203 and 204 of the Trade Act of 1974 [19 U.S.C. 2253, 2254].

"SEC. 404. FAST TRACK PROCEDURES FOR PERISHABLE ARTICLES.

"(a) If a petition is filed with the Commission under the provisions of section 202(a) of the Trade Act of 1974 [19 U.S.C. 2252(a)] regarding a perishable product which is subject to any reduction or elimination of a duty imposed by the United States under a trade agreement entered into with Israel under section 102(b)(1) of the Trade Act of 1974 [19 U.S.C. 2112(b)(1)] and alleges injury from imports of that product, then the petition may also be filed with the Secretary of Agriculture with a request that emergency relief be granted under subsection (c) with respect to such article.

"(b) Within 14 days after the filing of a petition under subsection (a)—

"(1) if the Secretary of Agriculture has reason to believe that a perishable product from Israel is being imported into the United States in such increased quantities as to be a substantial cause of serious injury, or the threat thereof, to the domestic industry producing a perishable product like or directly competitive with the imported product and that emergency action is warranted, he shall advise the President and recommend that the President take emergency action; or

"(2) the Secretary of Agriculture shall publish a notice of his determination not to recommend the imposition of emergency action and so advise the petitioner.

"(c) Within 7 days after the President receives a recommendation from the Secretary of Agriculture to take emergency action under subsection (b), he shall issue a proclamation withdrawing the reduction or elimination of duty provided to the perishable product under any trade agreement provision entered into under section 102(b)(1) of the Trade Act of 1974 [19 U.S.C. 2112(b)(1)] or publish a notice of his determination not to take emergency action.

"(d) The emergency action provided under subsection (c) shall cease to apply—

"(1) upon the taking of actions under section 203 of the Trade Act of 1974 [19 U.S.C. 2253];

"(2) on the day a determination of the President under section 203 of such Act [19 U.S.C. 2253] not to take action becomes final;

"(3) in the event of a report of the Commission containing a negative finding, on the day the Commission's report is submitted to the President; or

"(4) whenever the President determines that because of changed circumstances such relief is no longer warranted.

"(e) For purposes of this section, the term 'perishable product' means any—

"(1) live plants and fresh cut flowers provided for in chapter 6 of the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States (19 U.S.C. 1202, hereinafter referred to as the 'HTS');

"(2) vegetables, edible nuts or fruit provided for in chapters 7 and 8, heading 1105, subheadings 1106.10.00 and 1106.30, heading 1202, subheadings 1214.90.00 and 1704.90.60, headings 2001 through 2008 (excluding subheadings 2001.90.20 and 2004.90.10) and subheading 2103.20.40 of the HTS;

"(3) concentrated citrus fruit juice provided for in subheadings 2009.11.00, 2009.19.40, 2009.20.40, 2009.30.20, and 2009.30.60 of the HTS.

"(f) No trade agreement entered into with Israel under section 102(b)(1) of the Trade Act of 1974 [19 U.S.C. 2112(b)(1)] shall affect fees imposed under section 22 of the Agricultural Adjustment Act (7 U.S.C. 624).

"SEC. 405. CONSTRUCTION OF TITLE.

"Neither the taking effect of any trade agreement provision entered into with Israel under section 102(b)(1) [19 U.S.C. 2112(b)(1)], nor any proclamation issued to implement any such provision, may affect in any manner, or to any extent, the application to any Israeli articles of section 232 of the Trade Expansion Act of 1962 [19 U.S.C. 1862], section 337 of title VII [probably should be "title III" of the Tariff Act of 1930 [19 U.S.C. 1337], chapter 1 of title II and chapter 1 of title III of the Trade Act of 1974 [19 U.S.C. 2251 et seq., 2411 et seq.], or any other provision of law under which relief from injury caused by import competition or by unfair import trade practices may be sought."

[Amendment of section 404 of Pub. L. 98–573 by section 1214(s)(4) of Pub. L. 100–418 effective Jan. 1, 1989, and applicable with respect to articles entered on or after such date, see section 1217(b)(1) of Pub. L. 100–418, set out as an Effective Date note under section 3001 of this title.]

[Amendment of sections 403 and 404 of Pub. L. 98–573 by section 1401 of Pub. L. 100–418 effective Aug. 23, 1988, and applicable with respect to investigations initiated under part 1 (§2251 et seq.) of subchapter II of this chapter on or after that date, see section 1401(c) of Pub. L. 100–418, set out as an Effective Date of 1988 Amendment note under section 2251 of this title.]

[The Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States is not set out in the Code. See Publication of Harmonized Tariff Schedule note set out under section 1202 of this title.]

Presidential Determination Regarding Multilateral Trade Negotiations

For provisions relating to Presidential determination regarding multilateral trade negotiations and Presidential determination regarding acceptance and application of certain international trade agreements, see notes set out under section 2503 of this title.

Ex. Ord. No. 12662. Implementing United States-Canada Free-Trade Implementation Act

Ex. Ord. No. 12662, Dec. 31, 1988, 54 F.R. 785, as amended by Ex. Ord. No. 12889, §4(c), Dec. 27, 1993, 58 F.R. 69681, provided:

By virtue of the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and laws of the United States of America, including the United States-Canada Free-Trade Agreement Implementation Act of 1988 (Public Law 100–449, 102 Stat. 1851) ("FTA Implementation Act") [set out as a note above], it is hereby ordered as follows:

Section 1. [Superseded by Ex. Ord. No. 12889, §4(c), Dec. 27, 1993, 58 F.R. 69681, see 19 U.S.C. 3311 note.]

Sec. 2. Establishment of United States Secretariat. Pursuant to subsection 405(e) of the FTA Implementation Act, a "United States Secretariat" shall be established within the International Trade Administration of the Department of Commerce. The Secretariat shall facilitate:

(1) the operation of Chapters 18 and 19 of the Free-Trade Agreement, and

(2) the work of the binational panels and extraordinary challenge committees convened under those Chapters.

Sec. 3. Acceptance by the President of Panel and Committee Decisions. In accordance with subsection 401(c) of the FTA Implementation Act, in the event that the provisions of subparagraph 516A(g)(7)(B) of the Tariff Act of 1930, as amended, 19 U.S.C. section 1516a(g)(7)(B), take effect, I accept, as a whole, all decisions of binational panels and extraordinary challenge committees.

Sec. 4. Judicial Review. This Order does not create any right or benefit, substantive or procedural, enforceable at law by a party against the United States, its agencies, its officers, or any person.

Sec. 5. Effective Date. This Order shall take effect upon the entry into force of the Free-Trade Agreement.

Ex. Ord. No. 13141. Environmental Review of Trade Agreements

Ex. Ord. No. 13141, Nov. 16, 1999, 64 F.R. 63169, provided:

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, and in order to further the environmental and trade policy goals of the United States, it is hereby ordered as follows:

Section 1. Policy. The United States is committed to a policy of careful assessment and consideration of the environmental impacts of trade agreements. The United States will factor environmental considerations into the development of its trade negotiating objectives. Responsible agencies will accomplish these goals through a process of ongoing assessment and evaluation, and, in certain instances, written environmental reviews.

Sec. 2. Purpose and Need. Trade agreements should contribute to the broader goal of sustainable development. Environmental reviews are an important tool to help identify potential environmental effects of trade agreements, both positive and negative, and to help facilitate consideration of appropriate responses to those effects whether in the course of negotiations, through other means, or both.

Sec. 3. (a) Implementation. The United States Trade Representative (Trade Representative) and the Chair of the Council on Environmental Quality shall oversee the implementation of this order, including the development of procedures pursuant to this order, in consultation with appropriate foreign policy, environmental, and economic agencies.

(b) Conduct of Environmental Reviews. The Trade Representative, through the interagency Trade Policy Staff Committee (TPSC), shall conduct the environmental reviews of the agreements under section 4 of this order.

Sec. 4. Trade Agreements.

(a) Certain agreements that the United States may negotiate shall require an environmental review. These include:

(i) comprehensive multilateral trade rounds;

(ii) bilateral or plurilateral free trade agreements; and

(iii) major new trade liberalization agreements in natural resource sectors.

(b) Agreements reached in connection with enforcement and dispute resolution actions are not covered by this order.

(c) For trade agreements not covered under subsections 4(a) and (b), environmental reviews will generally not be required. Most sectoral liberalization agreements will not require an environmental review. The Trade Representative, through the TPSC, shall determine whether an environmental review of an agreement or category of agreements is warranted based on such factors as the significance of reasonably foreseeable environmental impacts.

Sec. 5. Environmental Reviews.

(a) Environmental reviews shall be:

(i) written;

(ii) initiated through a Federal Register notice, outlining the proposed agreement and soliciting public comment and information on the scope of the environmental review of the agreement;

(iii) undertaken sufficiently early in the process to inform the development of negotiating positions, but shall not be a condition for the timely tabling of particular negotiating proposals;

(iv) made available in draft form for public comment, where practicable; and

(v) made available to the public in final form.

(b) As a general matter, the focus of environmental reviews will be impacts in the United States. As appropriate and prudent, reviews may also examine global and transboundary impacts.

Sec. 6. Resources. Upon request by the Trade Representative, with the concurrence of the Deputy Director for Management of the Office of Management and Budget, Federal agencies shall, to the extent permitted by law and subject to the availability of appropriations, provide analytical and financial resources and support, including the detail of appropriate personnel, to the Office of the United States Trade Representative to carry out the provisions of this order.

Sec. 7. General Provisions. This order is intended only to improve the internal management of the executive branch and does not create any right, benefit, trust, or responsibility, substantive or procedural, enforceable at law or equity by a party against the United States, its agencies, its officers, or any person.

William J. Clinton.      

Delegation of Authority Under Section 103(a) of United States-Canada Free-Trade Agreement Implementation Act of 1988

Memorandum of President of the United States, Feb. 11, 1991, 56 F.R. 6789, provided:

Memorandum for the United States Trade Representative

By virtue of the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and laws of the United States, including section 301 of title 3 of the United States Code, you are hereby delegated the authority to perform the functions necessary to fulfill the consultation and lay-over requirements set forth in section 103(a)(1) through (4) of the United States-Canada Free-Trade Agreement Implementation Act of 1988 ("the Act") [Pub. L. 100–449, set out as a note above], including:

(1) obtaining advice from the appropriate advisory committees and the U.S. International Trade Commission on the proposed implementation of an action by Presidential proclamation;

(2) submitting a report on such action to the House Ways and Means and Senate Finance Committees; and

(3) consulting with such committees during the 60-day period following the date on which the requirements under (1) and (2) have been met.

The President retains the sole authority under the Act to implement an action by proclamation after the consultation and lay-over requirements set forth in section 103(a)(1) through (4) have been met.

You are authorized and directed to publish this memorandum in the Federal Register.

George Bush.      

§2113. Overall negotiating objective

The overall United States negotiating objective under sections 2111 and 2112 of this title shall be to obtain more open and equitable market access and the harmonization, reduction, or elimination of devices which distort trade or commerce. To the maximum extent feasible, the harmonization, reduction, or elimination of agricultural trade barriers and distortions shall be undertaken in conjunction with the harmonization, reduction, or elimination of industrial trade barriers and distortions.

(Pub. L. 93–618, title I, §103, Jan. 3, 1975, 88 Stat. 1984.)

§2114. Sector negotiating objectives

(a) Obtaining equivalent competitive opportunities

A principal United States negotiating objective under sections 2111 and 2112 of this title shall be to obtain, to the maximum extent feasible, with respect to appropriate product sectors of manufacturing, and with respect to the agricultural sector, competitive opportunities for United States exports to the developed countries of the world equivalent to the competitive opportunities afforded in United States markets to the importation of like or similar products, taking into account all barriers (including tariffs) to and other distortions of international trade affecting that sector.

(b) Conduct of negotiations on basis of appropriate product sectors of manufacturing

As a means of achieving the negotiating objective set forth in subsection (a), to the extent consistent with the objective of maximizing overall economic benefit to the United States (through maintaining and enlarging foreign markets for products of United States agriculture, industry, mining, and commerce, through the development of fair and equitable market opportunities, and through open and nondiscriminatory world trade), negotiations shall, to the extent feasible be conducted on the basis of appropriate product sectors of manufacturing.

(c) Identification of appropriate product sectors of manufacturing

For the purposes of this section and section 2155 of this title, the United States Trade Representative together with the Secretary of Commerce, Agriculture, or Labor, as appropriate, shall, after consultation with the Advisory Committee for Trade Negotiations established under section 2155 of this title and after consultation with interested private or non-Federal governmental organizations, identify appropriate product sectors of manufacturing.

(d) Presidential analysis of how negotiating objectives are achieved in each product sector by trade agreements

If the President determines that competitive opportunities in one or more product sectors will be significantly affected by a trade agreement concluded under section 2111 or 2112 of this title, he shall submit to the Congress with each such agreement an analysis of the extent to which the negotiating objective set forth in subsection (a) is achieved by such agreement in each product sector or product sectors.

(Pub. L. 93–618, title I, §104, Jan. 3, 1975, 88 Stat. 1984; 1979 Reorg. Plan No. 3, §1(b)(1), eff. Jan. 2, 1980, 44 F.R. 69273, 93 Stat. 1381; Pub. L. 98–573, title III, §306(c)(2)(C)(i), Oct. 30, 1984, 98 Stat. 3012.)

Change of Name

"United States Trade Representative" substituted for "Special Representative for Trade Negotiations" in subsec. (c), pursuant to Reorg. Plan No. 3 of 1979, §1(b)(1), 44 F.R. 69273, 93 Stat. 1381, eff. Jan. 2, 1980, as provided by section 1–107(a) of Ex. Ord. No. 12188, Jan. 2, 1980, 45 F.R. 993, set out as notes under section 2171 of this title. See, also, section 2171 of this title as amended by Pub. L. 97–456.

Amendments

1984—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 98–573 inserted "or non-Federal governmental" after "private".

§2114a. Negotiating objectives with respect to trade in services, foreign direct investment, and high technology products

(a) Trade in services

(1) In general

Principal United States negotiating objectives under section 2112 of this title shall be—

(A) to reduce or to eliminate barriers to, or other distortions of, international trade in services (particularly United States service sector trade in foreign markets), including barriers that deny national treatment and restrictions on the establishment and operation in such markets; and

(B) to develop internationally agreed rules, including dispute settlement procedures, which—

(i) are consistent with the commercial policies of the United States, and

(ii) will reduce or eliminate such barriers or distortions and help ensure open international trade in services.

(2) Domestic objectives

In pursuing the objectives described in paragraph (1), United States negotiators shall take into account legitimate United States domestic objectives including, but not limited to, the protection of legitimate health or safety, essential security, environmental, consumer or employment opportunity interests and the laws and regulations related thereto.

(b) Foreign direct investment

(1) In general

Principal United States negotiating objectives under section 2112 of this title shall be—

(A) to reduce or to eliminate artificial or trade-distorting barriers to foreign direct investment, to expand the principle of national treatment, and to reduce unreasonable barriers to establishment; and

(B) to develop internationally agreed rules, including dispute settlement procedures, which—

(i) will help ensure a free flow of foreign direct investment, and

(ii) will reduce or eliminate the trade distortive effects of certain investment related measures.

(2) Domestic objectives

In pursuing the objectives described in paragraph (1), United States negotiators shall take into account legitimate United States domestic objectives including, but not limited to, the protection of legitimate health or safety, essential security, environmental, consumer or employment opportunity interests and the laws and regulations related thereto.

(c) High technology products

Principal United States negotiating objectives shall be—

(1) to obtain and preserve the maximum openness with respect to international trade and investment in high technology products and related services;

(2) to obtain the elimination or reduction of, or compensation for, the significantly distorting effects of foreign government acts, policies, or practices identified in section 2241 of this title, with particular consideration given to the nature and extent of foreign government intervention affecting United States exports of high technology products or investments in high technology industries, including—

(A) foreign industrial policies which distort international trade or investment;

(B) measures which deny national treatment or otherwise discriminate in favor of domestic high technology industries;

(C) measures which fail to provide adequate and effective means for foreign nationals to secure, exercise, and enforce exclusive rights in intellectual property (including trademarks, patents, and copyrights);

(D) measures which impair access to domestic markets for key commodity products; and

(E) measures which facilitate or encourage anticompetitive market practices or structures;


(3) to obtain commitments that official policy of foreign countries or instrumentalities will not discourage government or private procurement of foreign high technology products and related services;

(4) to obtain the reduction or elimination of all tariffs on, and other barriers to, United States exports of high technology products and related services;

(5) to obtain commitments to foster national treatment;

(6) to obtain commitments to—

(A) foster the pursuit of joint scientific cooperation between companies, institutions or governmental entities of the United States and those of the trading partners of the United States in areas of mutual interest through such measures as financial participation and technical and personnel exchanges, and

(B) ensure that access by all participants to the results of any such cooperative efforts should not be impaired; and


(7) to provide effective minimum safeguards for the acquisition and enforcement of intellectual property rights and the property value of proprietary data.

(d) Definition of barriers and other distortions

For purposes of subsection (a), the term "barriers to, or other distortions of, international trade in services" includes, but is not limited to—

(1) barriers to establishment in foreign markets, and

(2) restrictions on the operation of enterprises in foreign markets, including—

(A) direct or indirect restrictions on the transfer of information into, or out of, the country or instrumentality concerned, and

(B) restrictions on the use of data processing facilities within or outside of such country or instrumentality.

(Pub. L. 93–618, title I, §104A, as added Pub. L. 98–573, title III, §305(a)(1), Oct. 30, 1984, 98 Stat. 3006.)

§2114b. Provisions relating to international trade in services

(1) The Secretary of Commerce shall establish a service industries development program designed to—

(A) develop, in consultation with other Federal agencies as appropriate, policies regarding services that are designed to increase the competitiveness of United States service industries in foreign commerce;

(B) develop a data base for assessing the adequacy of Government policies and actions pertaining to services, including, but not limited to, data on trade, both aggregate and pertaining to individual service industries;

(C) collect and analyze, in consultation with appropriate agencies, information pertaining to the international operations and competitiveness of United States service industries, including information with respect to—

(i) policies of foreign governments toward foreign and United States service industries;

(ii) Federal, State, and local regulation of both foreign and United States suppliers of services, and the effect of such regulation on trade;

(iii) the adequacy of current United States policies to strengthen the competitiveness of United States service industries in foreign commerce, including export promotion activities in the service sector;

(iv) tax treatment of services, with particular emphasis on the effect of United States taxation on the international competitiveness of United States firms and exports;

(v) treatment of services under international agreements of the United States;

(vi) antitrust policies as such policies affect the competitiveness of United States firms; and

(vii) treatment of services in international agreements of the United States;


(D) conduct a program of research and analysis of service-related issues and problems, including forecasts and industrial strategies; and

(E) conduct sectoral studies of domestic service industries.


(2) For purposes of the collection and analysis required by paragraph (1), and for the purpose of any reporting the Department of Commerce makes under paragraph (3), such collection and reporting shall distinguish between income from investment and income from noninvestment services.

(3) On not less than a biennial basis beginning in 1986, the Secretary shall prepare a report which analyzes the information collected under paragraph (1). Such report shall be submitted to the Congress and to the President by not later than the date that is 120 days after the close of the period covered by the report.

(4) The Secretary of Commerce shall carry out the provisions of this subsection from funds otherwise made available to him which may be used for such purposes.

(5) For purposes of this section, the term "services" means economic activities whose outputs are other than tangible goods. Such term includes, but is not limited to, banking, insurance, transportation, postal and delivery services, communications and data processing, retail and wholesale trade, advertising, accounting, construction, design and engineering, management consulting, real estate, professional services, entertainment, education, health care, and tourism.

(Pub. L. 98–573, title III, §306(a), Oct. 30, 1984, 98 Stat. 3008; Pub. L. 105–277, div. A, §101(h) [title VI, §633(c)], Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–480, 2681-524.)

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the International Trade and Investment Act, and also as part of the Trade and Tariff Act of 1984, and not as part of the Trade Act of 1974 which comprises this chapter.

Section is comprised of subsec. (a) of section 306 of Pub. L. 98–573. Subsec. (b) of such section amended sections 3101, 3103, and 3104 and a provision set out as a note under section 3101 of Title 22, Foreign Relations and Intercourse; subsec. (c)(1), (2)(A) of such section is classified to section 2114c of this title; and subsec. (c)(2)(B), (C) of such section amended sections 2114, 2155, 2413, and 2414 of this title.

Amendments

1998—Par. (5). Pub. L. 105–277, which directed the amendment of par. (5) by inserting "postal and delivery services," after "transportation." in second sentence, was executed by making the insertion after "transportation," to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

§2114c. Trade in services: development, coordination, and implementation of Federal policies; staff support and other assistance; specific service sector authorities unaffected; executive functions

(1)(A) The United States Trade Representative, through the interagency trade organization established pursuant to section 1872(a) of this title or any subcommittee thereof, shall, in conformance with this Act and other provisions of law, develop (and coordinate the implementation of) United States policies concerning trade in services.

(B) In order to encourage effective development, coordination, and implementation of United States policies on trade in services—

(i) each department or agency of the United States responsible for the regulation of any service sector industry shall, as appropriate, advise and work with the United States Trade Representative concerning matters that have come to the department's or agency's attention with respect to—

(I) the treatment afforded United States service sector interest in foreign markets; or

(II) allegations of unfair practices by foreign governments or companies in a service sector; and


(ii) the Department of Commerce, together with other appropriate agencies as requested by the United States Trade Representative, shall provide staff support and other assistance for negotiations on service-related issues by the United States Trade Representatives 1 and the domestic implementation of service-related agreements.


(C) Nothing in this paragraph shall be construed to alter any existing authority or responsibility with respect to any specific service sector.

(2)(A) 2 The President shall, as he deems appropriate—

(i) consult with State governments on issues of trade policy, including negotiating objectives and implementation of trade agreements, affecting the regulatory authority of non-Federal governments, or their procurement of goods and services;

(ii) establish one or more intergovernmental policy advisory committees on trade which shall serve as a principal forum in which State and local governments may consult with the Federal Government with respect to the matters described in clause (i); and

(iii) provide to State and local governments and to United States service industries, upon their request, advice, assistance, and (except as may be otherwise prohibited by law) data, analyses, and information concerning United States policies on international trade in services.

(Pub. L. 98–573, title III, §306(c)(1), (2)(A), Oct. 30, 1984, 98 Stat. 3010, 3011.)

References in Text

This Act, referred to in par. (1)(A), is Pub. L. 98–573, Oct. 30, 1984, 98 Stat. 2984, known as the Trade and Tariff Act of 1984. For classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title of 1984 Amendment note set out under section 1654 of this title and Tables.

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the International Trade and Investment Act, and also as part of the Trade and Tariff Act of 1984, and not as part of the Trade Act of 1974 which comprises this chapter.

Section is comprised of subsec. (c)(1), (2)(A) of section 306 of Pub. L. 98–573. Subsec. (a) of such section is classified to section 2114(b) of this title; subsec. (b) of such section amended sections 3101, 3103, and 3104 and a provision set out as a note under section 3101 of Title 22, Foreign Relations and Intercourse; and subsec. (c)(2)(B), (C) of such section amended sections 2114, 2155, 2413, and 2414 of this title.

Definitions

For definition of "services" as used in this section, see par. (5) of section 2114b of this title.

1 So in original. Probably should be "Representative".

2 See Codification note below.

§2114d. Foreign export requirements; consultations and negotiations for reduction and elimination; restrictions on and exclusion from entry of products or services; savings provision; compensation authority applicable

(1) If the United States Trade Representative, with the advice of the committee established by section 1872 of this title, determines that action by the United States is appropriate to respond to any export performance requirements of any foreign country or instrumentality that adversely affect the economic interests of the United States, then the United States Trade Representative shall seek to obtain the reduction and elimination of such export performance requirements through consultations and negotiations with the foreign country or instrumentality concerned.

(2) In addition to the action referred to in subsection (1), the United States Trade Representative may impose duties or other import restrictions on the products or services of such foreign country or instrumentality for such time as he determines appropriate, including the exclusion from entry into the United States of products subject to such requirements.

(3) Nothing in paragraph (2) shall apply to any products or services with respect to which—

(A) any foreign direct investment (including a purchase of land or facilities) has been made directly or indirectly by any United States person before October 30, 1984, or

(B) any written commitment relating to a foreign direct investment that is binding on October 30, 1984, has been made directly or indirectly by any United States person.


(4) Whenever the international obligations of the United States and actions taken under paragraph (2) make compensation necessary or appropriate, compensation may be provided by the United States Trade Representative subject to the limitations and conditions contained in section 2133 of this title for providing compensation for actions taken under section 2253 of this title.

(Pub. L. 98–573, title III, §307(b), Oct. 30, 1984, 98 Stat. 3012; Pub. L. 99–514, title XVIII, §1889(5), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2926.)

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the International Trade and Investment Act, and also as part of the Trade and Tariff Act of 1984, and not as part of the Trade Act of 1974 which comprises this chapter.

Section is comprised of subsec. (b) of section 307 of Pub. L. 98–573. Subsec. (a) of such section amended section 2112(g)(3) of this title.

Amendments

1986—Par. (3). Pub. L. 99–514 struck out "or paragraph (3)" after "paragraph (2)".

Plan Amendments Not Required Until January 1, 1989

For provisions directing that if any amendments made by subtitle A or subtitle C of title XI [§§1101–1147 and 1171–1177] or title XVIII [§§1801–1899A] of Pub. L. 99–514 require an amendment to any plan, such plan amendment shall not be required to be made before the first plan year beginning on or after Jan. 1, 1989, see section 1140 of Pub. L. 99–514, as amended, set out as a note under section 401 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

§2114e. Negotiation of agreements concerning high technology industries

The President may enter into such bilateral or multilateral agreements as may be necessary or appropriate to achieve the objectives of this section and the negotiating objectives under section 2114a(c) of this title.

(Pub. L. 98–573, title III, §308(a), Oct. 30, 1984, 98 Stat. 3013.)

References in Text

This section, referred to in text, means section 308 of Pub. L. 98–573. See Codification note below.

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the International Trade and Investment Act, and also as part of the Trade and Tariff Act of 1984, and not as part of the Trade Act of 1974 which comprises this chapter.

Section is comprised of subsec. (a) of section 308 of Pub. L. 98–573. Subsec. (b) of such section 308 enacted section 2138 of this title.

§2115. Bilateral trade agreements

If the President determines that bilateral trade agreements will more effectively promote the economic growth of, and full employment in, the United States, then, in such cases, a negotiating objective under sections 2111 and 2112 of this title shall be to enter into bilateral trade agreements. Each such trade agreement shall provide for mutually advantageous economic benefits.

(Pub. L. 93–618, title I, §105, Jan. 3, 1975, 88 Stat. 1984.)

§2116. Agreements with developing countries

A United States negotiating objective under sections 2111 and 2112 of this title shall be to enter into trade agreements which promote the economic growth of both developing countries and the United States and the mutual expansion of market opportunities.

(Pub. L. 93–618, title I, §106, Jan. 3, 1975, 88 Stat. 1985.)

§2117. International safeguard procedures

(a) Harmonization, reduction, or elimination of barriers and distortions affecting international trade; use of temporary measures

A principal United States negotiating objective under section 2112 of this title shall be to obtain internationally agreed upon rules and procedures, in the context of the harmonization, reduction, or elimination of barriers to, and other distortions of, international trade, which permit the use of temporary measures to ease adjustment to changes occurring in competitive conditions in the domestic markets of the parties to an agreement resulting from such negotiations due to the expansion of international trade.

(b) Permissible provisions

Any agreement entered into under section 2112 of this title may include provisions establishing procedures for—

(1) notification of affected exporting countries,

(2) international consultations,

(3) international review of changes in trade flows,

(4) making adjustments in trade flows as the result of such changes, and

(5) international mediation.


Such agreements may also include provisions which—

(A) exclude, under specified conditions, the parties thereto from compensation obligations and retaliation, and

(B) permit domestic public procedures through which interested parties have the right to participate.

(Pub. L. 93–618, title I, §107, Jan. 3, 1975, 88 Stat. 1985.)

§2118. Access to supplies

(a) Fair and equitable access

A principal United States negotiating objective under section 2112 of this title shall be to enter into trade agreements with foreign countries and instrumentalities to assure the United States of fair and equitable access at reasonable prices to supplies of articles of commerce which are important to the economic requirements of the United States and for which the United States does not have, or cannot easily develop, the necessary domestic productive capacity to supply its own requirements.

(b) Continued availability; reciprocal concessions; comparable trade obligations

Any agreement entered into under section 2112 of this title may include provisions which—

(1) assure to the United States the continued availability of important articles at reasonable prices, and

(2) provide reciprocal concessions or comparable trade obligations, or both, by the United States.

(Pub. L. 93–618, title I, §108, Jan. 3, 1975, 88 Stat. 1985.)

§2119. Staging requirements and rounding authority

(a) Maximum aggregate reductions in rates of duty

Except as otherwise provided in this section, the aggregate reduction in the rate of duty on any article which is in effect on any day pursuant to a trade agreement under section 2111 of this title shall not exceed the aggregate reduction which would have been in effect on such day if—

(1) a reduction of 3 percent ad valorem or a reduction of one-tenth of the total reduction, whichever is greater, had taken effect on the effective date of the first reduction proclaimed pursuant to section 2111(a)(2) of this title to carry out such agreement with respect to such article, and

(2) a reduction equal to the amount applicable under paragraph (1) had taken effect at 1-year intervals after the effective date of such first reduction.


This subsection shall not apply in any case where the total reduction in the rate of duty does not exceed 10 percent of the rate before the reduction.

(b) Simplification of computation

If the President determines that such action will simplify the computation of the amount of duty imposed with respect to an article, he may exceed the limitation provided by section 2111(b) of this title or subsection (a) of this section by not more than whichever of the following is lesser:

(1) the difference between the limitation and the next lower whole number, or

(2) one-half of 1 percent ad valorem.

(c) Ten-year period for commencement of reductions in rates of duty

(1) No reduction in the rate of duty on any article pursuant to a trade agreement under section 2111 of this title shall take effect more than 10 years after the effective date of the first reduction proclaimed to carry out such trade agreement with respect to such article.

(2) If any part of a reduction takes effect, then any time thereafter during which any part of the reduction is not in effect by reason of legislation of the United States or action thereunder, the effect of which is to maintain or increase the rate of duty on an article, shall be excluded in determining—

(A) the 1-year intervals referred to in subsection (a)(2), and

(B) the expiration of the 10-year period referred to in paragraph (1) of this subsection.

(Pub. L. 93–618, title I, §109, Jan. 3, 1975, 88 Stat. 1985; Pub. L. 96–39, title XI, §1106(c)(3), July 26, 1979, 93 Stat. 312.)

Amendments

1979—Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 96–39 substituted "any part of the reduction" for "such part of the reduction".

Effective Date of 1979 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 96–39 effective July 26, 1979, see section 1114 of Pub. L. 96–39, set out as an Effective Date note under section 2581 of this title.

Staging of Certain Tariff Reductions

Pub. L. 96–39, title V, §503, July 26, 1979, 93 Stat. 251, provided that:

"(a) In General.—The aggregate reduction in the rate of duty applicable to items described in this subsection in effect on any day pursuant to a trade agreement entered into under section 101 of the Trade Act of 1974 [19 U.S.C. 2111] before January 3, 1980, may exceed the limitation in section 109(a) of such Act (19 U.S.C. 2119):

"(1) Items amended under section 223(d) of this Act [items 402.00 to 413.51 of the Tariff Schedules] to the extent that they apply to articles which the President determines were not imported into the United States before January 1, 1978, and were not produced in the United States before May 1, 1978.

"(2)(A) Items to the extent that they apply to articles which the President determines are not import sensitive and are the product of a least developed developing country as defined in the United Nations General Assembly list of "Least Developed Countries" and which are beneficiary developing countries under section 502 of the Trade Act of 1974 [19 U.S.C. 2462].

"(B) The President may at any time suspend the treatment accorded under subparagraph (A) in which case the aggregate reduction in effect for such products shall be the reduction in effect for countries other than least developed developing countries.

"(3) Item 628.57. Notwithstanding the first sentence of this subsection, the limitation in section 109(a) of the Trade Act of 1974 may be exceeded only to the extent necessary to permit an aggregate reduction of 4.8 percent ad valorem in the rate of duty in effect under such item during the first 1-year period after the effective date of the first reduction in the rate of duty proclaimed for such item.

"(4) Items 132.50, 170.10, 170.15, 170.20, 177.62, 186.15, and 429.47.

"(5) Items 306.31, 306.32, 306.33, and 306.34. Notwithstanding subsection (a), the limitation in section 109(a) of the Trade Act of 1974 may be exceeded only to the extent necessary to permit the total reduction proclaimed under section 101 of the Trade Act of 1974 relating to such item to take effect within 2 years after the effective date of the first reduction in the rate of duty proclaimed for such item.

"(6) Items for which the President determines the effective date of the first reduction will be after June 30, 1980, and before January 1, 1981, to the extent necessary to permit the second reduction to take effect on January 1, 1981.

"(b) Opportunity for Comment.—Before making any determination under subsection (a)(1) and (2), the President shall provide interested parties an opportunity to comment and shall publish his final determinations in the Federal Register before July 1, 1980."

Part 2—Other Authority

§2131. Authorization of appropriation for GATT revision

There are authorized to be appropriated annually such sums as may be necessary for the payment by the United States of its share of the expenses of the Contracting Parties to the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade. This authorization does not imply approval or disapproval by the Congress of all articles of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade.

(Pub. L. 93–618, title I, §121, Jan. 3, 1975, 88 Stat. 1986; Pub. L. 96–39, title XI, §1106(c)(2), July 26, 1979, 93 Stat. 311; Pub. L. 100–418, title I, §1107(b)(2), Aug. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 1135; Pub. L. 100–647, title IX, §9001(a)(1), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3806.)

Amendments

1988Pub. L. 100–647 substituted "There are" for "(d) There are".

Subsecs. (a) to (c). Pub. L. 100–418 struck out subsec. (a) which provided for bringing existing trade agreements into conformity with principles promoting open, nondiscriminatory, and fair world economic system, subsec. (b) which provided for agreements with foreign countries or instrumentalities, and subsec. (c) which provided for changes in Federal law through legislation implementing trade agreements.

1979—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 96–39 substituted "Such trade agreement may be entered into under section 2112 of this title" for "Such trade agreement may be submitted to the Congress for approval in accordance with the procedures of section 2191 of this title".

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 100–647 applicable as if such amendment took effect on Aug. 23, 1988, see section 9001(b) of Pub. L. 100–647, set out as an Effective and Termination Dates of 1988 Amendments note under section 58c of this title.

Effective Date of 1979 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 96–39 effective July 26, 1979, see section 1114 of Pub. L. 96–39, set out as an Effective Date note under section 2581 of this title.

§2132. Balance-of-payments authority

(a) Presidential proclamations of temporary import surcharges and temporary limitations on imports through quotas in situations of fundamental international payments problems

Whenever fundamental international payments problems require special import measures to restrict imports—

(1) to deal with large and serious United States balance-of-payments deficits.

(2) to prevent an imminent and significant depreciation of the dollar in foreign exchange markets, or

(3) to cooperate with other countries in correcting an international balance-of-payments disequilibrium,


the President shall proclaim, for a period not exceeding 150 days (unless such period is extended by Act of Congress)—

(A) a temporary import surcharge, not to exceed 15 percent ad valorem, in the form of duties (in addition to those already imposed, if any) on articles imported into the United States;

(B) temporary limitations through the use of quotas on the importation of articles into the United States; or

(C) both a temporary import surcharge described in subparagraph (A) and temporary limitations described in subparagraph (B).


The authority delegated under subparagraph (B) (and so much of subparagraph (C) as relates to subparagraph (B)) may be exercised (i) only if international trade or monetary agreements to which the United States is a party permit the imposition of quotas as a balance-of-payments measure, and (ii) only to the extent that the fundamental imbalance cannot be dealt with effectively by a surcharge proclaimed pursuant to subparagraph (A) or (C). Any temporary import surcharge proclaimed pursuant to subparagraph (A) or (C) shall be treated as a regular customs duty.

(b) Import restrictions not imposed when contrary to national interest of United States

If the President determines that the imposition of import restrictions under subsection (a) will be contrary to the national interest of the United States, then he may refrain from proclaiming such restrictions and he shall—

(1) immediately inform Congress of his determination, and

(2) immediately convene the group of congressional official advisers designated under section 2211(a) of this title and consult with them as to the reasons for such determination.

(c) Presidential proclamations liberalizing imports

Whenever the President determines that fundamental international payments problems require special import measures to increase imports—

(1) to deal with large and persistent United States balance-of-trade surpluses, as determined on the basis of the cost-insurance-freight value of imports, as reported by the Bureau of the Census, or

(2) to prevent significant appreciation of the dollar in foreign exchange markets,


the President is authorized to proclaim, for a period of 150 days (unless such period is extended by Act of Congress)—

(A) a temporary reduction (of not more than 5 percent ad valorem) in the rate of duty on any article; and

(B) a temporary increase in the value or quantity of articles which may be imported under any import restriction, or a temporary suspension of any import restriction.


Import liberalizing actions proclaimed pursuant to this subsection shall be of broad and uniform application with respect to product coverage except that the President shall not proclaim measures under this subsection with respect to those articles where in his judgment such action will cause or contribute to material injury to firms or workers in any domestic industry, including agriculture, mining, fishing, or commerce, or to impairment of the national security, or will otherwise be contrary to the national interest.

(d) Nondiscriminatory treatment of import restricting actions

(1) Import restricting actions proclaimed pursuant to subsection (a) shall be applied consistently with the principle of nondiscriminatory treatment. In addition, any quota proclaimed pursuant to subparagraph (B) of subsection (a) shall be applied on a basis which aims at a distribution of trade with the United States approaching as closely as possible that which various foreign countries might have expected to obtain in the absence of such restrictions.

(2) Notwithstanding paragraph (1), if the President determines that the purposes of this section will best be served by action against one or more countries having large or persistent balance-of-payments surpluses, he may exempt all other countries from such action.

(3) After such time when there enters into force for the United States new rules regarding the application of surcharges as part of a reform of internationally agreed balance-of-payments adjustment procedures, the exemption authority contained in paragraph (2) shall be applied consistently with such new international rules.

(4) It is the sense of Congress that the President seek modifications in international agreements aimed at allowing the use of surcharges in place of quantitative restrictions (and providing rules to govern the use of such surcharges) as a balance-of-payments adjustment measure within the context of arrangements for an equitable sharing of balance-of-payments adjustment responsibility among deficit and surplus countries.

(e) Broad and uniform application of import restricting actions

Import restricting actions proclaimed pursuant to subsection (a) shall be of broad and uniform application with respect to product coverage except where the President determines, consistently with the purposes of this section, that certain articles should not be subject to import restricting actions because of the needs of the United States economy. Such exceptions shall be limited to the unavailability of domestic supply at reasonable prices, the necessary importation of raw materials, avoiding serious dislocations in the supply of imported goods, and other similar factors. In addition, uniform exceptions may be made where import restricting actions will be unnecessary or ineffective in carrying out the purposes of this section, such as with respect to articles already subject to import restrictions, goods in transit, or goods under binding contract. Neither the authorization of import restricting actions nor the determination of exceptions with respect to product coverage shall be made for the purpose of protecting individual domestic industries from import competition.

(f) Quantitative limitations

Any quantitative limitation proclaimed pursuant to subparagraph (B) or (C) of subsection (a) on the quantity or value, or both, of an article—

(1) shall permit the importation of a quantity or value which is not less than the quantity or value of such article imported into the United States from the foreign countries to which such limitation applies during the most recent period which the President determines is representative of imports of such article, and

(2) shall take into account any increase since the end of such representative period in domestic consumption of such article and like or similar articles of domestic manufacture or production.

(g) Suspension, modification, or termination of proclamations

The President may at any time, consistent with the provisions of this section, suspend, modify, or terminate, in whole or in part, any proclamation under this section either during the initial 150-day period of effectiveness or as extended by subsequent Act of Congress.

(h) Termination of tariff concessions

No provision of law authorizing the termination of tariff concessions shall be used to impose a surcharge on imports into the United States.

(Pub. L. 93–618, title I, §122, Jan. 3, 1975, 88 Stat. 1987.)

§2133. Compensation authority

(a) New concessions

Whenever—

(1) any action taken under part 1 of subchapter II or subchapter III, or under part 2 of subchapter IV of this chapter; or

(2) any judicial or administrative tariff reclassification that becomes final after August 23, 1988;


increases or imposes any duty or other import restriction, the President—

(A) may enter into trade agreements with foreign countries or instrumentalities for the purpose of granting new concessions as compensation in order to maintain the general level of reciprocal and mutually advantageous concessions; and

(B) may proclaim such modification or continuance of any existing duty, or such continuance of existing duty-free or excise treatment, as he determines to be required or appropriate to carry out any such agreement.

(b) Reductions in rates of duty

(1) No proclamation shall be made pursuant to subsection (a) decreasing any rate of duty to a rate which is less than 70 percent of the existing rate of duty.

(2) Where the rate of duty in effect at any time is an intermediate stage under section 2902(a) of this title, the proclamation made pursuant to subsection (a) may provide for the reduction of each rate of duty at each such stage proclaimed under such section 2902(a) of this title by not more than 30 percent of such rate of duty, and may provide for a final rate of duty which is not less than 70 percent of the rate of duty proclaimed as the final stage under such section 2902(a) of this title.

(3) If the President determines that such action will simplify the computation of the amount of duty imposed with respect to an article, he may exceed the limitations provided by paragraphs (1) and (2) of this subsection by not more than the lesser of—

(A) the difference between such limitation and the next lower whole number, or

(B) one-half of 1 percent ad valorem.


(4) Any concessions granted under subsection (a)(1) shall be reduced and terminated according to substantially the same time schedule for reduction applicable to the relevant action under sections 2253(e) and 2254 of this title.

(c) Consideration of past violations of trade concessions

Before entering into any trade agreement under this section with any foreign country or instrumentality, the President shall consider whether such country or instrumentality has violated trade concessions of benefit to the United States and such violation has not been adequately offset by the action of the United States or by such country or instrumentality.

(d) Basic authority for trade agreements as authority for granting new concessions as compensation

Notwithstanding the provisions of subsection (a), the authority delegated under section 2902 of this title shall be used for the purpose of granting new concessions as compensation within the meaning of this section until such authority terminates.

(e) International obligations determination prerequisite to application of authority

The provisions of this section shall apply by reason of action taken under subchapter III only if the President determines that action authorized under this section is necessary or appropriate to meet the international obligations of the United States.

(Pub. L. 93–618, title I, §123, Jan. 3, 1975, 88 Stat. 1989; Pub. L. 100–418, title I, §§1104, 1401(b)(1)(A), Aug. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 1132, 1239; Pub. L. 106–286, div. A, title I, §104, Oct. 10, 2000, 114 Stat. 891.)

Amendments

2000—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 106–286 inserted ", or under part 2 of subchapter IV of this chapter" after "subchapter III of this chapter".

1988—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 100–418, §1104(1), amended subsec. (a) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (a) read as follows: "Whenever any action has been taken under section 2253 of this title to increase or impose any duty or other import restriction, the President—

"(1) may enter into trade agreements with foreign countries or instrumentalities for the purpose of granting new concessions as compensation in order to maintain the general level of reciprocal and mutually advantageous concessions; and

"(2) may proclaim such modification or continuance of any existing duty, or such continuance of existing duty-free or excise treatment, as he determines to be required or appropriate to carry out any such agreement."

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 100–418, §1104(2), substituted "section 2902(a)" for "section 2119" and "such section 2902(a)" for "section 2111" in two places.

Subsec. (b)(4). Pub. L. 100–418, §1401(b)(1)(A), substituted "action under sections 2253(e) and 2254 of this title" for "import relief under section 2253(h) of this title".

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 100–418, §1104(3), substituted "section 2902" for "section 2111".

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 100–418, §1104(4), added subsec. (e).

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Amendment by section 1401(b)(1)(A) of Pub. L. 100–418 effective Aug. 23, 1988, and applicable with respect to investigations initiated under part 1 (§2251 et seq.) of subchapter III of this chapter on or after that date, see section 1401(c) of Pub. L. 100–418, set out as a note under section 2251 of this title.

§2134. Two-year residual authority to negotiate duties

(a) Trade agreements

Whenever the President determines that any existing duties or other import restrictions of any foreign country or the United States are unduly burdening and restricting the foreign trade of the United States and that the purposes of this chapter will be promoted thereby, the President—

(1) may enter into trade agreements with foreign countries or instrumentalities thereof, and

(2) may proclaim such modification or continuance of any existing duty, such continuance of existing duty-free or excise treatment, or such additional duties, as he determines to be required or appropriate to carry out any such trade agreement.

(b) Maximum volume of imported articles subject to reduction of duties or continuance of duty-free or excise treatment

Agreements entered into under this section in any 1-year period shall not provide for the reduction of duties, or the continuance of duty-free or excise treatment, for articles which account for more than 2 percent of the value of United States imports for the most recent 12-month period for which import statistics are available.

(c) Maximum reduction in duties

(1) No proclamation shall be made pursuant to subsection (a) decreasing any rate of duty to a rate which is less than 80 percent of the existing rate of duty.

(2) No proclamation shall be made pursuant to subsection (a) decreasing or increasing any rate of duty to a rate which is lower or higher than the corresponding rate which would have resulted if the maximum authority granted by section 2111 of this title with respect to such article had been exercised.

(3) Where the rate of duty in effect at any time is an intermediate stage under section 2119 of this title, the proclamation made pursuant to subsection (a) may provide for the reduction of each rate of duty at each such stage proclaimed under section 2111 of this title by not more than 20 percent of such rate of duty, and, subject to the limitation in paragraph (2), may provide for a final rate of duty which is not less than 80 percent of the rate of duty proclaimed as the final stage under section 2111 of this title.

(4) If the President determines that such action will simplify the computation of the amount of duty imposed with respect to an article, he may exceed the limitations provided by paragraphs (1) and (2) of this subsection by not more than the lesser of—

(A) the difference between such limitation and the next lower whole number, or

(B) one-half of 1 percent ad valorem.

(d) Two-year period of authority

Agreements may be entered into under this section only during the 2-year period which immediately follows the close of the period during which agreements may be entered into under section 2111 of this title.

(Pub. L. 93–618, title I, §124, Jan. 3, 1975, 88 Stat. 1990.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in subsec. (a), was in the original "this Act", meaning Pub. L. 93–618, Jan. 3, 1975, 88 Stat. 1978, as amended, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see References in Text note set out under section 2101 of this title and Tables.

§2135. Termination and withdrawal authority

(a) Grant of authority for termination or withdrawal at end of period specified in agreement

Every trade agreement entered into under this chapter shall be subject to termination, in whole or in part, or withdrawal, upon due notice, at the end of a period specified in the agreement. Such period shall be not more than 3 years from the date on which the agreement becomes effective. If the agreement is not terminated or withdrawn from at the end of the period so specified, it shall be subject to termination or withdrawal thereafter upon not more than 6 months' notice.

(b) Authority to terminate proclamations at any time

The President may at any time terminate, in whole or in part, any proclamation made under this chapter.

(c) Increased duties or other import restrictions following withdrawal, suspension, or modification of obligations with respect to trade of foreign countries or instrumentalities

Whenever the United States, acting in pursuance of any of its rights or obligations under any trade agreement entered into pursuant to this chapter, section 1821 of this title, or section 1351 of this title, withdraws, suspends, or modifies any obligation with respect to the trade of any foreign country or instrumentality thereof, the President is authorized to proclaim increased duties or other import restrictions, to the extent, at such times, and for such periods as he deems necessary or appropriate, in order to exercise the rights or fulfill the obligations of the United States. No proclamation shall be made under this subsection increasing any existing duty to a rate more than 50 percent above the rate set forth in rate column numbered 2 of the Tariff Schedules of the United States, as in effect on January 1, 1975, or 20 percent ad valorem above the rate existing on January 1, 1975, whichever is higher.

(d) Retaliatory authority

Whenever any foreign country or instrumentality withdraws, suspends, or modifies the application of trade agreement obligations of benefit to the United States without granting adequate compensation therefor, the President, in pursuance of rights granted to the United States under any trade agreement and to the extent necessary to protect United States economic interests (including United States balance of payments), may—

(1) withdraw, suspend, or modify the application of substantially equivalent trade agreement obligations of benefit to such foreign country or instrumentality, and

(2) proclaim under subsection (c) such increased duties or other import restrictions as are appropriate to effect adequate compensation from such foreign country or instrumentality.

(e) Continuation of duties or other import restrictions after termination of or withdrawal from agreements

Duties or other import restrictions required or appropriate to carry out any trade agreement entered into pursuant to this chapter, section 1821 of this title, or section 1351 of this title shall not be affected by any termination, in whole or in part, of such agreement or by the withdrawal of the United States from such agreement and shall remain in effect after the date of such termination or withdrawal for 1 year, unless the President by proclamation provides that such rates shall be restored to the level at which they would be but for the agreement. Within 60 days after the date of any such termination or withdrawal, the President shall transmit to the Congress his recommendations as to the appropriate rates of duty for all articles which were affected by the termination or withdrawal or would have been so affected but for the preceding sentence.

(f) Public hearings

Before taking any action pursuant to subsection (b), (c), or (d), the President shall provide for a public hearing during the course of which interested persons shall be given a reasonable opportunity to be present, to produce evidence, and to be heard, unless he determines that such prior hearings will be contrary to the national interest because of the need for expeditious action, in which case he shall provide for a public hearing promptly after such action.

(Pub. L. 93–618, title I, §125, Jan. 3, 1975, 88 Stat. 1991.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in subsecs. (b), (c), (e), was in the original "this Act", meaning Pub. L. 93–618, Jan. 3, 1975, 88 Stat. 1978, as amended, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see References in Text note set out under section 2101 of this title and Tables.

The Tariff Schedules of the United States, referred to in subsec. (c), to be treated as a reference to the Harmonized Tariff Schedule pursuant to section 3012 of this title. The Harmonized Tariff Schedule is not set out in the Code. See Publication of Harmonized Tariff Schedule note set out under section 1202 of this title.

Authority To Increase Duties on Imports of Certain Tobacco and Tobacco Products

Pub. L. 103–465, title IV, §421, Dec. 8, 1994, 108 Stat. 4964, provided that:

"(a) In General.—In the application of section 125(c) of the Trade Act of 1974 (19 U.S.C. 2135) with respect to any item provided for in subheadings 2401.10.60, 2401.20.30, 2401.20.80, 2401.30.30, 2401.30.60, 2401.30.90, 2403.10.00, 2403.91.40, or 2403.99.00 of the HTS, '350' shall be substituted for '20' where it appears in such section.

"(b) Effective Date.—This section shall take effect on the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 8, 1994]."

Tariff Reductions Under Trade Agreements Act of 1979

Pub. L. 96–39, title V, §502(b), July 26, 1979, 93 Stat. 251, provided that: "For purposes of section 125 (19 U.S.C. 2135) of the Trade Act of 1974 the amendments made under sections 508, 511, 512, and 513 [amending items 135.41, 135.42, 750.26, 750.27, 750.28, 870.45, 905.10, and 905.11 of the Tariff Schedules of the United States. See Publication of Tariff Schedules note under section 1202 of this title] not including the rates of duty appearing in rate column numbered 2, if any, shall be considered to be trade agreement obligations entered into under the Trade Act of 1974 [this chapter], of benefit to foreign countries or instrumentalities."

Pub. L. 96–39, title VI, §601(b), July 26, 1979, 93 Stat. 268, provided that: "For purposes of section 125 of the Trade Act of 1974 [this section], the amendments made under subsection (a), if any [amending the Tariff Schedules of the United States with regard to civil aircraft (see Publication of Tariff Schedules note under section 1202), and, amending section 1466 of this title], shall be considered to be trade agreement obligations entered into under the Trade Act of 1974 [this chapter] of benefit to foreign countries or instrumentalities."

Rates of duty proclaimed under section 855(a) of Pub. L. 96–39 (covering spirits, spiritous beverages, and beverage preparations) to be deemed, for purposes of this section, a trade agreement obligation which is of benefit to a foreign country or instrumentality, and, in the case of any item affected by such a proclamation, the last sentence of subsec. (c) of this section to be applied as if it authorized (in addition to any increase authorized therein) an increase up to the rate of duty for such item set forth in rate column numbered 1 of subpart D of part 12 of schedule 1 of the Tariff Schedules of the United States (see Publication of Tariff Schedules note under section 1202 of this title) as amended by section 852 of Pub. L. 96–39, see section 855(b) of Pub. L. 96–39.

Review of International Trade in Alcoholic Beverages

Pub. L. 96–39, title VIII, §854, July 26, 1979, 93 Stat. 294, provided that:

"(a) Review.—The President shall review foreign tariff and nontariff barriers affecting United States exports of alcoholic beverages. Not later than January 1, 1982, the President shall report to the Congress the results of his review.

"(b) Withdrawal of Concessions.—If, as the result of his review under subsection (a), the President determines that a foreign country or instrumentality has not implemented concessions to the United States affecting alcoholic beverages which were negotiated in trade agreements entered into before January 3, 1980, under the authority of title I of the Trade Act of 1974 [this subchapter], the President shall withdraw, suspend, or modify the application of substantially equivalent trade agreement obligations of benefit to such foreign country or instrumentality under section 125 of the Trade Act of 1974 (19 U.S.C. 2135).

"(c) Further Negotiations To Remove Barriers.—If, as the result of his review under subsection (a), the President determines that foreign tariff or nontariff barriers are unduly burdening or restricting the United States exports of alcoholic beverages, he shall enter into negotiations under the Trade Act of 1974 [this chapter] to eliminate or reduce such barriers."

§2136. Reciprocal nondiscriminatory treatment

(a) Direct and indirect imports

Except as otherwise provided in this chapter or in any other provision of law, any duty or other import restriction or duty-free treatment proclaimed in carrying out any trade agreement under this subchapter shall apply to products of all foreign countries, whether imported directly or indirectly.

(b) Presidential determination of whether major industrial countries have made substantially equivalent concessions to the United States

The President shall determine, after the conclusion of all negotiations entered into under this chapter or at the end of the 5-year period beginning on January 3, 1975, whichever is earlier, whether any major industrial country has failed to make concessions under trade agreements entered into under this chapter which provide competitive opportunities for the commerce of the United States in such country substantially equivalent to the competitive opportunities, provided by concessions made by the United States under trade agreements entered into under this chapter, for the commerce of such country in the United States.

(c) Major industrial countries

For purposes of this section, "major industrial country" means Canada, the European Economic Community, the individual member countries of such Community, Japan, and any other foreign country designated by the President for purposes of this subsection.

(Pub. L. 93–618, title I, §126, Jan. 3, 1975, 88 Stat. 1992; Pub. L. 105–362, title XIV, §1401(b)(1), Nov. 10, 1998, 112 Stat. 3294.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in subsecs. (a) and (b), was in the original "this Act", meaning Pub. L. 93–618, Jan. 3, 1975, 88 Stat. 1978, as amended, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see References in Text note set out under section 2101 of this title and Tables.

Amendments

1998—Subsecs. (c), (d). Pub. L. 105–362 redesignated subsec. (d) as (c) and struck out former subsec. (c) which related to recommendations to Congress for legislation following a Presidential determination that a major industrial country failed to grant equivalent concessions.

§2137. Reservation of articles for national security or other reasons

(a) National security considerations

No proclamation shall be made pursuant to the provisions of this chapter reducing or eliminating the duty or other import restriction on any article if the President determines that such reduction or elimination would threaten to impair the national security.

(b) Action taken under other laws

While there is in effect with respect to any article any action taken under section 2253 of this title, or section 1862 or 1981 of this title, the President shall reserve such article from negotiations under this subchapter (and from any action under section 2132(c) of this title) contemplating reduction or elimination of—

(A) any duty on such article,

(B) any import restriction imposed under such section, or

(C) any other import restriction, the removal of which will be likely to undermine the effect of the import restrictions referred to in subparagraph (B).


In addition, the President shall also so reserve any other article which he determines to be appropriate, taking into consideration information and advice available pursuant to and with respect to the matters covered by sections 2151, 2152, and 2153 of this title, where applicable.

(Pub. L. 93–618, title I, §127(a), (b), Jan. 3, 1975, 88 Stat. 1993.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in subsec. (a), was in the original "this Act", meaning Pub. L. 93–618, Jan. 3, 1975, 88 Stat. 1978, as amended, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see References in Text note set out under section 2101 of this title and Tables.

Codification

Section is comprised of subsecs. (a) and (b) of section 127 of act Jan. 3, 1975. Subsec. (c) of such section was classified to section 1863 of this title, prior to its repeal by Pub. L. 100–418, title I, §1501(b)(2), Aug. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 1259, and subsec. (d) amended section 1862 of this title.

§2138. Omitted

Codification

Section, Pub. L. 93–618, title I, §128, as added Pub. L. 98–573, title III, §308(b)(1), Oct. 30, 1984, 98 Stat. 3013; amended Pub. L. 99–514, title XVIII, §1887(b)(1), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2924; Pub. L. 100–418, title I, §§1214(j)(1), 1215, Aug. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 1158, 1163; Pub. L. 100–647, title IX, §9001(a)(3), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3806, related to modification and continuance of treatment with respect to duties on high technology products, was omitted pursuant to subsec. (c) which provided that the President could exercise authority under this section only during the 5-year period beginning on Oct. 30, 1984.

Part 3—Hearings and Advice Concerning Negotiations

§2151. Advice from International Trade Commission

(a) Lists of articles which may be considered for action

(1) In connection with any proposed trade agreement under section 2133 of this title or subsection (a) or (b) of section 4202 of this title, the President shall from time to time publish and furnish the International Trade Commission (hereafter in this section referred to as the "Commission") with lists of articles which may be considered for modification or continuance of United States duties, continuance of United States duty-free or excise treatment, or additional duties. In the case of any article with respect to which consideration may be given to reducing or increasing the rate of duty, the list shall specify the provision of this subchapter under which such consideration may be given.

(2) In connection with any proposed trade agreement under section 4202(b) of this title, the President may from time to time publish and furnish the Commission with lists of nontariff matters which may be considered for modification.

(b) Advice to President by Commission

Within 6 months after receipt of a list under subsection (a) or, in the case of a list submitted in connection with a trade agreement, within 90 days after receipt of such list, the Commission shall advise the President, with respect to each article or nontariff matter, of its judgment as to the probable economic effect of modification of the tariff or nontariff measure on industries producing like or directly competitive articles and on consumers, so as to assist the President in making an informed judgment as to the impact which might be caused by such modifications on United States interests, such as sectors involved in manufacturing, agriculture, mining, fishing, services, intellectual property, investment, labor, and consumers. Such advice may include in the case of any article the advice of the Commission as to whether any reduction in the rate of duty should take place over a longer period of time than the minimum period provided for in section 4202(a)(4)(A) of this title.

(c) Additional investigations and reports requested by President or Trade Representative

In addition, in order to assist the President in his determination whether to enter into any agreement under section 2133 of this title or section 4202(a) of this title, or how to develop trade policy, priorities or other matters (such as priorities for actions to improve opportunities in foreign markets), the Commission shall make such investigations and reports as may be requested by the President or the United States Trade Representative on matters such as effects of modification of any barrier to (or other distortion of) international trade on domestic workers, industries or sectors, purchasers, prices and quantities of articles in the United States.

(d) Commission steps in preparing its advice to President

In preparing its advice to the President under this section, the Commission shall to the extent practicable—

(1) investigate conditions, causes, and effects relating to competition between the foreign industries producing the articles or services in question and the domestic industries producing the like or directly competitive articles or services;

(2) analyze the production, trade, and consumption of each like or directly competitive article or service, taking into consideration employment, profit levels, and use of productive facilities with respect to the domestic industries concerned, and such other economic factors in such industries as it considers relevant, including prices, wages, sales, inventories, patterns of demand, capital investment, obsolescence of equipment, and diversification of production;

(3) describe the probable nature and extent of any significant change in employment, profit levels, and use of productive facilities; the overall impact of such or other possible changes on the competitiveness of relevant domestic industries or sectors; and such other conditions as it deems relevant in the domestic industries or sectors concerned which it believes such modifications would cause; and

(4) make special studies (including studies of real wages paid in foreign supplying countries), whenever deemed to be warranted, of particular proposed modifications affecting United States manufacturing, agriculture, mining, fishing, labor, consumers, services, intellectual property and investment, using to the fullest extent practicable United States Government facilities abroad and appropriate personnel of the United States.

(e) Public hearings

In preparing its advice to the President under this section, the Commission shall, after reasonable notice, hold public hearings.

(Pub. L. 93–618, title I, §131, Jan. 3, 1975, 88 Stat. 1994; Pub. L. 100–418, title I, §1111(a), Aug. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 1135; Pub. L. 107–210, div. B, title XXI, §2110(a)(2), Aug. 6, 2002, 116 Stat. 1019; Pub. L. 114–26, title I, §110(a)(1), June 29, 2015, 129 Stat. 357.)

Amendments

2015—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 114–26, §110(a)(1)(A)(i), substituted "subsection (a) or (b) of section 4202 of this title" for "section 3803(a) or (b) of this title".

Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 114–26, §110(a)(1)(A)(ii), substituted "section 4202(b) of this title" for "section 3803(b) of this title".

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 114–26, §110(a)(1)(B), substituted "section 4202(a)(4)(A) of this title" for "section 3803(a)(3)(A) of this title".

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 114–26, §110(a)(1)(C), substituted "section 4202(a) of this title" for "section 3803 of this title".

2002—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 107–210, §2110(a)(2)(A)(i), substituted "section 2133 of this title or section 3803(a) or (b) of this title," for "section 2133 of this title or section 2902(a) or (c) of this title,".

Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 107–210, §2110(a)(2)(A)(ii), substituted "section 3803(b) of this title" for "section 2902(b) or (c) of this title".

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 107–210, §2110(a)(2)(B), substituted "section 3803(a)(3)(A) of this title" for "section 2902(a)(3)(A) of this title".

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 107–210, §2110(a)(2)(C), substituted "section 3803 of this title," for "section 2902 of this title,".

1988Pub. L. 100–418 amended section generally, substituting present provisions for provisions which related to: in subsec. (a), lists of articles which could be considered for modification or continuance of duties, duty-free or excise treatment, or additional duties; in subsec. (b), advice to President following receipt of list by Commission; in subsec. (c), additional investigations and reports requested by President; in subsec. (d), Commission steps in preparing its advice to President; and in subsec. (e), public hearings.

Delegation of Authority

For delegation of functions of President under div. B of Pub. L. 107–210, amending this section, see section 1 of Ex. Ord. No. 13277, Nov. 19, 2002, 67 F.R. 70305, set out as a note under section 3801 of this title.

§2152. Advice from executive departments and other sources

Before any trade agreement is entered into under section 2133 of this title or section 4202 of this title, the President shall seek information and advice with respect to such agreement from the Departments of Agriculture, Commerce, Defense, Interior, Labor, State and the Treasury, from the United States Trade Representative, and from such other sources as he may deem appropriate. Such advice shall be prepared and presented consistent with the provisions of Reorganization Plan Number 3 of 1979, Executive Order Number 12188 and section 2171(c) of this title.

(Pub. L. 93–618, title I, §132, Jan. 3, 1975, 88 Stat. 1995; Pub. L. 100–418, title I, §1111(a), Aug. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 1137; Pub. L. 107–210, div. B, title XXI, §2110(a)(3), Aug. 6, 2002, 116 Stat. 1020; Pub. L. 114–26, title I, §110(a)(2), June 29, 2015, 129 Stat. 357.)

References in Text

Reorganization Plan Number 3 of 1979, referred to in text, is set out as a note under section 2171 of this title.

Executive Order Number 12188, referred to in text, is set out as a note under section 2171 of this title.

Amendments

2015Pub. L. 114–26 substituted "section 4202 of this title" for "section 3803 of this title".

2002Pub. L. 107–210 substituted "section 3803 of this title," for "section 2902 of this title,".

1988Pub. L. 100–418 amended section generally. Prior to amendment, section read as follows: "Before any trade agreement is entered into under part 1 of this subchapter or section 2133 or 2134 of this title, the President shall seek information and advice with respect to such agreement from the Departments of Agriculture, Commerce, Defense, Interior, Labor, State and the Treasury, from the United States Trade Representative, and from such other sources as he may deem appropriate."

Delegation of Authority

For delegation of functions of President under div. B of Pub. L. 107–210, amending this section, see section 1 of Ex. Ord. No. 13277, Nov. 19, 2002, 67 F.R. 70305, set out as a note under section 3801 of this title.

§2153. Public hearings

(a) Opportunity for presentation of views

In connection with any proposed trade agreement under section 2133 of this title or section 4202 of this title, the President shall afford an opportunity for any interested person to present his views concerning any article on a list published under section 2151 of this title, any matter or article which should be so listed, any concession which should be sought by the United States, or any other matter relevant to such proposed trade agreement. For this purpose, the President shall designate an agency or an interagency committee which shall, after reasonable notice, hold public hearings and prescribe regulations governing the conduct of such hearings. When appropriate, such procedures shall apply to the development of trade policy and priorities.

(b) Summary of hearings

The organization holding such hearing shall furnish the President with a summary thereof.

(Pub. L. 93–618, title I, §133, Jan. 3, 1975, 88 Stat. 1995; Pub. L. 100–418, title I, §1111(a), Aug. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 1137; Pub. L. 107–210, div. B, title XXI, §2110(a)(3), Aug. 6, 2002, 116 Stat. 1020; Pub. L. 114–26, title I, §110(a)(3), June 29, 2015, 129 Stat. 357.)

Amendments

2015—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 114–26 substituted "section 4202 of this title" for "section 3803 of this title".

2002—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 107–210 substituted "section 3803 of this title," for "section 2902 of this title,".

1988Pub. L. 100–418 amended section generally. Prior to amendment, section read as follows:

"(a) In connection with any proposed trade agreement under part 1 of this subchapter or section 2133 or 2134 of this title, the President shall afford an opportunity for any interested person to present his views concerning any article on a list published pursuant to section 2151 of this title, any article which should be so listed, any concession which should be sought by the United States, or any other matter relevant to such proposed trade agreement. For this purpose, the President shall designate an agency or an interagency committee which shall, after reasonable notice, hold public hearings and prescribe regulations governing the conduct of such hearings.

"(b) The organization holding such hearings shall furnish the President with a summary thereof."

Delegation of Authority

For delegation of functions of President under div. B of Pub. L. 107–210, amending this section, see section 1 of Ex. Ord. No. 13277, Nov. 19, 2002, 67 F.R. 70305, set out as a note under section 3801 of this title.

§2154. Prerequisites for offers

(a) In any negotiation seeking an agreement under section 2133 of this title or section 4202 of this title, the President may make a formal offer for the modification or continuance of any United States duty, import restrictions, or barriers to (or other distortions of) international trade, the continuance of United States duty-free or excise treatment, or the imposition of additional duties, import restrictions, or other barrier to (or other distortion of) international trade including trade in services, foreign direct investment and intellectual property as covered by this subchapter, with respect to any article or matter only after he has received a summary of the hearings at which an opportunity to be heard with respect to such article has been afforded under section 2153 of this title. In addition, the President may make an offer for the modification or continuance of any United States duty, the continuance of United States duty-free or excise treatment, or the imposition of additional duties, with respect to any article included in a list published and furnished under section 2151(a) of this title, only after he has received advice concerning such article from the Commission under section 2151(b) of this title, or after the expiration of the 6-month or 90-day period provided for in that section, as appropriate, whichever first occurs.

(b) In determining whether to make offers described in subsection (a) in the course of negotiating any trade agreement under section 4202 of this title, and in determining the nature and scope of such offers, the President shall take into account any advice or information provided, or reports submitted, by—

(1) the Commission;

(2) any advisory committee established under section 2155 of this title; or

(3) any organization that holds public hearings under section 2153 of this title;


with respect to any article, or domestic industry, that is sensitive, or potentially sensitive, to imports.

(Pub. L. 93–618, title I, §134, Jan. 3, 1975, 88 Stat. 1995; Pub. L. 100–418, title I, §1111(a), Aug. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 1137; Pub. L. 107–210, div. B, title XXI, §2110(a)(3), (4), Aug. 6, 2002, 116 Stat. 1020; Pub. L. 114–26, title I, §110(a)(4), June 29, 2015, 129 Stat. 357.)

Amendments

2015Pub. L. 114–26 substituted "section 4202 of this title" for "section 3803 of this title" in two places.

2002—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 107–210, §2110(a)(3), substituted "section 3803 of this title," for "section 2902 of this title,".

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 107–210, §2110(a)(4), substituted "section 3803 of this title" for "section 2902 of this title" in introductory provisions.

1988Pub. L. 100–418 amended section generally. Prior to amendment, section read as follows: "In any negotiations seeking an agreement under part 1 of this subchapter or section 2133 or 2134 of this title, the President may make an offer for the modification or continuance of any United States duty, import restrictions, or barriers to (or other distortions of) international trade, the continuance of United States duty-free or excise treatment, or the imposition of additional duties, import restriction, or other barrier to (or other distortion of) international trade, with respect to any article only after he has received a summary of the hearings at which an opportunity to be heard with respect to such article has been afforded under section 2153 of this title. In addition, the President may make an offer for the modification or continuance of any United States duty, the continuance of United States duty-free or excise treatment, or the imposition of additional duties, with respect to any article included in a list published and furnished under section 2151(a) of this title, only after he has received advice concerning such article from the International Trade Commission under section 2151(b) of this title, or after the expiration of the 6-month or 90-day period provided for in that section, as appropriate, whichever first occurs."

Delegation of Authority

For delegation of functions of President under div. B of Pub. L. 107–210, amending this section, see section 1 of Ex. Ord. No. 13277, Nov. 19, 2002, 67 F.R. 70305, set out as a note under section 3801 of this title.

§2155. Information and advice from private and public sectors

(a) In general

(1) The President shall seek information and advice from representative elements of the private sector and the non-Federal governmental sector with respect to—

(A) negotiating objectives and bargaining positions before entering into a trade agreement under this subchapter or section 4202 of this title;

(B) the operation of any trade agreement once entered into, including preparation for dispute settlement panel proceedings to which the United States is a party; and

(C) other matters arising in connection with the development, implementation, and administration of the trade policy of the United States, including those matters referred to in Reorganization Plan Number 3 of 1979 and Executive Order Numbered 12188, and the priorities for actions thereunder.


To the maximum extent feasible, such information and advice on negotiating objectives shall be sought and considered before the commencement of negotiations.

(2) The President shall consult with representative elements of the private sector and the non-Federal governmental sector on the overall current trade policy of the United States. The consultations shall include, but are not limited to, the following elements of such policy:

(A) The principal multilateral and bilateral trade negotiating objectives and the progress being made toward their achievement.

(B) The implementation, operation, and effectiveness of recently concluded multilateral and bilateral trade agreements and resolution of trade disputes.

(C) The actions taken under the trade laws of the United States and the effectiveness of such actions in achieving trade policy objectives.

(D) Important developments in other areas of trade for which there must be developed a proper policy response.


(3) The President shall take the advice received through consultation under paragraph (2) into account in determining the importance which should be placed on each major objective and negotiating position that should be adopted in order to achieve the overall trade policy of the United States.

(b) Advisory Committee for Trade Policy and Negotiations

(1) The President shall establish an Advisory Committee for Trade Policy and Negotiations to provide overall policy advice on matters referred to in subsection (a). The committee shall be composed of not more than 45 individuals and shall include representatives of non-Federal governments, labor, industry, agriculture, small business, service industries, retailers, nongovernmental environmental and conservation organizations, and consumer interests. The committee shall be broadly representative of the key sectors and groups of the economy, particularly with respect to those sectors and groups which are affected by trade. Members of the committee shall be recommended by the United States Trade Representative and appointed by the President for a term of 4 years or until the committee is scheduled to expire. An individual may be reappointed to committee for any number of terms. Appointments to the Committee 1 shall be made without regard to political affiliation.

(2) The committee shall meet as needed at the call of the United States Trade Representative or at the call of two-thirds of the members of the committee. The chairman of the committee shall be elected by the committee from among its members.

(3) The United States Trade Representative shall make available to the committee such staff, information, personnel, and administrative services and assistance as it may reasonably require to carry out its activities.

(c) General policy, sectoral, or functional advisory committees

(1) The President may establish individual general policy advisory committees for industry, labor, agriculture, services, investment, defense, and other interests, as appropriate, to provide general policy advice on matters referred to in subsection (a). Such committees shall, insofar as is practicable, be representative of all industry, labor, agricultural, service, investment, defense, and other interests, respectively, including small business interests, and shall be organized by the United States Trade Representative and the Secretaries of Commerce, Defense, Labor, Agriculture, the Treasury, or other executive departments, as appropriate. The members of such committees shall be appointed by the United States Trade Representative in consultation with such Secretaries.

(2) The President shall establish such sectoral or functional advisory committees as may be appropriate. Such committees shall, insofar as is practicable, be representative of all industry, labor, agricultural, or service interests (including small business interests) in the sector or functional areas concerned. In organizing such committees, the United States Trade Representative and the Secretaries of Commerce, Labor, Agriculture, the Treasury, or other executive departments, as appropriate, shall—

(A) consult with interested private organizations; and

(B) take into account such factors as—

(i) patterns of actual and potential competition between United States industry and agriculture and foreign enterprise in international trade,

(ii) the character of the nontariff barriers and other distortions affecting such competition,

(iii) the necessity for reasonable limits on the number of such advisory committees,

(iv) the necessity that each committee be reasonably limited in size, and

(v) in the case of each sectoral committee, that the product lines covered by each committee be reasonably related.


(3) The President—

(A) may, if necessary, establish policy advisory committees representing non-Federal governmental interests to provide policy advice—

(i) on matters referred to in subsection (a), and

(ii) with respect to implementation of trade agreements, and


(B) shall include as members of committees established under subparagraph (A) representatives of non-Federal governmental interests if he finds such inclusion appropriate after consultation by the United States Trade Representative with such representatives.


(4) Appointments to each committee established under paragraph (1), (2), or (3) shall be made without regard to political affiliation.

(d) Policy, technical, and other advice and information

Committees established under subsection (c) shall meet at the call of the United States Trade Representative and the Secretaries of Agriculture, Commerce, Labor, Defense, or other executive departments, as appropriate, to provide policy advice, technical advice and information, and advice on other factors relevant to the matters referred to in subsection (a).

(e) Meeting of advisory committees at conclusion of negotiations

(1) The Advisory Committee for Trade Policy and Negotiations, each appropriate policy advisory committee, and each sectoral or functional advisory committee, if the sector or area which such committee represents is affected, shall meet at the conclusion of negotiations for each trade agreement entered into under section 4202 of this title, to provide to the President, to Congress, and to the United States Trade Representative a report on such agreement. Each report that applies to a trade agreement entered into under section 4202 of this title shall be provided under the preceding sentence not later than the date that is 30 days after the date on which the President notifies Congress under section 4205(a)(1)(A) of this title of his intention to enter into that agreement.

(2) The report of the Advisory Committee for Trade Policy and Negotiations and each appropriate policy advisory committee shall include an advisory opinion as to whether and to what extent the agreement promotes the economic interests of the United States and achieves the applicable overall and principal negotiating objectives set forth in section 4201 of this title, as appropriate.

(3) The report of the appropriate sectoral or functional committee under paragraph (1) shall include an advisory opinion as to whether the agreement provides for equity and reciprocity within the sector or within the functional area.

(f) Application of Federal Advisory Committee Act

The provisions of the Federal Advisory Committee Act apply—

(1) to the Advisory Committee for Trade Policy and Negotiations established under subsection (b); and

(2) to all other advisory committees which may be established under subsection (c) of this section, except that—

(A) the meetings of advisory committees established under subsections (b) and (c) of this section shall be exempt from the requirements of subsections (a) and (b) of sections 10 and 11 of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (relating to open meetings, public notice, public participation, and public availability of documents), whenever and to the extent it is determined by the President or the President's designee that such meetings will be concerned with matters the disclosure of which would seriously compromise the development by the United States Government of trade policy, priorities, negotiating objectives, or bargaining positions with respect to matters referred to in subsection (a) of this section, and that meetings may be called of such special task forces, plenary meetings of chairmen, or other such groups made up of members of the committees established under subsections (b) and (c) of this section; and

(B) notwithstanding subsection (a)(2) of section 14 of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, any committee established under subsection (b) or (c) may, in the discretion of the President or the President's designee, terminate not later than the expiration of the 4-year period beginning on the date of its establishment.

(g) Trade secrets and confidential information

(1) Trade secrets and commercial or financial information which is privileged or confidential, and which is submitted in confidence by the private sector or non-Federal government to officers or employees of the United States in connection with trade negotiations, may be disclosed upon request to—

(A) officers and employees of the United States designated by the United States Trade Representative;

(B) members of the Committee on Ways and Means of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Finance of the Senate who are designated as official advisers under section 2211(a)(1) of this title or are designated by the chairmen of either such committee under section 2211(b)(3)(A) of this title and staff members of either such committee designated by the chairmen under section 2211(b)(3)(A) of this title; and

(C) members of any committee of the House or Senate or any joint committee of Congress who are designated as advisers under section 2211(a)(2) of this title or designated by the chairman of such committee under section 2211(b)(3)(B) of this title and staff members of such committee designated under section 2211(b)(3)(B) of this title, but disclosure may be made under this subparagraph only with respect to trade secrets or commercial or financial information that is relevant to trade policy matters or negotiations that are within the legislative jurisdiction of such committee;


for use in connection with matters referred to in subsection (a).

(2) Information other than that described in paragraph (1), and advice submitted in confidence by the private sector or non-Federal government to officers or employees of the United States, to the Advisory Committee for Trade Policy and Negotiations, or to any advisory committee established under subsection (c), in connection with matters referred to in subsection (a), may be disclosed upon request to—

(A) the individuals described in paragraph (1); and

(B) the appropriate advisory committee established under this section.


(3) Information submitted in confidence by officers or employees of the United States to the Advisory Committee for Trade Policy and Negotiations, or to any advisory committee established under subsection (c), may be disclosed in accordance with rules issued by the United States Trade Representative and the Secretaries of Commerce, Labor, Defense, Agriculture, or other executive departments, as appropriate, after consultation with the relevant advisory committees established under subsection (c). Such rules shall define the categories of information which require restricted or confidential handling by such committee considering the extent to which public disclosure of such information can reasonably be expected to prejudice the development of trade policy, priorities, or United States negotiating objectives. Such rules shall, to the maximum extent feasible, permit meaningful consultations by advisory committee members with persons affected by matters referred to in subsection (a).

(h) Advisory committee support

The United States Trade Representative, and the Secretaries of Commerce, Labor, Defense, Agriculture, the Treasury, or other executive departments, as appropriate, shall provide such staff, information, personnel, and administrative services and assistance to advisory committees established under subsection (c) as such committees may reasonably require to carry out their activities.

(i) Consultation with advisory committees; procedures; nonacceptance of committee advice or recommendations

It shall be the responsibility of the United States Trade Representative, in conjunction with the Secretaries of Commerce, Labor, Agriculture, the Treasury, or other executive departments, as appropriate, to adopt procedures for consultation with and obtaining information and advice from the advisory committees established under subsection (c) on a continuing and timely basis. Such consultation shall include the provision of information to each advisory committee as to—

(1) significant issues and developments; and

(2) overall negotiating objectives and positions of the United States and other parties;


with respect to matters referred to in subsection (a). The United States Trade Representative shall not be bound by the advice or recommendations of such advisory committees, but shall inform the advisory committees of significant departures from such advice or recommendations made. In addition, in the course of consultations with the Congress under this subchapter, information on the advice and information provided by advisory committees shall be made available to congressional advisers.

(j) Private organizations or groups

In addition to any advisory committee established under this section, the President shall provide adequate, timely and continuing opportunity for the submission on an informal basis (and, if such information is submitted under the provisions of subsection (g), on a confidential basis) by private organizations or groups, representing government, labor, industry, agriculture, small business, service industries, consumer interests, and others, of statistics, data and other trade information, as well as policy recommendations, pertinent to any matter referred to in subsection (a).

(k) Scope of participation by members of advisory committees

Nothing contained in this section shall be construed to authorize or permit any individual to participate directly in any negotiation of any matters referred to in subsection (a). To the maximum extent practicable, the members of the committees established under subsections (b) and (c), and other appropriate parties, shall be informed and consulted before and during any such negotiations. They may be designated as advisors to a negotiating delegation, and may be permitted to participate in international meetings to the extent the head of the United States delegation deems appropriate. However, they may not speak or negotiate for the United States.

(l) Advisory committees established by Department of Agriculture

The provisions of title XVIII of the Food and Agriculture Act of 1977 (7 U.S.C. 2281 et seq.) shall not apply to any advisory committee established under subsection (c).

(m) "Non-Federal government" defined

As used in this section, the term "non-Federal government" means—

(1) any State, territory, or possession of the United States, or the District of Columbia, or any political subdivision thereof; or

(2) any agency or instrumentality of any entity described in paragraph (1).

(Pub. L. 93–618, title I, §135, Jan. 3, 1975, 88 Stat. 1996; Pub. L. 96–39, title XI, §1103, July 26, 1979, 93 Stat. 308; Pub. L. 98–573, title III, §306(c)(2)(B), Oct. 30, 1984, 98 Stat. 3011; Pub. L. 99–514, title XVIII, §1887(a)(2), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2923; Pub. L. 100–418, title I, §1631, Aug. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 1264; Pub. L. 103–465, title I, §§127(f), 128, Dec. 8, 1994, 108 Stat. 4836; Pub. L. 107–210, div. B, title XXI, §2110(a)(5), Aug. 6, 2002, 116 Stat. 1020; Pub. L. 108–429, title II, §2004(i)(1), (2), Dec. 3, 2004, 118 Stat. 2594, 2595; Pub. L. 109–280, title XIV, §1635(f)(2), Aug. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 1171; Pub. L. 114–26, title I, §110(a)(5), June 29, 2015, 129 Stat. 357.)

References in Text

Reorganization Plan Number 3 of 1979, referred to in subsec. (a)(1)(C), is set out as a note under section 2171 of this title.

Executive Order Numbered 12188, referred to in subsec. (a)(1)(C), is set out as a note under section 2171 of this title.

The Federal Advisory Committee Act, referred to in subsec (f), is Pub. L. 92–463, Oct. 6, 1972, 86 Stat. 770, as amended, which is set out in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

The Food and Agriculture Act of 1977, referred to in subsec. (l), is Pub. L. 95–113, Sept. 29, 1977, 91 Stat. 913, as amended. Title XVIII of the Act is classified generally to chapter 55A (§2281 et seq.) of Title 7, Agriculture. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title of 1977 Amendment note set out under section 1281 of Title 7 and Tables.

Amendments

2015—Subsec. (a)(1)(A). Pub. L. 114–26, §110(a)(5)(A), substituted "section 4202 of this title" for "section 3803 of this title".

Subsec. (e)(1). Pub. L. 114–26, §110(a)(5)(B)(i), substituted "section 4202 of this title" for "section 3803 of this title" in two places and "not later than the date that is 30 days after the date on which the President notifies Congress under section 4205(a)(1)(A) of this title" for "not later than the date on which the President notifies the Congress under section 3805(a)(1)(A) of this title".

Subsec. (e)(2). Pub. L. 114–26, §110(a)(5)(B)(ii), substituted "section 4201 of this title" for "section 3802 of this title".

2006—Subsec. (f)(2)(B). Pub. L. 109–280 substituted "its establishment" for "their establishment".

2004—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 108–429, §2004(i)(2), substituted "4 years or until the committee is scheduled to expire" for "2 years".

Subsec. (f)(2). Pub. L. 108–429, §2004(i)(1), amended par. (2) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (2) read as follows: "to all other advisory committees which may be established under subsection (c) of this section; except that the meetings of advisory committees established under subsections (b) and (c) of this section shall be exempt from the requirements of subsections (a) and (b) of sections 10 and 11 of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (relating to open meetings, public notice, public participation, and public availability of documents), whenever and to the extent it is determined by the President or his designee that such meetings will be concerned with matters the disclosure of which would seriously compromise the development by the United States Government of trade policy, priorities, negotiating objectives or bargaining positions with respect to matters referred to in subsection (a) of this section, and that meetings may be called of such special task forces, plenary meetings of chairmen, or other such groups made up of members of the committees established under subsections (b) and (c) of this section."

2002—Subsec. (a)(1)(A). Pub. L. 107–210, §2110(a)(5)(A), substituted "section 3803 of this title" for "section 2902 of this title".

Subsec. (e)(1). Pub. L. 107–210, §2110(a)(5)(B), substituted "section 3803 of this title" for "section 2902 of this title" in two places and "section 3805(a)(1)(A) of this title" for "section 2903(a)(1)(A) of this title".

Subsec. (e)(2). Pub. L. 107–210, §2110(a)(5)(C), substituted "section 3802 of this title" for "section 2901 of this title".

1994—Subsec. (a)(1)(B). Pub. L. 103–465, §127(f), amended subpar. (B) generally. Prior to amendment, subpar. (B) read as follows: "the operation of any trade agreement once entered into; and".

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 103–465, §128, inserted "nongovernmental environmental and conservation organizations," after "retailers,".

1988Pub. L. 100–418 amended section generally, substituting present provisions for provisions which, in the following subsections, had related to: subsec. (a), information and advice on trade agreements and other matters; subsec. (b), Advisory Committee for Trade Negotiations; subsec. (c), general policy, sectoral, functional, or policy advisory committees; subsec. (d), policy advice, technical advice and information, and other advice; subsec. (e), meeting of advisory committees at conclusion of negotiations for trade agreements; subsec. (f), Federal Advisory Committee Act; subsec. (g), trade secrets and confidential commercial, financial, or other information; subsec. (h), staff, information, personnel, and administrative services and assistance to advisory committees; subsec. (i), consultation with advisory committees; adoption of procedures; nonacceptance of committee advice or recommendations; subsec. (j), private or non-Federal government organizations or groups; subsec. (k), direct participation in negotiations by private individuals not authorized; information, consultation, participation of committee members and appropriate parties in international meetings; restrictions; subsec. (l), advisory committees established by Department of Agriculture; and subsec. (m), definition of "non-Federal government".

1986—Subsecs. (m), (n). Pub. L. 99–514 redesignated subsec. (n) as (m).

1984—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 98–573, §306(c)(2)(B)(i), inserted "and the non-Federal governmental sector" after "private sector".

Subsec. (c)(3). Pub. L. 98–573, §306(c)(2)(B)(ii), added par. (3).

Subsec. (g)(1)(A), (B). Pub. L. 98–573, §306(c)(2)(B)(iii), inserted "or non-Federal government" after "private".

Subsec. (j). Pub. L. 98–573, §306(c)(2)(B)(iii), (iv), inserted "or non-Federal government" after "private" and "government," before "labor, industry".

Subsec. (n). Pub. L. 98–573, §306(c)(2)(B)(v), added subsec. (n).

1979—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 96–39, §1103(1), (2), struck out ", in accordance with the provisions of this section," after "President" and required the seeking of information and advice respecting operation of a trade agreement once entered into and respecting other matters arising in connection with the administration of trade policy of the United States.

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 96–39, §1103(3), substituted "matters referred to in subsection (a) of this section" for "any trade agreement referred to in section 2111 or 2112 of this title".

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 96–39, §1103(4), substituted requirement that the members elect the Chairman of the Committee from among its membership for provision designating the Special Representative as Chairman and struck out provision for termination of the Committee upon submission of its report to Congress as soon as practical after the end of the period which ends 5 years after Jan. 3, 1975.

Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 96–39, §1103(5), inserted a comma after "initiative", included references to "services", and substituted "general policy advice on matters referred to in subsection (a) of this section" for "general policy advice on any trade agreement referred to in section 2111 or 2112 of this title", "Special Representative for Trade Negotiations" for "President acting through the Special Representative for Trade Negotiations" and "or Agriculture" for "and Agriculture".

Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 96–39, §1103(6)–(9), substituted "The President shall establish such sectoral or functional advisory committees as may be appropriate" for "The President shall, on his own initiative or at the request of organizations in a particular sector, establish such industry, labor, or agricultural sector advisory committees as he determines to be necessary for any trade negotiations referred to in section 2111 or 2112 of this title" and "Such committees shall, insofar as is practicable, be representative of all industry, labor, agricultural, or service interests (including small business interests) in the sector or functional areas concerned" for "Such committees shall, so far as practicable, be representative of all industry, labor, or agricultural interests including small business interests in the sector concerned" and "the Special Representative for Trade Negotiations" for "the President, acting through the Special Representative for Trade Negotiations", struck out "product sector" before "advisory committees", and inserted ", in the case of each sectoral committee," before "the product lines".

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 96–39, §1103(10), required committee meetings to be also summoned at joint instance of Secretary of Agriculture, Commerce, or Labor, as appropriate, previously required to be called before and during trade negotiations, struck out item (1) through (3) designation for "policy advice", "technical advice" and "advice on other factors", struck out "on negotiations" and "on negotiations on particular products both domestic and foreign" after "policy advice" and "technical advice and information" and substituted "factors relevant to the matters referred to in subsection (a) of this section" for "factors relevant to positions of the United States in trade negotiations."

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 96–39, §1103(11)–(14), redesignated par. (1) as entire provision, and in provision as so redesignated, substituted "each sector or functional advisory committee, if the sector or area" for "each sector advisory committee, if the sector", "appropriate sector or functional area" for "appropriate sector", and "within the sector or within the functional area" for "within the sector", and struck out par. (2) which required a report to Congress by the Advisory Committee for Trade Negotiations by each policy advisory committee, and, each sector advisory committee as soon as practicable at end of the period ending 5 years after Jan. 3, 1975, including advisory opinions of the respective committees as to how the trade agreements serve the economic interests of United States and how provision is made for equity and reciprocity within the sector.

Subsec. (f)(2). Pub. L. 96–39, §1103(15)(A), (B), substituted "committees" for "groups" and "with respect to matters referred to in subsection (a) of this section" for "on the negotiation of any trade agreement".

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 96–39, §1103(16), (17)(A), (B), substituted in par. (1)(A) "matters referred to in subsection (a) of this section" for "a trade agreement referred to in section 2111 or 2112 of this title", in par. (1)(B) "matters referred to in subsection (a) of this section" for "trade negotiations", and in par. (2) "matters referred to in subsection (a) of this title" for "proposed trade agreements".

Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 96–39, §1103(18)(A)–(C), struck out in provision before cl. (1) ", both during preparation for negotiations and actual negotiations" after "basis" and in cl. (1) "arising in preparation for or in the course of such negotiations" after "developments" and substituted in cl. (2) "with respect to matters referred to in subsection (a) of this section" for "to the negotiations".

Subsec. (j). Pub. L. 96–39, §1103(19), substituted "matters referred to in subsection (a) of this section" for "trade agreement referred to in section 2111 or 2112 of this title".

Subsec. (k). Pub. L. 96–39, §1103(19), (20), substituted "matters referred to in subsection (a) of this section" for "trade agreement referred to in section 2111 or 2112 of this title" and provided for information to and consultations with committee members and appropriate parties and participation in international meetings without becoming spokesmen or negotiators for the United States.

Subsec. (l). Pub. L. 96–39, §1103(21), added subsec. (l).

Effective Date of 2006 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 109–280 applicable with respect to goods entered, or withdrawn from warehouse for consumption, on or after the 15th day after Aug. 17, 2006, see section 1641 of Pub. L. 109–280, set out as a note under section 58c of this title.

Effective Date of 2004 Amendment

Pub. L. 108–429, title II, §2004(i)(3), Dec. 3, 2004, 118 Stat. 2595, provided that: "The amendments made by this subsection [amending this section] shall take effect on February 1, 2006."

Effective Date of 1994 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 103–465 effective on the date on which the WTO Agreement enters into force with respect to the United States (Jan. 1, 1995), see section 130 of Pub. L. 103–465, set out as an Effective Date note under section 3531 of this title.

Effective Date of 1979 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 96–39 effective July 26, 1979, see section 1114 of Pub. L. 96–39, set out as an Effective Date note under section 2581 of this title.

Delegation of Authority

For delegation of functions of President under div. B of Pub. L. 107–210, amending this section, see section 1 of Ex. Ord. No. 13277, Nov. 19, 2002, 67 F.R. 70305, set out as a note under section 3801 of this title.

Plan Amendments Not Required Until January 1, 1989

For provisions directing that if any amendments made by subtitle A or subtitle C of title XI [§§1101–1147 and 1171–1177] or title XVIII [§§1801–1899A] of Pub. L. 99–514 require an amendment to any plan, such plan amendment shall not be required to be made before the first plan year beginning on or after Jan. 1, 1989, see section 1140 of Pub. L. 99–514, as amended, set out as a note under section 401 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

Ex. Ord. No. 12905. Trade and Environment Policy Advisory Committee

Ex. Ord. No. 12905, Mar. 25, 1994, 59 F.R. 14733, provided:

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including the Federal Advisory Committee Act, as amended (5 U.S.C. App.), and section 135(c)(1) of the Trade Act of 1974, as amended (19 U.S.C. 2155(c)(1)) ("Act"), it is hereby ordered as follows:

Section 1. Establishment. There is established in the Office of the United States Trade Representative ("Trade Representative"[)] the "Trade and Environment Policy Advisory Committee" ("Committee").

Sec. 2. Membership. (a) The Committee shall consist of not more than 35 members, including, but not limited to, representatives from environmental interest groups, industry (including the environmental technology and environmental services industries), agriculture, services, non-Federal government, and consumer interests. The Committee should be broadly representative of the key sectors and groups of the economy with an interest in trade and environmental policy issues.

(b) The Chairman of the Committee shall be elected by the Committee from among its members. Members of the Committee shall be appointed by the Trade Representative, in consultation with the Cabinet secretaries described in section 2155(c)(1) of title 19, United States Code, for a term of 2 years and may be reappointed for any number of terms. Appointments to the Committee shall be made without regard to political affiliation. Any member may be removed at the discretion of the Trade Representative.

Sec. 3. Functions. (a) The Committee shall provide the Trade Representative with policy advice on issues involving trade and the environment.

(b) The Committee shall submit a report to the President, to the Congress, and to the Trade Representative at the conclusion of negotiations for each trade agreement referred to in section 102 of the Act [19 U.S.C. 2112]. The report shall include an advisory opinion on whether and to what extent the agreement promotes the interests of the United States.

(c) The Committee may establish such subcommittees of its members as it deems necessary, subject to the provisions of the Federal Advisory Committee Act and the approval of the Trade Representative, or his designee.

(d) The Committee shall report its activities to the Trade Representative, or his designee.

Sec. 4. Administration. (a) The Trade Representative, or his designee, with the advice of the Chairman, shall be responsible for prior approval of the agendas for all Committee meetings.

(b) The Trade Representative, or his designee, shall be responsible for determinations, filings, and other administrative requirements of the Federal Advisory Committee Act.

(c)(1) The Trade Representative shall provide funding and administrative and staff support for the Committee.

(2) The Committee shall have an Executive Director who shall be a Federal officer or employee designated by the Trade Representative.

(d) Members of the Committee shall serve without either compensation or reimbursement of expenses.

(e) The Committee shall meet as needed at the call of the Trade Representative or his designee, depending on various factors such as the level of activity of trade negotiations and the needs of the Trade Representative, or at the call of two-thirds of the members of the Committee.

Sec. 5. General. The Committee shall function for such period as may be necessary. In accordance with the Federal Advisory Committee Act [5 U.S.C. App.], the Committee shall terminate after 2 years from the date of this order unless otherwise extended.

William J. Clinton.      

Extension of Term of Trade and Environment Policy Advisory Committee

Term of Trade and Environment Policy Advisory Committee extended until Sept. 30, 2019, by Ex. Ord. No. 13811, Sept. 29, 2017, 82 F.R. 46363, set out as a note under section 14 of the Federal Advisory Committee Act in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

Previous extensions of term of Trade and Environment Policy Advisory Committee were contained in the following prior Executive Orders:

Ex. Ord. No. 13708, Sept. 30, 2015, 80 F.R. 60271, extended term until Sept. 30, 2017.

Ex. Ord. No. 13652, Sept. 30, 2013, 78 F.R. 61817, extended term until Sept. 30, 2015.

Ex. Ord. No. 13585, Sept. 30, 2011, 76 F.R. 62281, extended term until Sept. 30, 2013.

Ex. Ord. No. 13511, Sept. 29, 2009, 74 F.R. 50909, extended term until Sept. 30, 2011.

Ex. Ord. No. 13446, Sept. 28, 2007, 72 F.R. 56175, extended term until Sept. 30, 2009.

Ex. Ord. No. 13385, Sept. 29, 2005, 70 F.R. 57989, extended term until Sept. 30, 2007.

Ex. Ord. No. 13316, Sept. 17, 2003, 68 F.R. 55255, extended term until Sept. 30, 2005.

Ex. Ord. No. 13225, Sept. 28, 2001, 66 F.R. 50291, extended term until Sept. 30, 2003.

Ex. Ord. No. 13138, Sept. 30, 1999, 64 F.R. 53879, extended term until Sept. 30, 2001.

Ex. Ord. No. 13062, §1(o), Sept. 29, 1997, 62 F.R. 51755, extended term until Sept. 30, 1999.

Ex. Ord. No. 12974, Sept. 29, 1995, 60 F.R. 51875, extended term until Sept. 30, 1997.

1 So in original. Probably should not be capitalized.

Part 4—Office of the United States Trade Representative

Codification

Pub. L. 97–456, §3(d)(3), Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2505, substituted "United States Trade Representative" for "Special Representative for Trade Negotiations" in part 4 heading.

§2171. Structure, functions, powers, and personnel

(a) Establishment within Executive Office of the President

There is established within the Executive Office of the President the Office of the United States Trade Representative (hereinafter in this section referred to as the "Office").

(b) United States Trade Representative; Deputy United States Trade Representatives

(1) The Office shall be headed by the United States Trade Representative who shall be appointed by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate. As an exercise of the rulemaking power of the Senate, any nomination of the United States Trade Representative submitted to the Senate for confirmation, and referred to a committee, shall be referred to the Committee on Finance. The United States Trade Representative shall hold office at the pleasure of the President, shall be entitled to receive the same allowances as a chief of mission, and shall have the rank of Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary.

(2) There shall be in the Office three Deputy United States Trade Representatives, one Chief Agricultural Negotiator, and one Chief Innovation and Intellectual Property Negotiator, who shall be appointed by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate. As an exercise of the rulemaking power of the Senate, any nomination of a Deputy United States Trade Representative, the Chief Agricultural Negotiator, or the Chief Innovation and Intellectual Property Negotiator submitted to the Senate for its advice and consent, and referred to a committee, shall be referred to the Committee on Finance. Each Deputy United States Trade Representative, the Chief Agricultural Negotiator, and the Chief Innovation and Intellectual Property Negotiator shall hold office at the pleasure of the President and shall have the rank of Ambassador.

(3) There shall be in the Office one Chief Transparency Officer. The Chief Transparency Officer shall consult with Congress on transparency policy, coordinate transparency in trade negotiations, engage and assist the public, and advise the United States Trade Representative on transparency policy.

(4) A person who has directly represented, aided, or advised a foreign entity (as defined by section 207(f)(3) of title 18) in any trade negotiation, or trade dispute, with the United States may not be appointed as United States Trade Representative or as a Deputy United States Trade Representative.

(5)(A) When the President submits to the Senate for its advice and consent a nomination of an individual for appointment as a Deputy United States Trade Representative under paragraph (2), the President shall include in that submission information on the country, regional offices, and functions of the Office of the United States Trade Representative with respect to which that individual will have responsibility.

(B) The President shall notify the Committee on Ways and Means of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Finance of the Senate not less than 30 days prior to making any change to the responsibilities of any Deputy United States Trade Representative included in a submission under subparagraph (A), including the reason for that change.

(c) Duties of United States Trade Representative and Deputy United States Trade Representatives

(1) The United States Trade Representative shall—

(A) have primary responsibility for developing, and for coordinating the implementation of, United States international trade policy, including commodity matters, and, to the extent they are related to international trade policy, direct investment matters;

(B) serve as the principal advisor to the President on international trade policy and shall advise the President on the impact of other policies of the United States Government on international trade;

(C) have lead responsibility for the conduct of, and shall be the chief representative of the United States for, international trade negotiations, including all negotiations on any matter considered under the auspices of the World Trade Organization, commodity and direct investment negotiations, in which the United States participates;

(D) issue and coordinate policy guidance to departments and agencies on basic issues of policy and interpretation arising in the exercise of international trade functions, including any matter considered under the auspices of the World Trade Organization, to the extent necessary to assure the coordination of international trade policy and consistent with any other law;

(E) act as the principal spokesman of the President on international trade;

(F) report directly to the President and the Congress regarding, and be responsible to the President and the Congress for the administration of, trade agreements programs;

(G) advise the President and Congress with respect to nontariff barriers to international trade, international commodity agreements, and other matters which are related to the trade agreements programs;

(H) be responsible for making reports to Congress with respect to matters referred to in subparagraphs (C) and (F);

(I) be chairman of the interagency trade organization established under section 1872(a) of this title, and shall consult with and be advised by such organization in the performance of his functions; and

(J) in addition to those functions that are delegated to the United States Trade Representative as of August 23, 1988, be responsible for such other functions as the President may direct.


(2) It is the sense of Congress that the United States Trade Representative should—

(A) be the senior representative on any body that the President may establish for the purpose of providing to the President advice on overall economic policies in which international trade matters predominate; and

(B) be included as a participant in all economic summit and other international meetings at which international trade is a major topic.


(3) The United States Trade Representative may—

(A) delegate any of his functions, powers, and duties to such officers and employees of the Office as he may designate; and

(B) authorize such successive redelegations of such functions, powers, and duties to such officers and employees of the Office as he may deem appropriate.


(4) Each Deputy United States Trade Representative shall have as his principal function the conduct of trade negotiations under this chapter and shall have such other functions as the United States Trade Representative may direct.

(5) The principal function of the Chief Agricultural Negotiator shall be to conduct trade negotiations and to enforce trade agreements relating to United States agricultural products and services. The Chief Agricultural Negotiator shall be a vigorous advocate on behalf of United States agricultural interests. The Chief Agricultural Negotiator shall perform such other functions as the United States Trade Representative may direct.

(6) The principal functions of the Chief Innovation and Intellectual Property Negotiator shall be to conduct trade negotiations and to enforce trade agreements relating to United States intellectual property and to take appropriate actions to address acts, policies, and practices of foreign governments that have a significant adverse impact on the value of United States innovation. The Chief Innovation and Intellectual Property Negotiator shall be a vigorous advocate on behalf of United States innovation and intellectual property interests. The Chief Innovation and Intellectual Property Negotiator shall perform such other functions as the United States Trade Representative may direct.

(d) Unfair trade practices; additional duties of Representative; advisory committee; definition

(1) In carrying out subsection (c) with respect to unfair trade practices, the United States Trade Representative shall—

(A) coordinate the application of interagency resources, including resources of the Interagency Center on Trade Implementation, Monitoring, and Enforcement established under subsection (h), to specific unfair trade practice cases;

(B) identify, and refer to the appropriate Federal department or agency for consideration with respect to action, each act, policy, or practice referred to in the report required under section 2241(b) of this title, or otherwise known to the United States Trade Representative on the basis of other available information, that may be an unfair trade practice that either—

(i) is considered to be inconsistent with the provisions of any trade agreement and has a significant adverse impact on United States commerce, or

(ii) has a significant adverse impact on domestic firms or industries that are either too small or financially weak to initiate proceedings under the trade laws;


(C) identify practices having a significant adverse impact on United States commerce that the attainment of United States negotiating objectives would eliminate; and

(D) identify, on a biennial basis, those United States Government policies and practices that, if engaged in by a foreign government, might constitute unfair trade practices under United States law.


(2) For purposes of carrying out paragraph (1), the United States Trade Representative shall be assisted by an interagency unfair trade practices advisory committee composed of the Trade Representative, who shall chair the committee, and senior representatives of the following agencies, appointed by the respective heads of those agencies:

(A) The Bureau of Economics and Business Affairs of the Department of State.

(B) The United States and Foreign Commercial Services of the Department of Commerce.

(C) The International Trade Administration (other than the United States and Foreign Commercial Service) of the Department of Commerce.

(D) The Foreign Agricultural Service of the Department of Agriculture.


The United States Trade Representative may also request the advice of the United States International Trade Commission regarding the carrying out of paragraph (1).

(3) For purposes of this subsection, the term "unfair trade practice" means any act, policy, or practice that—

(A) may be a subsidy with respect to which countervailing duties may be imposed under subtitle A of title VII [19 U.S.C. 1671 et seq.];

(B) may result in the sale or likely sale of foreign merchandise with respect to which antidumping duties may be imposed under subtitle B of title VII [19 U.S.C. 1673 et seq.];

(C) may be either an unfair method of competition, or an unfair act in the importation of articles into the United States, that is unlawful under section 337 [19 U.S.C. 1337]; or

(D) may be an act, policy, or practice of a kind with respect to which action may be taken under subchapter III of this chapter.

(e) Powers of United States Trade Representative

The United States Trade Representative may, for the purpose of carrying out his functions under this section—

(1) subject to the civil service and classification laws, select, appoint, employ, and fix the compensation of such officers and employees as are necessary and prescribe their authority and duties, except that not more than 20 individuals may be employed without regard to any provision of law regulating the employment or compensation at rates not to exceed the rate of pay for level IV of the Executive Schedule in section 5314 1 of title 5;

(2) employ experts and consultants in accordance with section 3109 of title 5 and compensate individuals so employed for each day (including traveltime) at rates not in excess of the maximum rate of pay for grade GS–18 as provided in section 5332 of title 5 and while such experts and consultants are so serving away from their homes or regular place of business, to pay such employees travel expenses and per diem in lieu of subsistence at rates authorized by section 5703 of title 5 for persons in Government service employed intermittently;

(3) promulgate such rules and regulations as may be necessary to carry out the functions, powers and duties vested in him;

(4) utilize, with their consent, the services, personnel, and facilities of other Federal agencies;

(5) enter into and perform such contracts, leases, cooperative agreements, or other transactions as may be necessary in the conduct of the work of the Office and on such terms as the United States Trade Representative may deem appropriate, with any agency or instrumentality of the United States, or with any public or private person, firm, association, corporation, or institution;

(6) accept voluntary and uncompensated services, notwithstanding the provisions of section 1342 of title 31;

(7) adopt an official seal, which shall be judicially noticed;

(8) pay for expenses approved by him for official travel without regard to the Federal Travel Regulations or to the provisions of subchapter I of chapter 57 of title 5 (relating to rates of per diem allowances in lieu of subsistence expenses);

(9) accept, hold, administer, and utilize gifts, devises, and bequests of property, both real and personal, for the purpose of aiding or facilitating the work of the Office;

(10) acquire, by purchase or exchange, not more than two passenger motor vehicles for use abroad, except that no vehicle may be acquired at a cost exceeding $9,500; and

(11) provide, where authorized by law, copies of documents to persons at cost, except that any funds so received shall be credited to, and be available for use from, the account from which expenditures relating thereto were made.

(f) Use of other Federal agencies

The United States Trade Representative shall, to the extent he deems it necessary for the proper administration and execution of the trade agreements programs of the United States, draw upon the resources of, and consult with, Federal agencies in connection with the performance of his functions.

(g) Authorization of appropriations

(1)(A) There are authorized to be appropriated to the Office for the purposes of carrying out its functions the following:

(i) $32,300,000 for fiscal year 2003.

(ii) $33,108,000 for fiscal year 2004.


(B) Of the amounts authorized to be appropriated under subparagraph (A) for any fiscal year—

(i) not to exceed $98,000 may be used for entertainment and representation expenses of the Office; and

(ii) not to exceed $1,000,000 shall remain available until expended.


(2) For the fiscal year beginning October 1, 1982, and for each fiscal year thereafter, there are authorized to be appropriated to the Office for the salaries of its officers and employees such additional sums as may be provided by law to reflect pay rate changes made in accordance with the Federal Pay Comparability Act of 1970.

(3) By not later than the date on which the President submits to Congress the budget of the United States Government for a fiscal year, the United States Trade Representative shall submit to the Committee on Ways and Means of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Finance of the Senate the projected amount of funds for the succeeding fiscal year that will be necessary for the Office to carry out its functions.

(h) Interagency Center on Trade Implementation, Monitoring, and Enforcement

(1) Establishment of Center

There is established in the Office of the United States Trade Representative an Interagency Center on Trade Implementation, Monitoring, and Enforcement (in this section referred to as the "Center").

(2) Functions of Center

The Center shall support the activities of the United States Trade Representative in—

(A) investigating potential disputes under the auspices of the World Trade Organization;

(B) investigating potential disputes pursuant to bilateral and regional trade agreements to which the United States is a party;

(C) carrying out the functions of the United States Trade Representative under this section with respect to the monitoring and enforcement of trade agreements to which the United States is a party; and

(D) monitoring measures taken by parties to implement provisions of trade agreements to which the United States is a party.

(3) Personnel

(A) Director

The head of the Center shall be a Director, who shall be appointed by the United States Trade Representative.

(B) Additional employees

A Federal agency may, in consultation with and with the approval of the United States Trade Representative, detail or assign one or more employees to the Center without any reimbursement from the Center to support the functions of the Center.

(Pub. L. 93–618, title I, §141, Jan. 3, 1975, 88 Stat. 1999; Pub. L. 97–456, §3(a)–(d)(2), Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2504, 2505; Pub. L. 98–573, title III, §304(d)(2)(A), title VII, §703, Oct. 30, 1984, 98 Stat. 3004, 3043; Pub. L. 99–272, title XIII, §13023, Apr. 7, 1986, 100 Stat. 307; Pub. L. 99–514, title XVIII, §1887(a)(3), (4), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2923; Pub. L. 100–203, title IX, §9504, Dec. 22, 1987, 101 Stat. 1330–382; Pub. L. 100–418, title I, §1601, Aug. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 1260; Pub. L. 101–207, §1(a), Dec. 7, 1989, 103 Stat. 1833; Pub. L. 101–382, title I, §103(a), Aug. 20, 1990, 104 Stat. 634; Pub. L. 103–465, title VI, §621(a)(8), Dec. 8, 1994, 108 Stat. 4993; Pub. L. 104–65, §21(b), Dec. 19, 1995, 109 Stat. 704; Pub. L. 104–295, §20(f)(1), Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3529; Pub. L. 106–36, title I, §1001(a)(2), June 25, 1999, 113 Stat. 130; Pub. L. 106–200, title IV, §406, May 18, 2000, 114 Stat. 293; Pub. L. 107–210, div. A, title III, §361(a), (b), Aug. 6, 2002, 116 Stat. 991; Pub. L. 108–429, title II, §2004(a)(15), Dec. 3, 2004, 118 Stat. 2591; Pub. L. 114–26, title I, §104(f), June 29, 2015, 129 Stat. 342; Pub. L. 114–125, title VI, §§604(a), (b), 609(a), title IX, §918, Feb. 24, 2016, 130 Stat. 185, 186, 190, 280.)

References in Text

Subtitles A and B of title VII and section 337, referred to in subsec. (d)(3)(A) to (C), probably mean subtitles A and B of title VII and section 337 of the Tariff Act of 1930 which is act June 17, 1930, ch. 497, 46 Stat. 590. Subtitles A and B of title VII of the Tariff Act of 1930 are classified generally to parts I and II (§1671 et seq. and 1673 et seq., respectively) of subtitle IV of chapter 4 of this title. Section 337 of the Tariff Act of 1930 is classified to section 1337 of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 1654 of this title and Tables.

Subchapter III of this chapter, referred to in subsec. (d)(3)(D), was in the original "title III of the Trade Act of 1974", which is Pub. L. 93–618, Jan. 3, 1975, 88 Stat. 1978. Chapter 1 of title III of the Trade Act of 1974 is classified generally to subchapter III (§2411 et seq.) of this chapter. For complete classification of title III to the Code, see Tables.

The Federal Pay Comparability Act of 1970, referred to in subsec. (g)(2), is Pub. L. 91–656, Jan. 8, 1971, 84 Stat. 1946, which enacted sections 5305 to 5308 and 5947 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees, amended sections 5108, 5301, and 5942 of Title 5 and section 410 of Title 39, Postal Service, repealed section 5302 of Title 5, and enacted provisions set out as notes under sections 5303 and 5942 of Title 5, section 60a of Title 2, The Congress, and section 410 of Title 39. For complete classification of the Act to the Code see Short Title note set out under section 5301 of Title 5 and Tables.

Codification

Section is comprised of section 141 of Pub. L. 93–618. Section 141(b) of Pub. L. 93–618 contains two pars. (3), the first of which amended sections 5312 and 5314 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

Amendments

2016—Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 114–125, §609(a)(1), substituted ", one Chief Agricultural Negotiator, and one Chief Innovation and Intellectual Property Negotiator," for "and one Chief Agricultural Negotiator", ", the Chief Agricultural Negotiator, or the Chief Innovation and Intellectual Property Negotiator" for "or the Chief Agricultural Negotiator", and ", the Chief Agricultural Negotiator, and the Chief Innovation and Intellectual Property Negotiator" for "and the Chief Agricultural Negotiator".

Subsec. (b)(5). Pub. L. 114–125, §918, added par. (5).

Subsec. (c)(5). Pub. L. 114–125, §609(a)(2)(A), realigned margins.

Subsec. (c)(6). Pub. L. 114–125, §609(a)(2)(B), added par. (6).

Subsec. (d)(1)(A). Pub. L. 114–125, §604(b), inserted ", including resources of the Interagency Center on Trade Implementation, Monitoring, and Enforcement established under subsection (h)," after "interagency resources".

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 114–125, §604(a), added subsec. (h).

2015—Subsec. (b)(3), (4). Pub. L. 114–26 added par. (3) and redesignated former par. (3) as (4).

2004—Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 108–429 realigned margins.

2002—Subsec. (g)(1)(A). Pub. L. 107–210, §361(a)(1)(A), struck out "not to exceed" after "functions" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (g)(1)(A)(i). Pub. L. 107–210, §361(a)(1)(B), added cl. (i) and struck out former cl. (i) which read as follows: "$23,250,000 for fiscal year 1991."

Subsec. (g)(1)(A)(ii). Pub. L. 107–210, §361(a)(1)(C), added cl. (ii) and struck out former cl. (ii) which read as follows: "$21,077,000 for fiscal year 1992."

Subsec. (g)(1)(B). Pub. L. 107–210, §361(a)(2), inserted "and" at end of cl. (i), redesignated cl. (iii) as (ii), and struck out former cl. (ii) which read as follows: "not to exceed $2,050,000 may be used to pay the United States share of the expenses of binational panels and extraordinary challenge committees convened pursuant to chapter 19 of the United States-Canada Free-Trade Agreement; and".

Subsec. (g)(3). Pub. L. 107–210, §361(b), added par. (3).

2000—Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 106–200, §406(1), amended par. (2) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (2) read as follows: "There shall be in the Office three Deputy United States Trade Representatives who shall be appointed by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate. As an exercise of the rulemaking power of the Senate, any nomination of a Deputy United States Trade Representative submitted to the Senate for confirmation, and referred to a committee, shall be referred to the Committee on Finance. Each Deputy United States Trade Representative shall hold office at the pleasure of the President and shall have the rank of Ambassador."

Subsec. (c)(5). Pub. L. 106–200, §406(2), added par. (5).

1999—Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 106–36 struck out "Limitation on appointments.—" after "(3)" and realigned margins.

1996—Subsec. (c)(1)(D). Pub. L. 104–295 struck out comma after "World Trade Organization,".

1995—Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 104–65 added par. (3).

1994—Subsec. (c)(1)(C). Pub. L. 103–465, §621(a)(8)(A), inserted "all negotiations on any matter considered under the auspices of the World Trade Organization," after "including".

Subsec. (c)(1)(D). Pub. L. 103–465, §621(a)(8)(B), inserted ", including any matter considered under the auspices of the World Trade Organization," after "functions".

1990—Subsec. (g)(1). Pub. L. 101–382 amended par. (1) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (1) read as follows:

"(A) There are authorized to be appropriated for fiscal year 1990 to the Office for the purposes of carrying out its functions not to exceed $19,651,000.

"(B) Of the amounts authorized to be appropriated under subparagraph (A) for fiscal year 1990—

"(i) not to exceed $89,000 may be used for entertainment and representation expenses of the Office; and

"(ii) not to exceed $1,000,000 shall remain available until expended."

1989—Subsec. (g)(1). Pub. L. 101–207, in subpar. (A), substituted "1990" for "1988" and "$19,651,000" for "$15,172,000", and in subpar. (B), substituted "1990" for "1988" in introductory provisions, and "$89,000" for "$69,000" in cl. (i).

1988—Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 100–418, §1601(a)(1), amended par. (1) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (1) read as follows: "The United States Trade Representative shall—

"(A) be the chief representative of the United States for each trade negotiation under this subchapter or section 2411 of this title;

"(B) report directly to the President and the Congress, and be responsible to the President and the Congress for the administration of trade agreements programs under this chapter, the Trade Expansion Act of 1962 [19 U.S.C. 1801 et seq.], and section 1351 of this title;

"(C) advise the President and Congress with respect to nontariff barriers to international trade, international commodity agreements, and other matters which are related to the trade agreements programs;

"(D) be responsible for making reports to Congress with respect to the matter set forth in subparagraphs (A) and (B);

"(E) be chairman of the interagency trade organization established pursuant to section 242(a) of the Trade Expansion Act of 1962 [19 U.S.C. 1872(a)]; and

"(F) be responsible for such other functions as the President may direct."

Subsec. (c)(2) to (4). Pub. L. 100–418, §1601(a)(2), (3), added par. (2) and redesignated former pars. (2) and (3) as (3) and (4), respectively.

Subsecs. (d) to (g). Pub. L. 100–418, §1601(b)(1), (2), added subsec. (d) and redesignated former subsecs. (d) to (f) as (e) to (g), respectively.

1987—Subsec. (f)(1). Pub. L. 100–203 amended par. (1) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (1) read as follows: "There are authorized to be appropriated to the Office for the purpose of carrying out its functions $13,582,000 for fiscal year 1986; of which not to exceed $80,000 may be used for entertainment and representation expenses."

1986—Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 99–272, §13023(1), inserted provision that not more than 20 individuals may be employed without regard to any provision of law regulating the employment or compensation at rates not to exceed the rate of pay for level IV of the Executive Schedule.

Subsec. (d)(6). Pub. L. 99–514, §1887(a)(3), substituted "1342 of title 31" for "3679(b) of the Revised Statutes (31 U.S.C. 665(b))".

Subsec. (d)(8), (11). Pub. L. 99–514, §1887(a)(4), redesignated the par. (8) relating to the provision of copies of documents to persons at cost as par. (11).

Subsec. (f)(1). Pub. L. 99–272, §13023(2), substituted "$13,582,000 for fiscal year 1986" for "$14,179,000 for fiscal year 1985".

1984—Subsec. (d)(6) to (8). Pub. L. 98–573, §304(d)(2)(A), which directed that a new par. (8), relating to the provision of copies of documents to persons at cost, be added to subsec. (d) by striking out "and" at the end of par. (6), substituting "; and" for the period at the end of par. (7), and adding the new par. (8) at the end thereof, was executed by adding the new par. (8) following par. (10). Amendments to pars. (6) and (7) could not be executed.

Subsec. (f)(1). Pub. L. 98–573, §703, substituted provisions authorizing appropriations of $14,179,000 for fiscal year 1985, of which not more than $80,000 may be used for entertainment and representation for provisions authorizing appropriations of $11,100,000 for fiscal year 1983, of which not more than $65,000 could be used for entertainment and representation expenses.

1983—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 97–456, §3(d)(1)(D), substituted "United States Trade Representative" for "Special Representative for Trade Negotiations".

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 97–456, §3(d)(1)(D), substituted "United States Trade Representative" for "Special Representative for Trade Negotiations" wherever appearing.

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 97–456, §3(c), (d)(2)(A), (B), substituted "three Deputy United States Trade Representatives" for "two Deputy Special Representatives for Trade Negotiations" after "in the Office", "a Deputy United States Trade Representative" for "a Deputy Special Representative" after "any nomination of a", and "Deputy United States Trade Representative" for "Deputy Special Representative for Trade Negotiations" after "Each".

Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 97–456, §3(d)(1)(D), substituted "United States Trade Representative" for "Special Representative for Trade Negotiations" in provisions preceding subpar. (A).

Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 97–456, §3(b)(1), added par. (2). Former par. (2) redesignated (3).

Subsec. (c)(3). Pub. L. 97–456, §3(b)(1), (d)(2)(C), (D), redesignated former par. (2) as (3) and substituted "Deputy United States Trade Representative" for "Deputy Special Representative for Trade Negotiations" after "Each" and "United States Trade Representative" for "Special Representative for Trade Negotiations" after "such other functions as the".

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 97–456, §3(d)(1)(D), substituted "United States Trade Representative" for "Special Representative for Trade Negotiations" in provisions preceding par. (1).

Subsec. (d)(3). Pub. L. 97–456, §3(b)(2), inserted ", powers and duties" after "functions".

Subsec. (d)(5). Pub. L. 97–456, §3(d)(1)(D), substituted "United States Trade Representative" for "Special Representative for Trade Negotiations".

Subsec. (d)(8) to (10). Pub. L. 97–456, §3(b)(3)–(5), added pars. (8) to (10).

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 97–456, §3(d)(1)(D), substituted "United States Trade Representative" for "Special Representative for Trade Negotiations".

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 97–456, §3(a), substituted provisions authorizing for appropriation $11,100,000 for fiscal 1983, of which no more than $65,000 could be used for entertainment and representation expenses, and authorizing for appropriation such additional sums as might be provided in accordance with the Federal Pay Comparability Act of 1970, for provisions authorizing for appropriation necessary sums for fiscal 1976 and each fiscal year thereafter any part of which was within the five-year period beginning on Jan. 3, 1975.

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 97–456, §3(d)(1), struck out subsec. (g) which abolished the Office of Special Representative for Trade Negotiations and transferred its assets and obligations to the Office of United States Trade Representative.

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 97–456, §3(d)(1), struck out subsec. (h) which permitted any individual holding the position of Special Representative for Trade Negotiations or Deputy Special Representative for Trade Negotiations on Jan. 3, 1975, appointed with the advice and consent of the Senate, to continue to hold such position, and provided for the transfer of personnel employed by the Office of Special Representative for Trade Negotiations on Jan. 2, 1975, to the Office of United States Trade Representative.

Effective Date of 2002 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 107–210 applicable to petitions for certification filed under part 2 or 3 of subchapter II of this chapter on or after the date that is 90 days after Aug. 6, 2002, except as otherwise provided, see section 151 of Pub. L. 107–210, set out as a note preceding section 2271 of this title.

Effective Date of 1995 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 104–65 applicable with respect to an individual appointed as United States Trade Representative or as a Deputy United States Trade Representative on or after Dec. 19, 1995, see section 21(c) of Pub. L. 104–65, set out as a note under section 207 of Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure.

Effective Date of 1994 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 103–465 effective on the date on which the WTO Agreement enters into force with respect to the United States (Jan. 1, 1995), see section 621(b) of Pub. L. 103–465, set out as a note under section 1677k of this title.

Chief Negotiator for Intellectual Property Enforcement

Pub. L. 108–447, div. B, title II, Dec. 8, 2004, 118 Stat. 2872, provided in part: "That there is established a position of Chief Negotiator for Intellectual Property Enforcement."

Exceptions to Limitation on Appointment of Certain Persons as United States Trade Representative

Pub. L. 115–31, div. B, title V, §541, May 5, 2017, 131 Stat. 229, provided that:

"(a) In General.—The limitation under section 141(b)(4) of the Trade Act of 1974 (19 U.S.C. 2171(b)(4)) shall not apply to the first person appointed, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, as the United States Trade Representative after the date of the enactment of this Act [May 5, 2017], if that person served as a Deputy United States Trade Representative before the date of the enactment of the Lobbying Disclosure Act of 1995 (2 U.S.C. 1601 et seq.) [Dec. 19, 1995].

"(b) Limited Exception.—This section applies only to the first person appointed as United States Trade Representative after the date of enactment of this Act, and to no other person."

Pub. L. 105–5, Mar. 17, 1997, 111 Stat. 11, provided: "That notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph (3) [now (4)] of section 141(b) of the Trade Act of 1974 (19 U.S.C. 2171(b)(3) [now (b)(4)]) or any other provision of law, the President, acting by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, is authorized to appoint Charlene Barshefsky as the United States Trade Representative."

References in Other Laws to GS–16, 17, or 18 Pay Rates

References in laws to the rates of pay for GS–16, 17, or 18, or to maximum rates of pay under the General Schedule, to be considered references to rates payable under specified sections of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees, see section 529 [title I, §101(c)(1)] of Pub. L. 101–509, set out in a note under section 5376 of Title 5.

Senior Commercial Officers To Hold Title of Minister-Counselor; Maximum Number Designated

Provisions requiring the Secretary of State, upon the request of the Secretary of Commerce, to accord the diplomatic title of Minister-Counselor to the senior Commercial Officer assigned to any United States mission abroad with a limit on the number of Commercial Service officers accorded such diplomatic title at any time were contained in the following appropriation acts:

Pub. L. 102–395, title II, Oct. 6, 1992, 106 Stat. 1852.

Pub. L. 102–140, title II, Oct. 28, 1991, 105 Stat. 802.

Pub. L. 101–515, title I, Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 2103.

Pub. L. 101–162, title I, Nov. 21, 1989, 103 Stat. 991.

Pub. L. 100–459, title I, Oct. 1, 1988, 102 Stat. 2189.

Pub. L. 100–202, §101(a) [title I], Dec. 22, 1987, 101 Stat. 1329, 1329-3.

Plan Amendments Not Required Until January 1, 1989

For provisions directing that if any amendments made by subtitle A or subtitle C of title XI [§§1101–1147 and 1171–1177] or title XVIII [§§1801–1899A] of Pub. L. 99–514 require an amendment to any plan, such plan amendment shall not be required to be made before the first plan year beginning on or after Jan. 1, 1989, see section 1140 of Pub. L. 99–514, as amended, set out as a note under section 401 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

REORGANIZATION PLAN NO. 3 OF 1979

44 F.R. 69273, 93 Stat. 1381, as amended Pub. L. 97–195, §1(c)(6), June 16, 1982, 96 Stat. 115; Pub. L. 97–377, title I, §122, Dec. 21, 1982, 96 Stat. 1913

Prepared by the President and transmitted to the Senate and the House of Representatives in Congress assembled, September 25, 1979, pursuant to the provisions of chapter 9 of title 5 of the United States Code.

REORGANIZATION OF FUNCTIONS RELATING TO INTERNATIONAL TRADE

Section 1. Office of the United States Trade Representative

(a) The Office of the Special Representative for Trade Negotiations is redesignated the Office of the United States Trade Representative.

(b)(1) The Special Representative for Trade Negotiations is redesignated the United States Trade Representative (hereinafter referred to as the "Trade Representative"). The Trade Representative shall have primary responsibility, with the advice of the interagency organization established under section 242 of the Trade Expansion Act of 1962 (19 U.S.C. 1872) (hereinafter referred to as the "Committee"), for developing, and for coordinating the implementation of, United States international trade policy, including commodity matters and, to the extent they are related to international trade policy, direct investment matters. The Trade Representative shall serve as the principal advisor to the President on international trade policy and shall advise the President on the impact of other policies of the United States Government on international trade.

(2) The Trade Representative shall have lead responsibility for the conduct of international trade negotiations, including commodity and direct investment negotiations in which the United States participates.

(3) To the extent necessary to assure the coordination of international trade policy, and consistent with any other law, the Trade Representative, with the advice of the Committee, shall issue policy guidance to departments and agencies on basic issues of policy and interpretation arising in the exercise of the following international trade functions. Such guidance shall determine the policy of the United States with respect to international trade issues arising in the exercise of such functions:

(A) matters concerning the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, including implementation of the trade agreements set forth in section 2(c) of the Trade Agreements Act of 1979 [19 U.S.C. 2503(c)]; United States Government positions on trade and commodity matters dealt with by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, and other multilateral organizations; and the assertion and protection of the rights of the United States under bilateral and multilateral international trade and commodity agreements;

(B) expansion of exports from the United States;

(C) policy research on international trade, commodity, and direct investment matters;

(D) to the extent permitted by law, overall United States policy with regard to unfair trade practices, including enforcement of countervailing duties and antidumping functions under section 303 and title VII of the Tariff Act of 1930 [19 U.S.C. 1303, 1671 et seq.];

(E) bilateral trade and commodity issues, including East-West trade matters; and

(F) international trade issues involving energy.

(4) All functions of the Trade Representative shall be conducted under the direction of the President.

(c) The Deputy Special Representatives for Trade Negotiations are redesignated Deputy United States Trade Representatives.

Sec. 2. Department of Commerce

(a) The Secretary of Commerce (hereinafter referred to as the "Secretary") shall have, in addition to any other functions assigned by law, general operational responsibility for major nonagricultural international trade functions of the United States Government, including export development, commercial representation abroad, the administration of the antidumping and countervailing duty laws, export controls, trade adjustment assistance to firms and communities, research and analysis, and monitoring compliance with international trade agreements to which the United States is a party.

(b)(1) There shall be in the Department of Commerce (hereinafter referred to as the "Department") a Deputy Secretary appointed by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate. The Deputy Secretary shall receive compensation at the rate payable for Level II of the Executive Schedule [5 U.S.C. 5315], and shall perform such duties and exercise such powers as the Secretary may from time to time prescribe.

(2) The position of Under Secretary of Commerce established under section 1 of the Act of June 5, 1939 (ch. 180, 53 Stat. 808; 15 U.S.C. 1502) is abolished.

(c) There shall be in the Department an Under Secretary for International Trade appointed by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate. The Under Secretary for International Trade shall receive compensation at the rate payable for Level III of the Executive Schedule [5 U.S.C. 5314], and shall perform such duties and exercise such powers as the Secretary may from time to time prescribe.

(d) There shall be in the Department two additional Assistant Secretaries appointed by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate. Each such Assistant Secretary shall perform such duties and exercise such powers as the Secretary may from time to time prescribe.

(e) There shall be in the Department of Commerce a Director General of the United States and Foreign Commercial Services who shall be appointed by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, and shall receive compensation at the rate prescribed by law for level IV of the Executive Schedule [5 U.S.C. 5315]. [As amended Pub. L. 97–195, §1(c)(6), June 16, 1982, 96 Stat. 115; Pub. L. 97–377, title I, §122, Dec. 21, 1982, 96 Stat. 1913.]

Sec. 3. Export-Import Bank of the United States

The Trade Representative and the Secretary shall serve, ex officio and without vote, as additional members of the Board of Directors of the Export-Import Bank of the United States.

Sec. 4. Overseas Private Investment Corporation

(a) The Trade Representative shall serve, ex officio, as an additional voting member of the Board of Directors of the Overseas Private Investment Corporation. The Trade Representative shall be the Vice Chair of such Board.

(b) There shall be an additional member of the Board of Directors of the Overseas Private Investment Corporation [now the United States International Development Finance Corporation] who shall be appointed by the President of the United States, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, and who shall not be an official or employee of the Government of the United States. Such Director shall be appointed for a term of no more than three years.

Sec. 5. Transfer of Functions

(a)(1) There are transferred to the Secretary all functions of the Secretary of the Treasury, the General Counsel of the Department of the Treasury, or the Department of the Treasury pursuant to the following:

(A) section 305(b) of the Trade Agreements Act of 1979 (19 U.S.C. 2515(b)), to be exercised in consultation with the Secretary of the Treasury;

(B) section 232 of the Trade Expansion Act of 1962 (19 U.S.C. 1862);

(C) section 303 and title VII (including section 771(1) [19 U.S.C. 1677(1)] of the Tariff Act of 1930 (19 U.S.C. 1303, 1671 et seq.), except that the Customs Service of the Department of the Treasury shall accept such deposits, bonds, or other security as deemed appropriate by the Secretary, shall assess and collect such duties as may be directed by the Secretary, and shall furnish such of its important records or copies thereof as may be requested by the Secretary incident to the functions transferred by this subparagraph;

(D) sections 514, 515, and 516 of the Tariff Act of 1930 (19 U.S.C. 1514, 1515, and 1516) insofar as they relate to any protest, petition, or notice of desire to contest described in section 1002(b)(1) of the Trade Agreements Act of 1979 [19 U.S.C. 1516a note];

(E) with respect to the functions transferred by subparagraph (C) of this paragraph, section 318 of the Tariff Act of 1930 (19 U.S.C. 1318), to be exercised in consultation with the Secretary of the Treasury;

(F) with respect to the functions transferred by subparagraph (C) of this paragraph, section 502(b) of the Tariff Act of 1930 (19 U.S.C. 1502(b)), and, insofar as it provides authority to issue regulations and disseminate information, to be exercised in consultation with the Secretary of the Treasury to the extent that the Secretary of the Treasury has responsibility under subparagraph (C), section 502(a) of such Act (19 U.S.C. 1502(a));

(G) with respect to the functions transferred by subparagraph (C) of this paragraph, section 617 of the Tariff Act of 1930 (19 U.S.C. 1617); and

(H) section 2632(e) of title 28 of the United States Code, insofar as it relates to actions taken by the Secretary reviewable under section 516A of the Tariff Act of 1930 (19 U.S.C. 1516(a)) [19 U.S.C. 1516a].

(2) The Secretary shall consult with the Trade Representative regularly in exercising the functions transferred by subparagraph (C) of paragraph (1) of this subsection, and shall consult with the Trade Representative regarding any substantive regulation proposed to be issued to enforce such functions.

(b)(1) There are transferred to the Secretary all trade promotion and commercial functions of the Secretary of State or the Department of State that are—

(A) performed in full-time overseas trade promotion and commercial positions; or

(B) performed in such countries as the President may from time to time prescribe.

(2) To carry out the functions transferred by paragraph (1) of this subsection, the President, to the extent he deems it necessary, may authorize the Secretary to utilize Foreign Service personnel authorities and to exercise the functions vested in the Secretary of State by the Foreign Service Act of 1946 (22 U.S.C. 801 et seq.) [see 22 U.S.C. 3901 et seq.] and by any other laws with respect to personnel performing such functions.

(c) There are transferred to the President all functions of the East-West Foreign Trade Board under section 411(c) of the Trade Act of 1974 (19 U.S.C. 2441(c)).

(d) Appropriations available to the Department of State for Fiscal Year 1980 for representation of the United States concerning matters arising under the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade and trade and commodity matters dealt with under the auspices of the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development are transferred to the Trade Representative.

(e) There are transferred to the interagency organization established under section 242 of the Trade Expansion Act of 1962 (19 U.S.C. 1872) all functions of the East-West Foreign Trade Board under section 411(a) and (b) of the Trade Act of 1974 (19 U.S.C. 2441(a) and (b)).

Sec. 6. Abolition

The East-West Foreign Trade Board established under section 411 of the Trade Act of 1974 (19 U.S.C. 2441) is abolished.

Sec. 7. Responsibility of the Secretary of State

Nothing in this reorganization plan is intended to derogate from the responsibility of the Secretary of State for advising the President on foreign policy matters, including the foreign policy aspects of international trade and trade-related matters:

Sec. 8. Incidental Transfers; Interim Officers

(a) So much of the personnel, property, records, and unexpended balances of appropriations, allocations, and other funds employed, used, held, available, or to be made available in connection with the functions transferred under this reorganization plan as the Director of the Office of Management and Budget shall determine shall be transferred to the appropriate agency, organization, or component at such time or times as such Director shall provide, except that no such unexpended balances transferred shall be used for purposes other than those for which the appropriation originally was made. The Director of the Office of Management and Budget shall provide for terminating the affairs of any agency abolished herein and for such further measures and dispositions as such Director deems necessary to effectuate the purposes of the reorganization plan.

(b) Pending the assumption of office by the initial officers provided for in section 2 of this reorganization plan, the functions of each such office may be performed, for up to a total of 60 days, by such individuals as the President may designate. Any individual so designated shall be compensated at the rate provided herein for such position.

Sec. 9. Effective Date

The provisions of this reorganization plan shall take effect October 1, 1980, or at such earlier time or times as the President shall specify, but not sooner than the earliest time allowable under section 906 of title 5 of the United States Code.

[Pursuant to Ex. Ord. 12175, Dec. 7, 1979, 44 F.R. 70705, section 2(b)(1) of this Reorg. Plan is effective Dec. 7, 1979].

[Pursuant to Ex. Ord. 12188, Jan. 2, 1980, 45 F.R. 989, sections 1, 2(a), (b)(2), (c), (d), 3, 4, 5(a), (b)(2), (c)–(e), 6–8 of this Reorg. Plan are effective Jan. 2, 1980, and section 5(b)(1) of this Reorg. Plan is effective Apr. 1, 1980].

Message of the President

To the Congress of the United States:

I transmit herewith Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1979, to consolidate trade functions of the United States Government. I am acting under the authority vested in me by the Reorganization Act of 1977, chapter 9 of title 5 of the United States Code, and pursuant to section 1109 of the Trade Agreements Act of 1979 [19 U.S.C. 2111 note] which directs that I transmit to the Congress a proposal to restructure the international trade functions of the Executive branch.

The goal of this reorganization is to improve the capacity of the Government to strengthen the export performance of United States industry and to assure fair international trade practices, taking into account the interests of all elements of our economy.

Recent developments, which have raised concern about the vitality of our international trade performance, have focused much attention on the way our trade machinery is organized. These developments include our negative trade balance, increasing dependence upon foreign oil, and international pressures on the dollar. New challenges, such as implementation of the Multilateral Trade Negotiation (MTN) agreements and trade with non-market economies, will further test our Government trade organization.

We must be prepared to apply domestically the MTN codes on procurement, subsidies, standards, and customs valuation. We also must monitor major implementation measures abroad, reporting back to American business on important developments and, where necessary, raising questions internationally about foreign implementation. MTN will work—will open new markets for U.S. labor, farmers, and business—only if we have adequate procedures for aggressively monitoring and enforcing it. We intend to meet our obligations, and we expect others to do the same.

The trade machinery we now have cannot do this job effectively. Although the Special Trade Representative (STR) takes the lead role in administering the trade agreements program, many issues are handled elsewhere and no agency has across-the-board leadership in trade. Aside from the Trade Representative and the Export-Import Bank, trade is not the primary concern of any Executive branch agency where trade functions are located. The current arrangements lack a central authority capable of planning a coherent trade strategy and assuring its vigorous implementation.

This reorganization is designed to correct such deficiencies and to prepare us for strong enforcement of the MTN codes. It aims to improve our export promotion activities so that United States exporters can take full advantage of trade opportunities in foreign markets. It provides for the timely and efficient administration of our unfair trade laws. It also establishes an efficient mechanism for shaping an effective, comprehensive United States trade policy.

To achieve these objectives, I propose to place policy coordination and negotiation—those international trade functions that most require comprehensiveness, influence, and Government-wide perspective—in the Executive Office of the President. I propose to place operational and implementation responsibilities, which are staff-intensive, in line departments that have the requisite resources and knowledge of the major sectors of our economy to handle them. I have concluded that building our trade structure on STR and Commerce, respectively, best satisfies these considerations.

I propose to enhance STR, to be renamed the Office of the United States Trade Representative, by centralizing in it international trade policy development, coordination and negotiation functions. The Commerce Department will become the focus of non-agricultural operational trade responsibilities by adding to its existing duties those for commercial representation abroad, antidumping and countervailing duty cases, the non-agricultural aspects of MTN implementation, national security investigations, and embargoes.

the united states trade representative

The Trade Representative, with the advice of the Trade Policy Committee, will be responsible for developing and coordinating our international trade and direct investment policy, including the following areas:

Import remedies.—The Trade Representative will exercise policy oversight of the application of import remedies, analyze long-term trends in import remedy cases and recommend any necessary legislative changes. For antidumping and countervailing duty matters, such coordination, to the extent legally permissible, will be directed toward the establishment of new precedents, negotiation of assurances, and coordination with other trade matters, rather than case-by-case fact finding and determinations.

East-West trade policy.—The Trade Representative will have lead responsibility for East-West trade negotiations and will coordinate East-West trade policy. The Trade Policy Committee will assume the responsibilities of the East-West Foreign Trade Board.

International investment policy.—The Trade Representative will have the policy lead regarding issues of direct foreign investment in the United States, direct investment by Americans abroad, operations of multinational enterprises, and multilateral agreements on international investment, insofar as such issues relate to international trade.

International commodity policy.—The Trade Representative will assume responsibility for commodity negotiations and also will coordinate commodity policy.

Energy trade.—While the Departments of Energy and State will continue to share responsibility for international energy issues, the Trade Representative will coordinate energy trade matters. The Department of Energy will become a member of the TPC.

Export-expansion policy.—To ensure a vigorous and coordinated Government-wide export expansion effort, policy oversight of our export expansion activities will be the responsibility of the Trade Representative.

The Trade Representative will have the lead role in bilateral and multilateral trade, commodity, and direct investment negotiations. The Trade Representative will represent the United States in General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) matters. Since the GATT will be the principal international forum for implementing and interpreting the MTN agreements and since GATT meetings, including committee and working group meetings, occur almost continuously, the Trade Representative will have a limited number of permanent staff in Geneva. In some cases, it may be necessary to assign a small number of USTR staff abroad to assist in oversight of MTN enforcement. In this event, appropriate positions will be authorized. In recognition of the responsibility of the Secretary of State regarding our foreign policy, the activities of overseas personnel of the Trade Representative and the Commerce Department will be fully coordinated with other elements of our diplomatic missions.

In addition to his role with regard to GATT matters, the Trade Representative will have the lead responsibility for trade and commodity matters considered in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) and the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) when such matters are the primary issues under negotiation. Because of the Secretary of State's foreign policy responsibilities, and the responsibilities of the Director of the International Development Cooperation Agency as the President's principal advisor on development, the Trade Representative will exercise his OECD and UNCTAD responsibilities in close cooperation with these officials.

To ensure that all trade negotiations are handled consistently and that our negotiating leverage is employed to the maximum, the Trade Representative will manage the negotiation of particular issues. Where appropriate, the Trade Representative may delegate responsibility for negotiations to other agencies with expertise on the issues under consideration. He will coordinate the operational aspects of negotiations through a Trade Negotiating Committee, chaired by the Trade Representative and including the Departments of Commerce, State, Treasury, Agriculture and Labor.

The Trade Representative will be concerned not only with ongoing negotiations and coordination of specific, immediate issues, but also—very importantly—with the development of long-term United States trade strategies and policies. He will oversee implementation of the MTN agreements, and will advise the President on the effects of other Government policies (e.g., antitrust, taxation) on U.S. trade. In order to participate more fully in oversight of international investment and export financing activities, the Trade Representative will become a member of the National Advisory Council on International Monetary and Financial Policies and the Boards of the Export-Import Bank and the Overseas Private Investment Corporation [now the United States International Development Finance Corporation].

In performing these functions, the Trade Representative will act as the principal trade spokesman of the President. To assure that our trade policies take into account the broadest range of perspectives, the Trade Representative will consult with the Trade Policy Committee, whose mandate and membership will be expanded. The Trade Representative will, as appropriate, invite agencies such as the Export-Import Bank and the Overseas Private Investment Corporation to participate in TPC meetings in addition to the permanent TPC members. When different departmental views on trade matters exist within the TPC as will be the case from time to time in this complex policy area, I will expect the Trade Representative to resolve policy disagreements in his best judgment, subject to appeal to the President.

the department of commerce

The Department of Commerce, under this proposal, will become the focal point of operational responsibilities in the non-agricultural trade area. My reorganization plan will transfer to the Commerce Department important responsibilities for administration of countervailing and antidumping matters, foreign commercial representation, and MTN implementation support. Consolidating these trade functions in the Department of Commerce builds upon an agency with extensive trade experience. The Department will retain its operational responsibilities in such areas as export controls, East-West trade, trade adjustment assistance to firms and communities, trade policy analysis, and monitoring foreign compliance with trade agreements. The Department will be substantially reorganized to consolidate and reshape its trade functions under an Under Secretary for International Trade.

With this reorganization, trade functions will be strengthened within the Department of Commerce, and such related efforts in the Department as improvement of industrial innovation and the productivity, encouraging local and regional economic development, and sectoral analysis, will be closely linked to an aggressive trade program. Fostering the international competitiveness of American industry will become the principal mission of the Department of Commerce.

Import remedies

I propose to transfer to the Department of Commerce responsibility for administration of the countervailing duty and antidumping statutes. This function will be performed efficiently and effectively in an organizational setting where trade is the primary mission. This activity will be directed by a new Assistant Secretary for Trade Administration, subject to Senate confirmation. Although the plan permits its provisions to take effect as late as October 1, 1980, I intend to make this transfer effective by January 1, 1980, so that it will occur as the new MTN codes take effect. Commerce will continue its supportive role in the staffing of other unfair trade practice issues, such as cases arising under section 301 of the Trade Act of 1974 [19 U.S.C. 2411].

Commercial representation

This reorganization plan will transfer to the Department of Commerce responsibility for commercial representation abroad. This transfer would place both domestic and overseas export promotion activities under a single organization, directed by an Assistant Secretary for Export Development, charged with aggressively expanding U.S. export opportunities. Placing this Foreign Commercial Service in the Commerce Department will allow commercial officers to concentrate on the promotion of U.S. exports as their principal activity.

Initially, the transfer of commercial representation from State to Commerce will involve all full-time overseas trade promotion and commercial positions (approximately 162), responsibility for this function in the countries (approximately 60) to which these individuals are assigned, and the associated foreign national employees in those countries. Over time, the Department of Commerce undoubtedly will review the deployment of commercial officers in light of changing trade circumstances and propose extensions or alterations of coverage of the Foreign Commercial Service.

MTN implementation

I am dedicated to the aggressive implementation of the Multilateral Trade Agreements. The United States must seize the opportunities and enforce the obligations created by these agreements. Under this proposal, the Department of Commerce will assign high priority to this task. The Department of Commerce will be responsible for the day-to-day implementation of non-agricultural aspects of the MTN agreements. Management of this function will be a principal assignment of an Assistant Secretary for Trade Policy and Programs. Implementation activities will include:

monitoring agreements and targeting problems for consultation and negotiation;

operating a Trade Complaint Center where the private sector can receive advice as to the recourse and remedies available;

aiding in the settlement of disputes, including staffing of formal complaint cases;

identifying problem areas for consideration by the Trade Representative and the Trade Policy Committee;

educational and promotion programs regarding the provisions of the agreements and the processes for dealing with problems that arise;

providing American business with basic information on foreign laws, regulations and procedures;

consultations with private sector advisory committees; and

general analytical support.

These responsibilities will be handled by a unit built around the staff from Commerce that provided essential analytical support to STR throughout the MTN negotiation process. Building implementation of MTN around this core group will assure that the government's institutional memory and expertise on MTN is most effectively devoted to the challenge ahead. When American business needs information or encounters problems in the MTN area, it can turn to the Department of Commerce for knowledgeable assistance.

Matching the increased importance of trade in the Department's mission will be a much strengthened trade organization within the Department. By creating a number of new senior level positions in the Department, we will ensure that trade policy implementation receives the kind of day-to-day top management attention that it both demands and requires.

With its new responsibilities and resources, the Department of Commerce will become a key participant in the formulation of our trade policies. Much of the analysis in support of trade policy formulation will be conducted by the Department of Commerce, which will be close to the operational aspects of the problems that raise policy issues.

To succeed in global competition, we must have a better understanding of the problems and prospects of U.S. industry, particularly in relation to the growing strength of industries abroad. This is the key reason why we will upgrade sectoral analysis capabilities throughout the Department of Commerce, including the creation of a new Bureau of Industrial Analysis. Commerce, with its ability to link trade to policies affecting industry, is uniquely suited to serve as the principal technical expert within the Government on special industry sector problems requiring international consultation, as well as to provide industry-specific information on how tax, regulatory and other Government policies affect the international competitiveness of the U.S. industries.

Commerce will also expand its traditional trade policy focus on industrial issues to deal with the international trade and investment problems of our growing services sector. Under the proposal, there will be comprehensive service industry representation in our industry advisory process, as well as a continuing effort to bring services under international discipline. I expect the Commerce Department to play a major role in developing new service sector initiatives for consideration within the Government.

After an investigation lasting over a year, I have found that this reorganization is necessary to carry out the policy set forth in section 901(a) of title 5 of the United States Code. As described above, this reorganization will increase significantly our ability to implement the MTN agreements efficiently and effectively and will improve greatly the services of the government with regard to export development. These improvements will be achieved with no increase in personnel or expenditures, except for an annual expense of about $300,000 for the salaries and clerical support of the three additional senior Commerce Department officials and a non-recurring expense of approximately $600,000 in connection with the transfers of functions provided in the plan. I find that the reorganization made by this plan makes necessary the provisions for the appointment and pay of a Deputy Secretary, an Under Secretary for International Trade, and two additional Assistant Secretaries of the Department of Commerce, and additional members of the Boards of Directors of the Export-Import Bank and the Overseas Private Investment Corporation [now the United States International Development Finance Corporation].

It is indeed appropriate that this proposal follows so soon after the overwhelming approval by the Congress of the Trade Agreements Act of 1979 [19 U.S.C. 2501 et seq.], for it will sharpen and unify trade policy direction, improve the efficiency of trade law enforcement, and enable us to negotiate abroad from a position of strength. The extensive discussions between Administration officials and the Congress on this plan have been a model of the kind of cooperation that can exist between the two branches. I look forward to our further cooperation in successfully implementing both this reorganization proposal and the MTN agreements.

Jimmy Carter.      

The White House, September 25, 1979.

Executive Order No. 11143

Ex. Ord. No. 11143, Mar. 2, 1963, 29 F.R. 3127, as amended by Ex. Ord. No. 11159, June 23, 1964, 29 F.R. 8137, formerly set out under section 1871 of this title, which established the Public Advisory Committee for Trade Expansion, was revoked by Ex. Ord. No. 11425, Aug. 30, 1968, 33 F.R. 12363, set out below.

Executive Order No. 11425

Ex. Ord. No. 11425, Aug. 30, 1968, 33 F.R. 12363, formerly set out under section 1871 of this title, which directed the Special Representative for Trade Negotiations (established by Ex. Ord. No. 11075, Jan. 15, 1963, 28 F.R. 473) to conduct a long range study of United States foreign trade policy and to consider the views of Congress, the Public Advisory Committee on Trade Policy, and other federal agencies; established the Public Advisory Committee on Trade Policy for purposes of this study; and abolished the Public Advisory Committee for Trade Negotiations; was omitted in view of the revocation of Ex. Ord. No. 11075 by Ex. Ord. No. 11846, Mar. 27, 1975, 40 F.R. 14291, set out under section 2111 of this title, and in view of the abolition of the Office of Special Representative for Trade Negotiations (as established under Ex. Ord. No. 11075) by section 2171(g) of this title.

Ex. Ord. No. 12175. Effective Date of Section 2(b)(1) of Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1979 Respecting Reorganization of Functions Relating to International Trade

Ex. Ord. No. 12175, Dec. 7, 1979, 44 F.R. 70703, provided:

By the authority vested in me as President of the United States of America by Section 9 of Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1979 (transmitted to the Congress on September 25, 1979) [set out as a note above], the time period prescribed by Section 906 of Title 5 of the United States Code having elapsed without the adoption of a resolution of disapproval by either House of Congress, it is hereby ordered that Section 2(b)(1) of that Plan, establishing the Office of Deputy Secretary of Commerce, is effective immediately.

Jimmy Carter.      

Ex. Ord. No. 12188. Functions Relating to International Trade

Ex. Ord. No. 12188, Jan. 2, 1980, 45 F.R. 989, as amended by Ex. Ord. No. 12292, Feb. 23, 1981, 46 F.R. 13968; Ex. Ord. No. 13118, §10(6), Mar. 31, 1999, 64 F.R. 16598; Ex. Ord. No. 13286, §50, Feb. 28, 2003, 68 F.R. 10628, provided:

By the authority vested in me by the Trade Agreements Act of 1979 [see 19 U.S.C. 2501], the Trade Act of 1974 [this chapter], the Trade Expansion Act of 1962 [see Short Title note set out under section 1801 of this title], section 350 of the Tariff Act of 1930 [19 U.S.C. 1351], Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1979 [set out as a note above], and section 301 of title 3 of the United States Code, and as President of the United States, it is hereby ordered as follows:

Section 1–101. The United States Trade Representative.

(a) Except as may be otherwise expressly provided by law, the United States Trade Representative (hereinafter referred to as the "Trade Representative") shall be chief representative of the United States for:

(1) all activities of, or under the auspices of, the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade;

(2) discussions, meetings, and negotiations in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development when trade or commodity issues are the primary issues under consideration;

(3) negotiations in the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development and other multilateral institutions when trade or commodity issues are the primary issues under consideration;

(4) other bilateral or multilateral negotiations when trade, including East-West trade, or commodities is the primary issue under consideration;

(5) negotiations under sections 704 and 734 of the Tariff Act of 1930 (19 U.S.C. 1671c and 1673c); and

(6) negotiations concerning direct investment incentives and disincentives and bilateral investment issues concerning barriers to investment.

For purposes of this subsection, the term "negotiations" includes discussions and meetings with foreign governments and instrumentalities primarily concerning preparations for formal negotiations and policies regarding implementation of agreements resulting from such negotiations.

(b) The Trade Representative, in consultation with the Trade Negotiating Committee, shall invite such members of the Trade Negotiating Committee and representatives of other departments or agencies as may be appropriate to participate in the negotiations and other activities listed in subsection (a).

(c) The Trade Representative, in consultation with the Trade Negotiating Committee, may delegate to any member of the Trade Negotiating Committee, or to any other appropriate department or agency, primary responsibility for representing the United States in any of the negotiations and other activities set forth in subsection (a).

(d) The Trade Representative, or any department or agency to which responsibility for representing the United States in a negotiation or other activity has been delegated pursuant to subsection (c), shall consult with the Trade Policy Committee and with any affected regulatory agencies on the policy issues arising in connection with the negotiations and other activities listed in subsection (a).

Sec. 1–102. The Trade Policy Committee.

(a) As provided by section 242 of the Trade Expansion Act of 1962 (19 U.S.C. 1872), the Trade Policy Committee (hereinafter referred to as the "Committee") is continued. The Committee shall have the functions specified by law or by the President, including those specified in section 1(b)(3) of Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1979 [set out as a note above].

(b) The Committee shall be composed of the following:

(1) The Trade Representative, who shall be Chair

(2) The Secretary of Commerce, who shall be Vice Chair

(3) The Secretary of State

(4) The Secretary of the Treasury

(5) The Secretary of Defense

(6) The Attorney General

(7) The Secretary of the Interior

(8) The Secretary of Agriculture

(9) The Secretary of Labor

(10) The Secretary of Transportation

(11) The Secretary of Energy

(12) The Secretary of Homeland Security

(13) The Director of the Office of Management and Budget

(14) The Chairman of the Council of Economic Advisers

(15) The Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs

(16) The Administrator of the United States Agency for International Development.

The Chair and any member of the Committee may designate a subordinate officer whose status is not below that of an Assistant Secretary to serve in his stead when he is unable to attend any meetings of the Committee. The Chair may invite representatives from other agencies to attend the meetings of the Committee.

(c)(1) There is established, as a subcommittee of the Committee, a Trade Negotiating Committee which shall advise the Trade Representative on the management of negotiations referred to in section 1–101(a) of this order. The members of such subcommittee shall be the Trade Representative (Chair), the Secretary of State, the Secretary of the Treasury, the Secretary of Agriculture, the Secretary of Commerce, and the Secretary of Labor.

(2) The Trade Representative, with the advice of the Committee, may create additional subcommittees thereof.

(d) In advising the President on international trade and related matters, the Trade Representative shall take into account and reflect the views of the members of the Committee and of other interested agencies.

Sec. 1–103. Delegation of Functions.

(a) The function vested in the President by section 412(b) of the Trade Agreements Act of 1979 (19 U.S.C. 2542(b)) is delegated to the Secretary of Commerce with regard to the technical office established under section 412(a)(1) of such Act [19 U.S.C. 2542(a)(1)] and to the Secretary of Agriculture with regard to the technical office established under section 412(a)(2) of such Act [19 U.S.C. 2542(a)(2)]. In prescribing the functions of each technical office, the Secretary concerned shall consult with the Trade Representative and with all affected regulatory agencies. The functions delegated by this section shall be exercised in coordination with the Trade Representative.

(b) The functions of the President under sections 2(b) and 303 of the Trade Agreements Act of 1979 (19 U.S.C. 2503(b) and 2513) and section 701(b) of the Tariff Act of 1930 (19 U.S.C. 1671(b)) are delegated to the Trade Representative, who shall exercise such authority with the advice of the Trade Policy Committee.

Sec. 1–104. Authority Under the Foreign Service Act and Related Laws.

(a) The Secretary of Commerce (hereinafter referred to as the "Secretary") is authorized to establish a Foreign Commercial Service in the Department of Commerce, and a category of career officers of the Foreign Commercial Service to be known as Foreign Commercial Officers. For purposes of the utilization by the Secretary of the authorities granted to the Secretary under this section, the terms "Foreign Service" and "Foreign Service Officer" shall be construed to mean "Foreign Commercial Service" and "Foreign Commercial Officer," respectively.

(b) [Revoked by Ex. Ord. No. 12292, Feb. 23, 1981, 46 F.R. 13968.]

(c) The Board of the Foreign Service and the Board of Examiners for the Foreign Service established by Executive Order 11264 of December 31, 1965, as amended [22 U.S.C. 826 note], shall exercise with respect to Foreign Service personnel of the Department of Commerce the functions delegated to them by that order with respect to Foreign Service personnel of the Department of State. The Boards shall perform such additional functions with respect to Foreign Service personnel of the Department of Commerce as the Secretary may from time to time delegate or otherwise assign, consistent with the functions of such boards.

Sec. 1–105. Prior Executive Orders and Determination.

(a) Section 1(b) of Executive Order 11269 of February 14, 1966, as amended [22 U.S.C. 286b note], is amended by adding "the United States Trade Representative," after "the Secretary of State,".

(b)(1) Section 1 of Executive Order 11539 of June 30, 1970 [7 U.S.C. 1854 note], is amended to read as follows:

"Section 1. The United States Trade Representative, with the concurrence of the Secretary of Agriculture and the Secretary of State, is authorized to negotiate bilateral agreements with representatives of governments of foreign countries limiting the export from the respective countries and the importation into the United States of—

"(1) fresh, chilled, or frozen cattle meat,

"(2) fresh, chilled, or frozen meat of goats and sheep (except lambs), and

"(3) prepared and preserved beef and veal (except sausage) if articles are prepared, whether fresh, chilled, or frozen, but not otherwise preserved, that are the products of such countries.".

(2) Section 4 of such order is amended by striking out "the Secretary of State" and inserting in lieu thereof "the United States Trade Representative".

(c) The last sentence of section 1(a) of Executive Order 11651 of March 3, 1972, as amended [7 U.S.C. 1854 note] is amended to read as follows: "The United States Trade Representative, or his designee, also shall be a member of the Committee.".

(d) The first sentence of section 3 of Executive Order 11703 of February 7, 1973 [19 U.S.C. 1862 note], is amended to read as follows: "The Oil Policy Committee shall henceforth consist of the United States Trade Representative, chair, and the Secretaries of State, Treasury, Defense, the Interior, Commerce and Energy, the Attorney General, and the Chairman of the Council of Economic Advisers, as members.".

(e) Sections 2(b) and 3(a), the first sentence of section 3(c), and sections 3(e), 3(f), and 6 of Executive Order 11846 of March 27, 1975, as amended [19 U.S.C. 2111 note], are revoked.

(f)(1) Section 1(a)(5) of Executive Order 11858 of May 7, 1975 [50 U.S.C. 4565 note], is amended to read: "(5) The United States Trade Representative".

(2) Section 1(a)(6) of such order is amended to read: "(6) The Chairman of the Council of Economic Advisers".

(g) Executive Order 12096 of November 2, 1978, is revoked.

(h) The last paragraph of the Presidential Determination Regarding the Acceptance and Application of Certain International Trade Agreements (dated December 14, 1979) (44 FR 74781, at 74784; December 18, 1979) [19 U.S.C. 2503 note], delegating functions under section 2(b) of the Trade Agreements Act of 1979 [19 U.S.C. 2503(b)] and section 701(b) of the Tariff Act of 1930 [19 U.S.C. 1671b], is revoked.

(i) Any reference to the Office of the Special Representative for Trade Negotiations or to the Special Representative for Trade Negotiations in any Executive order, Proclamation, or other document shall be deemed to refer to the Office of the United States Trade Representative or to the United States Trade Representative, respectively.

Sec. 1–106. Incidental Transfers and Reassignments.

So much of the personnel, property, records, and unexpended balances of appropriations, allocations, and other funds employed, used, held, available, or to be made available in connection with functions transferred or reassigned by the provisions of this order as the Director of the Office of Management and Budget shall determine shall be transferred or reassigned for use in connection with such functions.

Sec. 1–107. Effective Dates.

(a) Sections 1, 2(a), 2(b)(2), 2(c), 2(d), 3, 4, 5(a), 5(b)(2), 5(c) through (e), and 6 through 8 of Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1979 [set out as a note above] and the provisions of this order, shall take effect as of January 2, 1980.

(b) Section 5(b)(1) of such plan [set out as a note above] shall take effect as of April 1, 1980.

Ex. Ord. No. 13601. Establishment of the Interagency Trade Enforcement Center

Ex. Ord. No. 13601, Feb. 28, 2012, 77 F.R. 12981, provided:

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, and in order to advance U.S. foreign policy and protect the national and economic security of the United States through strengthened and coordinated enforcement of U.S. trade rights under international trade agreements and enforcement of domestic trade laws, it is hereby ordered as follows:

Section 1. Policy. Robust monitoring and enforcement of U.S. rights under international trade agreements, and enforcement of domestic trade laws, are crucial to expanding exports and ensuring U.S. workers, businesses, ranchers, and farmers are able to compete on a level playing field with foreign trade partners. To strengthen our capacity to monitor and enforce U.S. trade rights and domestic trade laws, and thereby enhance market access for U.S. exporters, executive departments and agencies (agencies) must coordinate and augment their efforts to identify and reduce or eliminate foreign trade barriers and unfair foreign trade practices to ensure that U.S. workers, businesses, ranchers, and farmers receive the maximum benefit from our international trade agreements and under domestic trade laws.

Sec. 2. Establishment. (a) There is established within the Office of the United States Trade Representative (USTR) an Interagency Trade Enforcement Center (Center).

(b) The Center shall coordinate matters relating to enforcement of U.S. trade rights under international trade agreements and enforcement of domestic trade laws among USTR and the following agencies:

(i) the Department of State;

(ii) the Department of the Treasury;

(iii) the Department of Justice;

(iv) the Department of Agriculture;

(v) the Department of Commerce;

(vi) the Department of Homeland Security;

(vii) the Office of the Director of National Intelligence; and

(viii) other agencies as the President, or the United States Trade Representative, may designate.

In matters relating to the enforcement of U.S. trade rights involving intellectual property rights, the Center shall consult with the Intellectual Property Enforcement Coordinator.

(c) The Center shall have a Director, who shall be a full-time senior-level official of USTR, designated by and reporting to the United States Trade Representative. The Center shall have a Deputy Director, who shall be a full-time senior-level official of the Department of Commerce, designated by the Secretary of Commerce, detailed to the Center and reporting to the Director. The Center shall also have an Intelligence Community Liaison, who shall be a full-time senior-level official of the Federal Government recommended by the Director of National Intelligence and designated by his or her agency, as applicable, to be detailed or assigned to the Center.

(d) To the extent permitted by law and subject to the availability of appropriations, and in consultation with the Director of the Center, agencies enumerated in subsection (b) of this section, and others in the Intelligence Community recommended by the Director of National Intelligence, are encouraged to detail or assign their employees to the Center without reimbursement to support the mission and functions of the Center as described in section 3 of this order.

Sec. 3. Mission and Functions. The Center shall:

(a) serve as the primary forum within the Federal Government for USTR and other agencies to coordinate enforcement of U.S. trade rights under international trade agreements and enforcement of domestic trade laws;

(b) coordinate among USTR, other agencies with trade related responsibilities, and the U.S. Intelligence Community the exchange of information related to potential violations of international trade agreements by our foreign trade partners; and

(c) conduct outreach to U.S. workers, businesses, and other interested persons to foster greater participation in the identification and reduction or elimination of foreign trade barriers and unfair foreign trade practices.

Sec. 4. Administration. (a) Funding and administrative support for the Center shall be provided by USTR to the extent permitted by law and subject to the availability of appropriations.

(b) The United States Trade Representative, through the Director of the Center, shall direct the work of the Center in performing all of its functions under this order.

Sec. 5. Definitions. For the purposes of this order:

(a) the term "U.S. trade rights" means any right, benefit or advantage to which the United States is entitled under an international trade agreement and that could be effectuated through the use of a dispute settlement proceeding.

(b) the term "domestic trade laws" means any trade remedies available under U.S. law, including, but not limited to, sections 201, 301, 406, and 421 of the Trade Act of 1974, as amended (19 U.S.C. 2251, 2411, 2436, and 2451); sections 332 and 337 of the Tariff Act of 1930, as amended (19 U.S.C. 1332 and 1337); section 281 of the Uruguay Round Agreements Act (19 U.S.C. 3571); and self-initiation of investigations under Title VII of the Tariff Act of 1930 (19 U.S.C. 1671 [et seq.]).

Sec. 6. General Provisions. (a) This order shall be implemented consistent with applicable law and subject to the availability of appropriations.

(b) Nothing in this order shall be construed to impair or otherwise affect:

(i) authority granted by law, regulation, Executive Order, or Presidential Directive to an executive department, agency, or head thereof; or

(ii) functions of the Director of the Office of Management and Budget relating to budgetary, administrative, or legislative proposals.

(c) This order is not intended to, and does not, create any right or benefit, substantive or procedural, enforceable at law or in equity by any party against the United States, its departments, agencies, or entities, its officers, employees, or agents, or any other person.

Barack Obama.      

Reforming Developing-Country Status in the World Trade Organization

Memorandum of President of the United States, July 26, 2019, 84 F.R. 37555, provided:

Memorandum for the United States Trade Representative

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, it is hereby directed as follows:

Section 1. Policy. The World Trade Organization (WTO) was created to spur economic growth and raise standards of living by establishing international trade rules premised on principles of transparency, openness, and predictability. Although economic tides have risen worldwide since the WTO's inception in 1995, the WTO continues to rest on an outdated dichotomy between developed and developing countries that has allowed some WTO Members to gain unfair advantages in the international trade arena. Nearly two-thirds of WTO Members have been able to avail themselves of special treatment and to take on weaker commitments under the WTO framework by designating themselves as developing countries. While some developing-country designations are proper, many are patently unsupportable in light of current economic circumstances. For example, 7 out of the 10 wealthiest economies in the world as measured by Gross Domestic Product per capita on a purchasing-power parity basis—Brunei, Hong Kong, Kuwait, Macao, Qatar, Singapore, and the United Arab Emirates—currently claim developing-country status. Mexico, South Korea, and Turkey—members of both the G20 and the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)—also claim this status.

When the wealthiest economies claim developing-country status, they harm not only other developed economies but also economies that truly require special and differential treatment. Such disregard for adherence to WTO rules, including the likely disregard of any future rules, cannot continue to go unchecked.

China most dramatically illustrates the point. Since joining the WTO in 2001, China has continued to insist that it is a developing country and thus has the right to avail itself of flexibilities under any new WTO rules. The United States has never accepted China's claim to developing-country status, and virtually every current economic indicator belies China's claim. After years of explosive growth, China has the second largest Gross Domestic Product in the world, behind only the United States. China accounts for nearly 13 percent of total global exports of goods, while its global share of such exports jumped five-fold between 1995 and 2017. It has been the largest global exporter of goods each year since 2009. Further, China's preeminent status in exports is not limited to goods from low-wage manufacturing sectors. China currently ranks first in the world for exports of high-technology products, with such exports alone increasing by 3,800 percent between 1995 and 2016.

Other economic figures tell a similar story. Valued at nearly $1.5 trillion, China's outbound foreign direct investment (FDI) exceeds that of 32 of 36 OECD countries, while its inbound FDI of nearly $2.9 trillion exceeds all but one OECD country. China is home to 120 of the world's 500 largest companies, and its defense expenditures and total number of satellites in space are second only to those of the United States.

Notwithstanding these facts and other evidence of economic vibrancy, China and too many other countries have continued to style themselves as developing countries, allowing them to enjoy the benefits that come with that status and seek weaker commitments than those made by other WTO Members. These countries claim entitlement to longer timeframes for the imposition of safeguards, generous transition periods, softer tariff cuts, procedural advantages for WTO disputes, and the ability to avail themselves of certain export subsidies—all at the expense of other WTO Members. These countries have also consistently sought weaker commitments than other WTO Members in ongoing negotiations, which has significantly stymied progress. Moreover, many of the world's most advanced economies have used developing-country status as an excuse not to comply with the most basic notification requirements under WTO rules, depriving United States traders of vital trade data. The status quo cannot continue.

The WTO is in desperate need of reform, without which the WTO will be unable to address the needs of workers and businesses or the challenges posed by the modern global economy. The United States is also pressing for critical reforms in other multilateral international organizations to help ensure that those organizations recognize the economic development of their members and can work within their mandates to address important challenges. The need to reform international economic institutions is not just a challenge for the United States but for all countries that participate in the global marketplace.

With respect to the WTO, there is no hope of progress in resolving this challenge until the world's most advanced economies are prepared to take on the full commitments associated with WTO membership. To help ensure that those countries live up to their commitments, it shall be the policy of the United States to make trade more free, fair, and reciprocal by devoting all necessary resources toward changing the WTO approach to developing-country status such that advanced economies can no longer avail themselves of unwarranted benefits despite abundant evidence of economic strength.

Sec. 2. Changing the WTO Approach to Flexibilities Associated with Developing-Country Status. (a) To advance the policy set forth in section 1 of this memorandum, the United States Trade Representative (USTR) shall, as appropriate and consistent with applicable law, use all available means to secure changes at the WTO that would prevent self-declared developing countries from availing themselves of flexibilities in WTO rules and negotiations that are not justified by appropriate economic and other indicators. Where appropriate and consistent with law, the USTR shall pursue this action in cooperation with other like-minded WTO Members.

(b) Within 60 days of the date of this memorandum [July 26, 2019], the USTR shall update the President on his progress under subsection (a) of this section.

Sec. 3. Ending Unfair Trade Benefits. (a) If, within 90 days of the date of this memorandum, the USTR determines that substantial progress has not been made toward achieving the changes described in section 2 of this memorandum, the USTR shall, as appropriate and to the extent consistent with law:

(i) no longer treat as a developing country for the purposes of the WTO any WTO Member that in the USTR's judgment is improperly declaring itself a developing country and inappropriately seeking the benefit of flexibilities in WTO rules and negotiations; and

(ii) where relevant, not support any such country's membership in the OECD.

(b) Before taking any action under subsection (a) of this section, the USTR shall:

(i) consult with the Trade Policy Committee established under section 242 of the Trade Expansion Act of 1962 (19 U.S.C. 1872);

(ii) consult with the National Security Council and the National Economic Council as to the advisability of interagency coordination through the process described in National Security Presidential Memorandum–4 of April 4, 2017 (Organization of the National Security Council, the Homeland Security Council, and Subcommittees) [50 U.S.C. 3021 note], or any successor document; and

(iii) consider the WTO Member's involvement in global trade, membership in key economic decision-making groups, placement within relative economic and other indicators, and any other factors the USTR deems appropriate.

(c) The USTR shall publish on its website a list of all self-declared developing countries that the USTR believes are inappropriately seeking the benefit of developing-country flexibilities in WTO rules and negotiations.

Sec. 4. Publication. The USTR is authorized and directed to publish this memorandum in the Federal Register.

Donald J. Trump.      

1 So in original. Probably should be section "5315".

Part 5—Congressional Procedures With Respect to Presidential Actions

§2191. Bills implementing trade agreements on nontariff barriers and resolutions approving commercial agreements with Communist countries

(a) Rules of House of Representatives and Senate

This section and sections 2192 and 2193 of this title are enacted by the Congress—

(1) as an exercise of the rulemaking power of the House of Representatives and the Senate, respectively, and as such they are deemed a part of the rules of each House, respectively, but applicable only with respect to the procedure to be followed in that House in the case of implementing bills described in subsection (b)(1), implementing revenue bills described in subsection (b)(2), approval resolutions described in subsection (b)(3), and resolutions described in sections 2192(a) and 2193(a) of this title; and they supersede other rules only to the extent that they are inconsistent therewith; and

(2) with full recognition of the constitutional right of either House to change the rules (so far as relating to the procedure of that House) at any time, in the same manner and to the same extent as in the case of any other rule of that House.

(b) Definitions

For purposes of this section—

(1) The term "implementing bill" means only a bill of either House of Congress which is introduced as provided in subsection (c) with respect to one or more trade agreements, or with respect to an extension described in section 3572(c)(3) of this title, submitted to the House of Representatives and the Senate under section 2112 of this title, section 3572 of this title, or section 4205(a)(1) of this title and which contains—

(A) a provision approving such trade agreement or agreements or such extension,

(B) a provision approving the statement of administrative action (if any) proposed to implement such trade agreement or agreements, and

(C) if changes in existing laws or new statutory authority is required to implement such trade agreement or agreements or such extension, provisions, necessary or appropriate to implement such trade agreement or agreements or such extension, either repealing or amending existing laws or providing new statutory authority.


(2) The term "implementing revenue bill or resolution" means an implementing bill, or approval resolution, which contains one or more revenue measures by reason of which it must originate in the House of Representatives.

(3) The term "approval resolution" means only a joint resolution of the two Houses of the Congress, the matter after the resolving clause of which is as follows: "That the Congress approves the extension of nondiscriminatory treatment with respect to the products of ________ transmitted by the President to the Congress on ________.", the first blank space being filled with the name of the country involved and the second blank space being filled with the appropriate date.

(c) Introduction and referral

(1) On the day on which a trade agreement or extension is submitted to the House of Representatives and the Senate under section 2112 of this title, section 3572 of this title, or section 4205(a)(1) of this title, the implementing bill submitted by the President with respect to such trade agreement or extension shall be introduced (by request) in the House by the majority leader of the House, for himself and the minority leader of the House, or by Members of the House designated by the majority leader and minority leader of the House; and shall be introduced (by request) in the Senate by the majority leader of the Senate, for himself and the minority leader of the Senate, or by Members of the Senate designated by the majority leader and minority leader of the Senate. If either House is not in session on the day on which such a trade agreement or extension is submitted, the implementing bill shall be introduced in that House, as provided in the preceding sentence, on the first day thereafter on which that House is in session. Such bills shall be referred by the Presiding Officers of the respective Houses to the appropriate committee, or, in the case of a bill containing provisions within the jurisdiction of two or more committees, jointly to such committees for consideration of those provisions within their respective jurisdictions.

(2) On the day on which a bilateral commercial agreement, entered into under subchapter IV of this chapter after January 3, 1975, is transmitted to the House of Representatives and the Senate, an approval resolution with respect to such agreement shall be introduced (by request) in the House by the majority leader of the House, for himself and the minority leader of the House, or by Members of the House designated by the majority leader and minority leader of the House; and shall be introduced (by request) in the Senate by the majority leader of the Senate, for himself and the minority leader of the Senate, or by Members of the Senate designated by the majority leader and minority leader of the Senate. If either House is not in session on the day on which such an agreement is transmitted, the approval resolution with respect to such agreement shall be introduced in that House, as provided in the preceding sentence, on the first day thereafter on which that House is in session. The approval resolution introduced in the House shall be referred to the Committee on Ways and Means and the approval resolution introduced in the Senate shall be referred to the Committee on Finance.

(d) Amendments prohibited

No amendment to an implementing bill or approval resolution shall be in order in either the House of Representatives or the Senate; and no motion to suspend the application of this subsection shall be in order in either House, nor shall it be in order in either House for the Presiding Officer to entertain a request to suspend the application of this subsection by unanimous consent.

(e) Period for committee and floor consideration

(1) Except as provided in paragraph (2), if the committee or committees of either House to which an implementing bill or approval resolution has been referred have not reported it at the close of the 45th day after its introduction, such committee or committees shall be automatically discharged from further consideration of the bill or resolution and it shall be placed on the appropriate calendar. A vote on final passage of the bill or resolution shall be taken in each House on or before the close of the 15th day after the bill or resolution is reported by the committee or committees of that House to which it was referred, or after such committee or committees have been discharged from further consideration of the bill or resolution. If prior to the passage by one House of an implementing bill or approval resolution of that House, that House receives the same implementing bill or approval resolution from the other House, then—

(A) the procedure in that House shall be the same as if no implementing bill or approval resolution had been received from the other House, but

(B) the vote on final passage shall be on the implementing bill or approval resolution of the other House.


(2) The provisions of paragraph (1) shall not apply in the Senate to an implementing revenue bill or resolution. An implementing revenue bill or resolution received from the House shall be referred to the appropriate committee or committees of the Senate. If such committee or committees have not reported such bill or resolution at the close of the 15th day after its receipt by the Senate (or, if later, before the close of the 45th day after the corresponding implementing revenue bill or resolution was introduced in the Senate), such committee or committees shall be automatically discharged from further consideration of such bill or resolution and it shall be placed on the calendar. A vote on final passage of such bill or resolution shall be taken in the Senate on or before the close of the 15th day after such bill or resolution is reported by the committee or committees of the Senate to which it was referred, or after such committee or committees have been discharged from further consideration of such bill or resolution.

(3) For purposes of paragraphs (1) and (2), in computing a number of days in either House, there shall be excluded any day on which that House is not in session.

(f) Floor consideration in the House

(1) A motion in the House of Representatives to proceed to the consideration of an implementing bill or approval resolution shall be highly privileged and not debatable. An amendment to the motion shall not be in order, nor shall it be in order to move to reconsider the vote by which the motion is agreed to or disagreed to.

(2) Debate in the House of Representatives on an implementing bill or approval resolution shall be limited to not more than 20 hours, which shall be divided equally between those favoring and those opposing the bill or resolution. A motion further to limit debate shall not be debatable. It shall not be in order to move to recommit an implementing bill or approval resolution or to move to reconsider the vote by which an implementing bill or approval resolution is agreed to or disagreed to.

(3) Motions to postpone, made in the House of Representatives with respect to the consideration of an implementing bill or approval resolution, and motions to proceed to the consideration of other business, shall be decided without debate.

(4) All appeals from the decisions of the Chair relating to the application of the Rules of the House of Representatives to the procedure relating to an implementing bill or approval resolution shall be decided without debate.

(5) Except to the extent specifically provided in the preceding provisions of this subsection, consideration of an implementing bill or approval resolution shall be governed by the Rules of the House of Representatives applicable to other bills and resolutions in similar circumstances.

(g) Floor consideration in the Senate

(1) A motion in the Senate to proceed to the consideration of an implementing bill or approval resolution shall be privileged and not debatable. An amendment to the motion shall not be in order, nor shall it be in order to move to reconsider the vote by which the motion is agreed to or disagreed to.

(2) Debate in the Senate on an implementing bill or approval resolution, and all debatable motions and appeals in connection therewith, shall be limited to not more than 20 hours. The time shall be equally divided between, and controlled by, the majority leader and the minority leader or their designees.

(3) Debate in the Senate on any debatable motion or appeal in connection with an implementing bill or approval resolution shall be limited to not more than 1 hour, to be equally divided between, and controlled by, the mover and the manager of the bill or resolution, except that in the event the manager of the bill or resolution is in favor of any such motion or appeal, the time in opposition thereto, shall be controlled by the minority leader or his designee. Such leaders, or either of them, may, from time under their control on the passage of an implementing bill or approval resolution, allot additional time to any Senator during the consideration of any debatable motion or appeal.

(4) A motion in the Senate to further limit debate is not debatable. A motion to recommit an implementing bill or approval resolution is not in order.

(Pub. L. 93–618, title I, §151, Jan. 3, 1975, 88 Stat. 2001; Pub. L. 100–418, title I, §1107(b)(1), Aug. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 1135; Pub. L. 101–382, title I, §132(b)(2), Aug. 20, 1990, 104 Stat. 645; Pub. L. 103–465, title II, §282(c)(4), Dec. 8, 1994, 108 Stat. 4929; Pub. L. 107–210, div. B, title XXI, §2110(a)(1), Aug. 6, 2002, 116 Stat. 1019; Pub. L. 114–26, title I, §110(a)(6), June 29, 2015, 129 Stat. 358.)

Amendments

2015—Subsecs. (b)(1), (c)(1). Pub. L. 114–26, §110(a)(6), substituted "section 4205(a)(1) of this title" for "section 3805(a)(1) of this title".

2002—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 107–210, §2110(a)(1)(A), substituted "section 3572 of this title, or section 3805(a)(1) of this title" for "section 2903(a)(1) of this title, or section 3572 of this title" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 107–210, §2110(a)(1)(B), substituted ", section 3572 of this title, or section 3805(a)(1) of this title" for "or section 3572 of this title".

1994—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 103–465, §282(c)(4)(A), in introductory provisions, inserted ", or with respect to an extension described in section 3572(c)(3) of this title," after "trade agreements" and substituted ", section 2903(a)(1) of this title, or section 3572 of this title" for "or section 2903(a)(1) of this title", and in subpars. (A) and (C), inserted "or such extension" after "agreements" wherever appearing.

Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 103–465, §282(c)(4)(B), inserted "or section 3572 of this title" after "section 2112 of this title" and "or extension" after "agreement" wherever appearing.

1990—Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 101–382, §132(b)(2)(A), (B), inserted "or resolution" after "revenue bill" and ", or approval resolution," after "implementing bill".

Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 101–382, §132(b)(2)(C), substituted "joint" for "concurrent".

Subsec. (e)(2). Pub. L. 101–382, §132(b)(2)(D), (E), substituted "revenue bill or resolution" for "revenue bill" in three places and "such bill or resolution" for "such bill" in five places.

1988—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 100–418 inserted reference to section 2903(a)(1) of this title.

Effective Date of 1994 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 103–465 effective, except as otherwise provided, on the date on which the WTO Agreement enters into force with respect to the United States (Jan. 1, 1995), and applicable with respect to investigations, reviews, and inquiries initiated and petitions filed under specified provisions of subtitle IV (§1671 et seq.) of chapter 4 of this title after such date, see section 291 of Pub. L. 103–465, set out as a note under section 1671 of this title.

§2192. Resolutions disapproving certain actions

(a) Contents of resolutions

(1) For purposes of this section, the term "resolution" means only—

(A) a joint resolution of the two Houses of the Congress, the matter after the resolving clause of which is as follows: "That the Congress does not approve the action taken by, or the determination of, the President under section 203 of the Trade Act of 1974 transmitted to the Congress on ______.", the blank space being filled with the appropriate date; and

(B) a joint resolution of the two Houses of Congress, the matter after the resolving clause of which is as follows: "That the Congress does not approve ______ transmitted to the Congress on ______.", with the first blank space being filled in accordance with paragraph (2), and the second blank space being filled with the appropriate date.


(2) The first blank space referred to in paragraph (1)(B) shall be filled, in the case of a resolution referred to in section 2437(c)(2) of this title, with the phrase "the report of the President submitted under section ______ of the Trade Act of 1974 with respect to ______" (with the first blank space being filled with "402(b)" or "409(b)", as appropriate, and the second blank space being filled with the name of the country involved).

(b) Reference to committees

All resolutions introduced in the House of Representatives shall be referred to the Committee on Ways and Means and all resolutions introduced in the Senate shall be referred to the Committee on Finance.

(c) Discharge of committees

(1) If the committee of either House to which a resolution has been referred has not reported it at the end of 30 days after its introduction, not counting any day which is excluded under section 2194(b) of this title, it is in order to move either to discharge the committee from further consideration of the resolution or to discharge the committee from further consideration of any other resolution introduced with respect to the same matter, except that a motion to discharge—

(A) may only be made on the second legislative day after the calendar day on which the Member making the motion announces to the House his intention to do so; and

(B) is not in order after the Committee 1 has reported a resolution with respect to the same matter.


(2) A motion to discharge under paragraph (1) may be made only by an individual favoring the resolution, and is highly privileged in the House and privileged in the Senate; and debate thereon shall be limited to not more than 1 hour, the time to be divided in the House equally between those favoring and those opposing the resolution, and to be divided in the Senate equally between, and controlled by, the majority leader and the minority leader or their designees. An amendment to the motion is not in order, and it is not in order to move to reconsider the vote by which the motion is agreed to or disagreed to.

(d) Floor consideration in the House

(1) A motion in the House of Representatives to proceed to the consideration of a resolution shall be highly privileged and not debatable. An amendment to the motion shall not be in order, nor shall it be in order to move to reconsider the vote by which the motion is agreed to or disagreed to.

(2) Debate in the House of Representatives on a resolution shall be limited to not more than 20 hours, which shall be divided equally between those favoring and those opposing the resolution. A motion further to limit debate shall not be debatable. No amendment to, or motion to recommit, the resolution shall be in order. It shall not be in order to move to reconsider the vote by which a resolution is agreed to or disagreed to.

(3) Motions to postpone, made in the House of Representatives with respect to the consideration of a resolution, and motions to proceed to the consideration of other business, shall be decided without debate.

(4) All appeals from the decisions of the Chair relating to the application of the Rules of the House of Representatives to the procedure relating to a resolution shall be decided without debate.

(5) Except to the extent specifically provided in the preceding provisions of this subsection, consideration of a resolution in the House of Representatives shall be governed by the Rules of the House of Representatives applicable to other resolutions in similar circumstances.

(e) Floor consideration in the Senate

(1) A motion in the Senate to proceed to the consideration of a resolution shall be privileged. An amendment to the motion shall not be in order, nor shall it be in order to move to reconsider the vote by which the motion is agreed to or disagreed to.

(2) Debate in the Senate on a resolution, and all debatable motions and appeals in connection therewith, shall be limited to not more than 20 hours, to be equally divided between, and controlled by, the majority leader and the minority leader or their designees.

(3) Debate in the Senate on any debatable motion or appeal in connection with a resolution shall be limited to not more than 1 hour, to be equally divided between, and controlled by, the mover and the manager of the resolution, except that in the event the manager of the resolution is in favor of any such motion or appeal, the time in opposition thereto, shall be controlled by the minority leader or his designee. Such leaders, or either of them, may, from time under their control on the passage of a resolution, allot additional time to any Senator during the consideration of any debatable motion or appeal.

(4) A motion in the Senate to further limit debate on a resolution, debatable motion, or appeal is not debatable. No amendment to, or motion to recommit, a resolution is in order in the Senate.

(f) Procedures in the Senate

(1) Except as otherwise provided in this section, the following procedures shall apply in the Senate to a resolution to which this section applies:

(A)(i) Except as provided in clause (ii), a resolution that has passed the House of Representatives shall, when received in the Senate, be referred to the Committee on Finance for consideration in accordance with this section.

(ii) If a resolution to which this section applies was introduced in the Senate before receipt of a resolution that has passed the House of Representatives, the resolution from the House of Representatives shall, when received in the Senate, be placed on the calendar. If this clause applies, the procedures in the Senate with respect to a resolution introduced in the Senate that contains the identical matter as the resolution that passed the House of Representatives shall be the same as if no resolution had been received from the House of Representatives, except that the vote on passage in the Senate shall be on the resolution that passed the House of Representatives.

(B) If the Senate passes a resolution before receiving from the House of Representatives a joint resolution that contains the identical matter, the joint resolution shall be held at the desk pending receipt of the joint resolution from the House of Representatives. Upon receipt of the joint resolution from the House of Representatives, such joint resolution shall be deemed to be read twice, considered, read the third time, and passed.


(2) If the texts of joint resolutions described in this section or section 2193(a) of this title, whichever is applicable, concerning any matter are not identical—

(A) the Senate shall vote passage on the resolution introduced in the Senate, and

(B) the text of the joint resolution passed by the Senate shall, immediately upon its passage (or, if later, upon receipt of the joint resolution passed by the House), be substituted for the text of the joint resolution passed by the House of Representatives, and such resolution, as amended, shall be returned with a request for a conference between the two Houses.


(3) Consideration in the Senate of any veto message with respect to a joint resolution described in subsection (a)(2)(B) or section 2193(a) of this title, including consideration of all debatable motions and appeals in connection therewith, shall be limited to 10 hours, to be equally divided between, and controlled by, the majority leader and the minority leader or their designees.

(Pub. L. 93–618, title I, §152, Jan. 3, 1975, 88 Stat. 2004; Pub. L. 96–39, title IX, §902(a)(1), title XI, §1106(c)(5), July 26, 1979, 93 Stat. 299, 312; Pub. L. 98–573, title II, §248(b), Oct. 30, 1984, 98 Stat. 2998; Pub. L. 101–382, title I, §132(c)(2)–(5), Aug. 20, 1990, 104 Stat. 646, 647; Pub. L. 103–465, title II, §261(d)(1)(A)(ii), Dec. 8, 1994, 108 Stat. 4909; Pub. L. 104–295, §20(b)(10), Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3527.)

References in Text

Section 203 of the Trade Act of 1974, referred to in subsec. (a)(1)(A), is section 203 of Pub. L. 93–618, title II, Jan. 3, 1975, 88 Stat. 2015, which is classified to section 2253 of this title.

Sections 402(b) and 409(b) of the Trade Act of 1974, referred to in subsec. (a)(2)(C), are sections 402(b) and 409(b) of Pub. L. 93–618, title IV, Jan. 3, 1975, 88 Stat. 2060, 2064, respectively, which are classified to sections 2432 and 2439 of this title, respectively.

Amendments

1996—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 104–295 amended directory language of Pub. L. 103–465. See 1994 Amendment note below.

1994—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 103–465, as amended by Pub. L. 104–295, substituted comma for "as follows:" after "shall be filled" in introductory provisions, struck out "(B)" before "in the case", and struck out subpar. (A) which read as follows: "in the case of a resolution referred to in section 1303(e) of this title, with the phrase 'the determination of the Secretary of the Treasury under section 303(d) of the Tariff Act of 1930'; and".

1990—Subsec. (a)(1)(B). Pub. L. 101–382, §132(c)(2), amended subpar. (B) generally. Prior to amendment, subpar. (B) read as follows: "a resolution of either House of the Congress, the matter after the resolving clause of which is as follows: 'That the ______ does not approve ______ transmitted to the Congress on ______.', with the first blank space being filled with the name of the resolving House, the second blank space being filled in accordance with paragraph (2), and the third blank space being filled with the appropriate date."

Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 101–382, §132(c)(3), substituted "first" for "second" in introductory provisions and "2437(c)(2)" for "2437(c)(3)" in subpar. (C), redesignated subpar. (C) as (B), and struck out former subpar. (B) which read as follows: "in the case of a resolution referred to in section 2437(c)(2) of this title, with the phrase 'the extension of nondiscriminatory treatment with respect to the products of ______' (with this blank space being filled with the name of the country involved); and".

Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 101–382, §132(c)(4), substituted "except that a motion to discharge—

"(A) may only be made on the second legislative day after the calendar day on which the Member making the motion announces to the House his intention to do so; and

"(B) is not in order after the Committee has reported a resolution with respect to the same matter" for "except no motion to discharge shall be in order after the committee has reported a resolution with respect to the same matter".

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 101–382, §132(c)(5), amended subsec. (f) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (f) read as follows: "In the case of a resolution described in subsection (a)(1) of this section, if prior to the passage by one House of a resolution of that House, that House receives a resolution with respect to the same matter from the other House, then—

"(1) the procedure in that House shall be the same as if no resolution had been received from the other House; but

"(2) the vote on final passage shall be on the resolution of the other House."

1984—Subsec. (a)(1)(A). Pub. L. 98–573 substituted "joint resolution" for "concurrent resolution".

1979—Subsec. (a)(1)(A). Pub. L. 96–39, §902(a)(1)(A), substituted "does not approve the action taken by, or the determination of, the President under section 203 of the Trade Act of 1974 transmitted to the Congress on ______.', the blank space being filled with the appropriate date" for "does not approve ______ transmitted to the Congress on ______.', the first blank space being filled in accordance with paragraph (2) and the second blank space being filled with the appropriate date".

Subsec. (a)(1)(B). Pub. L. 96–39, §902(a)(1)(B), substituted "paragraph (2)," for "paragraph (3),".

Subsec. (a)(2), (3). Pub. L. 96–39, §902(a)(1)(C), (D), redesignated par. (3) as (2). Former par. (2), relating to the first blank space referred to in subsec. (a)(1)(A), was struck out.

Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 96–39, §1106(c)(5), substituted "section 2194(b) of this title" for "section 2193(b) of this title".

Effective Date of 1994 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 103–465 effective on the effective date of title II of Pub. L. 103–465, Jan. 1, 1995, see section 261(d)(2) of Pub. L. 103–465, set out as a note under section 1315 of this title.

Effective Date of 1990 Amendment

Amendment by section 132(c)(4) and (5) of Pub. L. 101–382 applicable with respect to recommendations made under section 2432(d) of this title by the President after May 23, 1990, see section 132(d) of Pub. L. 101–382, set out as a note under section 2432 of this title.

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 98–573 effective on 15th day after Oct. 30, 1984, see section 214(a), (b) of Pub. L. 98–573, set out as a note under section 1304 of this title.

Effective Date of 1979 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 96–39 effective July 26, 1979, see sections 903 and 1114 of Pub. L. 96–39, set out as Effective Date notes under sections 2411 and 2581 of this title, respectively.

1 So in original. Probably should not be capitalized.

§2193. Resolutions relating to extension of waiver authority under section 402 of the Trade Act of 1974

(a) Contents of resolution

For purposes of this section, the term "resolution" means only a joint resolution of the two Houses of Congress, the matter after the resolving clause of which is as follows: "That the Congress does not approve the extension of the authority contained in section 402(c) of the Trade Act of 1974 recommended by the President to the Congress on ______ with respect to ______.", with the first blank space being filled with the appropriate date, and the second blank space being filled with the names of those countries, if any, with respect to which such extension of authority is not approved, and with the clause beginning with "with respect to" being omitted if the extension of the authority is not approved with respect to any country.

(b) Application of rules of section 2192 of this title; exceptions

(1) Except as provided in this section, the provisions of section 2192 of this title shall apply to resolutions described in subsection (a).

(2) In applying section 2192(c)(1) of this title, all calendar days shall be counted.

(3) That part of section 2192(d)(2) of this title which provides that no amendment is in order shall not apply to any amendment to a resolution which is limited to striking out or inserting the names of one or more countries or to striking out or inserting a with-respect-to clause. Debate in the House of Representatives on any amendment to a resolution shall be limited to not more than 1 hour which shall be equally divided between those favoring and those opposing the amendment. A motion in the House to further limit debate on an amendment to a resolution is not debatable.

(4) That part of section 2192(e)(4) of this title which provides that no amendment is in order shall not apply to any amendment to a resolution which is limited to striking out or inserting the names of one or more countries or to striking out or inserting a with-respect-to clause. The time limit on a debate on a resolution in the Senate under section 2192(e)(2) of this title shall include all amendments to a resolution. Debate in the Senate on any amendment to a resolution shall be limited to not more than 1 hour, to be equally divided between, and controlled by, the mover and the manager of the resolution, except that in the event the manager of the resolution is in favor of any such amendment, the time in opposition thereto shall be controlled by the minority leader or his designee. The majority leader and minority leader may, from time under their control on the passage of a resolution, allot additional time to any Senator during the consideration of any amendment. A motion in the Senate to further limit debate on an amendment to a resolution is not debatable.

(c) Consideration of second resolution not in order

It shall not be in order in either the House of Representatives or the Senate to consider a resolution with respect to a recommendation of the President under section 2432(d) of this title (other than a resolution described in subsection (a) received from the other House), if that House has adopted a resolution with respect to the same recommendation.

(d) Procedures relating to conference reports in the Senate

(1) Consideration in the Senate of the conference report on any joint resolution described in subsection (a), including consideration of all amendments in disagreement (and all amendments thereto), and consideration of all debatable motions and appeals in connection therewith, shall be limited to 10 hours, to be equally divided between, and controlled by, the majority leader and the minority leader or their designees. Debate on any debatable motion or appeal related to the conference report shall be limited to 1 hour, to be equally divided between, and controlled by, the mover and the manager of the conference report.

(2) In any case in which there are amendments in disagreement, time on each amendment shall be limited to 30 minutes, to be equally divided between, and controlled by, the manager of the conference report and the minority leader or his designee. No amendment to any amendment in disagreement shall be received unless it is a germane amendment.

(Pub. L. 93–618, title I, §153, Jan. 3, 1975, 88 Stat. 2006; Pub. L. 101–382, title I, §132(a)(3)–(6), Aug. 20, 1990, 104 Stat. 644, 645.)

References in Text

Section 402 of the Trade Act of 1974, referred to in catchline and subsec. (a), is classified to section 2432 of this title.

Amendments

1990—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 101–382, §132(a)(3), amended subsec. (a) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (a) read as follows: "For purposes of this section, the term 'resolution' means only—

"(1) a concurrent resolution of the two Houses of the Congress, the matter after the resolving clause of which is as follows: 'That the Congress approves the extension of the authority contained in section 402(c)(1) of the Trade Act of 1974 recommended by the President to the Congress on ______, except with respect to ______.', with the first blank space being filled with the appropriate date and the second blank space being filled with the names of those countries, if any, with respect to which such extension of authority is not approved, and with the except clause being omitted if there is no such country; and

"(2) a resolution of either House of the Congress, the matter after the resolving clause of which is as follows: 'That the ______ does not approve the extension of the authority contained in section 402(c) of the Trade Act of 1974 recommended by the President to the Congress on ______ with respect to ______.', with the first blank space being filled with the name of the resolving House, the second blank space being filled with the appropriate date, and the third blank space being filled with the names of those countries, if any, with respect to which such extension of authority is not approved, and with the with-respect-to clause being omitted if the extension of the authority is not approved with respect to any country."

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 101–382, §132(a)(4), in par. (2), struck out provisions substituting 20 days for 30 days in resolution related to section 2432(d)(4) of this title, and in pars. (3) and (4), struck out provisions relating to except clause in resolutions under subsec. (a)(1) and provisions identifying with-respect-to clause as relating to resolutions under subsec. (a)(2).

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 101–382, §132(a)(5), substituted "subsection (a)" for "subsection (a)(1)".

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 101–382, §132(a)(6), added subsec. (d).

Effective Date of 1990 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 101–382 applicable with respect to recommendations made under section 2432(d) of this title by the President after May 23, 1990, see section 132(d) of Pub. L. 101–382, set out as a note under section 2432 of this title.

§2194. Special rules relating to Congressional procedures

(a) Delivery of documents to both Houses

Whenever, pursuant to section 2112(e), 2253(b), 2432(d), or 2437(a) or (b), a document is required to be transmitted to the Congress, copies of such document shall be delivered to both Houses of Congress on the same day and shall be delivered to the Clerk of the House of Representatives if the House is not in session and to the Secretary of the Senate if the Senate is not in session.

(b) Computation of 90-day period

For purposes of sections 2253(c) and 2437(c)(2) of this title, the 90-day period referred to in such sections shall be computed by excluding—

(1) the days on which either House is not in session because of an adjournment of more than 3 days to a day certain or an adjournment of the Congress sine die, and

(2) any Saturday and Sunday, not excluded under paragraph (1), when either House is not in session.

(Pub. L. 93–618, title I, §154, Jan. 3, 1975, 88 Stat. 2008; Pub. L. 96–39, title IX, §902(a)(2), July 26, 1979, 93 Stat. 300; Pub. L. 101–382, title I, §132(c)(6), Aug. 20, 1990, 104 Stat. 647; Pub. L. 103–465, title II, §261(d)(1)(A)(iii), Dec. 8, 1994, 108 Stat. 4909; Pub. L. 106–36, title I, §1001(a)(5), June 25, 1999, 113 Stat. 130.)

Amendments

1999—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 106–36 substituted "For purposes of sections 2253(c) and 2437(c)(2) of this title, the 90-day period" for "For purposes of sections 2253(c), and 2437(c)(2) of this title, the 90-day period" in introductory provisions.

1994—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 103–465 struck out reference to section 1303(e) of this title.

1990—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 101–382, which directed the substitution of "and 2437(c)(2)" for "2437(c)(2) and 2437(c)(3)", was executed by making the substitution for "2437(c)(2), and 2437(c)(3)" to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

1979—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 96–39 struck out reference to section 2412(a) of this title.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 96–39 struck out reference to section 2412(b) of this title.

Effective Date of 1994 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 103–465 effective on the effective date of title II of Pub. L. 103–465, Jan. 1, 1995, see section 261(d)(2) of Pub. L. 103–465, set out as a note under section 1315 of this title.

Effective Date of 1979 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 96–39 effective July 26, 1979, see section 903 of Pub. L. 96–39, set out as an Effective Date note under section 2411 of this title.

Part 6—Congressional Liaison and Reports

§2211. Congressional advisers for trade policy and negotiations

(a) Selection

(1) At the beginning of each regular session of Congress, the Speaker of the House of Representatives, upon the recommendation of the chairman of the Committee on Ways and Means, shall select 5 members (not more than 3 of whom are members of the same political party) of such committee, and the President pro tempore of the Senate, upon the recommendation of the chairman of the Committee on Finance, shall select 5 members (not more than 3 of whom are members of the same political party) of such committee, who shall be designated congressional advisers on trade policy and negotiations. They shall provide advice on the development of trade policy and priorities for the implementation thereof. They shall also be accredited by the United States Trade Representative on behalf of the President as official advisers to the United States delegations to international conferences, meetings, and negotiating sessions relating to trade agreements.

(2)(A) In addition to the advisers designated under paragraph (1) from the Committee on Ways and Means and the Committee on Finance—

(i) the Speaker of the House may select additional members of the House, for designation as congressional advisers regarding specific trade policy matters or negotiations, from any other committee of the House or joint committee of Congress that has jurisdiction over legislation likely to be affected by such matters or negotiations; and

(ii) the President pro tempore of the Senate may select additional members of the Senate, for designation as congressional advisers regarding specific trade policy matters or negotiations, from any other committee of the Senate or joint committee of Congress that has jurisdiction over legislation likely to be affected by such matters or negotiations.


Members of the House and Senate selected as congressional advisers under this subparagraph shall be accredited by the United States Trade Representative.

(B) Before designating any member under subparagraph (A), the Speaker or the President pro tempore shall consult with—

(i) the chairman and ranking member of the Committee on Ways and Means or the Committee on Finance, as appropriate; and

(ii) the chairman and ranking minority member of the committee from which the member will be selected.


(C) Not more than 3 members (not more than 2 of whom are members of the same political party) may be selected under this paragraph as advisers from any committee of Congress.

(b) Briefing

(1) The United States Trade Representative shall keep each official adviser designated under subsection (a)(1) currently informed on matters affecting the trade policy of the United States and, with respect to possible agreements, negotiating objectives, the status of negotiations in progress, and the nature of any changes in domestic law or the administration thereof which may be recommended to Congress to carry out any trade agreement or any requirement of, amendment to, or recommendation under, such agreement.

(2) The United States Trade Representative shall keep each official adviser designated under subsection (a)(2) currently informed regarding the trade policy matters and negotiations with respect to which the adviser is designated.

(3)(A) The chairmen of the Committee on Ways and Means and the Committee on Finance may designate members (in addition to the official advisers under subsection (a)(1)) and staff members of their respective committees who shall have access to the information provided to official advisers under paragraph (1).

(B) The Chairman 1 of any committee of the House or Senate or any joint committee of Congress from which official advisers are selected under subsection (a)(2) may designate other members of such committee, and staff members of such committee, who shall have access to the information provided to official advisers under paragraph (2).

(c) Committee consultation

The United States Trade Representative shall consult on a continuing basis with the Committee on Ways and Means of the House of Representatives, the Committee on Finance of the Senate, and the other appropriate committees of the House and Senate on the development, implementation, and administration of overall trade policy of the United States. Such consultations shall include, but are not limited to, the following elements of such policy:

(1) The principal multilateral and bilateral negotiating objectives and the progress being made toward their achievement.

(2) The implementation, administration, and effectiveness of recently concluded multilateral and bilateral trade agreements and resolution of trade disputes.

(3) The actions taken, and proposed to be taken, under the trade laws of the United States and the effectiveness, or anticipated effectiveness, of such actions in achieving trade policy objectives.

(4) The important developments and issues in other areas of trade for which there must be developed proper policy response.


When necessary, meetings shall be held with each Committee 1 in executive session to review matters under negotiation.

(Pub. L. 93–618, title I, §161, Jan. 3, 1975, 88 Stat. 2008; Pub. L. 96–39, §3(e), July 26, 1979, 93 Stat. 150; Pub. L. 100–418, title I, §1632, Aug. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 1269.)

Amendments

1988Pub. L. 100–418 amended section generally, substituting present provisions for similar provisions which had related to Congressional delegates to negotiations, and changing the structure of the section from one consisting of subsecs. (a) and (b) to one consisting of subsecs. (a) to (c).

1979—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 96–39 substituted "trade agreement or any requirement of, amendment to, or recommendation under, such agreement" for "trade agreement".

1 So in original. Probably should not be capitalized.

§2212. Transmission of agreements to Congress

(a) Submission of copy and reasons

As soon as practicable after a trade agreement entered into under section 2133 or 2134 of this title or under section 4202 of this title has entered into force with respect to the United States, the President shall, if he has not previously done so, transmit a copy of such trade agreement to each House of the Congress together with a statement, in the light of the advice of the International Trade Commission under section 2151(b) of this title, if any, and of other relevant considerations, of his reasons for entering into the agreement.

(b) Submission to each member

The President shall transmit to each Member of the Congress a summary of the information required to be transmitted to each House under subsection (a). For purposes of this subsection, the term "Member" includes any Delegate or Resident Commissioner.

(Pub. L. 93–618, title I, §162, Jan. 3, 1975, 88 Stat. 2008; Pub. L. 100–647, title IX, §9001(a)(10), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3807; Pub. L. 107–210, div. B, title XXI, §2110(a)(6), Aug. 6, 2002, 116 Stat. 1020; Pub. L. 114–26, title I, §110(a)(7), June 29, 2015, 129 Stat. 358.)

Amendments

2015—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 114–26 substituted "section 4202 of this title" for "section 3803 of this title".

2002—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 107–210 substituted "or under section 3803 of this title" for "or under section 2902 of this title".

1988—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 100–647 struck out "part 1 of this subchapter or" after "entered into under", and inserted "or under section 2902 of this title" after "2134 of this title".

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 100–647 applicable as if such amendment took effect on Aug. 23, 1988, see section 9001(b) of Pub. L. 100–647, set out as an Effective and Termination Dates of 1988 Amendments note under section 58c of this title.

Delegation of Authority

For delegation of functions of President under div. B of Pub. L. 107–210, amending this section, see section 1 of Ex. Ord. No. 13277, Nov. 19, 2002, 67 F.R. 70305, set out as a note under section 3801 of this title.

§2213. Reports

(a) Annual report on trade agreements program and national trade policy agenda

(1) The President shall submit to the Congress during each calendar year (but not later than March 1 of that year) a report on—

(A) the operation of the trade agreements program, and the provision of import relief and adjustment assistance to workers and firms, under this chapter during the preceding calendar year; and

(B) the national trade policy agenda for the year in which the report is submitted.


(2) The report shall include, with respect to the matters referred to in paragraph (1)(A), information regarding—

(A) new trade negotiations;

(B) changes made in duties and nontariff barriers and other distortions of trade of the United States;

(C) reciprocal concessions obtained;

(D) changes in trade agreements (including the incorporation therein of actions taken for import relief and compensation provided therefor);

(E) the extension or withdrawal of nondiscriminatory treatment by the United States with respect to the products of foreign countries;

(F) the extension, modification, withdrawal, suspension, or limitation of preferential treatment to exports of developing countries;

(G) the results of actions to obtain the removal of foreign trade restrictions (including discriminatory restrictions) against United States exports and the removal of foreign practices which discriminate against United States service industries (including transportation and tourism) and investment;

(H) the measures being taken to seek the removal of other significant foreign import restrictions;

(I) each of the referrals made under section 2171(d)(1)(B) of this title and any action taken with respect to such referral;

(J) other information relating to the trade agreements program and to the agreements entered into thereunder;

(K) the number of applications filed for adjustment assistance for workers and firms, the number of such applications which were approved, and the extent to which adjustment assistance has been provided under such approved applications; and

(L) the operation of the Interagency Center on Trade Implementation, Monitoring, and Enforcement established under section 2171(h) of this title, including—

(i) information relating to the personnel of the Center, including a description of any employees detailed or assigned to the Center by a Federal agency under paragraph (3)(B) of such section;

(ii) information relating to the functions of the Center; and

(iii) an assessment of the operating costs of the Center.


(3)(A) The national trade policy agenda required under paragraph (1)(B) for the year in which a report is submitted shall be in the form of a statement of—

(i) the trade policy objectives and priorities of the United States for the year, and the reasons therefor;

(ii) the actions proposed, or anticipated, to be undertaken during the year to achieve such objectives and priorities, including, but not limited to, actions authorized under the trade laws and negotiations with foreign countries;

(iii) any proposed legislation necessary or appropriate to achieve any of such objectives or priorities; and

(iv) the progress that was made during the preceding year in achieving the trade policy objectives and priorities included in the statement provided for that year under this paragraph.


(B) The President may separately submit any information referred to in subparagraph (A) to the Congress in confidence if the President considers confidentiality appropriate.

(C) Before submitting the national trade policy agenda for any year, the President shall seek advice from the appropriate advisory committees established under section 2155 of this title and shall consult with the appropriate committees of the Congress.

(D) The United States Trade Representative (hereafter referred to in this section as the "Trade Representative") and other appropriate officials of the United States Government shall consult periodically with the appropriate committees of the Congress regarding the annual objectives and priorities set forth in each national trade policy agenda with respect to—

(i) the status and results of the actions that have been undertaken to achieve the objectives and priorities; and

(ii) any development which may require, or result in, changes to any of such objectives or priorities.

(b) Annual trade projection report

(1) In order for the Congress to be informed of the impact of foreign trade barriers and macroeconomic factors on the balance of trade of the United States, the Trade Representative and the Secretary of the Treasury shall jointly prepare and submit to the Committee on Finance of the Senate and the Committee on Ways and Means of the House of Representatives (hereafter referred to in this subsection as the "Committees") on or before March 1 of each year a report which consists of—

(A) a review and analysis of—

(i) the merchandise balance of trade,

(ii) the goods and services balance of trade,

(iii) the balance on the current account,

(iv) the external debt position,

(v) the exchange rates,

(vi) the economic growth rates,

(vii) the deficit or surplus in the fiscal budget, and

(viii) the impact on United States trade of market barriers and other unfair practices,


of countries that are major trading partners of the United States, including, as appropriate, groupings of such countries;

(B) projections for each of the economic factors described in subparagraph (A) (except those described in clauses (v) and (viii)) for each of the countries and groups of countries referred to in subparagraph (A) for the year in which the report is submitted and for the succeeding year; and

(C) conclusions and recommendations, based upon the projections referred to in subparagraph (B), for policy changes, including trade policy, exchange rate policy, fiscal policy, and other policies that should be implemented to improve the outlook.


(2) To the extent that subjects referred to in paragraph (1)(A), (B), or (C) are covered in the national trade policy agenda required under subsection (a)(1)(B) or in other reports required by this chapter or other law, the Trade Representative and the Secretary of the Treasury may, as appropriate, draw on the information, analysis, and conclusions, if any, in those reports for the purposes of preparing the report required by this subsection.

(3) The Trade Representative and the Secretary of the Treasury shall consult with the Chairman of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System in the preparation of each report required under this subsection.

(4) The Trade Representative and the Secretary of the Treasury may separately submit any information, analysis, or conclusion referred to in paragraph (1) to the Committees in confidence if the Trade Representative and the Secretary consider confidentiality appropriate.

(5) After submission of each report required under paragraph (1), the Trade Representative and the Secretary of the Treasury shall consult with each of the Committees with respect to the report.

(c) ITC reports

The United States International Trade Commission shall submit to the Congress, at least once a year, a factual report on the operation of the trade agreements program.

(d) Quadrennial plan and report

(1) Quadrennial plan

Pursuant to the goals and objectives of the strategic plan of the Office of the United States Trade Representative as required under section 306 of title 5, the Trade Representative shall, every 4 years, develop a plan—

(A) to analyze internal quality controls and record management of the Office;

(B) to identify existing staff of the Office and new staff that will be necessary to support the trade negotiation and enforcement functions and powers of the Office (including those functions and powers of the Trade Policy Staff Committee) as described in section 2171 of this title and section 2411 of this title;

(C) to identify existing staff of the Office and staff in other Federal agencies who will be required to be detailed or assigned to support interagency programs led by the Trade Representative, including any associated expenses;

(D) to provide an outline of budget justifications, including salaries and expenses as well as nonpersonnel administrative expenses, for the fiscal years required under the strategic plan; and

(E) to provide an outline of budget justifications, including salaries and expenses as well as nonpersonnel administrative expenses, for interagency programs led by the Trade Representative for the fiscal years required under the strategic plan.

(2) Report

(A) In general

The Trade Representative shall submit to the appropriate congressional committees a report that contains the plan required under paragraph (1). Except as provided in subparagraph (B), the report required under this subparagraph shall be submitted in conjunction with the strategic plan of the Office as required under section 306 of title 5.

(B) Exception

The Trade Representative shall submit to the appropriate congressional committees an initial report that contains the plan required under paragraph (1) not later than June 1, 2016.

(C) Appropriate congressional committees defined

In this paragraph, the term "appropriate congressional committees" means—

(i) the Committee on Finance and the Committee on Appropriations of the Senate; and

(ii) the Committee on Ways and Means and the Committee on Appropriations of the House of Representatives.

(Pub. L. 93–618, title I, §163, Jan. 3, 1975, 88 Stat. 2009; Pub. L. 100–418, title I, §1641, Aug. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 1271; Pub. L. 114–125, title VI, §604(c), Feb. 24, 2016, 130 Stat. 186.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in subsecs. (a)(1)(A) and (b), was in the original "this Act", meaning Pub. L. 93–618, Jan. 3, 1975, 88 Stat. 1978, as amended, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see References in Text note set out under section 2101 of this title and Tables.

Amendments

2016—Subsec. (a)(2)(L). Pub. L. 114–125, §604(c)(1), added subpar. (L).

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 114–125, §604(c)(2), added subsec. (d).

1988Pub. L. 100–418 amended section generally, completely revising and expanding provisions covering reports, changing the structure of the section from one consisting of subsecs. (a) and (b) to one consisting of subsecs. (a) to (c).

Trade Deficit Review Commission

Pub. L. 105–277, div. A, §127, Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–547, as amended by Pub. L. 106–57, title III, §311, Sept. 29, 1999, 113 Stat. 427; Pub. L. 106–246, div. B, title II, §2501, July 13, 2000, 114 Stat. 556; Pub. L. 107–107, div. A, title X, §1048(i)(10), Dec. 28, 2001, 115 Stat. 1229, provided that:

"(a) Short Title.—This section may be cited as the 'Trade Deficit Review Commission Act'.

"(b) Findings.—Congress makes the following findings:

"(1) The United States continues to run substantial merchandise trade and current account deficits.

"(2) Economic forecasts anticipate continued growth in such deficits in the next few years.

"(3) The positive net international asset position that the United States built up over many years was eliminated in the 1980s. The United States today has become the world's largest debtor nation.

"(4) The United States merchandise trade deficit is characterized by large bilateral trade imbalances with a handful of countries.

"(5) The United States has one of the most open borders and economies in the world. The United States faces significant tariff and nontariff trade barriers with its trading partners. The United States does not benefit from fully reciprocal market access.

"(6) The United States is once again at a critical juncture in trade policy development. The nature of the United States trade deficit and its causes and consequences must be analyzed and documented.

"(c) Establishment of Commission.—

"(1) Establishment.—There is established a commission to be known as the Trade Deficit Review Commission (hereafter in this section referred to as the 'Commission').

"(2) Purpose.—The purpose of the Commission is to study the nature, causes, and consequences of the United States merchandise trade and current account deficits.

"(3) Membership of commission.—

"(A) Composition.—The Commission shall be composed of 12 members as follows:

"(i) Three persons shall be appointed by the President pro tempore of the Senate upon the recommendation of the Majority Leader of the Senate, after consultation with the Chairman of the Committee on Finance.

"(ii) Three persons shall be appointed by the President pro tempore of the Senate upon the recommendation of the Minority Leader of the Senate, after consultation with the ranking minority member of the Committee on Finance.

"(iii) Three persons shall be appointed by the Speaker of the House of Representatives, after consultation with the Chairman of the Committee on Ways and Means.

"(iv) Three persons shall be appointed by the Minority Leader of the House of Representatives, after consultation with the ranking minority member of the Committee on Ways and Mean.

"(B) Qualifications of members.—

"(i) Appointments.—Persons who are appointed under subparagraph (A) shall be persons who—

     "(I) have expertise in economics, international trade, manufacturing, labor, environment, business, or have other pertinent qualifications or experience; and

     "(II) are not officers or employees of the United States.

"(ii) Other considerations.—In appointing Commission members, every effort shall be made to ensure that the members—

     "(I) are representative of a broad cross-section of economic and trade perspectives within the United States; and

     "(II) provide fresh insights to analyzing the causes and consequences of United States merchandise trade and current account deficits.

"(4) Period of appointment; vacancies.—

"(A) In general.—Members shall be appointed not later than 60 days after the date of enactment of this Act [Oct. 21, 1998] and the appointment shall be for the life of the Commission.

"(B) Vacancies.—Any vacancy in the Commission shall not affect its powers, but shall be filled in the same manner as the original appointment.

"(5) Initial meeting.—Not later than 30 days after the date on which all members of the Commission have been appointed, the Commission shall hold its first meeting.

"(6) Meetings.—The Commission shall meet at the call of the Chairperson.

"(7) Chairperson and vice chairperson.—The members of the Commission shall elect a chairperson and vice chairperson from among the members of the Commission.

"(8) Quorum.—A majority of the members of the Commission shall constitute a quorum for the transaction of business.

"(9) Voting.—Each member of the Commission shall be entitled to 1 vote, which shall be equal to the vote of every other member of the Commission.

"(d) Duties of the Commission.—

"(1) In general.—The Commission shall be responsible for examining the nature, causes, and consequences of, and the accuracy of available data on, the United States merchandise trade and current account deficits.

"(2) Issues to be addressed.—The Commission shall examine and report to the President, the Committee on Ways and Means of the House of Representatives, the Committee on Finance of the Senate, and other appropriate committees of Congress on the following:

"(A) The relationship of the merchandise trade and current account balances to the overall well-being of the United States economy, and to wages and employment in various sectors of the United States economy.

"(B) The impact that United States monetary and fiscal policies may have on United States merchandise trade and current account deficits.

"(C) The extent to which the coordination, allocation, and accountability of trade responsibilities among Federal agencies may contribute to the trade and current account deficits.

"(D) The causes and consequences of the merchandise trade and current account deficits and specific bilateral trade deficits, including—

"(i) identification and quantification of—

     "(I) the macroeconomic factors and bilateral trade barriers that may contribute to the United States merchandise trade and current account deficits;

     "(II) any impact of the merchandise trade and current account deficits on the domestic economy, industrial base, manufacturing capacity, technology, number and quality of jobs, productivity, wages, and the United States standard of living;

     "(III) any impact of the merchandise trade and current account deficits on the defense production and innovation capabilities of the United States; and

     "(IV) trade deficits within individual industrial, manufacturing, and production sectors, and any relationship between such deficits and the increasing volume of intra-industry and intra-company transactions;

"(ii) a review of the adequacy and accuracy of the current collection and reporting of import and export data, and the identification and development of additional data bases and economic measurements that may be needed to properly quantify the merchandise trade and current account balances, and any impact the merchandise trade and current account balances may have on the United States economy; and

"(iii) the extent to which there is reciprocal market access substantially equivalent to that afforded by the United States in each country with which the United States has a persistent and substantial bilateral trade deficit, and the extent to which such deficits have become structural.

"(E) Any relationship of United States merchandise trade and current account deficits to both comparative and competitive trade advantages within the global economy, including—

"(i) a systematic analysis of the United States trade patterns with different trading partners and to what extent the trade patterns are based on comparative and competitive trade advantages;

"(ii) the extent to which the increased mobility of capital and technology has changed both comparative and competitive trade advantages;

"(iii) any impact that labor, environmental, or health and safety standards may have on comparative and competitive trade advantages;

"(iv) the effect that offset and technology transfer agreements have on the long-term competitiveness of the United States manufacturing sectors; and

"(v) any effect that international trade, labor, environmental, or other agreements may have on United States competitiveness.

"(F) The extent to which differences in the growth rates of the United States and its trading partners may impact on United States merchandise trade and current account deficits.

"(G) The impact that currency exchange rate fluctuations and any manipulation of exchange rates may have on United States merchandise trade and current account deficits.

"(H) The flow of investments both into and out of the United States, including—

"(i) any consequences for the United States economy of the current status of the United States as a debtor nation;

"(ii) any relationship between such investment flows and the United States merchandise trade and current account deficits and living standards of United States workers;

"(iii) any impact such investment flows may have on United States labor, community, environmental, and health and safety standards, and how such investment flows influence the location of manufacturing facilities; and

"(iv) the effect of barriers to United States foreign direct investment in developed and developing nations, particularly nations with which the United States has a merchandise trade and current account deficit.

"(e) Final Report.—

"(1) In general.—Not later than 15 months after the date of the initial meeting of the Commission, the Commission shall submit to the President and Congress a final report which contains—

"(A) the findings and conclusions of the Commission described in subsection (d); and

"(B) recommendations for addressing the problems identified as part of the Commission's analysis.

"(2) Separate views.—Any member of the Commission may submit additional findings and recommendations as part of the final report.

"(f) Powers of Commission.—

"(1) Hearings.—The Commission may hold such hearings, sit and act at such times and places, take such testimony, and receive such evidence as the Commission may find advisable to fulfill the requirements of this section. The Commission shall hold at least 1 or more hearings in Washington, D.C., and 4 in different regions of the United States.

"(2) Information from federal agencies.—The Commission may secure directly from any Federal department or agency such information as the Commission considers necessary to carry out the provisions of this section. Upon request of the Chairperson of the Commission, the head of such department or agency shall furnish such information to the Commission.

"(3) Postal services.—The Commission may use the United States mails in the same manner and under the same conditions as other departments and agencies of the Federal Government.

"(g) Commission Personnel Matters.—

"(1) Compensation of members.—Each member of the Commission shall be compensated at a rate equal to the daily equivalent of the annual rate of basic pay prescribed for level IV of the Executive Schedule under section 5315 of title 5, United States Code, for each day (including travel time) during which such member is engaged in the performance of the duties of the Commission.

"(2) Travel expenses.—The members of the Commission shall be allowed travel expenses, including per diem in lieu of subsistence, at rates authorized for employees of agencies under subchapter I of chapter 57 of title 5, United States Code, while away from their homes or regular places of business in the performance of services for the Commission.

"(3) Staff.—

"(A) In general.—The Chairperson of the Commission may, without regard to the civil service laws and regulations, appoint and terminate an executive director and such other additional personnel as may be necessary to enable the Commission to perform its duties. The employment of an executive director shall be subject to confirmation by the Commission.

"(B) Compensation.—The Chairperson of the Commission may fix the compensation of the executive director and other personnel without regard to the provisions of chapter 51 and subchapter III of chapter 53 of title 5, United States Code, relating to classification of positions and General Schedule pay rates, except that the rate of pay for the executive director and other personnel may not exceed the rate payable for level V of the Executive Schedule under section 5316 of such title.

"(4) Detail of government employees.—Any Federal Government employee may be detailed to the Commission without reimbursement, and such detail shall be without interruption or loss of civil service status or privilege.

"(5) Procurement of temporary and intermittent services.—The Chairperson of the Commission may procure temporary and intermittent services under section 3109(b) of title 5, United States Code, at rates for individuals which do not exceed the daily equivalent of the annual rate of basic pay prescribed for level V of the Executive Schedule under section 5316 of such title.

"(6) Applicability of certain pay authorities.—An individual who is a member of the Commission and is an annuitant or otherwise covered by section 8344 or 8468 of title 5, United States Code, by reason of membership on the Commission is not subject to the provisions of section 8344 or 8468 (whichever is applicable) with respect to such membership.

"(h) Support Services.—The Administrator of the General Services Administration shall provide to the Commission on a reimbursable basis such administrative support services as the Commission may request.

"(i) Appropriations.—There are appropriated $2,000,000 to the Commission to carry out the provisions of this section. Amounts appropriated pursuant to this subsection shall remain available until the date which is 90 days after the date on which the Commission submits the final report described in subsection (e).

"(j) Federal Advisory Committee Act.—The provisions of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Public Law 92–463; 5 U.S.C. App.) shall not apply to the Commission.

"(k) Termination.—The Commission shall terminate 90 days after the date on which the Commission submits the final report under subsection (e)."

Delegation of Functions

Memorandum of President of the United States, Mar. 1, 2004, 69 F.R. 10133, provided:

Memorandum for the United States Trade Representative

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, including section 301 of title 3, United States Code, I hereby delegate to you the functions conferred upon the President by section 163 of the Trade Act of 1974, as amended (19 U.S.C. 2213), to provide the specified report to the Congress.

You are authorized and directed to publish this memorandum in the Federal Register.

George W. Bush.      

Part 7—United States International Trade Commission

§2231. Change of name

(a) Former United States Tariff Commission

The United States Tariff Commission (established by section 1330 of this title) is renamed as the United States International Trade Commission.

(b) References in law and other documents

Any reference in any law of the United States, or in any order, rule, regulation, or other document, to the United States Tariff Commission (or the Tariff Commission) shall be considered to refer to the United States International Trade Commission.

(Pub. L. 93–618, title I, §171, Jan. 3, 1975, 88 Stat. 2009.)

§2232. Independent budget and authorization of appropriations

Effective with respect to the fiscal year beginning October 1, 1976, for purposes of chapter 11 of title 31, estimated expenditures and proposed appropriations for the United States International Trade Commission shall be transmitted to the President on or before October 15 of the year preceding the beginning of each fiscal year and shall be included by him in the Budget without revision, and the Commission shall not be considered to be a department or establishment for purposes of such chapter.

(Pub. L. 93–618, title I, §175(a)(1), Jan. 3, 1975, 88 Stat. 2011.)

Codification

"Chapter 11 of title 31" and "such chapter" substituted in text for "the Budget and Accounting Act, 1921 (31 U.S.C. 1 et seq.)" and "such Act", respectively, on authority of Pub. L. 97–258, §4(b), Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 1067, the first section of which enacted Title 31, Money and Finance.

Part 8—Identification of Market Barriers and Certain Unfair Trade Actions

§2241. Estimates of barriers to market access

(a) National trade estimates

(1) In general

For calendar year 1988, and for each succeeding calendar year, the United States Trade Representative, through the interagency trade organization established pursuant to section 1872(a) of this title and with the assistance of the interagency advisory committee established under section 2171(d)(2) of this title, shall—

(A) identify and analyze acts, policies, or practices of each foreign country which constitute significant barriers to, or distortions of—

(i) United States exports of goods or services (including agricultural commodities; and property protected by trademarks, patents, and copyrights exported or licensed by United States persons),

(ii) foreign direct investment by United States persons, especially if such investment has implications for trade in goods or services; 1 and

(iii) United States electronic commerce,2


(B) make an estimate of the trade-distorting impact on United States commerce of any act, policy, or practice identified under subparagraph (A); and

(C) make an estimate, if feasible, of—

(i) the value of additional goods and services of the United States,

(ii) the value of additional foreign direct investment by United States persons, and

(iii) the value of additional United States electronic commerce,


that would have been exported to, or invested in or transacted with,,3 each foreign country during such calendar year if each of such acts, policies, and practices of such country did not exist.

(2) Certain factors taken into account in making analysis and estimate

In making any analysis or estimate under paragraph (1), the Trade Representative shall take into account—

(A) the relative impact of the act, policy, or practice on United States commerce;

(B) the availability of information to document prices, market shares, and other matters necessary to demonstrate the effects of the act, policy, or practice;

(C) the extent to which such act, policy, or practice is subject to international agreements to which the United States is a party;

(D) any advice given through appropriate committees established pursuant to section 2155 of this title; and

(E) the actual increase in—

(i) the value of goods and services of the United States exported to,

(ii) the value of foreign direct investment made in, and

(iii) the value of electronic commerce transacted with,


the foreign country during the calendar year for which the estimate under paragraph (1)(C) is made.

(3) Inclusion of certain discriminatory laws, policies, and practices of the Russian Federation

For calender 4 year 2012 and each succeeding calendar year, the Trade Representative shall include in the analyses and estimates under paragraph (1) an identification and analysis of any laws, policies, or practices of the Russian Federation that deny fair and equitable market access to United States digital trade.

(4) Annual revisions and updates

The Trade Representative shall annually revise and update the analysis and estimate under paragraph (1).

(b) Reports

(1) In general

On or before April 30, 1989, and on or before March 31 of each succeeding calendar year, the Trade Representative shall submit a report on the analysis and estimates made under subsection (a) for the calendar year preceding such calendar year (which shall be known as the "National Trade Estimate") to the President, the Committee on Finance of the Senate, and appropriate committees of the House of Representatives.

(2) Reports to include information with respect to action being taken

The Trade Representative shall include in each report submitted under paragraph (1) information with respect to any action taken (or the reasons for no action taken) to eliminate any act, policy, or practice identified under subsection (a), including, but not limited to—

(A) any action under section 2411 of this title,

(B) negotiations or consultations with foreign governments, or

(C) a section on foreign anticompetitive practices, the toleration of which by foreign governments is adversely affecting exports of United States goods or services.

(3) Consultation with Congress on trade policy priorities

The Trade Representative shall keep the committees described in paragraph (1) currently informed with respect to trade policy priorities for the purposes of expanding market opportunities. After the submission of the report required by paragraph (1), the Trade Representative shall also consult periodically with, and take into account the views of, the committees described in that paragraph regarding means to address the foreign trade barriers identified in the report, including the possible initiation of investigations under section 2412 of this title or other trade actions.

(c) Assistance of other agencies

(1) Furnishing of information

The head of each department or agency of the executive branch of the Government, including any independent agency, is authorized and directed to furnish to the Trade Representative or to the appropriate agency, upon request, such data, reports, and other information as is necessary for the Trade Representative to carry out his functions under this section. In preparing the section of the report required by subsection (b)(2)(C), the Trade Representative shall consult in particular with the Attorney General.

(2) Restrictions on release or use of information

Nothing in this subsection shall authorize the release of information to, or the use of information by, the Trade Representative in a manner inconsistent with law or any procedure established pursuant thereto.

(3) Personnel and services

The head of any department, agency, or instrumentality of the United States may detail such personnel and may furnish such services, with or without reimbursement, as the Trade Representative may request to assist in carrying out his functions.

(d) Electronic commerce

For purposes of this section, the term "electronic commerce" has the meaning given that term in section 1104(3) 5 of the Internet Tax Freedom Act.

(Pub. L. 93–618, title I, §181, as added Pub. L. 98–573, title III, §303(a), Oct. 30, 1984, 98 Stat. 3001; amended Pub. L. 100–418, title I, §1304, Aug. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 1181; Pub. L. 103–465, title III, §§311(a), 312, Dec. 8, 1994, 108 Stat. 4938; Pub. L. 105–277, div. C, title XII, §1202, Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–726; Pub. L. 112–208, title II, §203, Dec. 14, 2012, 126 Stat. 1501.)

References in Text

Section 1104(3) of the Internet Tax Freedom Act, referred to in subsec. (d), was redesignated section 1105(3) of the Act by Pub. L. 108–435, §3(1), Dec. 3, 2004, 118 Stat. 2616, and is set out in a note under section 151 of Title 47, Telecommunications.

Amendments

2012—Subsec. (a)(3), (4). Pub. L. 112–208 added par. (3) and redesignated former par. (3) as (4).

1998—Subsec. (a)(1)(A)(iii). Pub. L. 105–277, §1202(1)(A), added cl. (iii).

Subsec. (a)(1)(C). Pub. L. 105–277, §1202(1)(B), added cl. (iii) and inserted "or transacted with," after "or invested in" in concluding provisions.

Subsec. (a)(2)(E)(iii). Pub. L. 105–277, §1202(2), added cl. (iii).

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 105–277, §1202(3), added subsec. (d).

1994—Subsec. (b)(2)(C). Pub. L. 103–465, §311(a)(1), added subpar. (C).

Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 103–465, §312, inserted at end "After the submission of the report required by paragraph (1), the Trade Representative shall also consult periodically with, and take into account the views of, the committees described in that paragraph regarding means to address the foreign trade barriers identified in the report, including the possible initiation of investigations under section 2412 of this title or other trade actions."

Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 103–465, §311(a)(2), inserted at end "In preparing the section of the report required by subsection (b)(2)(C), the Trade Representative shall consult in particular with the Attorney General."

1988Pub. L. 100–418, §1304(a)(10), substituted "Estimates of" for "Actions concerning" in section catchline.

Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 100–418, §1304(a)(1), substituted "For calendar year 1988, and for each succeeding calendar year," for "Not later than the date on which the initial report is required under subsection (b)(1) of this section,".

Pub. L. 100–418, §1304(a)(9), which directed the insertion of "and with the assistance of the interagency advisory committee established under section 2171(d)(2) of this title," after "section 1872(a) of this title," was executed by making the insertion after "section 1872(a) of this title" to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

Subsec. (a)(1)(A). Pub. L. 100–418, §1304(a)(2), inserted "of each foreign country" after "or practices".

Subsec. (a)(1)(C). Pub. L. 100–418, §1304(a)(3)–(5), added subpar. (C).

Subsec. (a)(2)(E). Pub. L. 100–418, §1304(a)(6)–(8), added subpar. (E).

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 100–418, §1304(b), amended par. (1) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (1) read as follows: "On or before the date which is one year after October 30, 1984, and each year thereafter, the Trade Representative shall submit the analysis and estimate under subsection (a) of this section to the Committee on Finance of the Senate and to the Committee on Ways and Means of the House of Representatives."

Effective Date of 1994 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 103–465 effective on the date on which the WTO Agreement enters into force with respect to the United States (Jan. 1, 1995), see section 316 of Pub. L. 103–465, set out as an Effective Date note under section 3581 of this title.

Severability

Pub. L. 105–277, div. C, title XII, §1206, Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–728, provided that: "If any provision of this title [amending this section and enacting provisions set out under this section], or any amendment made by this title, or the application of that provision to any person or circumstance, is held by a court of competent jurisdiction to violate any provision of the Constitution of the United States, then the other provisions of that title, and the application of that provision to other persons and circumstances, shall not be affected."

Construction of 1998 Amendments

Pub. L. 105–277, div. C, title XII, §1204, Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–728, provided that: "Nothing in this title [amending this section and enacting provisions set out under this section] shall be construed to expand the duty of any person to collect or pay taxes beyond that which existed immediately before the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 21, 1998]."

Pub. L. 105–277, div. C, title XII, §1205, Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–728, provided that: "Nothing in this title [amending this section and enacting provisions set out under this section] shall limit or otherwise affect the implementation of the Telecommunications Act of 1996 (Public Law 104–104) [see Short Title of 1996 Amendment note set out under section 609 of Title 47, Telecommunications] or the amendments made by such Act."

Declaration That the Internet Should Be Free of Foreign Tariffs, Trade Barriers, and Other Restrictions

Pub. L. 105–277, div. C, title XII, §1203, Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–727, provided that:

"(a) In General.—It is the sense of Congress that the President should seek bilateral, regional, and multilateral agreements to remove barriers to global electronic commerce through the World Trade Organization, the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, the Trans-Atlantic Economic Partnership, the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation forum, the Free Trade Area of the America, the North American Free Trade Agreement, and other appropriate venues.

"(b) Negotiating Objectives.—The negotiating objectives of the United States shall be—

"(1) to assure that electronic commerce is free from—

"(A) tariff and nontariff barriers;

"(B) burdensome and discriminatory regulation and standards; and

"(C) discriminatory taxation; and

"(2) to accelerate the growth of electronic commerce by expanding market access opportunities for—

"(A) the development of telecommunications infrastructure;

"(B) the procurement of telecommunications equipment;

"(C) the provision of Internet access and telecommunications services; and

"(D) the exchange of goods, services, and digitalized information.

"(c) Electronic Commerce.—For purposes of this section, the term 'electronic commerce' has the meaning given that term in section 1104(3) [probably means Pub. L. 105–277, div. C, title XI, §1105(3), set out in a note under section 151 of Title 47, Telecommunications]."

1 So in original. The semicolon probably should be a comma.

2 So in original. The comma probably should be a semicolon.

3 So in original.

4 So in original. Probably should be "calendar".

5 So in original. See References in Text note below.

§2242. Identification of countries that deny adequate protection, or market access, for intellectual property rights

(a) In general

By no later than the date that is 30 days after the date on which the annual report is submitted to Congressional committees under section 2241(b) of this title, the United States Trade Representative (hereafter in this section referred to as the "Trade Representative") shall identify—

(1) those foreign countries that—

(A) deny adequate and effective protection of intellectual property rights, or

(B) deny fair and equitable market access to United States persons that rely upon intellectual property protection, and


(2) those foreign countries identified under paragraph (1) that are determined by the Trade Representative to be priority foreign countries.

(b) Special rules for identifications

(1) In identifying priority foreign countries under subsection (a)(2), the Trade Representative shall only identify those foreign countries—

(A) that have the most onerous or egregious acts, policies, or practices that—

(i) deny adequate and effective intellectual property rights, or

(ii) deny fair and equitable market access to United States persons that rely upon intellectual property protection,


(B) whose acts, policies, or practices described in subparagraph (A) have the greatest adverse impact (actual or potential) on the relevant United States products, and

(C) that are not—

(i) entering into good faith negotiations, or

(ii) making significant progress in bilateral or multilateral negotiations,


to provide adequate and effective protection of intellectual property rights.


(2) In identifying priority foreign countries under subsection (a)(2), the Trade Representative shall—

(A) consult with the Register of Copyrights, the Under Secretary of Commerce for Intellectual Property and Director of the United States Patent and Trademark Office, other appropriate officers of the Federal Government, and

(B) take into account information from such sources as may be available to the Trade Representative and such information as may be submitted to the Trade Representative by interested persons, including information contained in reports submitted under section 2241(b) of this title and petitions submitted under section 2412 of this title.


(3) The Trade Representative may identify a foreign country under subsection (a)(1)(B) only if the Trade Representative finds that there is a factual basis for the denial of fair and equitable market access as a result of the violation of international law or agreement, or the existence of barriers, referred to in subsection (d)(3).

(4) In identifying foreign countries under paragraphs (1) and (2) of subsection (a), the Trade Representative shall take into account—

(A) the history of intellectual property laws and practices of the foreign country, including any previous identification under subsection (a)(2), and

(B) the history of efforts of the United States, and the response of the foreign country, to achieve adequate and effective protection and enforcement of intellectual property rights.

(c) Revocations and additional identifications

(1) The Trade Representative may at any time—

(A) revoke the identification of any foreign country as a priority foreign country under this section, or

(B) identify any foreign country as a priority foreign country under this section,


if information available to the Trade Representative indicates that such action is appropriate.

(2) The Trade Representative shall include in the semiannual report submitted to the Congress under section 2419(3) of this title a detailed explanation of the reasons for the revocation under paragraph (1) of the identification of any foreign country as a priority foreign country under this section.

(d) Definitions

For purposes of this section—

(1) The term "persons that rely upon intellectual property protection" means persons involved in—

(A) the creation, production or licensing of works of authorship (within the meaning of sections 102 and 103 of title 17) that are copyrighted, or

(B) the manufacture of products that are patented or for which there are process patents.


(2) A foreign country denies adequate and effective protection of intellectual property rights if the foreign country denies adequate and effective means under the laws of the foreign country for persons who are not citizens or nationals of such foreign country to secure, exercise, and enforce rights relating to patents, process patents, registered trademarks, copyrights, trade secrets, and mask works.

(3) A foreign country denies fair and equitable market access if the foreign country effectively denies access to a market for a product protected by a copyright or related right, patent, trademark, mask work, trade secret, or plant breeder's right, through the use of laws, procedures, practices, or regulations which—

(A) violate provisions of international law or international agreements to which both the United States and the foreign country are parties, or

(B) constitute discriminatory nontariff trade barriers.


(4) A foreign country may be determined to deny adequate and effective protection of intellectual property rights, notwithstanding the fact that the foreign country may be in compliance with the specific obligations of the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights referred to in section 3511(d)(15) of this title.

(e) Publication

The Trade Representative shall publish in the Federal Register a list of foreign countries identified under subsection (a) and shall make such revisions to the list as may be required by reason of action under subsection (c).

(f) Special rule for actions affecting United States cultural industries

(1) In general

By no later than the date that is 30 days after the date on which the annual report is submitted to Congressional committees under section 2241(b) of this title, the Trade Representative shall identify any act, policy, or practice of Canada which—

(A) affects cultural industries,

(B) is adopted or expanded after December 17, 1992, and

(C) is actionable under article 2106 of the North American Free Trade Agreement.

(2) Special rules for identifications

For purposes of section 2412(b)(2)(A) of this title, an act, policy, or practice identified under this subsection shall be treated as an act, policy, or practice that is the basis for identification of a country under subsection (a)(2), unless the United States has already taken action pursuant to article 2106 of the North American Free Trade Agreement in response to such act, policy, or practice. In deciding whether to identify an act, policy, or practice under paragraph (1), the Trade Representative shall—

(A) consult with and take into account the views of representatives of the relevant domestic industries, appropriate committees established pursuant to section 2155 of this title, and appropriate officers of the Federal Government, and

(B) take into account the information from such sources as may be available to the Trade Representative and such information as may be submitted to the Trade Representative by interested persons, including information contained in reports submitted under section 2241(b) of this title.

(3) Cultural industries

For purposes of this subsection, the term "cultural industries" means persons engaged in any of the following activities:

(A) The publication, distribution, or sale of books, magazines, periodicals, or newspapers in print or machine readable form but not including the sole activity of printing or typesetting any of the foregoing.

(B) The production, distribution, sale, or exhibition of film or video recordings.

(C) The production, distribution, sale, or exhibition of audio or video music recordings.

(D) The publication, distribution, or sale of music in print or machine readable form.

(E) Radio communications in which the transmissions are intended for direct reception by the general public, and all radio, television, and cable broadcasting undertakings and all satellite programming and broadcast network services.

(g) Special rules for foreign countries on the priority watch list

(1) Action plans

(A) In general

Not later than 90 days after the date on which the Trade Representative submits the National Trade Estimate under section 2241(b) of this title, the Trade Representative shall develop an action plan described in subparagraph (C) with respect to each foreign country described in subparagraph (B).

(B) Foreign country described

The Trade Representative shall develop an action plan under subparagraph (A) with respect to each foreign country that—

(i) the Trade Representative has identified for placement on the priority watch list; and

(ii) has remained on such list for at least one year.

(C) Action plan described

An action plan developed under subparagraph (A) shall contain the benchmarks described in subparagraph (D) and be designed to assist the foreign country—

(i) to achieve—

(I) adequate and effective protection of intellectual property rights; and

(II) fair and equitable market access for United States persons that rely upon intellectual property protection; or


(ii) to make significant progress toward achieving the goals described in clause (i).

(D) Benchmarks described

The benchmarks contained in an action plan developed pursuant to subparagraph (A) are such legislative, institutional, enforcement, or other actions as the Trade Representative determines to be necessary for the foreign country to achieve the goals described in clause (i) or (ii) of subparagraph (C).

(2) Failure to meet action plan benchmarks

If, as of one year after the date on which an action plan is developed under paragraph (1)(A), the President, in consultation with the Trade Representative, determines that the foreign country to which the action plan applies has not substantially complied with the benchmarks described in paragraph (1)(D), the President may take appropriate action with respect to the foreign country.

(3) Priority watch list defined

In this subsection, the term "priority watch list" means the priority watch list established by the Trade Representative pursuant to subsection (a).

(h) Annual report

Not later than 30 days after the date on which the Trade Representative submits the National Trade Estimate under section 2241(b) of this title, the Trade Representative shall submit to the Committee on Ways and Means of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Finance of the Senate a report on actions taken under this section during the 12 months preceding such report, and the reasons for such actions, including—

(1) a list of any foreign countries identified under subsection (a);

(2) a description of progress made in achieving improved intellectual property protection and market access for persons relying on intellectual property rights; and

(3) a description of the action plans developed under subsection (g) and any actions taken by foreign countries under such plans.

(Pub. L. 93–618, title I, §182, as added Pub. L. 100–418, title I, §1303(b), Aug. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 1179; amended Pub. L. 103–182, title V, §513, Dec. 8, 1993, 107 Stat. 2156; Pub. L. 103–465, title III, §313, Dec. 8, 1994, 108 Stat. 4938; Pub. L. 106–113, div. B, §1000(a)(9) [title IV, §4732(b)(8)], Nov. 29, 1999, 113 Stat. 1536, 1501A-584; Pub. L. 114–125, title VI, §610(a), (b)(1), Feb. 24, 2016, 130 Stat. 191.)

Amendments

2016—Subsec. (d)(2). Pub. L. 114–125, §610(a), inserted ", trade secrets," after "copyrights".

Subsecs. (g), (h). Pub. L. 114–125, §610(b)(1), added subsecs. (g) and (h) and struck out former subsec. (g). Prior to amendment, text of subsec. (g) read as follows: "The Trade Representative shall, by not later than the date by which countries are identified under subsection (a), transmit to the Committee on Ways and Means of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Finance of the Senate, a report on actions taken under this section during the 12 months preceding such report, and the reasons for such actions, including a description of progress made in achieving improved intellectual property protection and market access for persons relying on intellectual property rights."

1999—Subsec. (b)(2)(A). Pub. L. 106–113 substituted "Under Secretary of Commerce for Intellectual Property and Director of the United States Patent and Trademark Office" for "Commissioner of Patents and Trademarks".

1994—Subsec. (b)(4). Pub. L. 103–465, §313(1), added par. (4).

Subsec. (d)(3). Pub. L. 103–465, §313(2)(A), amended introductory provisions generally. Prior to amendment, introductory provisions read as follows: "A foreign country denies fair and equitable market access if the foreign country effectively denies access to a market for a product protected by a copyright, patent, or process patent through the use of laws, procedures, practices, or regulations which—".

Subsec. (d)(4). Pub. L. 103–465, §313(2)(B), added par. (4).

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 103–465, §313(3), added subsec. (g).

1993—Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 103–182 added subsec. (f).

Effective Date of 1999 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 106–113 effective 4 months after Nov. 29, 1999, see section 1000(a)(9) [title IV, §4731] of Pub. L. 106–113, set out as a note under section 1 of Title 35, Patents.

Effective Date of 1994 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 103–465 effective on the date on which the WTO Agreement enters into force with respect to the United States (Jan. 1, 1995), see section 316 of Pub. L. 103–465, set out as an Effective Date note under section 3581 of this title.

Effective Date of 1993 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 103–182 effective on the date the North American Free Trade Agreement enters into force with respect to the United States [Jan. 1, 1994], see section 516(a) of Pub. L. 103–182, set out as an Effective Date note under section 3461 of this title.

Construction of 2016 Amendment

Pub. L. 114–125, title VI, §610(b)(3), Feb. 24, 2016, 130 Stat. 192, provided that: "Nothing in this subsection [amending this section and enacting provisions set out as a note below] or the amendment made by this subsection shall be construed as limiting the authority of the President or the United States Trade Representative to develop action plans other than action plans described in section 182(g) of the Trade Act of 1974 [19 U.S.C. 2242(g)], as amended by paragraph (1), or to take any action otherwise authorized by law in response to the failure of a foreign country to provide adequate and effective protection and enforcement of intellectual property rights."

Use of Trade Enforcement Trust Funds To Facilitate Compliance with Intellectual Property Protection Benchmarks by Developing Countries

Pub. L. 114–125, title VI, §610(b)(2), Feb. 24, 2016, 130 Stat. 192, provided that:

"(A) In general.—Amounts from the Trade Enforcement Trust Fund established under section 611 [19 U.S.C. 4405] may be expended by the United States Trade Representative, only as provided by appropriations Acts, to provide assistance to any developing country to which an action plan applies under section 182(g) of the Trade Act of 1974 [19 U.S.C. 2242(g)], as amended by paragraph (1), to facilitate the efforts of the developing country to comply with the benchmarks contained in the action plan. Such assistance may include capacity building, activities designed to increase awareness of intellectual property rights, and training for officials responsible for enforcing intellectual property rights in the developing country.

"(B) Developing country defined.—In this paragraph, the term 'developing country' means a country classified by the World Bank as having a low-income or lower-middle-income economy."

Procurement From Countries That Deny Adequate and Effective Protection of Intellectual Property Rights

Pub. L. 101–189, div. A, title VIII, §852, Nov. 29, 1989, 103 Stat. 1517, as amended by Pub. L. 101–510, div. A, title XIII, §1302(a), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1668, provided that it is the sense of Congress that it be a very important consideration in procurement of property, services, or technology by the Department of Defense whether such procurement is from any person of any country which has been identified by the United States Trade Representative as denying adequate and effective protection of intellectual property rights or fair and equitable market access to United States persons that rely upon intellectual property protection.

Identification of Countries That Deny Adequate and Effective Protection of Intellectual Property Rights

Pub. L. 100–418, title I, §1303(a), Aug. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 1179, provided that:

"(1) The Congress finds that—

"(A) international protection of intellectual property rights is vital to the international competitiveness of United States persons that rely on protection of intellectual property rights; and

"(B) the absence of adequate and effective protection of United States intellectual property rights, and the denial of fair and equitable market access, seriously impede the ability of the United States persons that rely on protection of intellectual property rights to export and operate overseas, thereby harming the economic interests of the United States.

"(2) The purpose of this section [enacting this section and this note] is to provide for the development of an overall strategy to ensure adequate and effective protection of intellectual property rights and fair and equitable market access for United States persons that rely on protection of intellectual property rights."

SUBCHAPTER II—RELIEF FROM INJURY CAUSED BY IMPORT COMPETITION

Part 1—Positive Adjustment by Industries Injured by Imports

§2251. Action to facilitate positive adjustment to import competition

(a) Presidential action

If the United States International Trade Commission (hereinafter referred to in this part as the "Commission") determines under section 2252(b) of this title that an article is being imported into the United States in such increased quantities as to be a substantial cause of serious injury, or the threat thereof, to the domestic industry producing an article like or directly competitive with the imported article, the President, in accordance with this part, shall take all appropriate and feasible action within his power which the President determines will facilitate efforts by the domestic industry to make a positive adjustment to import competition and provide greater economic and social benefits than costs.

(b) Positive adjustment to import competition

(1) For purposes of this part, a positive adjustment to import competition occurs when—

(A) the domestic industry—

(i) is able to compete successfully with imports after actions taken under section 2254 of this title terminate, or

(ii) the domestic industry experiences an orderly transfer of resources to other productive pursuits; and


(B) dislocated workers in the industry experience an orderly transition to productive pursuits.


(2) The domestic industry may be considered to have made a positive adjustment to import competition even though the industry is not of the same size and composition as the industry at the time the investigation was initiated under section 2252(b) of this title.

(Pub. L. 93–618, title II, §201, Jan. 3, 1975, 88 Stat. 2011; Pub. L. 96–39, title I, §106(b)(3), July 26, 1979, 93 Stat. 193; Pub. L. 98–573, title II, §249, Oct. 30, 1984, 98 Stat. 2998; Pub. L. 100–418, title I, §1401(a), Aug. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 1225.)

Amendments

1988Pub. L. 100–418, in amending section generally, substituted provisions relating to action to facilitate positive adjustment to import competition for provisions relating to investigation by International Trade Commission. See section 2252 of this title.

1984—Subsec. (b)(2)(B). Pub. L. 98–573, §249(1)(A), substituted "inventory (whether maintained by domestic producers, importers, wholesalers, or retailers), and" for "inventory, and".

Subsec. (b)(2)(D). Pub. L. 98–573, §249(1)(B)–(D), added subpar. (D).

Subsec. (b)(7). Pub. L. 98–573, §249(2), added par. (7).

1979—Subsec. (b)(6). Pub. L. 96–39 substituted "subtitles A and B of title VII or section 337 of the Tariff Act of 1930" for "the Antidumping Act, 1921, section 303 or 337 of the Tariff Act of 1930".

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Pub. L. 100–418, title I, §1401(c), Aug. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 1241, provided that: "The amendments made by subsections (a) and (b) [enacting section 2254 of this title and amending sections 1330, 2133, 2251 to 2253, 2274, 2354, and 2703 of this title and provisions set out as a note under section 2112 of this title] shall take effect on the date of the enactment of this Act [Aug. 23, 1988] and shall apply with respect to investigations initiated under chapter 1 of title II of the Trade Act of 1974 [this part] on or after that date. Any petition filed under section 201 of such chapter [19 U.S.C. 2251] before such date of enactment, and with respect to which the United States International Trade Commission did not make a finding before such date with respect to serious injury or the threat thereof, may be withdrawn and refiled, without prejudice, by the petitioner under section 202(a) of such chapter [19 U.S.C. 2252(a)] (as amended by this section)."

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 98–573 effective on 15th day after Oct. 30, 1984, see section 214(a), (b) of Pub. L. 98–573, set out as a note under section 1304 of this title.

Effective Date of 1979 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 96–39 effective Jan. 1, 1980, see section 107 of Pub. L. 96–39, set out as an Effective Date note under section 1671 of this title.

Study on Trade Adjustment Assistance for Fishermen

Pub. L. 107–210, div. A, title I, §143, Aug. 6, 2002, 116 Stat. 953, required Secretary of Commerce, not later than 1 year after Aug. 6, 2002, to conduct a study and report to Congress on appropriateness and feasibility of a trade adjustment assistance program for fishermen.

Term "Industry" To Include Producers Located in United States Insular Possessions

Pub. L. 98–67, title II, §214(f), Aug. 5, 1983, 97 Stat. 393, provided that: "For purposes of chapter 1 of title II of the Trade Act of 1974 [this part], the term 'industry' shall include producers located in the United States insular possessions."

Ex. Ord. No. 11913. Collection of Information for Import Relief and Adjustment Assistance

Ex. Ord. No. 11913, Apr. 26, 1976, 41 F.R. 17721, provided:

By virtue of the authority vested in me by the Constitution and statutes of the United States of America, including Section 332(g) of the Tariff Act of 1930, as amended (19 U.S.C. 1332(g)), and as President of the United States of America, in order to reduce the reporting burden with respect to the collection of information pursuant to Title II of the Trade Act of 1974 (88 Stat. 2011, 19 U.S.C. 2251 et seq.) and consistent with Chapter 35 of Title 44 of the United States Code, it is hereby ordered as follows:

Section 1. Whenever the United States International Trade Commission, in connection with investigations pursuant to Section 201 of the Trade Act of 1974 (19 U.S.C. 2251), collects factual data from firms on their sales, production, employment, and financial experience, the Commission shall provide such information to the Secretaries of Commerce and Labor.

Sec. 2. The Secretaries of Commerce and Labor shall ensure that the factual data, received pursuant to Section 1, are used solely for the performance of their functions pursuant to Sections 264 and 224, respectively, of the Trade Act of 1974 (19 U.S.C. 2354 and 2274).

Gerald R. Ford.      

§2252. Investigations, determinations, and recommendations by Commission

(a) Petitions and adjustment plans

(1) A petition requesting action under this part for the purpose of facilitating positive adjustment to import competition may be filed with the Commission by an entity, including a trade association, firm, certified or recognized union, or group of workers, which is representative of an industry.

(2) A petition under paragraph (1)—

(A) shall include a statement describing the specific purposes for which action is being sought, which may include facilitating the orderly transfer of resources to more productive pursuits, enhancing competitiveness, or other means of adjustment to new conditions of competition; and

(B) may—

(i) subject to subsection (d)(1)(C)(i), request provisional relief under subsection (d)(1); or

(ii) request provisional relief under subsection (d)(2).


(3) Whenever a petition is filed under paragraph (1), the Commission shall promptly transmit copies of the petition to the Office of the United States Trade Representative and other Federal agencies directly concerned.

(4) A petitioner under paragraph (1) may submit to the Commission and the United States Trade Representative (hereafter in this part referred to as the "Trade Representative"), either with the petition, or at any time within 120 days after the date of filing of the petition, a plan to facilitate positive adjustment to import competition.

(5)(A) Before submitting an adjustment plan under paragraph (4), the petitioner and other entities referred to in paragraph (1) that wish to participate may consult with the Trade Representative and the officers and employees of any Federal agency that is considered appropriate by the Trade Representative, for purposes of evaluating the adequacy of the proposals being considered for inclusion in the plan in relation to specific actions that may be taken under this part.

(B) A request for any consultation under subparagraph (A) must be made to the Trade Representative. Upon receiving such a request, the Trade Representative shall confer with the petitioner and provide such assistance, including publication of appropriate notice in the Federal Register, as may be practicable in obtaining other participants in the consultation. No consultation may occur under subparagraph (A) unless the Trade Representative, or his delegate, is in attendance.

(6)(A) In the course of any investigation under subsection (b) of this section, the Commission shall seek information (on a confidential basis, to the extent appropriate) on actions being taken, or planned to be taken, or both, by firms and workers in the industry to make a positive adjustment to import competition.