[USC02] 19 USC CHAPTER 28, SUBCHAPTER VIII: MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS
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19 USC CHAPTER 28, SUBCHAPTER VIII: MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS
From Title 19—CUSTOMS DUTIESCHAPTER 28—TRADE FACILITATION AND TRADE ENFORCEMENT

SUBCHAPTER VIII—MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS

§4451. Report on certain U.S. Customs and Border Protection agreements

(a) In general

Not later than one year after entering into an agreement under a program specified in subsection (b), and annually thereafter until the termination of the program, the Commissioner shall submit to the Committee on Finance and the Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs of the Senate and the Committee on Ways and Means and the Committee on Homeland Security of the House of Representatives a report that includes the following:

(1) A description of the development of the program, including an identification of the authority under which the program operates.

(2) A description of the type of entity with which U.S. Customs and Border Protection entered into the agreement and the amount that entity reimbursed U.S. Customs and Border Protection under the agreement.

(3) An identification of the type of port of entry to which the agreement relates and an assessment of how the agreement provides economic benefits and security benefits (if applicable) at the port of entry.

(4) A description of the services provided by U.S. Customs and Border Protection under the agreement during the year preceding the submission of the report.

(5) The amount of fees collected under the agreement during that year.

(6) The total operating expenses of the program during that year.

(7) A detailed accounting of how the fees collected under the agreement have been spent during that year.

(8) A summary of any complaints or criticism received by U.S. Customs and Border Protection during that year regarding the agreement.

(9) An assessment of the compliance of the entity described in paragraph (2) with the terms of the agreement.

(10) Recommendations with respect to how activities conducted pursuant to the agreement could function more effectively or better produce economic benefits and security benefits (if applicable).

(11) A summary of the benefits to and challenges faced by U.S. Customs and Border Protection and the entity described in paragraph (2) under the agreement.

(12) If the entity described in paragraph (2) is an operator of an airport—

(A) a detailed account of the revenue collected by U.S. Customs and Border Protection at the airport from—

(i) fees collected under the agreement; and

(ii) fees collected from sources other than under the agreement, including fees paid by passengers and air carriers; and


(B) an assessment of the revenue described in subparagraph (A) compared with the operating costs of U.S. Customs and Border Protection at the airport.

(b) Program specified

A program specified in this subsection is—

(1) the program for entering into reimbursable fee agreements for the provision of U.S. Customs and Border Protection services established by section 560 of the Department of Homeland Security Appropriations Act, 2013 (division D of Public Law 113–6; 127 Stat. 378);

(2) the pilot program authorizing U.S. Customs and Border Protection to enter into partnerships with private sector and government entities at ports of entry established by section 559 of the Department of Homeland Security Appropriations Act, 2014 (division F of Public Law 113–76; 6 U.S.C. 211 note);

(3) the program under which U.S. Customs and Border Protection collects a fee for the use of customs services at designated facilities under section 58b of this title;

(4) the program established by subchapter VII of this chapter authorizing U.S. Customs and Border Protection to establish preclearance operations in foreign countries; or

(5) the program for entering into reimbursable fee agreements with U.S. Customs and Border Protection established under section 301 of title 6.

(Pub. L. 114–125, title IX, §907, Feb. 24, 2016, 130 Stat. 234; Pub. L. 114–279, §3, Dec. 16, 2016, 130 Stat. 1422.)

References in Text

Section 560 of the Department of Homeland Security Appropriations Act, 2013 (division D of Public Law 113–6; 127 Stat. 378), referred to in subsec. (b)(1), is not classified to the Code.

Subchapter VII of this chapter, referred to in subsec. (b)(4), was in the original "subtitle B of title VIII of this Act", meaning subtitle B (§§811–819) of title VIII of Pub. L. 114–125, which is classified principally to subchapter VII of this chapter. For complete classification of subtitle B to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 4301 of this title and Tables.

Amendments

2016—Subsec. (b)(5). Pub. L. 114–279 added par. (5).

§4452. United States-Israel trade and commercial enhancement

(a) Findings

Congress finds the following:

(1) Israel is America's dependable, democratic ally in the Middle East—an area of paramount strategic importance to the United States.

(2) The United States-Israel Free Trade Agreement formed the modern foundation of the bilateral commercial relationship between the two countries and was the first such agreement signed by the United States with a foreign country.

(3) The United States-Israel Free Trade Agreement has been instrumental in expanding commerce and the strategic relationship between the United States and Israel.

(4) More than $45,000,000,000 in goods and services is traded annually between the two countries, in addition to roughly $10,000,000,000 in United States foreign direct investment in Israel.

(5) The United States continues to look for and find new opportunities to enhance cooperation with Israel, including through the enactment of the United States-Israel Enhanced Security Cooperation Act of 2012 (Public Law 112–150; 22 U.S.C. 8601 et seq.) and the United States-Israel Strategic Partnership Act of 2014 (Public Law 113–296; 128 Stat. 4075).

(6) It has been the policy of the United States Government to combat all elements of the Arab League Boycott of Israel by—

(A) public statements of Administration officials;

(B) enactment of relevant sections of the Export Administration Act of 1979 (50 U.S.C. 4601 et seq.) (as continued in effect pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701 et seq.)), including sections to ensure foreign persons comply with applicable reporting requirements relating to the Boycott;

(C) enactment of the Tax Reform Act of 1976 (Public Law 94–455; 90 Stat. 1520) that denies certain tax benefits to entities abiding by the Boycott;

(D) ensuring through free trade agreements with Bahrain and Oman that such countries no longer participate in the Boycott; and

(E) ensuring as a condition of membership in the World Trade Organization that Saudi Arabia no longer enforces the secondary or tertiary elements of the Boycott.

(b) Statements of policy

Congress—

(1) supports the strengthening of economic cooperation between the United States and Israel and recognizes the tremendous strategic, economic, and technological value of cooperation with Israel;

(2) recognizes the benefit of cooperation with Israel to United States companies, including by improving American competitiveness in global markets;

(3) recognizes the importance of trade and commercial relations to the pursuit and sustainability of peace, and supports efforts to bring together the United States, Israel, the Palestinian territories, and others in enhanced commerce;

(4) opposes politically motivated actions that penalize or otherwise limit commercial relations specifically with Israel, such as boycotts of, divestment from, or sanctions against Israel;

(5) notes that boycotts of, divestment from, and sanctions against Israel by governments, governmental bodies, quasi-governmental bodies, international organizations, and other such entities are contrary to principle of nondiscrimination under the GATT 1994 (as defined in section 3501(1)(B) of this title);

(6) encourages the inclusion of politically motivated actions that penalize or otherwise limit commercial relations specifically with Israel such as boycotts of, divestment from, or sanctions against Israel as a topic of discussion at the U.S.-Israel Joint Economic Development Group (JEDG) to support the strengthening of the United States-Israel commercial relationship and combat any commercial discrimination against Israel; and

(7) supports efforts to prevent investigations or prosecutions by governments or international organizations of United States persons solely on the basis of such persons doing business with Israel, with Israeli entities, or in any territory controlled by Israel.

(c) Principal trade negotiating objectives of the United States

(1) Commercial partnerships

Among the principal trade negotiating objectives of the United States for proposed trade agreements with foreign countries regarding commercial partnerships are the following:

(A) To discourage actions by potential trading partners that directly or indirectly prejudice or otherwise discourage commercial activity solely between the United States and Israel.

(B) To discourage politically motivated boycotts of, divestment from, and sanctions against Israel and to seek the elimination of politically motivated nontariff barriers on Israeli goods, services, or other commerce imposed on Israel.

(C) To seek the elimination of state-sponsored unsanctioned foreign boycotts of Israel, or compliance with the Arab League Boycott of Israel, by prospective trading partners.

(2) Effective date

This subsection takes effect on February 24, 2016, and applies with respect to negotiations commenced before, on, or after such date.

(d) Report on politically motivated acts of boycott of, divestment from, and sanctions against Israel

(1) In general

Not later than 180 days after February 24, 2016, and annually thereafter, the President shall submit to Congress a report on politically motivated boycotts of, divestment from, and sanctions against Israel.

(2) Matters to be included

The report required by paragraph (1) shall include the following:

(A) A description of the establishment of barriers to trade, including nontariff barriers, investment, or commerce by foreign countries or international organizations against United States persons operating or doing business in Israel, with Israeli entities, or in Israeli-controlled territories.

(B) A description of specific steps being taken by the United States to encourage foreign countries and international organizations to cease creating such barriers and to dismantle measures already in place, and an assessment of the effectiveness of such steps.

(C) A description of specific steps being taken by the United States to prevent investigations or prosecutions by governments or international organizations of United States persons solely on the basis of such persons doing business with Israel, with Israeli entities, or in Israeli-controlled territories.

(D) Decisions by foreign persons, including corporate entities and state-affiliated financial institutions, that limit or prohibit economic relations with Israel or persons doing business in Israel or in any territory controlled by Israel.

(e) Certain foreign judgments against United States persons

Notwithstanding any other provision of law, no domestic court shall recognize or enforce any foreign judgment entered against a United States person that conducts business operations in Israel, or any territory controlled by Israel, if the domestic court determines that the foreign judgment is based, in whole or in part, on a determination by a foreign court that the United States person's conducting business operations in Israel or any territory controlled by Israel or with Israeli entities constitutes a violation of law.

(f) Definitions

In this section:

(1) Boycott of, divestment from, and sanctions against Israel

The term "boycott of, divestment from, and sanctions against Israel" means actions by states, nonmember states of the United Nations, international organizations, or affiliated agencies of international organizations that are politically motivated and are intended to penalize or otherwise limit commercial relations specifically with Israel or persons doing business in Israel or in any territory controlled by Israel.

(2) Domestic court

The term "domestic court" means a Federal court of the United States, or a court of any State or territory of the United States or of the District of Columbia.

(3) Foreign court

The term "foreign court" means a court, an administrative body, or other tribunal of a foreign country.

(4) Foreign judgment

The term "foreign judgment" means a final civil judgment rendered by a foreign court.

(5) Foreign person

The term "foreign person" means—

(A) an individual who is not a United States person or an alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence into the United States; or

(B) a corporation, partnership, or other nongovernmental entity which is not a United States person.

(6) Person

(A) In general

The term "person" means—

(i) a natural person;

(ii) a corporation, business association, partnership, society, trust, financial institution, insurer, underwriter, guarantor, and any other business organization, any other nongovernmental entity, organization, or group, and any governmental entity operating as a business enterprise; and

(iii) any successor to any entity described in clause (ii).

(B) Application to governmental entities

The term "person" does not include a government or governmental entity that is not operating as a business enterprise.

(7) United States person

The term "United States person" means—

(A) a natural person who is a national of the United States (as defined in section 1101(a)(22) of title 8); or

(B) a corporation or other legal entity that is organized under the laws of the United States, any State or territory thereof, or the District of Columbia, if natural persons described in subparagraph (A) own, directly or indirectly, more than 50 percent of the outstanding capital stock or other beneficial interest in such legal entity.

(Pub. L. 114–125, title IX, §909, Feb. 24, 2016, 130 Stat. 236.)

References in Text

The United States-Israel Enhanced Security Cooperation Act of 2012, referred to in subsec. (a)(5), is Pub. L. 112–150, July 27, 2012, 126 Stat. 1146, which is classified principally to chapter 93 (§8601 et seq.) of Title 22, Foreign Relations and Intercourse. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 8601 of Title 22 and Tables.

The United States-Israel Strategic Partnership Act of 2014, referred to in subsec. (a)(5), is Pub. L. 113–296, Dec. 19, 2014, 128 Stat. 4075. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title of 2014 Amendment note set out under section 8601 of Title 22, Foreign Relations and Intercourse, and Tables.

The Export Administration Act of 1979, referred to in subsec. (a)(6)(B), is Pub. L. 96–72, Sept. 29, 1979, 93 Stat. 503, which was classified principally to chapter 56 (§4601 et seq.) of Title 50, War and National Defense, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 115–232, div. A, title XVII, §1766(a), Aug. 13, 2018, 132 Stat. 2232, except for sections 11A, 11B, and 11C thereof (50 U.S.C. 4611, 4612, 4613).

The International Emergency Economic Powers Act, referred to in subsec. (a)(6)(B), is title II of Pub. L. 95–223, Dec. 28, 1977, 91 Stat. 1626, which is classified generally to chapter 35 (§1701 et seq.) of Title 50, War and National Defense. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1701 of Title 50 and Tables.

The Tax Reform Act of 1976, referred to in subsec. (a)(6)(C), is Pub. L. 94–455, Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1520. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Tables.

Delegation of Functions

Functions of President under subsec. (d) of this section assigned to Secretary of State, in consultation with other relevant Federal agencies, see Ex. Ord. No. 13733, §1(b), July 22, 2016, 81 F.R. 49515, set out as a note under section 4421 of this title.

§4453. Report on compliance with prohibition on importation of goods made with convict, forced, or indentured labor

Not later than 180 days after February 24, 2016, and annually thereafter, the Commissioner shall submit to the Committee on Finance of the Senate and the Committee on Ways and Means of the House of Representatives a report on compliance with section 1307 of this title that includes the following:

(1) The number of instances in which merchandise was denied entry pursuant to that section during the 1-year period preceding the submission of the report.

(2) A description of the merchandise denied entry pursuant to that section.

(3) Such other information as the Commissioner considers appropriate with respect to monitoring and enforcing compliance with that section.

(Pub. L. 114–125, title IX, §910(b), Feb. 24, 2016, 130 Stat. 239.)

§4454. Trade preferences for Nepal

(a) Findings

Congress makes the following findings:

(1) Nepal is among the least developed countries in the world, with a per capita gross national income of $730 in 2014.

(2) Nepal suffered a devastating earthquake in April 2015, with subsequent aftershocks. More than 9,000 people died and approximately 23,000 people were injured.

(b) Eligibility requirements

(1) In general

The President may authorize the provision of preferential treatment under this section to articles that are imported directly from Nepal into the customs territory of the United States pursuant to subsection (c) if the President determines—

(A) that Nepal meets the requirements set forth in paragraphs (1), (2), and (3) of section 3703(a) 1 of this title; and

(B) after taking into account the factors set forth in paragraphs (1) through (7) of subsection (c) of section 502 of the Trade Act of 1974 (19 U.S.C. 2462), that Nepal meets the eligibility requirements of such section 502.

(2) Withdrawal, suspension, or limitation of preferential treatment; mandatory graduation

The provisions of subsections (d) and (e) of section 502 of the Trade Act of 1974 (19 U.S.C. 2462) shall apply with respect to Nepal to the same extent and in the same manner as such provisions apply with respect to beneficiary developing countries under title V of that Act (19 U.S.C. 2461 et seq.).

(c) Eligible articles

(1) In general

An article described in paragraph (2) may enter the customs territory of the United States free of duty.

(2) Articles described

(A) In general

An article is described in this paragraph if—

(i)(I) the article is the growth, product, or manufacture of Nepal; and

(II) in the case of a textile or apparel article, Nepal is the country of origin of the article, as determined under section 102.21 of title 19, Code of Federal Regulations (as in effect on the day before February 24, 2016);

(ii) the article is imported directly from Nepal into the customs territory of the United States;

(iii) the article is classified under any of the following subheadings of the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States (as in effect on the day before February 24, 2016):

 
   
   4202.11.00 4202.22.60 4202.92.08
   4202.12.20 4202.22.70 4202.92.15
   4202.12.40 4202.22.80 4202.92.20
   4202.12.60 4202.29.50 4202.92.30
   4202.12.80 4202.29.90 4202.92.45
   4202.21.60 4202.31.60 4202.92.60
   4202.21.90 4202.32.40 4202.92.90
   4202.22.15 4202.32.80 4202.99.90
   4202.22.40 4202.32.95 4203.29.50
   4202.22.45 4202.91.00
   
   5701.10.90 5702.91.30 5703.10.80
   5702.31.20 5702.91.40 5703.90.00
   5702.49.20 5702.92.90 5705.00.20
   5702.50.40 5702.99.15
   5702.50.59 5703.10.20
   
   6117.10.60 6214.20.00 6217.10.85
   6117.80.85 6214.40.00 6301.90.00
   6214.10.10 6214.90.00 6308.00.00
   6214.10.20 6216.00.80
   
   6504.00.90 6505.00.30 6505.00.90
   6505.00.08 6505.00.40 6506.99.30
   6505.00.15 6505.00.50 6506.99.60
   6505.00.20 6505.00.60
   6505.00.25 6505.00.80

(iv) the President determines, after receiving the advice of the United States International Trade Commission in accordance with section 503(e) of the Trade Act of 1974 (19 U.S.C. 2463(e)), that the article is not import-sensitive in the context of imports from Nepal; and

(v) subject to subparagraph (C), the sum of the cost or value of the materials produced in, and the direct costs of processing operations performed in, Nepal or the customs territory of the United States is not less than 35 percent of the appraised value of the article at the time it is entered.

(B) Exclusions

An article shall not be treated as the growth, product, or manufacture of Nepal for purposes of subparagraph (A)(i)(I) by virtue of having merely undergone—

(i) simple combining or packaging operations; or

(ii) mere dilution with water or mere dilution with another substance that does not materially alter the characteristics of the article.

(C) Limitation on United States cost

For purposes of subparagraph (A)(v), the cost or value of materials produced in, and the direct costs of processing operations performed in, the customs territory of the United States and attributed to the 35-percent requirement under that subparagraph may not exceed 15 percent of the appraised value of the article at the time it is entered.

(3) Verification with respect to transshipment for textile and apparel articles

(A) In general

Not later than January 1, April 1, July 1, and October 1 of each calendar year, the Commissioner shall verify that textile and apparel articles imported from Nepal to which preferential treatment is extended under this section are not being unlawfully transshipped into the United States.

(B) Report to President

If the Commissioner determines under subparagraph (A) that textile and apparel articles imported from Nepal to which preferential treatment is extended under this section are being unlawfully transshipped into the United States, the Commissioner shall report that determination to the President.

(d) Trade facilitation and capacity building

(1) Findings

Congress makes the following findings:

(A) As a land-locked least-developed country, Nepal has severe challenges reaching markets and developing capacity to export goods. As of 2015, exports from Nepal are approximately $800,000,000 per year, with India the major market at $450,000,000 annually. The United States imports about $80,000,000 worth of goods from Nepal, or 10 percent of the total goods exported from Nepal.

(B) The World Bank has found evidence that the overall export competitiveness of Nepal has been declining since 2005. Indices compiled by the World Bank and the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development found that export costs in Nepal are high with respect to both air cargo and container shipments relative to other low-income countries. Such indices also identify particular weaknesses in Nepal with respect to automation of customs and other trade functions, involvement of local exporters and importers in preparing regulations and trade rules, and export finance.

(C) Implementation by Nepal of the Agreement on Trade Facilitation of the World Trade Organization could directly address some of the weaknesses described in subparagraph (B).

(2) Establishment of trade facilitation and capacity building program

Not later than 180 days after February 24, 2016, the President shall, in consultation with the Government of Nepal, establish a trade facilitation and capacity building program for Nepal—

(A) to enhance the central export promotion agency of Nepal to support successful exporters and to build awareness among potential exporters in Nepal about opportunities abroad and ways to manage trade documentation and regulations in the United States and other countries;

(B) to provide export finance training for financial institutions in Nepal and the Government of Nepal;

(C) to assist the Government of Nepal in maintaining publication on the Internet of all trade regulations, forms for exporters and importers, tax and tariff rates, and other documentation relating to exporting goods and developing a robust public-private dialogue, through its National Trade Facilitation Committee, for Nepal to identify timelines for implementation of key reforms and solutions, as provided for under the Agreement on Trade Facilitation of the World Trade Organization; and

(D) to increase access to guides for importers and exporters, through publication of such guides on the Internet, including rules and documentation for United States tariff preference programs.

(e) Reporting requirement

Not later than one year after February 24, 2016, and annually thereafter, the President shall monitor, review, and report to Congress on the implementation of this section, the compliance of Nepal with subsection (b)(1), and the trade and investment policy of the United States with respect to Nepal.

(f) Termination of preferential treatment

No preferential treatment extended under this section shall remain in effect after December 31, 2025.

(g) Effective date

The provisions of this section shall take effect on the date that is 30 days after February 24, 2016.

(Pub. L. 114–125, title IX, §915, Feb. 24, 2016, 130 Stat. 276.)

References in Text

Section 3703(a) of this title, referred to in subsec. (b)(1)(A), was amended and the subsection (a) designation struck out by Pub. L. 114–27, title I, §111, June 29, 2015, 129 Stat. 370.

The Trade Act of 1974, referred to in subsec. (b)(2), is Pub. L. 93–618, Jan. 3, 1975, 88 Stat. 1978. Title V of the Act is classified generally to subchapter V (§2461 et seq.) of chapter 12 of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 2101 of this title and Tables.

The Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States, referred to in subsec. (c)(2)(A)(iii), is not set out in the Code. See Publication of Harmonized Tariff Schedule note set out under section 1202 of this title.

Delegation of Functions

Functions of President under subsec. (d) of this section assigned to the Administrator of the United States Agency for International Development, in consultation with the Secretary of State and the United States Trade Representative, and under subsec. (e) of this section assigned to the United States Trade Representative, in consultation with the Secretary of State, see Ex. Ord. No. 13733, §1(c), (d), July 22, 2016, 81 F.R. 49515, set out as a note under section 4421 of this title.

1 See References in Text note below.