[USC02] 19 USC CHAPTER 12, SUBCHAPTER III: ENFORCEMENT OF UNITED STATES RIGHTS UNDER TRADE AGREEMENTS AND RESPONSE TO CERTAIN FOREIGN TRADE PRACTICES
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19 USC CHAPTER 12, SUBCHAPTER III: ENFORCEMENT OF UNITED STATES RIGHTS UNDER TRADE AGREEMENTS AND RESPONSE TO CERTAIN FOREIGN TRADE PRACTICES
From Title 19—CUSTOMS DUTIESCHAPTER 12—TRADE ACT OF 1974

SUBCHAPTER III—ENFORCEMENT OF UNITED STATES RIGHTS UNDER TRADE AGREEMENTS AND RESPONSE TO CERTAIN FOREIGN TRADE PRACTICES

§2411. Actions by United States Trade Representative

(a) Mandatory action

(1) If the United States Trade Representative determines under section 2414(a)(1) of this title that—

(A) the rights of the United States under any trade agreement are being denied; or

(B) an act, policy, or practice of a foreign country—

(i) violates, or is inconsistent with, the provisions of, or otherwise denies benefits to the United States under, any trade agreement, or

(ii) is unjustifiable and burdens or restricts United States commerce;


the Trade Representative shall take action authorized in subsection (c), subject to the specific direction, if any, of the President regarding any such action, and shall take all other appropriate and feasible action within the power of the President that the President may direct the Trade Representative to take under this subsection, to enforce such rights or to obtain the elimination of such act, policy, or practice. Actions may be taken that are within the power of the President with respect to trade in any goods or services, or with respect to any other area of pertinent relations with the foreign country.

(2) The Trade Representative is not required to take action under paragraph (1) in any case in which—

(A) the Dispute Settlement Body (as defined in section 3531(5) of this title) has adopted a report, or a ruling issued under the formal dispute settlement proceeding provided under any other trade agreement finds, that—

(i) the rights of the United States under a trade agreement are not being denied, or

(ii) the act, policy, or practice—

(I) is not a violation of, or inconsistent with, the rights of the United States, or

(II) does not deny, nullify, or impair benefits to the United States under any trade agreement; or


(B) the Trade Representative finds that—

(i) the foreign country is taking satisfactory measures to grant the rights of the United States under a trade agreement,

(ii) the foreign country has—

(I) agreed to eliminate or phase out the act, policy, or practice, or

(II) agreed to an imminent solution to the burden or restriction on United States commerce that is satisfactory to the Trade Representative,


(iii) it is impossible for the foreign country to achieve the results described in clause (i) or (ii), as appropriate, but the foreign country agrees to provide to the United States compensatory trade benefits that are satisfactory to the Trade Representative,

(iv) in extraordinary cases, where the taking of action under this subsection would have an adverse impact on the United States economy substantially out of proportion to the benefits of such action, taking into account the impact of not taking such action on the credibility of the provisions of this subchapter, or

(v) the taking of action under this subsection would cause serious harm to the national security of the United States.


(3) Any action taken under paragraph (1) to eliminate an act, policy, or practice shall be devised so as to affect goods or services of the foreign country in an amount that is equivalent in value to the burden or restriction being imposed by that country on United States commerce.

(b) Discretionary action

If the Trade Representative determines under section 2414(a)(1) of this title that—

(1) an act, policy, or practice of a foreign country is unreasonable or discriminatory and burdens or restricts United States commerce, and

(2) action by the United States is appropriate, the Trade Representative shall take all appropriate and feasible action authorized under subsection (c), subject to the specific direction, if any, of the President regarding any such action, and all other appropriate and feasible action within the power of the President that the President may direct the Trade Representative to take under this subsection, to obtain the elimination of that act, policy, or practice. Actions may be taken that are within the power of the President with respect to trade in any goods or services, or with respect to any other area of pertinent relations with the foreign country.

(c) Scope of authority

(1) For purposes of carrying out the provisions of subsection (a) or (b) or section 2416(c) of this title, the Trade Representative is authorized to—

(A) suspend, withdraw, or prevent the application of, benefits of trade agreement concessions to carry out a trade agreement with the foreign country referred to in such subsection;

(B) impose duties or other import restrictions on the goods of, and, notwithstanding any other provision of law, fees or restrictions on the services of, such foreign country for such time as the Trade Representative determines appropriate;

(C) in a case in which the act, policy, or practice also fails to meet the eligibility criteria for receiving duty-free treatment under subsections (b) and (c) of section 2462 of this title, subsections (b) and (c) of section 2702 of this title, or subsections (c) and (d) of section 3202 of this title, withdraw, limit, or suspend such treatment under such provisions, notwithstanding the provisions of subsection (a)(3) of this section; or

(D) enter into binding agreements with such foreign country that commit such foreign country to—

(i) eliminate, or phase out, the act, policy, or practice that is the subject of the action to be taken under subsection (a) or (b),

(ii) eliminate any burden or restriction on United States commerce resulting from such act, policy, or practice, or

(iii) provide the United States with compensatory trade benefits that—

(I) are satisfactory to the Trade Representative, and

(II) meet the requirements of paragraph (4).


(2)(A) Notwithstanding any other provision of law governing any service sector access authorization, and in addition to the authority conferred in paragraph (1), the Trade Representative may, for purposes of carrying out the provisions of subsection (a) or (b)—

(i) restrict, in the manner and to the extent the Trade Representative determines appropriate, the terms and conditions of any such authorization, or

(ii) deny the issuance of any such authorization.


(B) Actions described in subparagraph (A) may only be taken under this section with respect to service sector access authorizations granted, or applications therefor pending, on or after the date on which—

(i) a petition is filed under section 2412(a) of this title, or

(ii) a determination to initiate an investigation is made by the Trade Representative under section 2412(b) of this title.


(C) Before the Trade Representative takes any action under this section involving the imposition of fees or other restrictions on the services of a foreign country, the Trade Representative shall, if the services involved are subject to regulation by any agency of the Federal Government or of any State, consult, as appropriate, with the head of the agency concerned.

(3) The actions the Trade Representative is authorized to take under subsection (a) or (b) may be taken against any goods or economic sector—

(A) on a nondiscriminatory basis or solely against the foreign country described in such subsection, and

(B) without regard to whether or not such goods or economic sector were involved in the act, policy, or practice that is the subject of such action.


(4) Any trade agreement described in paragraph (1)(D)(iii) shall provide compensatory trade benefits that benefit the economic sector which includes the domestic industry that would benefit from the elimination of the act, policy, or practice that is the subject of the action to be taken under subsection (a) or (b), or benefit the economic sector as closely related as possible to such economic sector, unless—

(A) the provision of such trade benefits is not feasible, or

(B) trade benefits that benefit any other economic sector would be more satisfactory than such trade benefits.


(5) If the Trade Representative determines that actions to be taken under subsection (a) or (b) are to be in the form of import restrictions, the Trade Representative shall—

(A) give preference to the imposition of duties over the imposition of other import restrictions, and

(B) if an import restriction other than a duty is imposed, consider substituting, on an incremental basis, an equivalent duty for such other import restriction.


(6) Any action taken by the Trade Representative under this section with respect to export targeting shall, to the extent possible, reflect the full benefit level of the export targeting to the beneficiary over the period during which the action taken has an effect.

(d) Definitions and special rules

For purposes of this subchapter—

(1) The term "commerce" includes, but is not limited to—

(A) services (including transfers of information) associated with international trade, whether or not such services are related to specific goods, and

(B) foreign direct investment by United States persons with implications for trade in goods or services.


(2) An act, policy, or practice of a foreign country that burdens or restricts United States commerce may include the provision, directly or indirectly, by that foreign country of subsidies for the construction of vessels used in the commercial transportation by water of goods between foreign countries and the United States.

(3)(A) An act, policy, or practice is unreasonable if the act, policy, or practice, while not necessarily in violation of, or inconsistent with, the international legal rights of the United States, is otherwise unfair and inequitable.

(B) Acts, policies, and practices that are unreasonable include, but are not limited to, any act, policy, or practice, or any combination of acts, policies, or practices, which—

(i) denies fair and equitable—

(I) opportunities for the establishment of an enterprise,

(II) provision of adequate and effective protection of intellectual property rights notwithstanding the fact that the foreign country may be in compliance with the specific obligations of the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights referred to in section 3511(d)(15) of this title,

(III) nondiscriminatory market access opportunities for United States persons that rely upon intellectual property protection, or

(IV) market opportunities, including the toleration by a foreign government of systematic anticompetitive activities by enterprises or among enterprises in the foreign country that have the effect of restricting, on a basis that is inconsistent with commercial considerations, access of United States goods or services to a foreign market,


(ii) constitutes export targeting,

(iii) constitutes a persistent pattern of conduct that—

(I) denies workers the right of association,

(II) denies workers the right to organize and bargain collectively,

(III) permits any form of forced or compulsory labor,

(IV) fails to provide a minimum age for the employment of children, or

(V) fails to provide standards for minimum wages, hours of work, and occupational safety and health of workers, or


(iv) constitutes a persistent pattern of conduct by the government of a foreign country under which that government fails to effectively enforce commitments under agreements to which the foreign country and the United States are parties, including with respect to trade in goods, trade in services, trade in agriculture, foreign investment, intellectual property, digital trade in goods and services and cross-border data flows, regulatory practices, state-owned and state-controlled enterprises, localization barriers to trade, labor and the environment, anticorruption, trade remedy laws, textiles, and commercial partnerships.


(C)(i) Acts, policies, and practices of a foreign country described in subparagraph (B)(iii) shall not be treated as being unreasonable if the Trade Representative determines that—

(I) the foreign country has taken, or is taking, actions that demonstrate a significant and tangible overall advancement in providing throughout the foreign country (including any designated zone within the foreign country) the rights and other standards described in the subclauses of subparagraph (B)(iii), or

(II) such acts, policies, and practices are not inconsistent with the level of economic development of the foreign country.


(ii) The Trade Representative shall publish in the Federal Register any determination made under clause (i), together with a description of the facts on which such determination is based.

(D) For purposes of determining whether any act, policy, or practice is unreasonable, reciprocal opportunities in the United States for foreign nationals and firms shall be taken into account, to the extent appropriate.

(E) The term "export targeting" means any government plan or scheme consisting of a combination of coordinated actions (whether carried out severally or jointly) that are bestowed on a specific enterprise, industry, or group thereof, the effect of which is to assist the enterprise, industry, or group to become more competitive in the export of a class or kind of merchandise.

(F)(i) For the purposes of subparagraph (B)(i)(II), adequate and effective protection of intellectual property rights includes adequate and effective means under the laws of the foreign country for persons who are not citizens or nationals of such country to secure, exercise, and enforce rights and enjoy commercial benefits relating to patents, trademarks, copyrights and related rights, mask works, trade secrets, and plant breeder's rights.

(ii) For purposes of subparagraph (B)(i)(IV), the denial of fair and equitable nondiscriminatory market access opportunities includes restrictions on market access related to the use, exploitation, or enjoyment of commercial benefits derived from exercising intellectual property rights in protected works or fixations or products embodying protected works.

(4)(A) An act, policy, or practice is unjustifiable if the act, policy, or practice is in violation of, or inconsistent with, the international legal rights of the United States.

(B) Acts, policies, and practices that are unjustifiable include, but are not limited to, any act, policy, or practice described in subparagraph (A) which denies national or most-favored-nation treatment or the right of establishment or protection of intellectual property rights.

(5) Acts, policies, and practices that are discriminatory include, when appropriate, any act, policy, and practice which denies national or most-favored-nation treatment to United States goods, services, or investment.

(6) The term "service sector access authorization" means any license, permit, order, or other authorization, issued under the authority of Federal law, that permits a foreign supplier of services access to the United States market in a service sector concerned.

(7) The term "foreign country" includes any foreign instrumentality. Any possession or territory of a foreign country that is administered separately for customs purposes shall be treated as a separate foreign country.

(8) The term "Trade Representative" means the United States Trade Representative.

(9) The term "interested persons", only for purposes of sections 2412(a)(4)(B), 2414(b)(1)(A), 2416(c)(2),1 and 2417(a)(2) of this title, includes, but is not limited to, domestic firms and workers, representatives of consumer interests, United States product exporters, and any industrial user of any goods or services that may be affected by actions taken under subsection (a) or (b).

(Pub. L. 93–618, title III, §301, as added Pub. L. 96–39, title IX, §901, July 26, 1979, 93 Stat. 295; amended Pub. L. 98–573, title III, §304(a)–(c), (f), Oct. 30, 1984, 98 Stat. 3002, 3005; Pub. L. 100–418, title I, §1301(a), Aug. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 1164; Pub. L. 103–465, title III, §314(a)–(c), title VI, §621(a)(9), Dec. 8, 1994, 108 Stat. 4939, 4940, 4993; Pub. L. 104–295, §20(c)(4), Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3528; Pub. L. 114–125, title VI, §§602(b)(1), 607, Feb. 24, 2016, 130 Stat. 184, 189.)

References in Text

Section 2416(c)(2) of this title, referred to in subsec. (d)(9), was redesignated section 2416(d)(2) of this title by Pub. L. 114–125, title VI, §602(a)(1), Feb. 24, 2016, 130 Stat. 184.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 301 of Pub. L. 93–618, title III, Jan. 3, 1975, 88 Stat. 2041, which related to Presidential responses to foreign import restrictions and export subsidies and which was classified to this section, was omitted in the general revision of chapter 1 of title III of Pub. L. 93–618 by Pub. L. 96–39, title IX, §901, July 26, 1979, 93 Stat. 295.

Amendments

2016—Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 114–125, §602(b)(1), inserted "or section 2416(c) of this title" after "subsection (a) or (b)" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (d)(3)(B)(iv). Pub. L. 114–125, §607, added cl. (iv).

1996—Subsec. (c)(4). Pub. L. 104–295 substituted "paragraph (1)(D)(iii)" for "paragraph (1)(C)(iii)".

1994—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 103–465, §314(a)(1), inserted at end of concluding provisions "Actions may be taken that are within the power of the President with respect to trade in any goods or services, or with respect to any other area of pertinent relations with the foreign country."

Subsec. (a)(2)(A). Pub. L. 103–465, §621(a)(9), substituted "the Dispute Settlement Body (as defined in section 3531(5) of this title) has adopted a report," for "the Contracting Parties to the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade have determined, a panel of experts has reported to the Contracting Parties,".

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 103–465, §314(a)(1), inserted at end "Actions may be taken that are within the power of the President with respect to trade in any goods or services, or with respect to any other area of pertinent relations with the foreign country."

Subsec. (c)(1)(B) to (D). Pub. L. 103–465, §314(b)(1), struck out "or" at end of subpar. (B), added subpar. (C), and redesignated former subpar. (C) as (D).

Subsec. (c)(5). Pub. L. 103–465, §314(a)(2), added introductory provisions, reenacted subpar. (A) without change, and struck out former introductory provisions which read as follows: "In taking actions under subsection (a) or (b) of this section, the Trade Representative shall—".

Subsec. (d)(3)(B)(i)(II) to (IV). Pub. L. 103–465, §314(c)(1), added subcls. (II) to (IV) and struck out former subcls. (II) and (III) which read as follows:

"(II) provision of adequate and effective protection of intellectual property rights, or

"(III) market opportunities, including the toleration by a foreign government of systematic anticompetitive activities by private firms or among private firms in the foreign country that have the effect of restricting, on a basis that is inconsistent with commercial considerations, access of United States goods to purchasing by such firms,".

Subsec. (d)(3)(F). Pub. L. 103–465, §314(c)(2), added subpar. (F).

1988Pub. L. 100–418 amended section generally, substituting provisions relating to actions by United States Trade Representative for provisions relating to determinations and action by President.

1984—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 98–573, §304(a), amended subsec. (a) generally, which prior to amendment provided that if the President determines that action by the United States is appropriate (1) to enforce the rights of the United States under any trade agreement; or (2) to respond to any act, policy, or practice of a foreign country or instrumentality that (A) is inconsistent with the provisions of, or otherwise denies benefits to the United States under, any trade agreement, or (B) is unjustifiable, unreasonable, or discriminatory and burdens or restricts United States commerce; the President shall take all appropriate and feasible action within his power to enforce such rights or to obtain the elimination of such act, policy, or practice and that action under this section may be taken on a nondiscriminatory basis or solely against the products or services of the foreign country or instrumentality involved.

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 98–573, §304(b)(1), struck out "and" at end.

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 98–573, §304(b)(2), (3), inserted ", notwithstanding any other provision of law," and substituted "goods" for "products".

Subsecs. (c), (d). Pub. L. 98–573, §304(c), added subsec. (c) and redesignated existing subsecs. (c) and (d) as (d) and (e), respectively.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 98–573, §304(c), (f), redesignated subsec. (d) as (e), inserted "For purposes of this section—" before par. (1), in par. (1) substituted provisions defining "commerce" as including, but not limited to services (including transfers of information) associated with international trade, whether or not such services are related to specific goods, and foreign direct investment by United States persons with implications for trade in goods or services for provision defining "commerce" as including, but not limited to, services associated with international trade, whether or not such services are related to specific products, and added pars. (3) to (6).

Effective Date of 1994 Amendment

Amendment by section 314(a)–(c) of Pub. L. 103–465 effective on the date on which the WTO Agreement enters into force with respect to the United States (Jan. 1, 1995), see section 316(a) of Pub. L. 103–465, set out as an Effective Date note under section 3581 of this title.

Amendment by section 621(a)(9) of Pub. L. 103–465 effective on the date on which the WTO Agreement enters into force with respect to the United States (Jan. 1, 1995), see section 621(b) of Pub. L. 103–465, set out as a note under section 1677k of this title.

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Pub. L. 100–418, title I, §1301(c), Aug. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 1176, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [enacting sections 2417 to 2419 of this title and amending this section and sections 2412 to 2416 of this title] shall apply to—

"(1) petitions filed, and investigations initiated, under section 302 of the Trade Act of 1974 [19 U.S.C. 2412] on or after the date of the enactment of this Act [Aug. 23, 1988]; and

"(2) petitions filed, and investigations initiated, before the date of enactment of this Act, if by that date no decision had been made under section 304 [19 U.S.C. 2414] regarding the petition or investigation."

Effective Date

Pub. L. 96–39, title IX, §903, July 26, 1979, 93 Stat. 300, provided that: "The amendments made by sections 901 and 902 [enacting this subchapter and amending sections 1872, 2192, and 2194 of this title] shall take effect on the date of the enactment of this Act [July 26, 1979]. Any petition for review filed with the Special Representative for Trade Negotiations under section 301 of the Trade Act of 1974 (as in effect on the day before such date of enactment) [former section 2411 of this title] and pending on such date of enactment shall be treated as an investigation initiated on such date of enactment under section 302(b)(2) of the Trade Act of 1974 (as added by section 901 of this Act) [section 2412(b)(2) of this title] and any information developed by, or submitted to, the Special Representative before such date of enactment under the review shall be treated as part of the information developed during such investigation."

Ex. Ord. No. 13155. Access to HIV/AIDS Pharmaceuticals and Medical Technologies

Ex. Ord. No. 13155, May 10, 2000, 65 F.R. 30521, provided:

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including sections 141 and chapter 1 of title III of the Trade Act of 1974, as amended (19 U.S.C. 2171, 2411–2420), section 307 of the Public Health Service Act (42 U.S.C. 242l), and section 104 of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as amended (22 U.S.C. 2151b), and in accordance with executive branch policy on health-related intellectual property matters to promote access to essential medicines, it is hereby ordered as follows:

Section 1. Policy. (a) In administering sections 301–310 of the Trade Act of 1974 [19 U.S.C. 2411–2420], the United States shall not seek, through negotiation or otherwise, the revocation or revision of any intellectual property law or policy of a beneficiary sub-Saharan African country, as determined by the President, that regulates HIV/AIDS pharmaceuticals or medical technologies if the law or policy of the country:

(1) promotes access to HIV/AIDS pharmaceuticals or medical technologies for affected populations in that country; and

(2) provides adequate and effective intellectual property protection consistent with the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS Agreement) referred to in section 101(d)(15) of the Uruguay Round Agreements Act (19 U.S.C. 3511(d)(15)).

(b) The United States shall encourage all beneficiary sub-Saharan African countries to implement policies designed to address the underlying causes of the HIV/AIDS crisis by, among other things, making efforts to encourage practices that will prevent further transmission and infection and to stimulate development of the infrastructure necessary to deliver adequate health services, and by encouraging policies that provide an incentive for public and private research on, and development of, vaccines and other medical innovations that will combat the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Africa.

Sec. 2. Rationale: (a) This order finds that:

(1) since the onset of the worldwide HIV/AIDS epidemic, approximately 34 million people living in sub-Saharan Africa have been infected with the disease;

(2) of those infected, approximately 11.5 million have died;

(3) the deaths represent 83 percent of the total HIV/AIDS-related deaths worldwide; and

(4) access to effective therapeutics for HIV/AIDS is determined by issues of price, health system infrastructure for delivery, and sustainable financing.

(b) In light of these findings, this order recognizes that:

(1) it is in the interest of the United States to take all reasonable steps to prevent further spread of infectious disease, particularly HIV/AIDS;

(2) there is critical need for effective incentives to develop new pharmaceuticals, vaccines, and therapies to combat the HIV/AIDS crisis, including effective global intellectual property standards designed to foster pharmaceutical and medical innovation;

(3) the overriding priority for responding to the crisis of HIV/AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa should be to improve public education and to encourage practices that will prevent further transmission and infection, and to stimulate development of the infrastructure necessary to deliver adequate health care services;

(4) the United States should work with individual countries in sub-Saharan Africa to assist them in development of effective public education campaigns aimed at the prevention of HIV/AIDS transmission and infection, and to improve their health care infrastructure to promote improved access to quality health care for their citizens in general, and particularly with respect to the HIV/AIDS epidemic;

(5) an effective United States response to the crisis in sub-Saharan Africa must focus in the short term on preventive programs designed to reduce the frequency of new infections and remove the stigma of the disease, and should place a priority on basic health services that can be used to treat opportunistic infections, sexually transmitted infections, and complications associated with HIV/AIDS so as to prolong the duration and improve the quality of life of those with the disease;

(6) an effective United States response to the crisis must also focus on the development of HIV/AIDS vaccines to prevent the spread of the disease;

(7) the innovative capacity of the United States in the commercial and public pharmaceutical research sectors is unmatched in the world, and the participation of both these sectors will be a critical element in any successful program to respond to the HIV/AIDS crisis in sub-Saharan Africa;

(8) the TRIPS Agreement recognizes the importance of promoting effective and adequate protection of intellectual property rights and the right of countries to adopt measures necessary to protect public health;

(9) individual countries should have the ability to take measures to address the HIV/AIDS epidemic, provided that such measures are consistent with their international obligations; and

(10) successful initiatives will require effective partnerships and cooperation among governments, international organizations, nongovernmental organizations, and the private sector, and greater consideration should be given to financial, legal, and other incentives that will promote improved prevention and treatment actions.

Sec. 3. Scope. (a) This order prohibits the United States Government from taking action pursuant to section 301(b) of the Trade Act of 1974 [19 U.S.C. 2411(b)] with respect to any law or policy in beneficiary sub-Saharan African countries that promotes access to HIV/AIDS pharmaceuticals or medical technologies and that provides adequate and effective intellectual property protection consistent with the TRIPS Agreement. However, this order does not prohibit United States Government officials from evaluating, determining, or expressing concern about whether such a law or policy promotes access to HIV/AIDS pharmaceuticals or medical technologies or provides adequate and effective intellectual property protection consistent with the TRIPS Agreement. In addition, this order does not prohibit United States Government officials from consulting with or otherwise discussing with sub-Saharan African governments whether such law or policy meets the conditions set forth in section 1(a) of this order. Moreover, this order does not prohibit the United States Government from invoking the dispute settlement procedures of the World Trade Organization to examine whether any such law or policy is consistent with the Uruguay Round Agreements, referred to in section 101(d) of the Uruguay Round Agreements Act [19 U.S.C. 3511(d)].

(b) This order is intended only to improve the internal management of the executive branch and is not intended to, and does not create, any right or benefit, substantive or procedural, enforceable at law or equity by a party against the United States, its agencies or instrumentalities, its officers or employees, or any other person.

William J. Clinton.      

1 See References in Text note below.

§2412. Initiation of investigations

(a) Petitions

(1) Any interested person may file a petition with the Trade Representative requesting that action be taken under section 2411 of this title and setting forth the allegations in support of the request.

(2) The Trade Representative shall review the allegations in any petition filed under paragraph (1) and, not later than 45 days after the date on which the Trade Representative received the petition, shall determine whether to initiate an investigation.

(3) If the Trade Representative determines not to initiate an investigation with respect to a petition, the Trade Representative shall inform the petitioner of the reasons therefor and shall publish notice of the determination, together with a summary of such reasons, in the Federal Register.

(4) If the Trade Representative makes an affirmative determination under paragraph (2) with respect to a petition, the Trade Representative shall initiate an investigation regarding the issues raised in the petition. The Trade Representative shall publish a summary of the petition in the Federal Register and shall, as soon as possible, provide opportunity for the presentation of views concerning the issues, including a public hearing—

(A) within the 30-day period beginning on the date of the affirmative determination (or on a date after such period if agreed to by the petitioner) if a public hearing within such period is requested in the petition, or

(B) at such other time if a timely request therefor is made by the petitioner or by any interested person.

(b) Initiation of investigation by means other than petition

(1)(A) If the Trade Representative determines that an investigation should be initiated under this subchapter with respect to any matter in order to determine whether the matter is actionable under section 2411 of this title, the Trade Representative shall publish such determination in the Federal Register and shall initiate such investigation.

(B) The Trade Representative shall, before making any determination under subparagraph (A), consult with appropriate committees established pursuant to section 2155 of this title.

(2)(A) By no later than the date that is 30 days after the date on which a country is identified under section 2242(a)(2) of this title, the Trade Representative shall initiate an investigation under this subchapter with respect to any act, policy, or practice of that country that—

(i) was the basis for such identification, and

(ii) is not at that time the subject of any other investigation or action under this subchapter.


(B) The Trade Representative is not required under subparagraph (A) to initiate an investigation under this subchapter with respect to any act, policy, or practice of a foreign country if the Trade Representative determines that the initiation of the investigation would be detrimental to United States economic interests.

(C) If the Trade Representative makes a determination under subparagraph (B) not to initiate an investigation, the Trade Representative shall submit to the Congress a written report setting forth, in detail—

(i) the reasons for the determination, and

(ii) the United States economic interests that would be adversely affected by the investigation.


(D) The Trade Representative shall, from time to time, consult with the Register of Copyrights, the Under Secretary of Commerce for Intellectual Property and Director of the United States Patent and Trademark Office, and other appropriate officers of the Federal Government, during any investigation initiated under this subchapter by reason of subparagraph (A).

(c) Discretion

In determining whether to initiate an investigation under subsection (a) or (b) of any act, policy, or practice that is enumerated in any provision of section 2411(d) of this title, the Trade Representative shall have discretion to determine whether action under section 2411 of this title would be effective in addressing such act, policy, or practice.

(Pub. L. 93–618, title III, §302, as added Pub. L. 96–39, title IX, §901, July 26, 1979, 93 Stat. 296; amended Pub. L. 98–573, title III, §304(d)(1), Oct. 30, 1984, 98 Stat. 3003; Pub. L. 100–418, title I, §1301(a), Aug. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 1168; Pub. L. 106–113, div. B, §1000(a)(9) [title IV, §4732(b)(9)], Nov. 29, 1999, 113 Stat. 1536, 1501A-584.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 302 of Pub. L. 93–618, title III, Jan. 3, 1975, 88 Stat. 2043, which related to the procedure for Congressional disapproval of certain actions taken by the President to eliminate foreign import restrictions and export subsidies and which was classified to this section, was omitted in the general revision of chapter 1 of title III of Pub. L. 93–618 by Pub. L. 96–39, title IX, §901, July 26, 1979, 93 Stat. 295.

Amendments

1999—Subsec. (b)(2)(D). Pub. L. 106–113 substituted "Under Secretary of Commerce for Intellectual Property and Director of the United States Patent and Trademark Office" for "Commissioner of Patents and Trademarks".

1988Pub. L. 100–418 amended section generally, substituting provisions relating to initiating investigations with or without petitions and discretion of Trade Representative for provisions relating to filing and determinations on petitions for investigations and investigations initiated by Trade Representative.

1984Pub. L. 98–573 amended section generally, substituting "United States Trade Representative" and "Trade Representative" for "Special Representative for Trade Negotiations" and "Special Representative", respectively, substituting "the reasons" for "his reasons" in subsec. (b)(1), substituting "a summary" for "the text" in subsec. (b)(2), striking out the comma after "petitioner)" in subsec. (b)(2)(A), and inserting "or by any interested person" after "petitioner" in subsec. (b)(2)(B).

Effective Date of 1999 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 106–113 effective 4 months after Nov. 29, 1999, see section 1000(a)(9) [title IV, §4731] of Pub. L. 106–113, set out as a note under section 1 of Title 35, Patents.

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 100–418 applicable to petitions filed, and investigations initiated, under this section on or after Aug. 23, 1988, and petitions filed, and investigations initiated, before Aug. 23, 1988, if by such date no decision had been made under section 2414 of this title regarding the petition or investigation, see section 1301(c) of Pub. L. 100–418, set out as a note under section 2411 of this title.

§2413. Consultation upon initiation of investigation

(a) In general

(1) On the date on which an investigation is initiated under section 2412 of this title, the Trade Representative, on behalf of the United States, shall request consultations with the foreign country concerned regarding the issues involved in such investigation.

(2) If the investigation initiated under section 2412 of this title involves a trade agreement and a mutually acceptable resolution is not reached before the earlier of—

(A) the close of the consultation period, if any, specified in the trade agreement, or

(B) the 150th day after the day on which consultation was commenced,


the Trade Representative shall promptly request proceedings on the matter under the formal dispute settlement procedures provided under such agreement.

(3) The Trade Representative shall seek information and advice from the petitioner (if any) and the appropriate committees established pursuant to section 2155 of this title in preparing United States presentations for consultations and dispute settlement proceedings.

(b) Delay of request for consultations

(1) Notwithstanding the provisions of subsection (a)—

(A) the United States Trade Representative may, after consulting with the petitioner (if any), delay for up to 90 days any request for consultations under subsection (a) for the purpose of verifying or improving the petition to ensure an adequate basis for consultation, and

(B) if such consultations are delayed by reason of subparagraph (A), each time limitation under section 2414 of this title shall be extended for the period of such delay.


(2) The Trade Representative shall—

(A) publish notice of any delay under paragraph (1) in the Federal Register, and

(B) report to Congress on the reasons for such delay in the report required under section 2419(a)(3) of this title.

(Pub. L. 93–618, title III, §303, as added Pub. L. 96–39, title IX, §901, July 26, 1979, 93 Stat. 297; amended Pub. L. 98–573, title III, §§304(d)(2)(B), (e), 306(c)(2)(C)(ii), Oct. 30, 1984, 98 Stat. 3004, 3005, 3012; Pub. L. 100–418, title I, §1301(a), Aug. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 1170.)

Amendments

1988Pub. L. 100–418 amended section generally, revising and restating substantially similar provisions.

1984—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 98–573, §§304(d)(2)(B), (e)(1), 306(c)(2)(C)(ii), designated existing provisions as subsec. (a), struck out "with respect to a petition" after "section 2412(b) of this title", inserted "or the determination of the Trade Representative under section 2412(c)(1) of this title" after "in the petition", and "(if any)" after "petitioner", and struck out "private sector" after "appropriate".

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 98–573, §304(e)(2), added subsec. (b).

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 100–418 applicable to petitions filed, and investigations initiated, under section 2412 of this title on or after Aug. 23, 1988, and petitions filed, and investigations initiated, before Aug. 23, 1988, if by such date no decision had been made under section 2414 of this title regarding the petition or investigation, see section 1301(c) of Pub. L. 100–418, set out as a note under section 2411 of this title.

§2414. Determinations by Trade Representative

(a) In general

(1) On the basis of the investigation initiated under section 2412 of this title and the consultations (and the proceedings, if applicable) under section 2413 of this title, the Trade Representative shall—

(A) determine whether—

(i) the rights to which the United States is entitled under any trade agreement are being denied, or

(ii) any act, policy, or practice described in subsection (a)(1)(B) or (b)(1) of section 2411 of this title exists, and


(B) if the determination made under subparagraph (A) is affirmative, determine what action, if any, the Trade Representative should take under subsection (a) or (b) of section 2411 of this title.


(2) The Trade Representative shall make the determinations required under paragraph (1) on or before—

(A) in the case of an investigation involving a trade agreement, except an investigation initiated pursuant to section 2412(b)(2)(A) of this title involving rights under the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (referred to in section 3511(d)(15) of this title) or the GATT 1994 (as defined in section 3501(1)(B) of this title) relating to products subject to intellectual property protection, the earlier of—

(i) the date that is 30 days after the date on which the dispute settlement procedure is concluded, or

(ii) the date that is 18 months after the date on which the investigation is initiated, or


(B) in all cases not described in subparagraph (A) or paragraph (3), the date that is 12 months after the date on which the investigation is initiated.


(3)(A) If an investigation is initiated under this subchapter by reason of section 2412(b)(2) of this title and—

(i) the Trade Representative considers that rights under the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights or the GATT 1994 relating to products subject to intellectual property protection are involved, the Trade Representative shall make the determination required under paragraph (1) not later than 30 days after the date on which the dispute settlement procedure is concluded; or

(ii) the Trade Representative does not consider that a trade agreement, including the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights, is involved or does not make a determination described in subparagraph (B) with respect to such investigation, the Trade Representative shall make the determinations required under paragraph (1) with respect to such investigation not later than the date that is 6 months after the date on which such investigation is initiated.


(B) If the Trade Representative determines with respect to an investigation initiated by reason of section 2412(b)(2) of this title (other than an investigation involving a trade agreement) that—

(i) complex or complicated issues are involved in the investigation that require additional time,

(ii) the foreign country involved in the investigation is making substantial progress in drafting or implementing legislative or administrative measures that will provide adequate and effective protection of intellectual property rights, or

(iii) such foreign country is undertaking enforcement measures to provide adequate and effective protection of intellectual property rights,


the Trade Representative shall publish in the Federal Register notice of such determination and shall make the determinations required under paragraph (1) with respect to such investigation by no later than the date that is 9 months after the date on which such investigation is initiated.

(4) In any case in which a dispute is not resolved before the close of the minimum dispute settlement period provided for in a trade agreement, the Trade Representative, within 15 days after the close of such dispute settlement period, shall submit a report to Congress setting forth the reasons why the dispute was not resolved within the minimum dispute settlement period, the status of the case at the close of the period, and the prospects for resolution. For purposes of this paragraph, the minimum dispute settlement period provided for under any such trade agreement is the total period of time that results if all stages of the formal dispute settlement procedures are carried out within the time limitations specified in the agreement, but computed without regard to any extension authorized under the agreement at any stage.

(b) Consultation before determinations

(1) Before making the determinations required under subsection (a)(1), the Trade Representative, unless expeditious action is required—

(A) shall provide an opportunity (after giving not less than 30 days notice thereof) for the presentation of views by interested persons, including a public hearing if requested by any interested person,

(B) shall obtain advice from the appropriate committees established pursuant to section 2155 of this title, and

(C) may request the views of the United States International Trade Commission regarding the probable impact on the economy of the United States of the taking of action with respect to any goods or service.


(2) If the Trade Representative does not comply with the requirements of subparagraphs (A) and (B) of paragraph (1) because expeditious action is required, the Trade Representative shall, after making the determinations under subsection (a)(1), comply with such subparagraphs.

(c) Publication

The Trade Representative shall publish in the Federal Register any determination made under subsection (a)(1), together with a description of the facts on which such determination is based.

(Pub. L. 93–618, title III, §304, as added Pub. L. 96–39, title IX, §901, July 26, 1979, 93 Stat. 297; amended Pub. L. 98–573, title III, §§304(d)(2)(C), 306(c)(2)(C)(ii), Oct. 30, 1984, 98 Stat. 3005, 3012; Pub. L. 100–418, title I, §1301(a), Aug. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 1170; Pub. L. 103–465, title III, §314(d), Dec. 8, 1994, 108 Stat. 4940; Pub. L. 104–295, §20(c)(6), Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3528; Pub. L. 108–429, title II, §2201(a), (b), Dec. 3, 2004, 118 Stat. 2598, 2599.)

Amendments

2004—Subsec. (a)(2)(A). Pub. L. 108–429, §2201(a), in introductory provisions, inserted "except an investigation initiated pursuant to section 2412(b)(2)(A) of this title involving rights under the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (referred to in section 3511(d)(15) of this title) or the GATT 1994 (as defined in section 3501(1)(B) of this title) relating to products subject to intellectual property protection," after "agreement,".

Subsec. (a)(3)(A). Pub. L. 108–429, §2201(b), amended subpar. (A) generally. Prior to amendment, subpar. (A) read as follows: "If an investigation is initiated under this subchapter by reason of section 2412(b)(2) of this title and the Trade Representative does not consider that a trade agreement, including the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (referred to in section 3511(d)(15) of this title), is involved or does not make a determination described in subparagraph (B) with respect to such investigation, the Trade Representative shall make the determinations required under paragraph (1) with respect to such investigation by no later than the date that is 6 months after the date on which such investigation is initiated."

1996—Subsec. (a)(3)(A). Pub. L. 104–295 inserted "Rights" after "Intellectual Property".

1994—Subsec. (a)(2)(A). Pub. L. 103–465, §314(d)(1), struck out "(other than the agreement on subsidies and countervailing measures described in section 2503(c)(5) of this title)" after "trade agreement".

Subsec. (a)(3)(A). Pub. L. 103–465, §314(d)(2)(A), inserted "does not consider that a trade agreement, including the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property (referred to in section 3511(d)(15) of this title), is involved or" after "Trade Representative" the first place appearing.

Subsec. (a)(3)(B). Pub. L. 103–465, §314(d)(2)(B), in introductory provisions, substituted "an investigation initiated by reason of section 2412(b)(2) of this title (other than an investigation involving a trade agreement)" for "any investigation initiated by reason of section 2412(b)(2) of this title".

Subsec. (a)(4). Pub. L. 103–465, §314(d)(3), struck out "(other than the agreement on subsidies and countervailing measures described in section 2503(c)(5) of this title)" after "in a trade agreement".

1988Pub. L. 100–418 amended section generally, substituting provisions relating to determinations by Trade Representative for provisions relating to recommendations by Trade Representative.

1984—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 98–573, §304(d)(2)(C), substituted "matters under investigation" for "issues raised in the petition" in first sentence.

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 98–573, §306(c)(2)(C)(ii), struck out "private sector" after "appropriate".

Effective Date of 1994 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 103–465 effective on the date on which the WTO Agreement enters into force with respect to the United States (Jan. 1, 1995), see section 316(a) of Pub. L. 103–465, set out as an Effective Date note under section 3581 of this title.

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 100–418 applicable to petitions filed, and investigations initiated, under section 2412 of this title on or after Aug. 23, 1988, and petitions filed, and investigations initiated, before Aug. 23, 1988, if by such date no decision had been made under this section regarding the petition or investigation, see section 1301(c) of Pub. L. 100–418, set out as a note under section 2411 of this title.

§2415. Implementation of actions

(a) Actions to be taken under section 2411

(1) Except as provided in paragraph (2), the Trade Representative shall implement the action the Trade Representative determines under section 2414(a)(1)(B) of this title to take under section 2411 of this title, subject to the specific direction, if any, of the President regarding any such action, by no later than the date that is 30 days after the date on which such determination is made.

(2)(A) Except as otherwise provided in this paragraph, the Trade Representative may delay, by not more than 180 days, the implementation of any action that is to be taken under section 2411 of this title

(i) if—

(I) in the case of an investigation initiated under section 2412(a) of this title, the petitioner requests a delay, or

(II) in the case of an investigation initiated under section 2412(b)(1) of this title or to which section 2414(a)(3)(B) of this title applies, a delay is requested by a majority of the representatives of the domestic industry that would benefit from the action, or


(ii) if the Trade Representative determines that substantial progress is being made, or that a delay is necessary or desirable, to obtain United States rights or a satisfactory solution with respect to the acts, policies, or practices that are the subject of the action.


(B) The Trade Representative may not delay under subparagraph (A) the implementation of any action that is to be taken under section 2411 of this title with respect to any investigation to which section 2414(a)(3)(A)(ii) of this title applies.

(C) The Trade Representative may not delay under subparagraph (A) the implementation of any action that is to be taken under section 2411 of this title with respect to any investigation to which section 2414(a)(3)(B) of this title applies by more than 90 days.

(b) Alternative actions in certain cases of export targeting

(1) If the Trade Representative makes an affirmative determination under section 2414(a)(1)(A) of this title involving export targeting by a foreign country and determines to take no action under section 2411 of this title with respect to such affirmation determination, the Trade Representative—

(A) shall establish an advisory panel to recommend measures which will promote the competitiveness of the domestic industry affected by the export targeting,

(B) on the basis of the report of such panel submitted under paragraph (2)(B) and subject to the specific direction, if any, of the President, may take any administrative actions authorized under any other provision of law, and, if necessary, propose legislation to implement any other actions, that would restore or improve the international competitiveness of the domestic industry affected by the export targeting, and

(C) shall, by no later than the date that is 30 days after the date on which the report of such panel is submitted under paragraph (2)(B), submit a report to the Congress on the administrative actions taken, and legislative proposals made, under subparagraph (B) with respect to the domestic industry affected by the export targeting.


(2)(A) The advisory panels established under paragraph (1)(A) shall consist of individuals appointed by the Trade Representative who—

(i) earn their livelihood in the private sector of the economy, including individuals who represent management and labor in the domestic industry affected by the export targeting that is the subject of the affirmative determination made under section 2414(a)(1)(A) of this title, and

(ii) by education or experience, are qualified to serve on the advisory panel.


(B) By no later than the date that is 6 months after the date on which an advisory panel is established under paragraph (1)(A), the advisory panel shall submit to the Trade Representative and to the Congress a report on measures that the advisory panel recommends be taken by the United States to promote the competitiveness of the domestic industry affected by the export targeting that is the subject of the affirmative determination made under section 2414(a)(1)(A) of this title.

(Pub. L. 93–618, title III, §305, as added Pub. L. 96–39, title IX, §901, July 26, 1979, 93 Stat. 299; amended Pub. L. 98–573, title III, §304(g), Oct. 30, 1984, 98 Stat. 3006; Pub. L. 100–418, title I, §1301(a), Aug. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 1172; Pub. L. 108–429, title II, §2201(c), Dec. 3, 2004, 118 Stat. 2599.)

Amendments

2004—Subsec. (a)(2)(B). Pub. L. 108–429 substituted "section 2414(a)(3)(A)(ii)" for "section 2414(a)(3)(A)".

1988Pub. L. 100–418 amended section generally, substituting provisions relating to implementation of actions for provisions relating to requests for information. See section 2418 of this title.

1984—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 98–573 added subsec. (c).

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 100–418 applicable to petitions filed, and investigations initiated, under section 2412 of this title on or after Aug. 23, 1988, and petitions filed, and investigations initiated, before Aug. 23, 1988, if by such date no decision had been made under section 2414 of this title regarding the petition or investigation, see section 1301(c) of Pub. L. 100–418, set out as a note under section 2411 of this title.

§2416. Monitoring of foreign compliance

(a) In general

The Trade Representative shall monitor the implementation of each measure undertaken, or agreement that is entered into, by a foreign country to provide a satisfactory resolution of a matter subject to investigation under this subchapter or subject to dispute settlement proceedings to enforce the rights of the United States under a trade agreement providing for such proceedings.

(b) Action on the basis of monitoring

(1) In general

If, on the basis of the monitoring carried out under subsection (a), the Trade Representative considers that a foreign country is not satisfactorily implementing a measure or agreement referred to in subsection (a), the Trade Representative shall determine what further action the Trade Representative shall take under section 2411(a) of this title. For purposes of section 2411 of this title, any such determination shall be treated as a determination made under section 2414(a)(1) of this title.

(2) WTO dispute settlement recommendations

(A) Failure to implement recommendation

If the measure or agreement referred to in subsection (a) concerns the implementation of a recommendation made pursuant to dispute settlement proceedings under the World Trade Organization, and the Trade Representative considers that the foreign country has failed to implement it, the Trade Representative shall make the determination in paragraph (1) no later than 30 days after the expiration of the reasonable period of time provided for such implementation under paragraph 21 of the Understanding on Rules and Procedures Governing the Settlement of Disputes that is referred to in section 3511(d)(16) of this title.

(B) Revision of retaliation list and action

(i) In general

Except as provided in clause (ii), in the event that the United States initiates a retaliation list or takes any other action described in section 2411(c)(1)(A) or (B) of this title against the goods of a foreign country or countries because of the failure of such country or countries to implement the recommendation made pursuant to a dispute settlement proceeding under the World Trade Organization, the Trade Representative shall periodically revise the list or action to affect other goods of the country or countries that have failed to implement the recommendation.

(ii) Exception

The Trade Representative is not required to revise the retaliation list or the action described in clause (i) with respect to a country, if—

(I) the Trade Representative determines that implementation of a recommendation made pursuant to a dispute settlement proceeding described in clause (i) by the country is imminent; or

(II) the Trade Representative together with the petitioner involved in the initial investigation under this subchapter (or if no petition was filed, the affected United States industry) agree that it is unnecessary to revise the retaliation list.

(C) Schedule for revising list or action

The Trade Representative shall, 120 days after the date the retaliation list or other section 2411(a) action is first taken, and every 180 days thereafter, review the list or action taken and revise, in whole or in part, the list or action to affect other goods of the subject country or countries.

(D) Standards for revising list or action

In revising any list or action against a country or countries under this subsection, the Trade Representative shall act in a manner that is most likely to result in the country or countries implementing the recommendations adopted in the dispute settlement proceeding or in achieving a mutually satisfactory solution to the issue that gave rise to the dispute settlement proceeding. The Trade Representative shall consult with the petitioner, if any, involved in the initial investigation under this subchapter.

(E) Retaliation list

The term "retaliation list" means the list of products of a foreign country or countries that have failed to comply with the report of the panel or Appellate Body of the WTO and with respect to which the Trade Representative is imposing duties above the level that would otherwise be imposed under the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States.

(F) Requirement to include reciprocal goods on retaliation list

The Trade Representative shall include on the retaliation list, and on any revised lists, reciprocal goods of the industries affected by the failure of the foreign country or countries to implement the recommendation made pursuant to a dispute settlement proceeding under the World Trade Organization, except in cases where existing retaliation and its corresponding preliminary retaliation list do not already meet this requirement.

(c) Exercise of WTO authorization to suspend concessions or other obligations

If—

(1) action has terminated pursuant to section 2417(c) of this title,

(2) the petitioner or any representative of the domestic industry that would benefit from reinstatement of action has submitted to the Trade Representative a written request for reinstatement of action, and

(3) the Trade Representatives 1 has completed the requirements of subsection (d) and section 2417(c)(3) of this title,


the Trade Representative may at any time determine to take action under section 2411(c) of this title to exercise an authorization to suspend concessions or other obligations under Article 22 of the Understanding on Rules and Procedures Governing the Settlement of Disputes (referred to in section 3511(d)(16) of this title).

(d) Consultations

Before making any determination under subsection (b) or (c), the Trade Representative shall—

(1) consult with the petitioner, if any, involved in the initial investigation under this subchapter and with representatives of the domestic industry concerned; and

(2) provide an opportunity for the presentation of views by interested persons.

(Pub. L. 93–618, title III, §306, as added Pub. L. 96–39, title IX, §901, July 26, 1979, 93 Stat. 299; amended Pub. L. 100–418, title I, §1301(a), Aug. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 1173; Pub. L. 103–465, title III, §314(e), Dec. 8, 1994, 108 Stat. 4941; Pub. L. 104–295, §20(c)(1), Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3528; Pub. L. 106–200, title IV, §407, May 18, 2000, 114 Stat. 293; Pub. L. 114–125, title VI, §602(a), (b)(2), (3), Feb. 24, 2016, 130 Stat. 184.)

References in Text

The Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States, referred to in subsec. (b)(2)(E), is not set out in the Code. See Publication of Harmonized Tariff Schedule note set out under section 1202 of this title.

Amendments

2016—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 114–125, §602(b)(2), substituted "Action on the basis of monitoring" for "Further action" in heading.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 114–125, §602(a)(2), added subsec. (c). Former subsec. (c) redesignated (d).

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 114–125, §602(a)(1), (b)(3), redesignated subsec. (c) as (d) and inserted "or (c)" after "subsection (b)" in introductory provisions.

2000—Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 106–200 designated existing provisions as subpar. (A), inserted heading, and added subpars. (B) to (F).

1996—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 104–295 made technical amendment to Pub. L. 103–465. See 1994 Amendment note below.

1994—Subsecs. (a), (b). Pub. L. 103–465, as amended by Pub. L. 104–295, amended subsecs. (a) and (b) generally. Prior to amendment, subsecs. (a) and (b) read as follows:

"(a) In General.—The Trade Representative shall monitor the implementation of each measure undertaken, or agreement of a kind described in clause (i), (ii), or (iii) of section 2411(a)(2)(B) of this title that is entered into under subsection (a) or (b) of section 2411 of this title, by a foreign country—

"(1) to enforce the rights of the United States under any trade agreement, or

"(2) to eliminate any act, policy, or practice described in subsection (a)(1)(B) or (b)(1) of section 2411 of this title.

"(b) Further Action.—If, on the basis of the monitoring carried out under subsection (a) of this section, the Trade Representative considers that a foreign country is not satisfactorily implementing a measure or agreement referred to in subsection (a) of this section, the Trade Representative shall determine what further action the Trade Representative shall take under section 2411(a) of this title. For purposes of section 2411 of this title, any such determination shall be treated as a determination made under section 2414(a)(1) of this title."

1988Pub. L. 100–418 amended section generally, substituting provisions relating to monitoring of foreign compliance for provisions relating to administration. See section 2419 of this title.

Effective Date of 1994 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 103–465 effective on the date on which the WTO Agreement enters into force with respect to the United States (Jan. 1, 1995), see section 316(a) of Pub. L. 103–465, set out as an Effective Date note under section 3581 of this title.

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 100–418 applicable to petitions filed, and investigations initiated, under section 2412 of this title on or after Aug. 23, 1988, and petitions filed, and investigations initiated, before Aug. 23, 1988, if by such date no decision had been made under section 2414 of this title regarding the petition or investigation, see section 1301(c) of Pub. L. 100–418, set out as a note under section 2411 of this title.

1 So in original. Probably should be "Representative".

§2417. Modification and termination of actions

(a) In general

(1) The Trade Representative may modify or terminate any action, subject to the specific direction, if any, of the President with respect to such action, that is being taken under section 2411 of this title if—

(A) any of the conditions described in section 2411(a)(2) of this title exist,

(B) the burden or restriction on United States commerce of the denial rights, or of the acts, policies, and practices, that are the subject of such action has increased or decreased, or

(C) such action is being taken under section 2411(b) of this title and is no longer appropriate.


(2) Before taking any action under paragraph (1) to modify or terminate any action taken under section 2411 of this title, the Trade Representative shall consult with the petitioner, if any, and with representatives of the domestic industry concerned, and shall provide opportunity for the presentation of views by other interested persons affected by the proposed modification or termination concerning the effects of the modification or termination and whether any modification or termination of the action is appropriate.

(b) Notice; report to Congress

The Trade Representative shall promptly publish in the Federal Register notice of, and report in writing to the Congress with respect to, any modification or termination of any action taken under section 2411 of this title and the reasons therefor.

(c) Review of necessity

(1) If—

(A) a particular action has been taken under section 2411 of this title during any 4-year period, and

(B) neither the petitioner nor any representative of the domestic industry which benefits from such action has submitted to the Trade Representative during the last 60 days of such 4-year period a written request for the continuation of such action,


such action shall terminate at the close of such 4-year period.

(2) The Trade Representative shall notify by mail the petitioner and representatives of the domestic industry described in paragraph (1)(B) of any termination of action by reason of paragraph (1) at least 60 days before the date of such termination.

(3) If a request is submitted to the Trade Representative under paragraph (1)(B) to continue taking a particular action under section 2411 of this title, or if a request is submitted to the Trade Representative under section 2416(c)(2) of this title to reinstate action, the Trade Representative shall conduct a review of—

(A) the effectiveness in achieving the objectives of section 2411 of this title of—

(i) such action, and

(ii) other actions that could be taken (including actions against other products or services), and


(B) the effects of such actions on the United States economy, including consumers.

(Pub. L. 93–618, title III, §307, as added Pub. L. 100–418, title I, §1301(a), Aug. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 1174; amended Pub. L. 114–125, title VI, §602(b)(4), Feb. 24, 2016, 130 Stat. 184.)

Amendments

2016—Subsec. (c)(3). Pub. L. 114–125 inserted "or if a request is submitted to the Trade Representative under section 2416(c)(2) of this title to reinstate action," after "under section 2411 of this title," in introductory provisions.

Effective Date

Section applicable to petitions filed, and investigations initiated, under section 2412 of this title on or after Aug. 23, 1988, and petitions filed, and investigations initiated, before Aug. 23, 1988, if by such date no decision had been made under section 2414 of this title regarding the petition or investigation, see section 1301(c) of Pub. L. 100–418, set out as an Effective Date of 1988 Amendment note under section 2411 of this title.

§2418. Request for information

(a) In general

Upon receipt of written request therefor from any person, the Trade Representative shall make available to that person information (other than that to which confidentiality applies) concerning—

(1) the nature and extent of a specific trade policy or practice of a foreign country with respect to particular goods, services, investment, or intellectual property rights, to the extent that such information is available to the Trade Representative or other Federal agencies;

(2) United States rights under any trade agreement and the remedies which may be available under that agreement and under the laws of the United States; and

(3) past and present domestic and international proceedings or actions with respect to the policy or practice concerned.

(b) If information not available

If information that is requested by a person under subsection (a) is not available to the Trade Representative or other Federal agencies, the Trade Representative shall, within 30 days after receipt of the request—

(1) request the information from the foreign government; or

(2) decline to request the information and inform the person in writing of the reasons for refusal.

(c) Certain business information not made available

(1) Except as provided in paragraph (2), and notwithstanding any other provision of law (including section 552 of title 5), no information requested and received by the Trade Representative in aid of any investigation under this subchapter shall be made available to any person if—

(A) the person providing such information certifies that—

(i) such information is business confidential,

(ii) the disclosure of such information would endanger trade secrets or profitability, and

(iii) such information is not generally available;


(B) the Trade Representative determines that such certification is well-founded; and

(C) to the extent required in regulations prescribed by the Trade Representative, the person providing such information provides an adequate nonconfidential summary of such information.


(2) The Trade Representative may—

(A) use such information, or make such information available (in his own discretion) to any employee of the Federal Government for use, in any investigation under this subchapter, or

(B) may make such information available to any other person in a form which cannot be associated with, or otherwise identify, the person providing the information.

(Pub. L. 93–618, title III, §308, as added Pub. L. 100–418, title I, §1301(a), Aug. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 1175.)

Effective Date

Section applicable to petitions filed, and investigations initiated, under section 2412 of this title on or after Aug. 23, 1988, and petitions filed, and investigations initiated, before Aug. 23, 1988, if by such date no decision had been made under section 2414 of this title regarding the petition or investigation, see section 1301(c) of Pub. L. 100–418, set out as an Effective Date of 1988 Amendment note under section 2411 of this title.

§2419. Administration

The Trade Representative shall—

(1) issue regulations concerning the filing of petitions and the conduct of investigations and hearings under this subchapter,

(2) keep the petitioner regularly informed of all determinations and developments regarding the investigation conducted with respect to the petition under this subchapter, including the reasons for any undue delays, and

(3) submit a report to the House of Representatives and the Senate semiannually describing—

(A) the petitions filed and the determinations made (and reasons therefor) under section 2412 of this title,

(B) developments in, and the current status of, each investigation or proceeding under this subchapter,

(C) the actions taken, or the reasons for no action, by the Trade Representative under section 2411 of this title with respect to investigations conducted under this subchapter, and

(D) the commercial effects of actions taken under section 2411 of this title.

(Pub. L. 93–618, title III, §309, as added Pub. L. 100–418, title I, §1301(a), Aug. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 1175.)

Effective Date

Section applicable to petitions filed, and investigations initiated, under section 2412 of this title on or after Aug. 23, 1988, and petitions filed, and investigations initiated, before Aug. 23, 1988, if by such date no decision had been made under section 2414 of this title regarding the petition or investigation, see section 1301(c) of Pub. L. 100–418, set out as an Effective Date of 1988 Amendment note under section 2411 of this title.

§2420. Trade enforcement priorities

(a) Trade enforcement priorities, consultations, and report

(1) Trade enforcement priorities consultations

Not later than May 31 of each calendar year that begins after February 24, 2016, the United States Trade Representative (in this section referred to as the "Trade Representative") shall consult with the Committee on Finance of the Senate and the Committee on Ways and Means of the House of Representatives with respect to the prioritization of acts, policies, or practices of foreign governments that raise concerns with respect to obligations under the WTO Agreements or any other trade agreement to which the United States is a party, or otherwise create or maintain barriers to United States goods, services, or investment.

(2) Identification of trade enforcement priorities

In identifying acts, policies, or practices of foreign governments as trade enforcement priorities under this subsection, the Trade Representative shall focus on those acts, policies, and practices the elimination of which is likely to have the most significant potential to increase United States economic growth, and take into account all relevant factors, including—

(A) the economic significance of any potential inconsistency between an obligation assumed by a foreign government pursuant to a trade agreement to which both the foreign government and the United States are parties and the acts, policies, or practices of that government;

(B) the impact of the acts, policies, or practices of a foreign government on maintaining and creating United States jobs and productive capacity;

(C) the major barriers and trade distorting practices described in the most recent National Trade Estimate required under section 2241(b) of this title;

(D) the major barriers and trade distorting practices described in other relevant reports addressing international trade and investment barriers prepared by a Federal agency or congressional commission during the 12 months preceding the date of the most recent report under paragraph (3);

(E) a foreign government's compliance with its obligations under any trade agreements to which both the foreign government and the United States are parties;

(F) the implications of a foreign government's procurement plans and policies; and

(G) the international competitive position and export potential of United States products and services.

(3) Report on trade enforcement priorities and actions taken to address

(A) In general

Not later than July 31 of each calendar year that begins after February 24, 2016, the Trade Representative shall report to the Committee on Finance of the Senate and the Committee on Ways and Means of the House of Representatives on acts, policies, or practices of foreign governments identified as trade enforcement priorities based on the consultations under paragraph (1) and the criteria set forth in paragraph (2).

(B) Report in subsequent years

The Trade Representative shall include, when reporting under subparagraph (A) in any calendar year after the calendar year that begins after February 24, 2016, a description of actions taken to address any acts, policies, or practices of foreign governments identified as trade enforcement priorities under this subsection in the calendar year preceding that report and, as relevant, any calendar year before that calendar year.

(b) Semiannual enforcement consultations

(1) In general

At the same time as the reporting under subsection (a)(3), and not later than January 31 of each following year, the Trade Representative shall consult with the Committee on Finance of the Senate and the Committee on Ways and Means of the House of Representatives with respect to the identification, prioritization, investigation, and resolution of acts, policies, or practices of foreign governments of concern with respect to obligations under the WTO Agreements or any other trade agreement to which the United States is a party, or that otherwise create or maintain trade barriers.

(2) Acts, policies, or practices of concern

The semiannual enforcement consultations required by paragraph (1) shall address acts, policies, or practices of foreign governments that raise concerns with respect to obligations under the WTO Agreements or any other trade agreement to which the United States is a party, or otherwise create or maintain trade barriers, including—

(A) engagement with relevant trading partners;

(B) strategies for addressing such concerns;

(C) availability and deployment of resources to be used in the investigation or resolution of such concerns;

(D) the merits of any potential dispute resolution proceeding under the WTO Agreements or any other trade agreement to which the United States is a party relating to such concerns; and

(E) any other aspects of such concerns.

(3) Active investigations

The semiannual enforcement consultations required by paragraph (1) shall address acts, policies, or practices that the Trade Representative is actively investigating with respect to obligations under the WTO Agreements or any other trade agreement to which the United States is a party, including—

(A) strategies for addressing concerns raised by such acts, policies, or practices;

(B) any relevant timeline with respect to investigation of such acts, policies, or practices;

(C) the merits of any potential dispute resolution proceeding under the WTO Agreements or any other trade agreement to which the United States is a party with respect to such acts, policies, or practices;

(D) barriers to the advancement of the investigation of such acts, policies, or practices; and

(E) any other matters relating to the investigation of such acts, policies, or practices.

(4) Ongoing enforcement actions

The semiannual enforcement consultations required by paragraph (1) shall address all ongoing enforcement actions taken by or against the United States with respect to obligations under the WTO Agreements or any other trade agreement to which the United States is a party, including—

(A) any relevant timeline with respect to such actions;

(B) the merits of such actions;

(C) any prospective implementation actions;

(D) potential implications for any law or regulation of the United States;

(E) potential implications for United States stakeholders, domestic competitors, and exporters; and

(F) other issues relating to such actions.

(5) Enforcement resources

The semiannual enforcement consultations required by paragraph (1) shall address the availability and deployment of enforcement resources, resource constraints on monitoring and enforcement activities, and strategies to address those constraints, including the use of available resources of other Federal agencies to enhance monitoring and enforcement capabilities.

(c) Investigation and resolution

In the case of any acts, policies, or practices of a foreign government identified as a trade enforcement priority under subsection (a), the Trade Representative shall, not later than the date of the first semiannual enforcement consultations held under subsection (b) after the identification of the priority, take appropriate action to address that priority, including—

(1) engagement with the foreign government to resolve concerns raised by such acts, policies, or practices;

(2) initiation of an investigation under section 2412(b)(1) of this title with respect to such acts, policies, or practices;

(3) initiation of negotiations for a bilateral agreement that provides for resolution of concerns raised by such acts, policies, or practices; or

(4) initiation of dispute settlement proceedings under the WTO Agreements or any other trade agreement to which the United States is a party with respect to such acts, policies, or practices.

(d) Enforcement notifications and consultation

(1) Initiation of enforcement action

The Trade Representative shall notify and consult with the Committee on Finance of the Senate and the Committee on Ways and Means of the House of Representatives in advance of the initiation of any formal trade dispute by or against the United States taken in regard to an obligation under the WTO Agreements or any other trade agreement to which the United States is a party. With respect to a formal trade dispute against the United States, if advance notification and consultation are not possible, the Trade Representative shall notify and consult at the earliest practicable opportunity after initiation of the dispute.

(2) Circulation of reports

The Trade Representative shall notify and consult with the Committee on Finance of the Senate and the Committee on Ways and Means of the House of Representatives in advance of the announced or anticipated circulation of any report of a dispute settlement panel or the Appellate Body of the World Trade Organization or of a dispute settlement panel under any other trade agreement to which the United States is a party with respect to a formal trade dispute by or against the United States.

(e) Definitions

In this section:

(1) WTO

The term "WTO" means the World Trade Organization.

(2) WTO agreement

The term "WTO Agreement" has the meaning given that term in section 3501(9) of this title.

(3) WTO agreements

The term "WTO Agreements" means the WTO Agreement and agreements annexed to that Agreement.

(Pub. L. 93–618, title III, §310, as added Pub. L. 100–418, title I, §1302(a), Aug. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 1176; amended Pub. L. 103–465, title III, §314(f), Dec. 8, 1994, 108 Stat. 4941; Pub. L. 114–125, title VI, §601(a), Feb. 24, 2016, 130 Stat. 180.)

Amendments

2016Pub. L. 114–125 amended section generally. Prior to amendment, section related to identification of trade expansion priorities.

1994Pub. L. 103–465 amended section generally, changing dates and criteria for submission of certain reports and revising and restructuring provisions relating to identification of trade liberalization priorities, initiation of investigations, and agreements for elimination of barriers.

Ex. Ord. No. 12901. Identification of Trade Expansion Priorities

Ex. Ord. No. 12901, Mar. 3, 1994, 59 F.R. 10727, as amended by Ex. Ord. No. 12973, Sept. 27, 1995, 60 F.R. 51665, provided:

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including sections 141 and 301–310 of the Trade Act of 1974, as amended (the "Act") (19 U.S.C. 2171, 2411–2420), and section 301 of title 3, United States Code, and to ensure that the trade policies of the United States advance, to the greatest extent possible, the export of the products and services of the United States and that trade policy resources are used efficiently, it is hereby ordered as follows:

Section 1. Identification. (a) Within 6 months of the submission of the National Trade Estimate Report (required by section 181(b) of the Act (19 U.S.C. 2241)) for 1996 and 1997, the United States Trade Representative ("Trade Representative") shall review United States trade expansion priorities and identify priority foreign country practices, the elimination of which is likely to have the most significant potential to increase United States exports, either directly or through the establishment of a beneficial precedent. The Trade Representative shall submit to the Committee on Finance of the Senate and the Committee on Ways and Means of the House of Representatives, and shall publish in the Federal Register, a report on the priority foreign country practices identified.

(b) In identifying priority foreign country practices under paragraph (a) of this section, the Trade Representative shall take into account all relevant factors, including:

(1) the major barriers and trade distorting practices described in the National Trade Estimate Report;

(2) the trade agreements to which a foreign country is a party and its compliance with those agreements;

(3) the medium-term and long-term implications of foreign government procurement plans; and

(4) the international competitive position and export potential of United States products and services.

(c) The Trade Representative may include in the report, if appropriate, a description of the foreign country practices that may in the future warrant identification as priority foreign country practices. The Trade Representative also may include a statement about other foreign country practices that were not identified because they are already being addressed by provisions of United States trade law, existing bilateral trade agreements, or in trade negotiations with other countries and progress is being made toward their elimination.

Sec. 2. Initiation of Investigation. Within 21 days of the submission of the report required by paragraph (a) of section 1, the Trade Representative shall initiate under section 302(b)(1) of the Act (19 U.S.C. 2412(b)(1)) investigations under title III, chapter 1, of the Act [19 U.S.C. 2411 et seq.] with respect to all of the priority foreign country practices identified.

Sec. 3. Agreements for the Elimination of Barriers. In the consultations with a foreign country that the Trade Representative is required to request under section 303(a) of the Act (19 U.S.C. 2413(a)) with respect to an investigation initiated by reason of section 2 of this order, the Trade Representative shall seek to negotiate an agreement that provides for the elimination of the practices that are the subject of the investigation as quickly as possible or, if that is not feasible, provides for compensatory trade benefits. The Trade Representative shall monitor any agreement entered into under this section pursuant to the provisions of section 306 of the Act (19 U.S.C. 2416).

Sec. 4. Reports. The Trade Representative shall include in the semiannual report required by section 309 of the Act (19 U.S.C. 2419) a report on the status of any investigation initiated pursuant to section 2 of this order and, where appropriate, the extent to which such investigations have led to increased opportunities for the export of products and services of the United States.

Sec. 5. Presidential Direction. The authorities delegated pursuant to this order shall be exercised subject to any subsequent direction by the President in a particular matter.

William J. Clinton.      

Ex. Ord. No. 13116. Identification of Trade Expansion Priorities and Discriminatory Procurement Practices

Ex. Ord. No. 13116, Mar. 31, 1999, 64 F.R. 16333, provided:

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including title III of the Act of March 3, 1993 [1933], as amended ([former] 41 U.S.C. 10d) [see 41 U.S.C. 8301 et seq.], sections 141 and 301–310 of the Trade Act of 1974, as amended (the Act) (19 U.S.C. 2171, 2411–2420), title III of the Trade Agreements Act of 1979, as amended (19 U.S.C. 2511–2518), and section 301 of title 3, United States Code, and to ensure that the trade policies of the United States advance, to the greatest extent possible, the export of the products and services of the United States and that trade policy resources are used efficiently, it is hereby ordered as follows:

Part I: Identification of Trade Expansion Priorities

Section 1. Identification and Annual Report. (a) Within 30 days of the submission of the National Trade Estimate Report required by section 181(b) of the Act (19 U.S.C. 2241(b)) for 1999, 2000, and 2001, the United States Trade Representative (Trade Representative) shall review United States trade expansion priorities and identify priority foreign country practices, the elimination of which is likely to have the most significant potential to increase United States exports, either directly or through the establishment of a beneficial precedent. The Trade Representative shall submit to the Committee on Finance of the Senate and the Committee on Ways and Means of the House of Representatives, and shall publish in the Federal Register, a report on the priority foreign country practices identified.

(b) In identifying priority foreign country practices under paragraph (a) of this section, the Trade Representative shall take into account all relevant factors, including:

(1) the major barriers and trade distorting practices described in the National Trade Estimate Report;

(2) the trade agreements to which a foreign country is a party and its compliance with those agreements;

(3) the medium-term and long-term implications of foreign government procurement plans; and

(4) the international competitive position and export potential of United States products and services.

(c) The Trade Representative may include in the report, if appropriate, a description of the foreign country practices that may in the future warrant identification as priority foreign country practices. The Trade Representative also may include a statement about other foreign country practices that were not identified because they are already being addressed by provisions of United States trade law, existing bilateral trade agreements, or in trade negotiations with other countries and progress is being made toward their elimination.

Sec. 2. Resolution. Upon submission of the report required by paragraph (a) of section 1 of this part, the Trade Representative shall, with respect to any priority foreign country practice identified therein, engage the country concerned for the purpose of seeking a satisfactory resolution, for example, by obtaining compliance with a trade agreement or the elimination of the practice as quickly as possible, or, if this is not feasible, by providing for compensatory trade benefits.

Sec. 3. Initiation of Investigations. Within 90 days of the submission of the report required by paragraph (a) of section 1 of this part, the Trade Representative shall initiate under section 302(b)(1) of the Act (19 U.S.C. 2412(b)(1)) investigations with respect to all of the priority foreign country practices identified, unless during the 90-day period the Trade Representative determines that a satisfactory resolution of the matter to be investigated has been achieved.

Part II: Identification of Discriminatory Government Procurement Practices

Section 1. Identification and Annual Report. (a) Within 30 days of the submission of the National Trade Estimate Report for 1999, 2000, and 2001, the Trade Representative shall submit to the Committees on Finance and on Governmental Affairs of the Senate and the Committees on Ways and Means and Government Reform and Oversight of the House of Representatives, and shall publish in the Federal Register, a report on the extent to which foreign countries discriminate against U.S. products or services in making government procurements.

(b) In the report, the Trade Representative shall identify countries that:

(1) are not in compliance with their obligations under the World Trade Organization Agreement on Government Procurement (the GPA), Chapter 10 of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), or other agreements relating to government procurement (procurement agreements) to which that country and the United States are parties; or

(2) maintain, in government procurement, a significant and persistent pattern or practice of discrimination against U.S. products or services that results in identifiable harm to U.S. businesses and whose products or services are acquired in significant amounts by the United States Government.

Sec. 2. Considerations in Making Identifications. In making the identifications required by section 1 of this part, the Trade Representative shall: (a) consider the requirements of the GPA, NAFTA, or other procurement agreements, government procurement practices, and the effects of such practices on U.S. businesses as a basis for evaluating whether the procurement practices of foreign governments do not provide fair market opportunities for U.S. products or services;

(b) take into account, among other factors, whether and to what extent countries that are parties to the GPA, NAFTA, or other procurement agreements, and other countries described in section 1 of this part:

(1) use sole-sourcing or otherwise noncompetitive procedures for procurement that could have been conducted using competitive procedures;

(2) conduct what normally would have been one procurement as two or more procurements, to decrease the anticipated contract values below the value threshold of the GPA, NAFTA, or other procurement agreements, or to make the procurement less attractive to U.S. businesses;

(3) announce procurement opportunities with inadequate time intervals for U.S. businesses to submit bids; and

(4) use specifications in such a way as to limit the ability of U.S. suppliers to participate in procurements; and

(c) consider information included in the National Trade Estimate Report, and any other additional criteria deemed appropriate, including, to the extent such information is available, the failure to apply transparent and competitive procedures or maintain and enforce effective prohibitions on bribery and other corrupt practices in connection with government procurement.

Sec. 3. Impact of Noncompliance and Denial of Comparable Treatment. The Trade Representative shall take into account, in identifying countries in the annual report and in any action required by this part, the relative impact of any noncompliance with the GPA, NAFTA, or other procurement agreements, or of other discrimination on U.S. commerce, and the extent to which such noncompliance or discrimination has impeded the ability of U.S. suppliers to participate in procurements on terms comparable to those available to suppliers of the country in question when seeking to sell goods or services to the United States Government.

Sec. 4. Resolution. Upon submission of the report required by section 1 of this part, the Trade Representative shall engage any country identified therein for the purpose of seeking a satisfactory resolution, for example, by obtaining compliance with the GPA, NAFTA, or other procurement agreements or the elimination of the discriminatory procurement practices as quickly as possible, or, if this is not feasible, by providing for compensatory trade benefits.

Sec. 5. Initiation of Investigations. (a) Within 90 days of the submission of the report required by section 1 of this part, the Trade Representative shall initiate under section 302(b)(1) of the Act (19 U.S.C. 2412(b)(1)) investigations with respect to any practice that:

(1) was the basis for the identification of a country under section 1; and

(2) is not at that time the subject of any other investigation or action under title III, chapter 1, of the Act [19 U.S.C. 2411 et seq.],

unless during the 90-day period the Trade Representative determines that a satisfactory resolution of the matter to be investigated has been achieved.

(b) For investigations initiated under paragraph (a) of this section (other than an investigation involving the GPA or NAFTA), the Trade Representative shall apply the time limits and procedures in section 304(a)(3) of the Act (19 U.S.C. 2414(a)(3)). The time limits in subsection 304(a)(3)(B) of the Act (19 U.S.C. 2414(a)(3)(B)) shall apply if the Trade Representative determines that:

(1) complex or complicated issues are involved in the investigation that require additional time;

(2) the foreign country involved in the investigation is making substantial progress in drafting or implementing legislative or administrative measures that will end the discriminatory procurement practice; or

(3) such foreign country is undertaking enforcement measures to end the discriminatory procurement practice.

Part III: Direction

Section 1. Presidential Direction. The authorities delegated pursuant to this order shall be exercised subject to any subsequent direction by the President in a particular matter.

Sec. 2. Consultations and Advice. In developing the annual reports required by part I and part II of this order, the Trade Representative shall consult with executive agencies and seek information and advice from U.S. businesses in the United States and in the countries involved in the practices under consideration.

William J. Clinton.