[USC02] 19 USC CHAPTER 4, misc, Part III: Promotion of Foreign Trade
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19 USC CHAPTER 4, misc, Part III: Promotion of Foreign Trade
From Title 19—CUSTOMS DUTIESCHAPTER 4—TARIFF ACT OF 1930

Part III—Promotion of Foreign Trade

§1351. Foreign trade agreements

(a) Authority of President; modification and decrease of duties; altering import restrictions

(1) For the purpose of expanding foreign markets for the products of the United States (as a means of assisting in establishing and maintaining a better relationship among various branches of American agriculture, industry, mining, and commerce) by regulating the admission of foreign goods into the United States in accordance with the characteristics and needs of various branches of American production so that foreign markets will be made available to those branches of American production which require and are capable of developing such outlets by affording corresponding market opportunities for foreign products in the United States, the President, whenever he finds as a fact that any existing duties or other import restrictions of the United States or any foreign country are unduly burdening and restricting the foreign trade of the United States and that the purpose above declared will be promoted by the means hereinafter specified, is authorized from time to time—

(A) To enter into foreign trade agreements with foreign governments or instrumentalities thereof: Provided, That the enactment of the Trade Agreements Extension Act of 1955 shall not be construed to determine or indicate the approval or disapproval by the Congress of the executive agreement known as the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade.

(B) To proclaim such modifications of existing duties and other import restrictions, or such additional import restrictions, or such continuance, and for such minimum periods, of existing customs or excise treatment of any article covered by foreign trade agreements, as are required or appropriate to carry out any foreign trade agreement that the President has entered into hereunder.


(2) No proclamation pursuant to paragraph (1)(B) of this subsection shall be made—

(A) Increasing by more than 50 per centum any rate of duty existing on July 1, 1934; except that a specific rate of duty existing on July 1, 1934, may be converted to its ad valorem equivalent based on the value of imports of the article concerned during the calendar year 1934 (determined in the same manner as provided in subparagraph (D)(ii)) and the proclamation may provide an ad valorem rate of duty not in excess of 50 per centum above such ad valorem equivalent.

(B) Transferring any article between the dutiable and free lists.

(C) In order to carry out a foreign trade agreement entered into by the President before June 12, 1955, or with respect to which notice of intention to negotiate was published in the Federal Register on November 16, 1954, decreasing by more than 50 per centum any rate of duty existing on January 1, 1945.

(D) In order to carry out a foreign trade agreement entered into by the President on or after June 12, 1955, and before July 1, 1958, decreasing (except as provided in subparagraph (C) of this paragraph) any rate of duty below the lowest of the following rates:

(i) The rate 15 per centum below the rate existing on January 1, 1955.

(ii) In the case of any article subject to an ad valorem rate of duty above 50 per centum (or a combination of ad valorem rates aggregating more than 50 per centum), the rate 50 per centum ad valorem (or a combination of ad valorem rates aggregating 50 per centum). In the case of any article subject to a specific rate of duty (or a combination of rates including a specific rate) the ad valorem equivalent of which has been determined by the President to have been above 50 per centum during a period determined by the President to be a representative period, the rate 50 per centum ad valorem or the rate (or a combination of rates), however stated, the ad valorem equivalent of which the President determines would have been 50 per centum during such period. The standards of valuation contained in section 1401a of this title (as in effect, with respect to the article concerned, during the representative period) shall be utilized by the President, to the maximum extent he finds such utilization practicable, in making the determinations under the preceding sentence.


(E) In order to carry out a foreign trade agreement entered into by the President on or after July 1, 1958, decreasing any rate of duty below the lowest of the rates provided for in paragraph (4)(A) of this subsection.


(3)(A) Subject to the provisions of subparagraphs (B) and (C) of this paragraph and of subparagraph (B) of paragraph (4) of this subsection, the provisions of any proclamation made under paragraph (1)(B) of this subsection, and the provisions of any proclamation of suspension under paragraph (5) of this subsection, shall be in effect from and after such time as is specified in the proclamation.

(B) In the case of any decrease in duty to which paragraph (2)(D) of this subsection applies—

(i) if the total amount of the decrease under the foreign trade agreement does not exceed 15 per centum of the rate existing on January 1, 1955, the amount of decrease becoming initially effective at one time shall not exceed 5 per centum of the rate existing on January 1, 1955;

(ii) except as provided in clause (i), not more than one-third of the total amount of the decrease under the foreign trade agreement shall become initially effective at one time; and

(iii) no part of the decrease after the first part shall become initially effective until the immediately previous part shall have been in effect for a period or periods aggregating not less than one year.


(C) No part of any decrease in duty to which the alternative specified in paragraph (2)(D)(i) of this subsection applies shall become initially effective after the expiration of the three-year period which begins on July 1, 1955. If any part of such decrease has become effective, then for purposes of this subparagraph any time thereafter during which such part of the decrease is not in effect by reason of legislation of the United States or action thereunder shall be excluded in determining when the three-year period expires.

(D) If (in order to carry out a foreign trade agreement entered into by the President on or after June 12, 1955) the President determines that such action will simplify the computation of the amount of duty imposed with respect to an article, he may exceed any limitation specified in paragraph (2)(C) or (D) or paragraph (4)(A) or (B) of this subsection or subparagraph (B) of this paragraph by not more than whichever of the following is lesser:

(i) The difference between the limitation and the next lower whole number, or

(ii) One-half of 1 per centum ad valorem.


In the case of a specific rate (or of a combination of rates which includes a specific rate), the one-half of 1 per centum specified in clause (ii) of the preceding sentence shall be determined in the same manner as the ad valorem equivalent of rates not stated wholly in ad valorem terms is determined for the purposes of paragraph (2)(D)(ii) of this subsection.

(4)(A) No proclamation pursuant to paragraph (1)(B) of this subsection shall be made, in order to carry out a foreign trade agreement entered into by the President on or after July 1, 1958, decreasing any rate of duty below the lowest of the following rates:

(i) The rate which would result from decreasing the rate existing on July 1, 1958, by 20 per centum of such rate.

(ii) Subject to paragraph (2)(B) of this subsection, the rate 2 per centum ad valorem below the rate existing on July 1, 1958.

(iii) The rate 50 per centum ad valorem or, in the case of any article subject to a specific rate of duty or to a combination of rates including a specific rate, any rate (or combination of rates), however stated, the ad valorem equivalent of which has been determined as 50 per centum ad valorem.


The provisions of clauses (ii) and (iii) of this subparagraph and of subparagraph (B)(ii) of this paragraph shall, in the case of any article, subject to a combination of ad valorem rates of duty, apply to the aggregate of such rates; and, in the case of any article, subject to a specific rate of duty or to a combination of rates including a specific rate, such provisions shall apply on the basis of the ad valorem equivalent of such rate or rates, during a representative period (whether or not such period includes July 1, 1958), determined in the same manner as the ad valorem equivalent of rates not stated wholly in ad valorem terms is determined for the purpose of paragraph (2)(D)(ii) of this subsection.

(B)(i) In the case of any decrease in duty to which clause (i) of subparagraph (A) of this paragraph applies, such decrease shall become initially effective in not more than four annual stages, and no amount of decrease becoming initially effective at one time shall exceed 10 per centum of the rate of duty existing on July 1, 1958, or, in any case in which the rate has been increased since that date, exceed such 10 per centum or one-third of the total amount of the decrease under the foreign trade agreement, whichever is the greater.

(ii) In the case of any decrease in duty to which clause (ii) of subparagraph (A) of this paragraph applies, such decrease shall become initially effective in not more than four annual stages, and no amount of decrease becoming initially effective at one time shall exceed 1 per centum ad valorem or, in any case in which the rate has been increased since July 1, 1958, exceed such 1 per centum or one-third of the total amount of the decrease under the foreign trade agreement, whichever is the greater.

(iii) In the case of any decrease in duty to which clause (iii) of subparagraph (A) of this paragraph applies, such decrease shall become initially effective in not more than four annual stages, and no amount of decrease becoming initially effective at one time shall exceed one-third of the total amount of the decrease under the foreign trade agreement.

(C) In the case of any decrease in duty to which subparagraph (A) of this paragraph applies (i) no part of a decrease after the first part shall become initially effective until the immediately previous part shall have been in effect for a period or periods aggregating not less than one year, nor after the first part shall have been in effect for a period or periods aggregating more than three years, and (ii) no part of a decrease shall become initially effective after the expiration of the four-year period which begins on July 1, 1962. If any part of a decrease has become effective, then for the purposes of clauses (i) and (ii) of the preceding sentence any time thereafter during which such part of the decrease is not in effect by reason of legislation of the United States or action thereunder shall be excluded in determining when the three-year period or the four-year period, as the case may be, expires.

(5) Repealed. Pub. L. 87–794, title II, §257(b), Oct. 11, 1962, 76 Stat. 882.

(6) The President may at any time terminate, in whole or in part, any proclamation made pursuant to this section.

(b) Cuba; preferential customs treatment; decrease of rates

Nothing in this section or the Trade Expansion Act of 1962 [19 U.S.C. 1801 et seq.] shall be construed to prevent the application, with respect to rates of duty established under this section or the Trade Expansion Act of 1962 pursuant to agreements with countries other than Cuba, of the provisions of the treaty of commercial reciprocity concluded between the United States and the Republic of Cuba on December 11, 1902, or to preclude giving effect to an agreement with Cuba concluded under this section or the Trade Expansion Act of 1962, modifying the existing preferential customs treatment of any article the growth, produce, or manufacture of Cuba. Nothing in this chapter or the Trade Expansion Act of 1962 shall be construed to preclude the application to any product of Cuba (including products preferentially free of duty) of a rate of duty not higher than the rate applicable to the like products of other foreign countries (except the Philippines), whether or not the application of such rate involves any preferential customs treatment. No rate of duty on products of Cuba shall be decreased—

(1) In order to carry out a foreign trade agreement entered into by the President before June 12, 1955, by more than 50 per centum of the rate of duty existing on January 1, 1945, with respect to products of Cuba.

(2) In order to carry out a foreign trade agreement entered into by the President on or after June 12, 1955, and before July 1, 1962, below the applicable alternative specified in subsection (a)(2)(C) or (D) or (4)(A) (subject to the applicable provisions of subsection (a)(3)(B), (C), and (D) and (4)(B) and (C)), each such alternative to be read for the purposes of this paragraph as relating to the rate of duty applicable to products of Cuba. With respect to products of Cuba, the limitation of subsection (a)(2)(D)(ii) or (4)(A)(iii) may be exceeded to such extent as may be required to maintain an absolute margin of preference to which such products are entitled.

(3) In order to carry out a foreign trade agreement entered into after June 30, 1962, and before July 1, 1967, below the lowest rate permissible by applying title II of the Trade Expansion Act of 1962 [19 U.S.C. 1821 et seq.] to the rate of duty (however established, and even though temporarily suspended by Act of Congress or otherwise) existing on July 1, 1962, with respect to such product.

(c) Definitions

(1) As used in this section, the term "duties and other import restrictions" includes (A) rate and form of import duties and classification of articles, and (B) limitations, prohibitions, charges, and exactions other than duties, imposed on importation or imposed for the regulation of imports.

(2) For purposes of this section—

(A) Except as provided in subsection (d), the terms "existing on July 1, 1934", "existing on January 1, 1945", "existing on January 1, 1955", and "existing on July 1, 1958" refer to rates of duty (however established, and even though temporarily suspended by Act of Congress or otherwise) existing on the date specified, except rates in effect by reason of action taken pursuant to section 1362 of this title.

(B) The term "existing" without the specification of any date, when used with respect to any matter relating to the conclusion of, or proclamation to carry out, a foreign trade agreement, means existing on the day on which that trade agreement is entered into.

(d) Rate basis for additional increases or decreases; restoration of terminated treaties forbidden

(1) When any rate of duty has been increased or decreased for the duration of war or an emergency, by agreement or otherwise, any further increase or decrease shall be computed upon the basis of the post-war or post-emergency rate carried in such agreement or otherwise.

(2) Where under a foreign trade agreement the United States has reserved the unqualified right to withdraw or modify, after the termination of war or an emergency, a rate on a specific commodity, the rate on such commodity to be considered as "existing on January 1, 1945" for the purpose of this section shall be the rate which would have existed if the agreement had not been entered into.

(3) No proclamation shall be made pursuant to this section for the purpose of carrying out any foreign trade agreement the proclamation with respect to which has been terminated in whole by the President prior to July 5, 1945.

(e) Repealed. Pub. L. 87–794, title II, §257(b), Oct. 11, 1962, 76 Stat. 882

(f) Information and advice from industry, agriculture, and labor

It is declared to be the sense of the Congress that the President, during the course of negotiating any foreign trade agreement under this section, should seek information and advice with respect to such agreement from representatives of industry, agriculture, and labor.

(June 17, 1930, ch. 497, title III, §350, as added June 12, 1934, ch. 474, §1, 48 Stat. 943; amended June 7, 1943, ch. 118, §2, 57 Stat. 125; July 5, 1945, ch. 269, §§2, 3, 59 Stat. 410; Sept. 26, 1949, ch. 585, §§4, 6, 63 Stat. 698; June 21, 1955, ch. 169, §3, 69 Stat. 162; Pub. L. 85–686, §3, Aug. 20, 1958, 72 Stat. 673; Pub. L. 87–794, title II, §257(a), (b), Oct. 11, 1962, 76 Stat. 881, 882; Pub. L. 96–39, title II, §202(a)(3), July 26, 1979, 93 Stat. 202.)

References in Text

The Trade Agreements Extension Act of 1955, referred to in subsec. (a)(1)(A), is act June 21, 1955, ch. 169, 69 Stat. 162, which is classified to sections 1351(a), (b), (c), (e), 1352(c), 1352a, 1363(b), and 1364(a), (b), (e) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title of 1955 Amendment note set out under section 1654 of this title and Tables.

Paragraph (5) of this subsection, referred to in subsec. (a)(3)(A), was repealed by Pub. L. 87–794, title III, §257(b), Oct. 11, 1962, 76 Stat. 882.

The Trade Expansion Act of 1962, referred to in subsec. (b), is Pub. L. 87–794, Oct. 11, 1962, 76 Stat. 872, as amended, which is classified generally to chapter 7 (§1801 et seq.) of this title. Title II of the Trade Expansion Act of 1962, also referred to in subsec. (b), is classified generally to subchapter II (§1821 et seq.) of chapter 7 of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1801 of this title and Tables.

Section 1362 of this title, referred to in subsec. (c)(2)(A), related to suspension or withdrawal of concessions from Communistic areas and was repealed by Pub. L. 87–794, title II, §257(e)(1), Oct. 11, 1962, 76 Stat. 882.

Amendments

1979—Subsec. (a)(2)(D)(ii). Pub. L. 96–39 struck out reference to standards of valuation contained in section 1402 of this title.

1962—Subsec. (a)(5). Pub. L. 87–794, §257(b), repealed par. (5) which provided that, subject to the provisions of section 1362 of this title, duties and other import restrictions proclaimed pursuant to this section shall apply to all articles the growth, produce, or manufacture of all foreign countries, whether imported directly or indirectly, and required the President to suspend the application to articles the growth, produce, or manufacture of any country because of its discriminatory treatment of American commerce or because of other acts (including the operations of international cartels) or policies which in his opinion tend to defeat the purposes of this section.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 87–794, §257(a), inserted references to the Trade Expansion Act of 1962 in first and second sentences, substituted "1955, and before July 1, 1962" for "1955" in par. (2), and added par. (3).

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 87–794, §257(b), repealed subsec. (e) which related to reports to Congress by the President and the Tariff Commission.

1958—Subsec. (a)(2)(A). Pub. L. 85–686, §3(a)(1), substituted "any rate of duty existing on July 1, 1934" for "any rate of duty existing on July 1, 1945", and inserted provisions permitting conversion of a specific rate of duty existing on July 1, 1934, to its ad valorem equivalent, and allowing an ad valorem rate of duty not in excess of 50 per centum above such ad valorem equivalent.

Subsec. (a)(2)(D). Pub. L. 85–686, §3(a)(2), (3), inserted "and before July 1, 1958," after "June 12, 1955", in opening par., and substituted "section 1401a or 1402 of this title (as in effect, with respect to the article concerned," for "section 1402 of this title (as in effect".

Subsec. (a)(2)(E). Pub. L. 85–686, §3(a)(4), added subpar. (E).

Subsec. (a)(3)(A). Pub. L. 85–686, §3(a)(5), inserted "and of subparagraph (B) of paragraph 4 of this subsection" after "subparagraphs (B) and (C) of this paragraph", and substituted "suspension under paragraph (5)" for "suspension under paragraph (4)".

Subsec. (a)(3)(D). Pub. L. 85–686, §3(a)(6), inserted "or paragraph (4)(A) or (B)" after "paragraph (2)(C) or (D)".

Subsec. (a)(4) to (6). Pub. L. 85–686, §3(a)(7), (8), added par. (4) and redesignated former pars. (4) and (5) as (5) and (6), respectively.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 85–686, §3(b)(1), substituted "an agreement with Cuba" for "an exclusive agreement with Cuba" in opening par.

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 85–686, §3(b)(2), inserted "or (4)(A)" after "subsection (a)(2)(C) or (D)", "and (4)(B) and (C)" after "subsection (a)(3)(B), (C), and (D)", and "or (4)(A)(iii)" after "subsection (a)(2)(D)(ii)".

Subsec. (c)(2)(A). Pub. L. 85–686, §3(c), defined "existing on July 1, 1934" and "existing on July 1, 1958".

Subsec. (e)(1). Pub. L. 85–686, §3(d), provided for the inclusion in the report of the results of action taken to obtain removal of foreign trade restrictions (including discriminatory restrictions) against United States exports, remaining restrictions, and the measures available to seek their removal in accordance with the objectives of this section.

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 85–686, §3(e), added subsec. (f).

1955—Subsec. (a). Act June 21, 1955, §3(a), among other changes, authorized the President to reduce tariff rates existing on January 1, 1955 by a total of 15 percent in stages of not more than 5 percent of such rates, or to reduce those rates which are higher than 50 percent of the value of an import to a rate not less than 50 percent, in stages of not more than one-third of the reduction in any one year.

Subsec. (b). Act June 21, 1955, §3(b), made applicable to Cuban products the new limits of authority to reduce tariffs.

Subsec. (c). Act June 21, 1955, §3(c), designated existing provisions as par. (1) and added par. (2).

Subsec. (e). Act June 21, 1955, §3(d), added subsec. (e).

1949—Subsec. (a). Act Sept. 26, 1949, struck out obsolete language referring to the depression which existed at the time of the original enactment of section.

Subsec. (b). Act Sept. 26, 1949, substituted period for colon following Cuba, struck out proviso which followed, and inserted in lieu thereof the last two sentences.

1945—Subsec. (a)(2). Act July 5, 1945, struck out "existing" after "per centum any", and inserted ", however established, existing on January 1, 1945 (even though temporarily suspended by Act of Congress)," after "rate of duty".

Subsec. (b). Act July 5, 1945, struck out "payable" after "That the duties", and substituted "however established, existing on January 1, 1945 (even though temporarily suspended by Act of Congress)." for "now payable thereon" in proviso.

Subsec. (d). Act July 5, 1945, added subsec. (d).

1943—Subsec. (a)(2). Act June 7, 1943, inserted matter within parentheses in proviso.

Effective Date of 1979 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 96–39 effective July 1, 1980, see section 204(a) of Pub. L. 96–39, set out as a note under section 1401a of this title.

Treaty Between United States and Cuba

The treaty concluded between the United States and the Republic of Cuba, on Dec. 11, 1902, referred to in subsec. (b) of the text, was terminated Aug. 21, 1963, pursuant to notice given by the United States on Aug. 21, 1962. See Bevans, Treaties and Other International Agreements of the United States of America, 1776–1949, vol. VI, page 1106.

Tariff Treatment of Cuban Products

Pub. L. 87–456, title IV, §401, May 24, 1962, 76 Stat. 78, provided that:

"(a) Cuba is hereby declared to be a nation described in section 5 of the Trade Agreements Extension Act of 1951, as amended (19 U.S.C. 1362, relating to imports from nations and areas dominated or controlled by the foreign government or foreign organization controlling the world Communist movement). Articles which are—

"(1) the growth, produce, or manufacture of Cuba, and

"(2) imported on or after the date of enactment of this Act [May 24, 1962],

shall be denied the benefits of concessions contained in any trade agreement entered into under the authority of section 350 of the Tariff Act of 1930, as amended (19 U.S.C. 1351).

"(b) Nothing in subsection (a) shall affect the rates of duty or the customs or excise treatment of articles the growth, produce, or manufacture of any country other than Cuba.

"(c) Subsection (a) shall not apply on or after the date on which the President proclaims that he has determined that Cuba is no longer dominated or controlled by the foreign government or foreign organization controlling the world Communist movement.

"(d) The Act of December 17, 1903 (19 U.S.C. 124, 125), and section 316 of the Tariff Act of 1930, as amended (19 U.S.C. 1316), both relating to the implementation of the treaty with Cuba concluded on December 11, 1902, shall not apply during the period during which subsection (a) applies."

Administration of Trade Agreements Program

For provisions relating to the administration of the trade agreements program, see Ex. Ord. No. 11846, Mar. 27, 1975, 40 F.R. 14291, set out as a note under section 2111 of this title.

Congressional Approval or Disapproval of General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade

Pub. L. 85–686, §10, Aug. 20, 1958, 72 Stat. 680, provided that: "The enactment of this Act [enacting section 1335 of this title, amending sections 1333, 1336, 1337, 1351, 1352a, 1360 and 1364 of this title, and enacting notes set out under sections 1351 and 1352 of this title] shall not be construed to determine or indicate the approval or disapproval by the Congress of the executive agreement known as the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade."

Reduction of Protection Resulting From 1956 Amendments

Act Aug. 2, 1956, ch. 887, §2(e), 70 Stat. 946, provided that: "In any action relating to tariff adjustments by executive action, including action taken pursuant to section 350 of the Tariff Act of 1930, as amended [this section] the United States Tariff Commission [now United States International Trade Commission] and each officer of the executive branch of the Government concerned shall give full consideration to any reduction in the level of tariff protection which has resulted or is likely to result from the amendment of section 402 of the Tariff Act of 1930 made by this Act [sections 1401a and 1402 of this title]."

Section 2(e) of act Aug. 2, 1956, effective only as to articles entered, or withdrawn from warehouse, for consumption on or after thirtieth day following publication of the final list provided for in section 6(a) of said act Aug. 2, 1956, set out in note under section 1402 of this title, see note set out under section 1401a of this title.

Commission on Foreign Economic Policy

Act Aug. 7, 1953, ch. 348, title III, §§301–310, 67 Stat. 473–475, as amended by Pub. L. 89–554, §8(a), Sept. 6, 1966, 80 Stat. 657, provided for the establishment of a Commission on Foreign Economic Policy to examine and report on the subjects of international trade and its enlargement consistent with a sound domestic economy, our foreign economic policy, and the trade aspects of our national security and total foreign policy, and to recommend appropriate policies and measures. The Commission was to submit a report on its findings within 60 days after the second session of the 83rd Congress was convened, and was to expire 90 days after the submission of its report to Congress.

Extension of Presidential Authority

For extensions of authority of President to enter into trade agreements under this section, up until close of Dec. 31, 1962, see notes under section 1352 of this title.

Executive Order No. 9832

Ex. Ord. No. 9832, Feb. 25, 1947, 12 F.R. 1363, revoked by Ex. Ord. No. 10004, Oct. 6, 1948, 13 F.R. 5851.

Executive Order No. 10004

Ex. Ord. No. 10004, Oct. 6, 1948, 13 F.R. 5851, superseded by Ex. Ord. No. 10082, Oct. 5, 1949, 14 F.R. 6105.

Executive Order No. 10082

Ex. Ord. No. 10082, Oct. 5, 1949, 14 F.R. 6105, as amended by Ex. Ord. No. 10170, Oct. 13, 1950, 15 F.R. 6901, which related to administrative procedures for reciprocal trade-agreements program, was revoked by Ex. Ord. No. 11075, Jan. 15, 1963, 28 F.R. 473, set out as a note under section 1801 of this title.

Executive Order No. 10741

Ex. Ord. No. 10741, Nov. 26, 1957, 22 F.R. 9451, which established the Trade Policy Committee, was revoked by Ex. Ord. No. 11075, Jan. 15, 1963, 28 F.R. 473, set out as a note under section 1801 of this title.

§1352. Equalization of costs of production

(a) Application to importation of articles under foreign-trade agreement

The provisions of section 1336 of this title shall not apply to any article with respect to the importation of which into the United States a foreign-trade agreement has been concluded pursuant to this part or the Trade Expansion Act of 1962 [19 U.S.C. 1801 et seq.] or the Trade Act of 1974 [19 U.S.C. 2101 et seq.] or to any provision of any such agreement. The third paragraph of section 1311 of this title shall apply to any agreement concluded pursuant to this part or the Trade Expansion Act of 1962 or the Trade Act of 1974 to the extent only that such agreement assures to the United States a rate of duty on wheat flour produced in the United States which is preferential in respect to the lowest rate of duty imposed by the country with which such agreement has been concluded on like flour produced in any other country; and upon the withdrawal of wheat flour from bonded manufacturing warehouses for exportation to the country with which such agreement has been concluded, there shall be levied, collected, and paid on the imported wheat used, a duty equal to the amount of such assured preference.

(b) Termination of foreign trade agreement

Every foreign trade agreement concluded pursuant to this part shall be subject to termination, upon due notice to the foreign government concerned, at the end of not more than three years from the date on which the agreement comes into force, and, if not then terminated, shall be subject to termination thereafter upon not more than six months' notice.

(c) Termination of authority of President

The authority of the President to enter into foreign trade agreements under section 1351 of this title 1 shall terminate on the expiration of three years from June 12, 1934.2

(June 12, 1934, ch. 474, §2, 48 Stat. 944; June 16, 1951, ch. 141, §9(a), 65 Stat. 75; Pub. L. 87–794, title II, §257(d), Oct. 11, 1962, 76 Stat. 882; Pub. L. 93–618, title VI, §602(a), Jan. 3, 1975, 88 Stat. 2072; Pub. L. 96–39, title XI, §1106(h)(2), July 26, 1979, 93 Stat. 313.)

References in Text

The Trade Expansion Act of 1962, referred to in subsec. (a), is Pub. L. 87–794, Oct. 11, 1962, 76 Stat. 872, as amended, which is classified generally to chapter 7 (§1801 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1801 of this title and Tables.

The Trade Act of 1974, referred to in subsec. (a), is Pub. L. 93–618, Jan. 3, 1975, 88 Stat. 1978, as amended, which is classified principally to chapter 12 (§2101 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see References in Text note set out under section 2101 of this title and Tables.

Section 1351 of this title, referred to in subsec. (c), was in the original "section 1 of this Act", meaning section 1 of act June 12, 1934, and was translated as referring to section 350 of act June 17, 1930, which was enacted by section 1 of act June 12, 1934, and is classified to section 1351 of this title.

Amendments

1979—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 96–39 amended directory language of Pub. L. 93–618, §602(a), to correct a typographical error, and did not involve any change in text. See 1975 Amendment note below.

1975—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 93–618, as amended by Pub. L. 96–39, inserted "or the Trade Act of 1974" after "Act of 1962" in two places.

1962—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 87–794 inserted "or the Trade Expansion Act of 1962" after "this part" in two places.

1951—Subsec. (a). Act June 16, 1951, substituted "section 1336 of this title" for "sections 1336 and 1516(b) of this title".

Extension of Presidential Authority

Extensions of authority of the President to enter into foreign trade agreements under section 350 of the Tariff Act of 1930 (section 1351 of this title) were contained in the following:

Pub. L. 87–794, title II, §257(c), Oct. 11, 1962, 76 Stat. 882, from close of June 30, 1962, until close of Dec. 31, 1962.

Pub. L. 85–686, §2, Aug. 20, 1958, 72 Stat. 673, from close of June 30, 1958, until close of June 30, 1962.

Act June 21, 1955, ch. 169, §2, 69 Stat. 162, from June 12, 1955, until close of June 30, 1958.

Act July 1, 1954, ch. 445, §1, 68 Stat. 360, until one year from June 12, 1954.

Act Aug. 7, 1953, ch. 348, title I, §101, 67 Stat. 472, until one year from June 12, 1953.

Act June 16, 1951, ch. 141, §2, 65 Stat. 72, until two years from June 12, 1951.

Act Sept. 26, 1949, ch. 585, §3, 63 Stat. 698, until three years from June 12, 1948.

Act June 26, 1948, ch. 678, §2, 62 Stat. 1053, until close of June 30, 1949; repealed by act Sept. 26, 1949, ch. 585, §2, 63 Stat. 698.

Act July 5, 1945, ch. 269, §1, 59 Stat. 410, until three years from June 12, 1945.

Act June 7, 1943, ch. 118, §1, 57 Stat. 125, until two years from June 12, 1943.

Act Apr. 12, 1940, ch. 96, 54 Stat. 107, until three years from June 12, 1940.

Act Mar. 1, 1937, ch. 22, 50 Stat. 24, until three years from June 12, 1937.

1 See References in Text note below.

2 See Extension of Presidential Authority notes below.

§1352a. Repealed. Pub. L. 87–794, title II, §257(f), Oct. 11, 1962, 76 Stat. 882

Section, acts July 1, 1954, ch. 445, §2, 68 Stat. 360; June 21, 1955, ch. 169, §7, 69 Stat. 166; Aug. 20, 1958, Pub. L. 85–686, §8(a), 72 Stat. 678, related to restriction on decrease of duties, impairment of national security, investigations and reports, and reports to Congress. See section 1801 et seq. of this title.

Actions Commenced Prior to October 11, 1962

Pub. L. 87–794, title II, §257(f), Oct. 11, 1962, 76 Stat. 882, provided in part that: "Any action (including any investigation begun) under section 2 [section 1352a of this title] before the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 11, 1962] shall be considered as having been taken or begun under section 232 [section 1862 of this title]."

§1353. Indebtedness of foreign countries, effect on

Nothing in this part shall be construed to give any authority to cancel or reduce, in any manner, any of the indebtedness of any foreign country to the United States.

(June 12, 1934, ch. 474, §3, 48 Stat. 944.)

§1354. Notice of intention to negotiate agreement; opportunity to be heard; President to seek information and advice

Before any foreign trade agreement is concluded with any foreign government or instrumentality thereof under the provisions of this part, reasonable public notice of the intention to negotiate an agreement with such government or instrumentality shall be given in order that any interested person may have an opportunity to present his views to the President, or to such agency as the President may designate, under such rules and regulations as the President may prescribe; and before concluding such agreement the President shall request the International Trade Commission to make the investigation and report provided for by section 1360 of this title, and shall seek information and advice with respect to such agreement from the Departments of State, Agriculture, Commerce, and Defense, and from such other sources as he may deem appropriate.

(June 12, 1934, ch. 474, §4, 48 Stat. 945; July 5, 1945, ch. 269, §4, 59 Stat. 411; Aug. 10, 1949, ch. 412, §12(a), 63 Stat. 591; Sept. 26, 1949, ch. 585, §5, 63 Stat. 698; June 16, 1951, ch. 141, §3(c), 65 Stat. 73; Pub. L. 93–618, title I, §171(b), Jan. 3, 1975, 88 Stat. 2009.)

Amendments

1975Pub. L. 93–618 substituted "United States International Trade Commission" for "United States Tariff Commission".

1951—Act June 16, 1951, provided that the President request the Tariff Commission to make the investigation and report.

1949—Act Sept. 26, 1949, changed the Tariff Commission's functions under these sections from investigatory to advisory functions.

1945—Act July 5, 1945, inserted "War, Navy," after "Departments of State".

Change of Name

National Military Establishment changed to Department of Defense by act Aug. 10, 1949.

Repeals

Act Sept. 26, 1949, §2, repealed act June 26, 1948, ch. 678, §3(c), 62 Stat. 1054, formerly cited as a credit to this section.

§§1355, 1356. Repealed. Pub. L. 89–23, §7, May 22, 1965, 79 Stat. 113

Sections, act Apr. 11, 1941, ch. 59, §§1, 2, 55 Stat. 133, 134, related to the importation of coffee under Inter-American Coffee Agreement. See sections 1356a to 1356e of this title.

Effective Date of Repeal

Repeal effective May 22, 1965, the date the President made the determination required by section 8 of Pub. L. 89–23, set out as a note under section 1356a of this title.

§§1356a to 1356j. Omitted

Codification

Sections were omitted. See sections 1356k and 1356l of this title.

Section 1356a, Pub. L. 89–23, §2, May 22, 1965, 79 Stat. 112, authorized the President, for a period not to exceed October 1, 1968, to carry out the provisions of the International Coffee Agreement, 1962.

Section 1356b, Pub. L. 89–23, §3, May 22, 1965, 79 Stat. 112, defined "coffee" for section 1356a of this title.

Section 1356c, Pub. L. 89–23, §4, May 22, 1965, 79 Stat. 112, authorized delegation of Presidential powers and duties and required protection of consumer interests under sections 1356a to 1356e of this title.

Section 1356d, Pub. L. 89–23, §5, May 22, 1965, 79 Stat. 113, required the President to submit an annual report to Congress on the International Coffee Agreement, 1962.

Section 1356e, Pub. L. 89–23, §6, May 22, 1965, 79 Stat. 113, authorized appropriations for sections 1356a to 1356e of this title and limited contributions for administration of the International Coffee Agreement, 1962.

Section 1356f, Pub. L. 90–634, title III, §302, Oct. 24, 1968, 82 Stat. 1348; Pub. L. 91–694, §1, Jan. 12, 1971, 84 Stat. 2077; Pub. L. 92–262, Mar. 24, 1972, 86 Stat. 113, authorized the President, for a period not to exceed October 1, 1973, to carry out the provisions of the International Coffee Agreement, 1968.

Section 1356g, Pub. L. 90–634, title III, §303, Oct. 24, 1968, 82 Stat. 1348, defined "coffee" for section 1356f of this title.

Section 1356h, Pub. L. 90–634, title III, §304, Oct. 24, 1968, 82 Stat. 1348, authorized delegation of Presidential powers and duties and required protection of consumer interests under sections 1356f to 1356j of this title and provided for remedial action under the International Coffee Agreement, 1968.

Section 1356i, Pub. L. 90–634, title III, §305, Oct. 24, 1968, 82 Stat. 1349, required the President to submit an annual report to Congress on the International Coffee Agreement, 1968.

Section 1356j, Pub. L. 90–634, title III, §306, Oct. 24, 1968, 82 Stat. 1349, provided procedures to prevent discrimination against vessels registered under laws of the United States in shipping coffee to the United States.

§1356k. Importation of coffee under International Coffee Agreement, 1983; Presidential powers and duties

On and after the entry into force of the International Coffee Agreement, 1983, and before October 1, 1989, the President is authorized, in order to carry out and enforce the provisions of that agreement—

(1) to regulate the entry of coffee for consumption, or withdrawal of coffee from warehouse for consumption, or any other form of entry or withdrawal of coffee such as for transportation or exportation, including whenever quotas are in effect pursuant to the agreement, (A) the limitation of entry, or withdrawal from warehouse, of coffee imported from countries which are not members of the International Coffee Organization, and (B) the prohibition of entry of any shipment from any member of the International Coffee Organization of coffee which is not accompanied either by a valid certificate of origin, a valid certificate of reexport, a valid certificate of reshipment, or a valid certificate of transit, issued by a qualified agency in such form as required under the agreement;

(2) to require that every export or reexport of coffee from the United States shall be accompanied by a valid certificate of origin or a valid certificate of reexport, issued by a qualified agency of the United States designated by him, in such form as required under the agreement;

(3) to require the keeping of such records, statistics, and other information, and the rendering of such reports, relating to the importation, distribution, prices, and consumption of coffee as he may from time to time prescribe; and

(4) to take such other action, and issue and enforce such rules and regulations, as he may consider necessary or appropriate in order to implement the obligations of the United States under the agreement.

(Pub. L. 96–599, §2, Dec. 24, 1980, 94 Stat. 3491; Pub. L. 97–276, §161, Oct. 2, 1982, 96 Stat. 1204; Pub. L. 97–446, §154, Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2345; Pub. L. 98–120, §1, Oct. 12, 1983, 97 Stat. 809; Pub. L. 100–418, title I, §1123(a), Aug. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 1146.)

References in Text

The International Coffee Agreement, 1983, referred to in text, was entered into force for the United States provisionally Oct. 1, 1983, and definitively Sept. 11, 1985.

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the International Coffee Agreement Act of 1980, and not as part of the Tariff Act of 1930 which comprises this chapter.

Amendments

1988Pub. L. 100–418 substituted "October 1, 1989" for "October 1, 1986".

1983Pub. L. 98–120 in provisions preceding par. (1) substituted ", 1983" for "1976" and "before October 1, 1986" for "for such period prior to October 1, 1983 as the agreement remains in effect".

Pub. L. 97–446 substituted "October 1, 1983" for "the expiration of this joint resolution".

1982Pub. L. 97–276 substituted "the expiration of this joint resolution" for "October 1, 1982".

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Pub. L. 100–418, title I, §1123(b), Aug. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 1146, provided that: "The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall take effect January 1, 1987."

Short Title

Pub. L. 96–599, §1, Dec. 24, 1980, 94 Stat. 3491, provided that: "This Act [enacting this section and sections 1356l to 1356n of this title] may be cited as the 'International Coffee Agreement Act of 1980'."

§1356l. "Coffee" defined

As used in this section and section 1356k of this title, the term "coffee" means coffee as defined in article 3 of the International Coffee Agreement, 1983.

(Pub. L. 96–599, §3, Dec. 24, 1980, 94 Stat. 3491; Pub. L. 98–120, §1(1), Oct. 12, 1983, 97 Stat. 809.)

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the International Coffee Agreement Act of 1980, and not as part of the Tariff Act of 1930 which comprises this chapter.

Amendments

1983Pub. L. 98–120 substituted ", 1983" for "1976".

§§1356m, 1356n. Repealed. Pub. L. 105–362, title XIV, §1401(a), Nov. 10, 1998, 112 Stat. 3294

Section 1356m, Pub. L. 96–599, §4, Dec. 24, 1980, 94 Stat. 3492, related to delegation of Presidential powers and duties, protection of interests of United States consumers, and remedial action with respect to the International Coffee Agreement Act of 1980.

Section 1356n, Pub. L. 96–599, §5, Dec. 24, 1980, 94 Stat. 3492; Pub. L. 98–120, §1(1), Oct. 12, 1983, 97 Stat. 809, related to annual report by the President to Congress on the International Coffee Agreement, 1983.

§§1357 to 1359. Repealed. Sept. 26, 1949, ch. 585, §2, 63 Stat. 698

Sections, act June 26, 1948, ch. 678, §§3(a), (b), 4, 5, 62 Stat. 1053, 1054, related to the investigatory functions of the Tariff Commission and the report by the President to Congress.

§1360. Investigation before trade negotiations

(a) Report by International Trade Commission

Before entering into negotiations concerning any proposed foreign trade agreement under section 1351 of this title, the President shall furnish the United States International Trade Commission (hereinafter in sections 1352(a), (c), 1354, and 1360 to 1367 of this title, and section 624(b) of title 7, referred to as the "Commission") with a list of all articles imported into the United States to be considered for possible modification of duties and other import restrictions, imposition of additional import restrictions, or continuance of existing customs or excise treatment. Upon receipt of such list the Commission shall make an investigation and report to the President the findings of the Commission with respect to each such article as to (1) the limit to which such modification, imposition, or continuance may be extended in order to carry out the purpose of said section without causing or threatening serious injury to the domestic industry producing like or directly competitive articles; and (2) if increases in duties or additional import restrictions are required to avoid serious injury to the domestic industry producing like or directly competitive articles the minimum increases in duties or additional import restrictions required. Such report shall be made by the Commission to the President not later than six months after the receipt of such list by the Commission. No such foreign trade agreement shall be entered into until the Commission has made its report to the President or until the expiration of the six-month period.

(b) Procedures and determinations

(1) In the course of any investigation pursuant to this section the Commission shall hold hearings and give reasonable public notice thereof, and shall afford reasonable opportunity for parties interested to be present, to produce evidence, and to be heard at such hearings. If in the course of any such investigation the Commission shall find with respect to any article on the list upon which a tariff concession has been granted that an increase in duty or additional import restriction is required to avoid serious injury to the domestic industry producing like or directly competitive articles, the Commission shall promptly institute an investigation with respect to that article pursuant to section 1364 of this title.

(2) In each such investigation the Commission shall, to the extent practicable and without excluding other factors, ascertain for the last calendar year preceding the investigation the average invoice price on a country-of-origin basis (converted into currency of the United States in accordance with the provisions of section 5151 of title 31) at which the foreign article was sold for export to the United States, and the average prices at which the like or directly competitive domestic articles were sold at wholesale in the principal markets of the United States. The Commission shall also, to the extent practicable, estimate for each article on the list the maximum increase in annual imports which may occur without causing serious injury to the domestic industry producing like or directly competitive articles. The Commission shall request the executive departments and agencies for information in their possession concerning prices and other economic data from the principal supplier foreign country of each such article.

(June 16, 1951, ch. 141, §3(a), (b), 65 Stat. 72; Pub. L. 85–686, §4, Aug. 20, 1958, 72 Stat. 675; Pub. L. 93–618, title I, §171(b), Jan. 3, 1975, 88 Stat. 2009.)

References in Text

Sections 1362 to 1365 of this title, included in the reference in subsec. (a) to sections 1360 to 1367 of this title, were repealed by Pub. L. 87–749, title II, §257(e)(1), Oct. 11, 1962, 76 Stat. 882; section 1367 of this title was repealed by Pub. L. 87–456, title III, §303(c), May 24, 1962, 76 Stat. 78.

Codification

Section was not enacted as part of the Tariff Act of 1930 which comprises this chapter.

Section is comprised of subsecs. (a) and (b) of section 3 of act June 16, 1951. Subsec. (c) of the 1951 act amended section 1354 of this title.

In subsec. (b)(2), "section 5151 of title 31" was substituted for "section 522 of the Tariff Act of 1930 [31 U.S.C. 372]" on authority of Pub. L. 97–258, §4(b), Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 1067, the first section of which enacted Title 31, Money and Finance.

Amendments

1975—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 93–618 substituted "United States International Trade Commission" for "United States Trade Commission".

1958—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 85–686, §4(a), substituted "six months" for "120 days", and "six-month" for "120-day".

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 85–686, §4(b), (c), redesignated existing provisions as par. (1), inserted provision to require the Commission to promptly institute an investigation pursuant to section 1364 of this title when the Commission finds with respect to any article on the list upon which a tariff concession has been granted that an increase in duty or additional import restriction is required to avoid serious injury to the domestic industry producing like or directly competitive articles, and added par. (2).

§1361. Action by President; reports to Congress

(a) Transmittal by President of trade agreement and message to Congress

Within thirty days after any trade agreement under section 1351 of this title has been entered into which, when effective, will (1) require or make appropriate any modification of duties or other import restrictions, the imposition of additional import restrictions, or the continuance of existing customs or excise treatment, which modification, imposition, or continuance will exceed the limit to which such modification, imposition, or continuance may be extended without causing or threatening serious injury to the domestic industry producing like or directly competitive articles as found and reported by the United States International Trade Commission under section 1360 of this title, or (2) fail to require or make appropriate the minimum increase in duty or additional import restrictions required to avoid such injury, the President shall transmit to Congress a copy of such agreement together with a message accurately identifying the article with respect to which such limits or minimum requirements are not complied with, and stating his reasons for the action taken with respect to such article. If either the Senate or the House of Representatives, or both, are not in session at the time of such transmission, such agreement and message shall be filed with the Secretary of the Senate or the Clerk of the House of Representatives, or both, as the case may be.

(b) Transmittal by Commission of copy of report to the President to Congressional committees

Promptly after the President has transmitted such foreign trade agreement to Congress the Commission shall deposit with the Committee on Ways and Means of the House of Representatives, and the Committee on Finance of the Senate, a copy of the portions of its report to the President dealing with the articles with respect to which such limits or minimum requirements are not complied with.

(June 16, 1951, ch. 141, §4, 65 Stat. 73; Pub. L. 93–618, title I, §171(b), Jan. 3, 1975, 88 Stat. 2009.)

Codification

Section was not enacted as part of the Tariff Act of 1930 which comprises this chapter.

Amendments

1975—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 93–618 substituted "United States International Trade Commission" for "Tariff Commission".

§§1362 to 1365. Repealed. Pub. L. 87–794, title II, §257(e)(1), Oct. 11, 1962, 76 Stat. 882

Section 1362, act June 16, 1951, ch. 141, §5, 65 Stat. 73, related to suspension or withdrawal of concessions from Communistic areas. See section 1801 et seq. of this title.

Section 1363, acts June 16, 1951, ch. 141, §6, 65 Stat. 73; June 21, 1955, ch. 169, §4, 69 Stat. 165, provided for an escape clause for future agreements, and insertion in past agreements.

Section 1364, acts June 16, 1951, ch. 141, §7, 65 Stat. 74; Aug. 7, 1953, ch. 348, title I, §102, 67 Stat. 472; June 21, 1955, ch. 169, §§5, 6, 69 Stat. 166; Aug. 20, 1958, Pub. L. 85–686, §§5(a), (b)(1), (c), 6, 72 Stat. 676, related to the operation of the escape clause.

Section 1365, act June 16, 1951, ch. 141, §8(a), 65 Stat. 75, provided for emergency action for perishable agricultural products.

Presidential Action in Effect on October 11, 1962

Pub. L. 87–794, title II, §257(e)(2), Oct. 11, 1962, 76 Stat. 882, provided that: "Action taken by the President under section 5 of such Act [former section 1362 of this title] and in effect on the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 11, 1962] shall be considered as having been taken by the President under section 231 [section 1861 of this title]."

Continuation of Investigations

Pub. L. 87–794, title II, §257(e)(3), Oct. 11, 1962, 76 Stat. 882, provided that: "Any investigation by the Tariff Commission [now the United States International Trade Commission] under section 7 of such Act [former section 1364 of this title] which is in progress on the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 11, 1962] shall be continued under section 301 [section 1901 of this title] as if the application by the interested party were a petition under such section for tariff adjustment under section 351 [section 1981 of this title]. For purposes of section 301(f) [section 1901(f) of this title], such petition shall be treated as having been filed on the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 11, 1962]."

§1366. General Agreement on Tariff and Trade unaffected

The enactment of sections 1352(a), (c), 1354, and 1360 to 1367 of this title, and section 624(f) of title 7, shall not be construed to determine or indicate the approval or disapproval by the Congress of the Executive Agreement known as the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade.

(June 16, 1951, ch. 141, §10, 65 Stat. 75.)

References in Text

Sections 1362 to 1365 of this title, included in the reference to sections 1360 to 1367 of this title, were repealed by Pub. L. 87–749, title II, §257(e)(1), Oct. 11, 1962, 76 Stat. 882; section 1367 of this title was repealed by Pub. L. 87–456, title III, §303(c), May 24, 1962, 76 Stat. 78.

Codification

Section was not enacted as part of the Tariff Act of 1930 which comprises this chapter.

Prior Provisions

Similar provisions were contained in act July 1, 1954, ch. 445, §3, 68 Stat. 360, other sections of which amended section 1352(c) of this title and enacted section 1352a of this title; and in act Aug. 7, 1953, ch. 348, title I, §103, 67 Stat. 472, which act amended section 624(b) of title 7, and sections 1330(d), 1352(c) and former section 1364(a) of this title, and enacted provisions set out as notes under sections 1351 and 1364 of this title.

Congressional Approval or Disapproval of General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade

Pub. L. 85–686, §10, Aug. 20, 1958, 72 Stat. 680, provided that: "The enactment of this Act [enacting section 1335 of this title, amending sections 1333, 1336, 1337, 1351, 1352a, 1360, and former section 1364 of this title, and enacting notes set out under sections 1352 and 1366 of this title] shall not be construed to determine or indicate the approval or disapproval by the Congress of the executive agreement known as the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade."

§1367. Repealed. Pub. L. 87–456, title III, §303(c), May 24, 1962, 76 Stat. 78

Section, act June 16, 1951, ch. 141, §11, 65 Stat. 75, required the President to take such measures as may be necessary to prevent the importation of ermine, fox, kolinsky, marten, mink, muskrat, and weasel furs and skins which are the product of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics or of Communist China.

Effective Date of Repeal

Repeal effective with respect to articles entered, or withdrawn from warehouse, for consumption on or after Aug. 31, 1963, see section 501(a) of Pub. L. 87–456, set out as a note preceding section 1202 of this title.