[USC02] 19 USC CHAPTER 12, SUBCHAPTER VI: GENERAL PROVISIONS
Result 1 of 1
   
 
19 USC CHAPTER 12, SUBCHAPTER VI: GENERAL PROVISIONS
From Title 19—CUSTOMS DUTIESCHAPTER 12—TRADE ACT OF 1974

SUBCHAPTER VI—GENERAL PROVISIONS

§2481. Definitions

For purposes of this chapter—

(1) The term "duty" includes the rate and form of any import duty, including but not limited to tariff-rate quotas.

(2) The term "other import restriction" includes a limitation, prohibition, charge, or exaction other than duty, imposed on importation or imposed for the regulation of importation. The term does not include any orderly marketing agreement.

(3) The term "ad valorem" includes ad valorem equivalent. Whenever any limitation on the amount by which or to which any rate of duty may be decreased or increased pursuant to a trade agreement is expressed in terms of an ad valorem percentage, the ad valorem amount taken into account for purposes of such limitation shall be determined by the President on the basis of the value of imports of the articles concerned during the most recent representative period.

(4) The term "ad valorem equivalent" means the ad valorem equivalent of a specific rate or, in the case of a combination of rates including a specific rate, the sum of the ad valorem equivalent of the specific rate and of the ad valorem rate. The ad valorem equivalent shall be determined by the President on the basis of the value of imports of the article concerned during the most recent representative period. In determining the value of imports, the President shall utilize, to the maximum extent practicable, the standards of valuation contained in section 1401a or 1402 1 of this title (as in effect before the effective date of the amendments made by title II of the Trade Agreements Act of 1979) or in section 1401a of this title (as in effect on the effective date of such title II amendments) whichever is applicable to the article concerned during such representative period.

(5) An imported article is "directly competitive with" a domestic article at an earlier or later stage of processing, and a domestic article is "directly competitive with" an imported article at an earlier or later stage of processing, if the importation of the article has an economic effect on producers of the domestic article comparable to the effect of importation of articles in the same stage of processing as the domestic article. For purposes of this paragraph, the unprocessed article is at an earlier stage of processing.

(6) The term "modification", as applied to any duty or other import restriction, includes the elimination of any duty or other import restriction.

(7) The term "existing" means (A) when used, without the specification of any date, with respect to any matter relating to entering into or carrying out a trade agreement or other action authorized by this chapter, existing on the day on which such trade agreement is entered into or such other action is taken; and (B) when used with respect to a rate of duty, the nonpreferential rate of duty (however established, and even though temporarily suspended by Act of Congress or otherwise) set forth in rate column numbered 1 of chapters 1 through 97 of the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States on the date specified or (if no date is specified) on the day referred to in clause (A).

(8) A product of a country or area is an article which is the growth, produce, or manufacture of such country or area.

(9) The term "nondiscriminatory treatment" means trade treatment based on normal trade relations (known under international law as most-favored-nation treatment).

(10) The term "commerce" includes services associated with international trade.

(Pub. L. 93–618, title VI, §601, Jan. 3, 1975, 88 Stat. 2071; Pub. L. 96–39, title II, §202(c)(1), title XI, §1106(h)(1), July 26, 1979, 93 Stat. 202, 313; Pub. L. 100–418, title I, §1214(j)(5), Aug. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 1158; Pub. L. 105–206, title V, §5003(b)(2)(B), July 22, 1998, 112 Stat. 789.)

References in Text

Section 1402 of this title, referred to in par. (4), was repealed by Pub. L. 96–39, title II, §201(b), July 26, 1979, 93 Stat. 201.

The effective date of the amendments made by title II of the Trade Agreements Act of 1979, referred to in par. (4), is July 1, 1980. See section 204(a) of Pub. L. 96–39, set out as an Effective Date of 1979 Amendment note under section 1401a of this title.

The Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States, referred to in par. (7), is not set out in the Code. See Publication of Harmonized Tariff Schedule note set out under section 1202 of this title.

Amendments

1998—Par. (9). Pub. L. 105–206 substituted "trade treatment based on normal trade relations (known under international law as most-favored-nation treatment)" for "most-favored-nation treatment".

1988—Par. (7). Pub. L. 100–418 substituted "chapters 1 through 97 of the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States" for "schedules 1 through 7 of the Tariff Schedules of the United States".

1979—Par. (2). Pub. L. 96–39, §1106(h)(1), substituted "or exaction" for "and exaction".

Par. (4). Pub. L. 96–39, §202(c)(1), substituted "section 1401a or 1402 of this title (as in effect before the effective date of the amendments made by title II of the Trade Agreements Act of 1979) or in sections 1401a of this title (as in effect on the effective date of such title II amendments) whichever is applicable" for "section 1401a or 1402 of this title applicable".

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 100–418 effective Jan. 1, 1989, and applicable with respect to articles entered on or after such date, see section 1217(b)(1) of Pub. L. 100–418, set out as an Effective Date note under section 3001 of this title.

Effective Date of 1979 Amendment

Amendment by section 202(c)(1) of Pub. L. 96–39 effective July 1, 1980, see section 204(a) of Pub. L. 96–39, set out as a note under section 1401a of this title.

Amendment by section 1106(h)(1) of Pub. L. 96–39 effective July 26, 1979, see section 1114 of Pub. L. 96–39, set out as an Effective Date note under section 2581 of this title.

Savings Provision

Pub. L. 105–206, title V, §5003(c), July 22, 1998, 112 Stat. 790, provided that: "Nothing in this section [amending this section, sections 1881, 2432, 3332 and 3555 of this title, and sections 5401 and 5713 of Title 22, Foreign Relations and Intercourse, enacting provisions set out as notes under this section, and amending provisions set out as a note under section 2112 of this title] shall affect the meaning of any provision of law, Executive order, Presidential proclamation, rule, regulation, delegation of authority, other document, or treaty or other international agreement of the United States relating to the principle of 'most-favored-nation' (or 'most favored nation') treatment. Any Executive order, Presidential proclamation, rule, regulation, delegation of authority, other document, or treaty or other international agreement of the United States that has been issued, made, granted, or allowed to become effective and that is in effect on the effective date of this Act [July 22, 1998], or was to become effective on or after the effective date of this Act, shall continue in effect according to its terms until modified, terminated, superseded, set aside, or revoked in accordance with law."

Clarification of Designation of Normal Trade Relations

Pub. L. 105–206, title V, §5003(a), July 22, 1998, 112 Stat. 789, provided that:

"(1) Findings.—The Congress makes the following findings:

"(A) Since the 18th century, the principle of nondiscrimination among countries with which the United States has trade relations, commonly referred to as 'most-favored-nation' treatment, has been a cornerstone of United States trade policy.

"(B) Although the principle remains firmly in place as a fundamental concept in United States trade relations, the term 'most-favored-nation' is a misnomer which has led to public misunderstanding.

"(C) It is neither the purpose nor the effect of the most-favored-nation principle to treat any country as 'most favored'. To the contrary, the principle reflects the intention to confer on a country the same trade benefits that are conferred on any other country, that is, the intention not to discriminate among trading partners.

"(D) The term 'normal trade relations' is a more accurate description of the principle of nondiscrimination as it applies to the tariffs applicable generally to imports from United States trading partners, that is, the general rates of duty set forth in column 1 of the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States.

"(2) Policy.—It is the sense of the Congress that—

"(A) the language used in United States laws, treaties, agreements, executive orders, directives, and regulations should more clearly and accurately reflect the underlying principles of United States trade policy; and

"(B) accordingly, the term 'normal trade relations' should, where appropriate, be substituted for the term 'most-favored-nation'."

1 See References in Text note below.

§2482. Exercise of functions of International Trade Commission

(a) Preliminary investigation

In order to expedite the performance of its functions under this chapter, the International Trade Commission may conduct preliminary investigations, determine the scope and manner of its proceedings, and consolidate proceedings before it.

(b) Use of authority granted under other provisions

In performing its functions under this chapter, the Commission may exercise any authority granted to it under any other Act.

(c) Gathering of current information

The Commission shall at all times keep informed concerning the operation and effect of provisions relating to duties or other import restrictions of the United States contained in trade agreements entered into under the trade agreements program.

(Pub. L. 93–618, title VI, §603, Jan. 3, 1975, 88 Stat. 2073.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in subsecs. (a) and (b), was in the original "this Act", meaning Pub. L. 93–618, Jan. 3, 1975, 88 Stat. 1978, as amended, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see References in Text note set out under section 2101 of this title and Tables.

§2483. Consequential changes in Tariff Schedules of the United States

The President shall from time to time, as appropriate, embody in the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States the substance of the relevant provisions of this chapter, and of other Acts affecting import treatment, and actions thereunder, including removal, modification, continuance, or imposition of any rate of duty or other import restriction.

(Pub. L. 93–618, title VI, §604, Jan. 3, 1975, 88 Stat. 2073; Pub. L. 100–418, title I, §§1213(a), 1214(j)(4), Aug. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 1155, 1158.)

References in Text

The Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States, referred to in text, is not set out in the Code. See Publication of Harmonized Tariff Schedule note set out under section 1202 of this title.

This chapter, referred to in text, was in the original "this Act", meaning Pub. L. 93–618, Jan. 3, 1975, 88 Stat. 1978, as amended, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see References in Text note set out under section 2101 of this title and Tables.

Amendments

1988Pub. L. 100–418 substituted "Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States" for "Tariff Schedules of the United States" and inserted "removal," after "including".

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 100–418 effective Jan. 1, 1989, and applicable with respect to articles entered on or after such date, see section 1217(b)(1) of Pub. L. 100–418, set out as an Effective Date note under section 3001 of this title.

Delegation of Functions

Authority of President under this section to embody rectifications, technical or conforming changes, or similar modifications in the Harmonized Tariff Schedule delegated to the United States Trade Representative by par. (4) of Proc. No. 6969, Jan. 27, 1997, 62 F.R. 4417.

Proc. No. 6914. To Modify the Allocation of Tariff-Rate Quotas for Certain Cheeses

Proc. No. 6914, Aug. 26, 1996, 61 F.R. 45851, provided:

1. On January 1, 1995, Austria, Finland, and Sweden acceded to the European Communities (EC), and the EC customs union of 12 member countries ("EC-12") was enlarged to a customs union of 15 member countries ("EC-15"). At that time, the EC-12, Austria, Finland, and Sweden withdrew their tariff schedules under the World Trade Organization and applied the common external tariff of the EC-12 to imports into the EC-15. The United States and the EC then entered into negotiations under Article XXIV:6 and Article XXVIII of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade 1994 to compensate the United States for the resulting increase in some tariffs on U.S. exports to Austria, Finland, and Sweden.

2. On July 22, 1996, the United States and the EC signed an agreement concluding the negotiations on compensation. To recognize the membership of Austria, Finland, and Sweden in the EC-15, the tariff-rate quota (TRQ) allocations for cheeses from these countries will become part of the total TRQ allocations for cheeses from the EC-15, but will be reserved for use by these countries through 1997.

3. Section 404(d)(3) of the Uruguay Round Agreements Act (URAA) (19 U.S.C. 3601(d)(3)) authorizes the President to allocate the in-quota quantity of a tariff-rate quota for any agricultural product among supplying countries or customs areas and to modify any allocation as the President determines appropriate. Pursuant to section 404(d)(3) of the URAA, I have determined that it is appropriate to modify the TRQ allocations for cheeses by providing that the TRQ allocations for cheeses from Austria, Finland, and Sweden will become part of the total TRQ allocations for cheeses from the EC-15, but will be reserved for use by these countries through 1997.

4. Section 604 of the Trade Act of 1974, as amended ("Trade Act") (19 U.S.C. 2483), authorizes the President to embody in the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States (HTS) the substance of the relevant provisions of that Act, and of other Acts affecting import treatment, and actions thereunder, including the removal, modification, continuance, or imposition of any rate of duty or other import restriction. The modification of the TRQ allocations for cheeses is such an action.

5. In paragraph (3) of Proclamation 6763 of December 23, 1994, I delegated my authority under section 404(d)(3) of the Trade Act [probably means section 404(d)(3) of the URAA, 19 U.S.C. 3601(d)(3)] to the United States Trade Representative (USTR). I have determined that it is appropriate to authorize the USTR to exercise my authority under section 604 of the Trade Act [19 U.S.C. 2483] to embody in the HTS the substance of any action taken by the USTR under section 404(d)(3) of the URAA.

NOW, THEREFORE, I, WILLIAM J. CLINTON, President of the United States of America, acting under the authority vested in me by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, including but not limited to section 301 of title 3, United States Code, section 404(d)(3) of the URAA, and section 604 of the Trade Act do proclaim that:

(1) Additional U.S. notes to chapter 4 of the HTS are modified as specified in the Annex to this proclamation.

(2) The USTR is authorized to exercise my authority under section 604 of the Trade Act [19 U.S.C. 2483] to embody in the HTS the substance of any actions taken by USTR under section 404(d)(3) of the URAA [19 U.S.C. 3601(d)(3)].

(3) Any provisions of previous proclamations and Executive orders that are inconsistent with the actions taken in this proclamation are superseded to the extent of such inconsistency.

(4) This proclamation is effective on the date of signature of this proclamation, and the modifications to the HTS made by the Annex to this proclamation shall be effective on the dates that are specified in that Annex.

IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand this twenty-sixth day of August, in the year of our Lord nineteen hundred and ninety-six, and of the Independence of the United States of America the two hundred and twenty-first.

William J. Clinton.      

Annex

The Annex of Proclamation 6914, which amended the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States, is not set out under this section because the Harmonized Tariff Schedule is not set out in the Code. See Publication of Harmonized Tariff Schedule note set out under section 1202 of this title.

§2484. International drug control

The President shall submit a report to Congress at least once each calendar year listing those foreign countries in which narcotic drugs and other controlled substances (as listed under section 812 of title 21) are produced, processed, or transported for unlawful entry into the United States. Such report shall include a description of the measures such countries are taking to prevent such production, processing, or transport.

(Pub. L. 93–618, title VI, §606, Jan. 3, 1975, 88 Stat. 2073.)

§2485. Voluntary limitations on exports of steel to United States

No person shall be liable for damages, penalties, or other sanctions under the Federal Trade Commission Act [15 U.S.C. 41 et seq.] or the Antitrust Acts (as defined in section 4 of the Federal Trade Commission Act [15 U.S.C. 44]), or under any similar State law, on account of his negotiating, entering into, participating in, or implementing an arrangement providing for the voluntary limitation on exports of steel and steel products to the United States, or any modification or renewal of such an arrangement, if such arrangement or such modification or renewal—

(1) was undertaken prior to January 3, 1975, at the request of the Secretary of State or his delegate, and

(2) ceases to be effective not later than January 1, 1975.

(Pub. L. 93–618, title VI, §607, Jan. 3, 1975, 88 Stat. 2073.)

References in Text

The Federal Trade Commission Act, referred to in text, is act Sept. 26, 1914, ch. 311, 38 Stat. 717, as amended, which is classified generally to subchapter I (§41 et seq.) of chapter 2 of Title 15, Commerce and Trade. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 58 of Title 15 and Tables.

§2486. Trade relations with North American countries

(a) Negotiations for free trade area with Canada

It is the sense of the Congress that the United States should enter into a trade agreement with Canada which will guarantee continued stability to the economies of the United States and Canada. In order to promote such economic stability, the President may initiate negotiations for a trade agreement with Canada to establish a free trade area covering the United States and Canada. Nothing in this section shall be construed as prior approval of any legislation which may be necessary to implement such a trade agreement.

(b) Regional study

The President shall study the desirability of entering into trade agreements with countries in the northern portion of the western hemisphere to promote the economic growth of the United States and such countries and the mutual expansion of market opportunities and report to the Committee on Ways and Means of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Finance of the Senate his findings and conclusions within 2 years after July 26, 1979. The study shall include an examination of competitive opportunities and conditions of competition between such countries and the United States in the agricultural, energy, and other appropriate sectors.

(Pub. L. 93–618, title VI, §612, Jan. 3, 1975, 88 Stat. 2076; Pub. L. 96–39, title XI, §1104(a), (b)(1), July 26, 1979, 93 Stat. 310.)

Amendments

1979Pub. L. 96–39 designated existing provisions as subsec. (a) and added subsec. (b).

Effective Date of 1979 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 96–39 effective July 26, 1979, see section 1114 of Pub. L. 96–39, set out as an Effective Date note under section 2581 of this title.

§2487. Repealed. Pub. L. 102–145, §121, as added Pub. L. 102–266, §102, Apr. 1, 1992, 106 Stat. 95

Section, Pub. L. 93–618, title VI, §613, Jan. 3, 1975, 88 Stat. 2076, related to limitation on credit to Russia.