[USC02] 19 USC CHAPTER 13, SUBCHAPTER II, Part B: Functions of Federal Agencies
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19 USC CHAPTER 13, SUBCHAPTER II, Part B: Functions of Federal Agencies
From Title 19—CUSTOMS DUTIESCHAPTER 13—TRADE AGREEMENTS ACT OF 1979SUBCHAPTER II—TECHNICAL BARRIERS TO TRADE (STANDARDS)

Part B—Functions of Federal Agencies

§2541. Functions of Trade Representative

(a) In general

The Trade Representative shall coordinate the consideration of international trade policy issues that arise as a result of, and shall develop international trade policy as it relates to, the implementation of this subchapter.

(b) Negotiating functions

The Trade Representative has responsibility for coordinating United States discussions and negotiations with foreign countries for the purpose of establishing mutual arrangements with respect to standards-related activities. In carrying out this responsibility, the Trade Representative shall inform and consult with any Federal agency having expertise in the matters under discussion and negotiation.

(c) Cross reference

For provisions of law regarding general authority of the Trade Representative with respect to trade agreements, see section 2171 of this title.

(Pub. L. 96–39, title IV, §411, July 26, 1979, 93 Stat. 243; Pub. L. 103–182, title III, §351(b)(2), Dec. 8, 1993, 107 Stat. 2122; Pub. L. 104–295, §21(b)(1), (2), Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3529, 3530.)

Amendments

1996Pub. L. 104–295, §21(b)(1), amended directory language of Pub. L. 103–182, §351(b)(2). See 1993 Amendment notes below.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 104–295, §21(b)(2), substituted "Trade Representative" for "Special Representatives".

1993Pub. L. 103–182, §351(b)(2)(B), as amended by Pub. L. 104–295, §21(b)(1), substituted "Trade Representative" for "Special Representative" in section catchline.

Subsecs. (a), (b). Pub. L. 103–182, §351(b)(2)(A), as amended by Pub. L. 104–295, §21(b)(1), substituted "Trade Representative" for "Special Representative" wherever appearing.

§2542. Establishment and operation of technical offices

(a) Establishment

(1) For nonagricultural products

The Secretary of Commerce shall establish and maintain within the Department of Commerce a technical office that shall carry out the functions prescribed under subsection (b) with respect to nonagricultural products.

(2) For agricultural products

The Secretary of Agriculture shall establish and maintain within the Department of Agriculture a technical office that shall carry out the functions prescribed under subsection (b) with respect to agricultural products.

(b) Functions of offices

The President shall prescribe for each technical office established under subsection (a) such functions as the President deems necessary or appropriate to implement this subchapter.

(Pub. L. 96–39, title IV, §412, July 26, 1979, 93 Stat. 244.)

Delegation of Functions

Functions of President under subsec. (b) of this section delegated to Secretary of Commerce regarding technical office established under subsec. (a)(1) of this section, and to Secretary of Agriculture regarding technical office established under subsec. (a)(2) of this section, see section 1–103(a) of Ex. Ord. No. 12188, Jan. 2, 1980, 45 F.R. 990, set out as a note under section 2171 of this title.

§2543. Representation of United States interests before international standards organizations

(a) Oversight and consultation

The Secretary concerned shall—

(1) inform, and consult and coordinate with, the Trade Representative with respect to international standards-related activities identified under paragraph (2);

(2) keep adequately informed regarding international standards-related activities and identify those that may substantially affect the commerce of the United States; and

(3) carry out such functions as are required under subsections (b) and (c).

(b) Representation of United States interests by private persons

(1) Definitions

For purposes of this subsection—

(A) Organization member

The term "organization member" means the private person who holds membership in a private international standards organization.

(B) Private international standards organization

The term "private international standards organization" means any international standards organization before which the interests of the United States are represented by a private person who is officially recognized by that organization for such purpose.

(2) In general

Except as otherwise provided for in this subsection, the representation of United States interests before any private international standards organization shall be carried out by the organization member.

(3) Inadequate representation

If the Secretary concerned, after inquiry instituted on his own motion or at the request of any private person, Federal agency, or State agency having an interest therein, has reason to believe that the participation by the organization member in the proceedings of a private international standards organization will not result in the adequate representation of United States interests that are, or may be, affected by the activities of such organization (particularly with regard to the potential impact of any such activity on the international trade of the United States), the Secretary concerned shall immediately notify the organization member concerned. During any such inquiry, the Secretary concerned may solicit and consider the advice of the appropriate representatives referred to in section 2547 of this title.

(4) Action by organization member

If within the 90-day period after the date on which notification is received under paragraph (3) (or such shorter period as the Secretary concerned determines to be necessary in extraordinary circumstances), the organization member demonstrates to the Secretary concerned its willingness and ability to represent adequately United States interests before the private international standards organization, the Secretary concerned shall take no further action under this subsection.

(5) Action by Secretary concerned

If—

(A) within the appropriate period referred to in paragraph (4), the organization member does not respond to the Secretary concerned with respect to the notification, or does respond but does not demonstrate to the Secretary concerned the requisite willingness and ability to represent adequately United States interests; or

(B) there is no organization member of the private international standards organization;


the Secretary concerned shall make appropriate arrangements to provide for the adequate representation of United States interests. In cases where subparagraph (A) applies, such provision shall be made by the Secretary concerned through the appropriate organization member if the private international standards organization involved requires representation by that member.

(c) Representation of United States interests by Federal agencies

With respect to any international standards organization before which the interests of the United States are represented by one or more Federal agencies that are officially recognized by that organization for such purpose, the Secretary concerned shall—

(1) encourage cooperation among interested Federal agencies with a view toward facilitating the development of a uniform position with respect to the technical activities with which the organization is concerned;

(2) encourage such Federal agencies to seek information from, and to cooperate with, the affected domestic interests when undertaking such representation; and

(3) not preempt the responsibilities of any Federal agency that has jurisdiction with respect to the activities undertaken by such organization, unless requested to do so by such agency.

(Pub. L. 96–39, title IV, §413, July 26, 1979, 93 Stat. 244; Pub. L. 103–182, title III, §351(b)(2)(A), Dec. 8, 1993, 107 Stat. 2122; Pub. L. 104–295, §21(b)(1), Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3529.)

Amendments

1996—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 104–295 amended directory language of Pub. L. 103–182. See 1993 Amendment note below.

1993—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 103–182, as amended by Pub. L. 104–295, substituted "Trade Representative" for "Special Representative".

§2544. Standards information center

(a) Establishment

The Secretary of Commerce shall maintain within the Department of Commerce a standards information center.

(b) Functions

The standards information center shall—

(1) serve as the central national collection facility for information relating to (A) standards, technical regulations, conformity assessment procedures, and standards-related activities, whether such standards, technical regulations, conformity assessment procedures, or activities are public or private, domestic or foreign, or international, regional, national, or local and (B) the membership and participation of Federal, State, or local government bodies or private bodies in the United States in international and regional standardizing bodies and conformity assessment systems, as well as in bilateral and multilateral arrangements concerning standards-related activities;

(2) make available to the public at such reasonable fee as the Secretary shall prescribe, copies of information required to be collected under paragraph (1) other than information to which paragraph (3) applies;

(3) use its best efforts to make available to the public, at such reasonable fees as the Secretary shall prescribe, copies of information required to be collected under paragraph (1) that is of private origin, on a cooperative basis with the private individual or entity, foreign or domestic, who holds the copyright on the information;

(4) in case of such information that is of foreign origin, provide, at such reasonable fee as the Secretary shall prescribe, such translation services as may be necessary;

(5) serve as the inquiry point for requests for information regarding standards-related activities, whether adopted or proposed, within the United States, except that in carrying out this paragraph, the Secretary of Commerce shall refer all inquiries regarding agricultural products to the technical office established under section 2542(a)(2) of this title within the Department of Agriculture; and

(6) provide such other services as may be appropriate, including but not limited to, such services to the technical offices established under section 2542 of this title as may be requested by those offices in carrying out their functions.

(c) Sanitary and phytosanitary measures

(1) Public information

The standards information center shall, in addition to the functions specified under subsection (b), make available to the public relevant documents, at such reasonable fees as the Secretary of Commerce may prescribe, and information regarding—

(A) any sanitary or phytosanitary measure of general application, including any inspection procedure or approval procedure proposed, adopted, or maintained by a Federal agency or agency of a State or local government;

(B) the procedures of a Federal agency or an agency of a State or local government for risk assessment and factors the agency considers in conducting the assessment;

(C) the determination of the levels of protection that a Federal agency or an agency of a State or local government considers appropriate; and

(D) the membership and participation of the Federal Government and State and local governments in international and regional sanitary and phytosanitary organizations and systems, and in bilateral and multilateral arrangements regarding sanitary and phytosanitary measures, and the provisions of those systems and arrangements.

(2) Definitions

The definitions in section 2575b of this title apply for purposes of this subsection.

(Pub. L. 96–39, title IV, §414, July 26, 1979, 93 Stat. 245; Pub. L. 103–465, title III, §351(d), title IV, §431(a), Dec. 8, 1994, 108 Stat. 4956, 4966; Pub. L. 104–295, §20(c)(15), Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3529.)

Amendments

1996—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 104–295 struck out comma after "procedures," in two places.

1994—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 103–465, §351(d), inserted "(A)" after "relating to", substituted "technical regulations, conformity assessment procedures," for "certification systems" and "such standards, technical regulations, conformity assessment procedures," for "such standards, systems", and inserted "and" and cl. (B) before semicolon at end.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 103–465, §431(a), added subsec. (c).

Effective Date of 1994 Amendment

Amendment by section 351(d) of Pub. L. 103–465 effective on the date on which the WTO Agreement enters into force with respect to the United States (Jan. 1, 1995), see section 352 of Pub. L. 103–465, set out as a note under section 2531 of this title.

Amendment by section 431(a) of Pub. L. 103–465 effective on the date of entry into force of the WTO Agreement with respect to the United States [Jan. 1, 1995], except as otherwise provided, see section 451 of Pub. L. 103–465, set out as an Effective Date note under section 3601 of this title.

§2545. Contracts and grants

(a) In general

For purposes of carrying out this subchapter, and otherwise encouraging compliance with the Agreement, the Trade Representative and the Secretary concerned may each, with respect to functions for which responsible under this subchapter, make grants to, or enter into contracts with, any other Federal agency, any State agency, or any private person, to assist such agency or person to implement appropriate programs and activities, including, but not limited to, programs and activities—

(1) to increase awareness of proposed and adopted standards-related activities;

(2) to facilitate international trade through the appropriate international and domestic standards-related activities;

(3) to provide, if appropriate, and pursuant to section 2543 of this title, adequate United States representation in international standards-related activities; and

(4) to encourage United States exports through increased awareness of foreign standards-related activities that may affect United States exports.


No contract entered into under this section shall be effective except to such extent, and in such amount, as is provided in advance in appropriation Acts.

(b) Terms and conditions

Any contract entered into, or any grant made, under subsection (a) shall be subject to such terms and conditions as the Trade Representative or Secretary concerned shall by regulation prescribe as being necessary or appropriate to protect the interests of the United States.

(c) Limitations

Financial assistance extended under this section shall not exceed 75 percent of the total costs (as established by the Trade Representative or Secretary concerned, as the case may be) of the program or activity for which assistance is made available. The non-Federal share of such costs shall be made in cash or kind, consistent with the maintenance of the program or activity concerned.

(d) Audit

Each recipient of a grant or contract under this section shall make available to the Trade Representative or the Secretary concerned, as the case may be, and to the Comptroller General of the United States, for purposes of audit and examination, any book, document, paper, and record that is pertinent to the funds received under such grant or contract.

(Pub. L. 96–39, title IV, §415, July 26, 1979, 93 Stat. 246; Pub. L. 103–182, title III, §351(b)(2)(A), Dec. 8, 1993, 107 Stat. 2122; Pub. L. 104–295, §21(b)(1), Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3529.)

Amendments

1996Pub. L. 104–295 amended directory language of Pub. L. 103–182. See 1993 Amendment note below.

1993Pub. L. 103–182, as amended by Pub. L. 104–295, substituted "Trade Representative" for "Special Representative" wherever appearing.

§2546. Technical assistance

The Trade Representative and the Secretary concerned may each, with respect to functions for which responsible under this subchapter, make available, on a reimbursable basis or otherwise, to any other Federal agency, State agency, or private person such assistance, including, but not limited to, employees, services, and facilities, as may be appropriate to assist such agency or person in carrying out standards-related activities in a manner consistent with this subchapter.

(Pub. L. 96–39, title IV, §416, July 26, 1979, 93 Stat. 247; Pub. L. 103–182, title III, §351(b)(2)(A), Dec. 8, 1993, 107 Stat. 2122; Pub. L. 104–295, §21(b)(1), Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3529.)

Amendments

1996Pub. L. 104–295 amended directory language of Pub. L. 103–182. See 1993 Amendment note below.

1993Pub. L. 103–182, as amended by Pub. L. 104–295, substituted "Trade Representative" for "Special Representative".

§2547. Consultations with representatives of domestic interests

In carrying out the functions for which responsible under this subchapter, the Trade Representative and the Secretary concerned shall solicit technical and policy advice from the committees, established under section 2155 of this title, that represent the interests concerned, and may solicit advice from appropriate State agencies and private persons.

(Pub. L. 96–39, title IV, §417, July 26, 1979, 93 Stat. 247; Pub. L. 103–182, title III, §351(b)(2)(A), Dec. 8, 1993, 107 Stat. 2122; Pub. L. 104–295, §21(b)(1), Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3529.)

Amendments

1996Pub. L. 104–295 amended directory language of Pub. L. 103–182. See 1993 Amendment note below.

1993Pub. L. 103–182, as amended by Pub. L. 104–295, substituted "Trade Representative" for "Special Representative".