[USC02] 19 USC CHAPTER 4, SUBTITLE II, Part II: United States International Trade Commission
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19 USC CHAPTER 4, SUBTITLE II, Part II: United States International Trade Commission
From Title 19—CUSTOMS DUTIESCHAPTER 4—TARIFF ACT OF 1930SUBTITLE II—SPECIAL PROVISIONS

Part II—United States International Trade Commission

§1330. Organization of Commission

(a) Membership

The United States International Trade Commission (referred to in this subtitle as the "Commission") shall be composed of six commissioners who shall be appointed by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate. No person shall be eligible for appointment as a commissioner unless he is a citizen of the United States, and, in the judgment of the President, is possessed of qualifications requisite for developing expert knowledge of international trade problems and efficiency in administering the duties and functions of the Commission. A person who has served as a commissioner for more than 5 years (excluding service as a commissioner before January 3, 1975) shall not be eligible for reappointment as a commissioner. Not more than three of the commissioners shall be members of the same political party, and in making appointments members of different political parties shall be appointed alternately as nearly as may be practicable.

(b) Terms of office

The terms of office of the commissioners holding office on January 3, 1975, which (but for this sentence) would expire on June 16, 1975, June 16, 1976, June 16, 1977, June 16, 1978, June 16, 1979, and June 16, 1980, shall expire on December 16, 1976, June 16, 1978, December 16, 1979, June 16, 1981, December 16, 1982, and June 16, 1984, respectively. The term of office of each commissioner appointed after such date shall expire 9 years from the date of the expiration of the term for which his predecessor was appointed, except that—

(1) any commissioner appointed to fill a vacancy occurring prior to the expiration of the term for which his predecessor was appointed shall be appointed for the remainder of such term, and

(2) any commissioner may continue to serve as a commissioner after an expiration of his term of office until his successor is appointed and qualified.

(c) Chairman and vice chairman; quorum

(1) The chairman and the vice chairman of the Commission shall be designated by the President from among the members of the Commission not ineligible, under paragraph (3), for designation. The President shall notify the Congress of his designations under this paragraph. If, as of the date on which a term begins under paragraph (2), the President has not designated the chairman of the Commission for such term, the Commissioner 1 who, as of such date—

(A) is a member of a different political party than the chairman of the Commission for the immediately preceding term, and

(B) has the longest period of continuous service as a commissioner,


shall serve as chairman of the Commission for the portion of such term preceding the date on which an individual designated by the President takes office as chairman.

(2) After June 16, 1978, the terms of office for the chairman and vice chairman of the Commission shall be as follows:

(A) The first term of office occurring after such date shall begin on June 17, 1978, and end at the close of June 16, 1980.

(B) Each term of office thereafter shall begin on the day after the closing date of the immediately preceding term of office and end at the close of the 2-year period beginning on such day.


(3)(A) The President may not designate as the chairman of the Commission for any term any commissioner who is a member of the political party of which the chairman of the Commission for the immediately preceding term is a member, or who has less than 1 year of continuous service as a commissioner as of the date such designation is being made.

(B) The President may not designate as the vice chairman of the Commission for any term any commissioner who is a member of the political party of which the chairman for that term is a member.

(C) If any commissioner does not complete a term as chairman or vice chairman by reason of death, resignation, removal from office as a commissioner, or expiration of his term of office as a commissioner, the President shall designate as the chairman or vice chairman, as the case may be, for the remainder of such term a commissioner who is a member of the same political party. Designation of a chairman under this subparagraph may be made without regard to the 1-year continuous service requirement under subparagraph (A).

(4) The vice chairman shall act as chairman in case of the absence or disability of the chairman. During any period in which there is no chairman or vice chairman, the commissioner having the longest period of continuous service as a commissioner shall act as chairman.

(5) No commissioner shall actively engage in any business, vocation, or employment other than that of serving as a commissioner.

(6) A majority of the commissioners in office shall constitute a quorum, but the Commission may function notwithstanding vacancies.

(d) Effect of divided vote in certain cases

(1) In a proceeding in which the Commission is required to determine—

(A) under section 2252 of this title, whether increased imports of an article are a substantial cause of serious injury, or the threat thereof, as described in subsection (b)(1) of that section (hereafter in this subsection referred to as "serious injury"), or

(B) under section 2436 of this title, whether market disruption exists.


and the commissioners voting are equally divided with respect to such determination, then the determination, agreed upon by either group of commissioners may be considered by the President as the determination of the Commission.

(2) If under section 2252(b) or 2436 of this title there is an affirmative determination of the Commission, or a determination of the Commission which the President may consider an affirmative determination under paragraph (1), that serious injury or market disruption exists, respectively, and a majority of the commissioners voting are unable to agree on a finding or recommendation described in section 2252(e)(1) of this title or the finding described in section 2436(a)(3) of this title, as the case may be (hereafter in this subsection referred to as a "remedy finding"), then—

(A) if a plurality of not less than three commissioners so voting agree on a remedy finding, such remedy finding shall, for purposes of section 2253 of this title, be treated as the remedy finding of the Commission, or

(B) if two groups, both of which include not less than 3 commissioners, each agree upon a remedy finding and the President reports under section 2254(a) of this title that—

(i) he is taking the action agreed upon by one such group, then the remedy finding agreed upon by the other group shall, for purposes of section 2253 of this title, be treated as the remedy finding of the Commission, or

(ii) he is taking action which differs from the action agreed upon by both such groups, or that he will not take any action, then the remedy finding agreed upon by either such group may be considered by the Congress as the remedy finding of the Commission and shall, for purposes of section 2253 of this title, be treated as the remedy finding of the Commission.


(3) In any proceeding to which paragraph (1) applies in which the commissioners voting are equally divided on a determination that serious injury exists, or that market disruption exists, the Commission shall report to the President the determination of each group of commissioners. In any proceeding to which paragraph (2) applies, the Commission shall report to the President the remedy finding of each group of commissioners voting.

(4) In a case to which paragraph (2)(B)(ii) applies, for purposes of section 2253(a) of this title, notwithstanding section 2192(a)(1)(A) of this title, the second blank space in the joint resolution described in such section 2192(a)(1)(A) of this title shall be filled with the appropriate date and the following: "The action which shall take effect under section 203(a) of the Trade Act of 1974 is the finding or recommendation agreed upon by Commissioners ______________, ______________, and ____________." The three blank spaces shall be filled with the names of the appropriate Commissioners.

(5) Whenever, in any case in which the Commission is authorized to make an investigation upon its own motion, upon complaint, or upon application of any interested party, one-half of the number of commissioners voting agree that the investigation should be made, such investigation shall thereupon be carried out in accordance with the statutory authority covering the matter in question. Whenever the Commission is authorized to hold hearings in the course of any investigation and one-half of the number of commissioners voting agree that hearings should be held, such hearings shall thereupon be held in accordance with the statutory authority covering the matter in question.

(e) Authorization of appropriations

(1) For the fiscal year beginning October 1, 1976, and each fiscal year thereafter, there are authorized to be appropriated to the Commission only such sums as may hereafter be provided by law.

(2)(A) There are authorized to be appropriated to the Commission for necessary expenses (including the rental of conference rooms in the District of Columbia and elsewhere) not to exceed the following:

(i) $54,000,000 for fiscal year 2003.

(ii) $57,240,000 for fiscal year 2004.


(B) Not to exceed $2,500 of the amount authorized to be appropriated for any fiscal year under subparagraph (A) may be used, subject to the approval of the Chairman of the Commission, for reception and entertainment expenses.

(C) No part of any sum that is appropriated under the authority of subparagraph (A) may be used by the Commission in the making of any special study, investigation, or report that is requested by any agency of the executive branch unless that agency reimburses the Commission for the cost thereof.

(3) There are authorized to be appropriated to the Commission for each fiscal year after September 30, 1977, in addition to any other amount authorized to be appropriated for such fiscal year, such sums as may be necessary for increases authorized by law in salary, pay, retirement, and other employee benefits.

(4) By not later than the date on which the President submits to Congress the budget of the United States Government for a fiscal year, the Commission shall submit to the Committee on Ways and Means of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Finance of the Senate the projected amount of funds for the succeeding fiscal year that will be necessary for the Commission to carry out its functions.

(f) Treatment of Commission under Paperwork Reduction Act

The Commission shall be considered to be an independent regulatory agency for purposes of chapter 35 of title 44.

(June 17, 1930, ch. 497, title III, §330, 46 Stat. 696; Aug. 7, 1953, ch. 348, title II, §201, 67 Stat. 472; Pub. L. 93–618, title I, §§172(a), (b), 175(b), Jan. 3, 1975, 88 Stat. 2009–2011; Pub. L. 94–455, title XVIII, §1801(a), (b), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1762; Pub. L. 95–106, §§1, 2(a), Aug. 17, 1977, 91 Stat. 867; Pub. L. 95–430, Oct. 10, 1978, 92 Stat. 1020; Pub. L. 97–456, §1(a), Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2503; Pub. L. 98–573, title II, §248(c), title VII, §701, Oct. 30, 1984, 98 Stat. 2998, 3043; Pub. L. 99–272, title XIII, §13021, Apr. 7, 1986, 100 Stat. 305; Pub. L. 100–203, title IX, §9502, Dec. 22, 1987, 101 Stat. 1330–380; Pub. L. 100–418, title I, §§1401(b)(4), 1611, 1612, Aug. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 1240, 1262; Pub. L. 100–647, title IX, §9001(a)(15), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3808; Pub. L. 101–207, §2, Dec. 7, 1989, 103 Stat. 1833; Pub. L. 101–382, title I, §101, Aug. 20, 1990, 104 Stat. 633; Pub. L. 102–185, §1(a)(1), (2), (c)(1), Dec. 4, 1991, 105 Stat. 1280; Pub. L. 107–210, div. A, title III, §371, Aug. 6, 2002, 116 Stat. 991; Pub. L. 108–429, title II, §2004(a)(13), Dec. 3, 2004, 118 Stat. 2590.)

References in Text

Section 203(a) of the Trade Act of 1974, referred to in subsec. (d)(4), is classified to section 2253(a) of this title.

Codification

Provisions of subsec. (c) which prescribed the annual basic compensation of the commissioners were omitted to conform to the provisions of the Executive Schedule. See sections 5314 and 5315 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

Prior Provisions

Provisions similar to those in this section were contained in act Sept. 8, 1916, ch. 463, §700, 39 Stat. 795. That section was superseded by section 330 of act June 17, 1930, comprising this section.

Amendments

2004—Subsec. (e)(4). Pub. L. 108–429 made technical correction to directory language of Pub. L. 107–210, §371(b). See 2002 Amendment note below.

2002—Subsec. (e)(2)(A)(i). Pub. L. 107–210, §371(a)(1), added cl. (i) and struck out former cl. (i) which read as follows: "$41,170,000 for fiscal year 1991."

Subsec. (e)(2)(A)(ii). Pub. L. 107–210, §371(a)(2), added cl. (ii) and struck out former cl. (ii) which read as follows: "$44,052,000 for fiscal year 1992."

Subsec. (e)(4). Pub. L. 107–210, §371(b), as amended by Pub. L. 108–429, added par. (4).

1991—Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 102–185, §1(c)(1), inserted at end "If, as of the date on which a term begins under paragraph (2), the President has not designated the chairman of the Commission for such term, the Commissioner who, as of such date—

"(A) is a member of a different political party than the chairman of the Commission for the immediately preceding term, and

"(B) has the longest period of continuous service as a commissioner,

shall serve as chairman of the Commission for the portion of such term preceding the date on which an individual designated by the President takes office as chairman."

Subsec. (c)(3)(A). Pub. L. 102–185, §1(a)(2)(A), inserted ", or who has less than 1 year of continuous service as a commissioner as of the date such designation is being made" before the period.

Pub. L. 102–185, §1(a)(1)(A), amended subpar. (A) generally. Prior to amendment, subpar. (A) read as follows: "The President may not designate as the chairman of the Commission for any term—

"(i) either of the two commissioners with the shortest period of service on the Commission as of the beginning date of the term of office for which the designation of chairman is to be made; or

"(ii) any commissioner who is a member of the political party of which the chairman of the Commission for the immediately preceding term is a member."

Subsec. (c)(3)(C). Pub. L. 102–185, §1(a)(2)(B), inserted at end "Designation of a chairman under this subparagraph may be made without regard to the 1-year continuous service requirement under subparagraph (A)."

Pub. L. 102–185, §1(a)(1)(B), struck out at end "Designation of a chairman under this subparagraph may be made without regard to the limitation set forth in subparagraph (A)(i)."

1990—Subsec. (e)(2). Pub. L. 101–382 amended par. (2) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (2) read as follows: "There are authorized to be appropriated to the Commission for necessary expenses (including the rental of conference rooms in the District of Columbia and elsewhere) for fiscal year 1990 not to exceed $39,943,000; of which not to exceed $2,500 may be used, subject to approval by the Chairman of the Commission, for reception and entertainment expenses. No part of any sum that is appropriated under the authority of this paragraph may be used by the Commission for the making of any special study, investigation, or report that is requested by any agency of the executive branch unless that agency reimburses the Commission for the cost thereof."

1989—Subsec. (e)(2). Pub. L. 101–207 substituted "1990" for "1988" and "$39,943,000" for "$35,386,000".

1988—Subsec. (c)(3)(A)(i). Pub. L. 100–647 substituted "with the shortest period of service on" for "most recently appointed to".

Pub. L. 100–418, §1611, which directed that subsec. (c)(A)(i) of this section be amended by substituting "with the shortest period of service on" for "most recently appointed to", was probably intended to be an amendment to subsec. (c)(3)(A)(i). See amendment by Pub. L. 100–647 above.

Subsec. (d)(1)(A). Pub. L. 100–418, §1401(b)(4)(A), substituted "2252" for "2251".

Subsec. (d)(2). Pub. L. 100–418, §1401(b)(4)(B)(i), (iii), in introductory provisions substituted "2252(b)" and "2252(e)(1)" for "2251" and "2251(d)(1)", respectively.

Subsec. (d)(2)(A). Pub. L. 100–418, §1401(b)(4)(B)(iv), substituted "section 2253 of this title" for "sections 2252 and 2253 of this title".

Subsec. (d)(2)(B). Pub. L. 100–418, §1401(b)(4)(B)(iv), (v), in introductory provisions substituted "section 2254(a) of this title" for "section 2253(b) of this title" and, in cls. (i) and (ii), substituted "section 2253 of this title" for "sections 2252 and 2253 of this title".

Subsec. (d)(4). Pub. L. 100–418, §1401(b)(4)(C), substituted "section 2253(a) of this title" for "section 2253(c)(1) of this title" and "section 203(a) of the Trade Act of 1974" for "section 203(c)(1) of the Trade Act of 1974".

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 100–418, §1612, added subsec. (f).

1987—Subsec. (e)(2). Pub. L. 100–203 substituted "for fiscal year 1988 not to exceed $35,386,000" for "fiscal year 1986 not to exceed $28,901,000".

1986—Subsec. (e)(2). Pub. L. 99–272 amended first sentence generally, substituting "for fiscal year 1986 not to exceed $28,901,000" for "for fiscal year 1985 not to exceed $28,410,000".

1984—Subsec. (d)(4). Pub. L. 98–573, §248(c), substituted "the joint resolution described in such section 2192(a)(1)(A)" for "the concurrent resolution described in such section 2192".

Subsec. (e)(2). Pub. L. 98–573, §701, substituted authorization of appropriation of not more than $28,410,000 for fiscal year 1985 for necessary expenses, including the rental of conference rooms in the District of Columbia and elsewhere for provision authorizing appropriation of not more than $19,737,000 for necessary expenses for fiscal year 1983, and inserted provision that not more than $2,500 may be used, subject to approval by the Chairman of the Commission, for reception and entertainment expenses.

1983—Subsec. (e)(2). Pub. L. 97–456 substituted authorization of appropriation of not exceeding $19,737,000 for fiscal 1983 for authorization not exceeding $12,963,000 for fiscal 1979, and inserted provision relating to reimbursement by agencies of the executive branch for studies requested by them.

1978—Subsec. (e)(2). Pub. L. 95–430 substituted provisions authorizing $12,963,000 to be appropriated for the necessary expenses of the Commission for fiscal year 1979 for provisions authorizing $11,522,000 to be appropriated for similar expenses for fiscal year 1978.

1977—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 95–106, §2(a), inserted provisions in par. (1) for the Congressional notification of Presidential designations, substituted, in par. (2), provisions covering the expiration of terms of office after June 16, 1978, for provisions covering the expiration of terms of office on and after June 17, 1975, added par. (3), and redesignated as pars. (4) to (6) provisions formerly contained in par. (1).

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 95–106, §1, designated existing provisions as par. (1) and added pars. (2) and (3).

1976—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 94–455, §1801(a), inserted provisions that any commissioner may continue to serve as a commissioner after an expiration of his term of office until his successor is appointed and qualified.

Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 94–455, §1801(b)(2), substituted provisions relating to consideration by the President of determinations of the Commission as to whether increased imports of an article are a substantial cause of serious injury or threat or whether market disruption exists for provisions relating to consideration by the President of findings of the Commission in connection with any authority conferred upon the President by law to make changes in import restrictions.

Subsec. (d)(2) to (5). Pub. L. 94–455, §1801(b), added pars. (2) to (4) and redesignated former par. (2) as (5).

1975—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 93–618, §172(a), substituted "United States International Trade Commission" for "United States Tariff Commission" and inserted provision that a person who has served as a commissioner for more than five years (excluding service as a commissioner before January 3, 1975) shall not be eligible for reappointment as a commissioner.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 93–618, §172(a), lengthened the term of office from 6 years to 9 years for commissioners appointed after Jan. 3, 1975, and substituted Dec. 16, 1976, June 16, 1978, Dec. 16, 1979, June 16, 1981, Dec. 16, 1982, and June 16, 1984, for June 16, 1975, June 16, 1976, June 16, 1977, June 16, 1978, June 16, 1979, and June 16, 1980, respectively, as the expiration dates for the terms of office of commissioners serving on Jan. 3, 1975.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 93–618, §172(b), designated existing provisions as par. (1), inserted "Except as provided in paragraph (2)," before "The", and added par. (2).

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 93–618, §175(b), added subsec. (e).

1953—Subsec. (d). Act Aug. 7, 1953, added subsec. (d).

Effective Date of 2002 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 107–210 applicable to petitions for certification filed under part 2 or 3 of subchapter II of chapter 12 of this title on or after the date that is 90 days after Aug. 6, 2002, except as otherwise provided, see section 151 of Pub. L. 107–210, set out as a note preceding section 2271 of this title.

Effective Date of 1991 Amendment

Pub. L. 102–185, §1(a)(3), Dec. 4, 1991, 105 Stat. 1280, provided that:

"(A) Modification.—The amendments made by paragraph (1) [amending this section] shall apply to terms beginning on and after June 17, 1990.

"(B) 1-year requirement.—The amendments made by paragraph (2) [amending this section] shall apply to terms beginning on and after June 17, 1996."

Pub. L. 102–185, §1(c)(2), Dec. 4, 1991, 105 Stat. 1281, provided that: "The amendment made by this subsection [amending this section] shall take effect on the 10th day following the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 4, 1991]."

Effective Date of 1988 Amendments

Amendment by Pub. L. 100–647 applicable as if such amendment took effect on Aug. 23, 1988, see section 9001(b) of Pub. L. 100–647, set out as an Effective and Termination Dates of 1988 Amendments note under section 58c of this title.

Amendment by section 1401(b)(4) of Pub. L. 100–418 effective Aug. 23, 1988, and applicable with respect to investigations initiated under part 1 (§2251 et seq.) of subchapter II of chapter 12 of this title on or after that date, see section 1401(c) of Pub. L. 100–418, set out as a note under section 2251 of this title.

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Amendment by section 248(c) of Pub. L. 98–573 effective on 15th day after Oct. 30, 1984, see section 214(a), (b) of Pub. L. 98–573, set out as a note under section 1304 of this title.

Effective Date of 1977 Amendment

Pub. L. 95–106, §2(b), Aug. 17, 1977, 91 Stat. 868, provided that: "The amendment made by this section [amending this section] shall apply with respect to the designation of chairmen and vice chairmen of the United States International Trade Commission for terms beginning after June 16, 1978."

Effective Date of 1976 Amendment

Pub. L. 94–455, title XVIII, §1801(c), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1763, provided that: "The amendments made by subsection (b) [amending this section] shall apply to determinations, findings, and recommendations made under sections 201 and 406 of the Trade Act of 1974 [sections 2251 and 2436 of this title] after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 4, 1976]."

Appointment of Chairman in 1992

Pub. L. 102–185, §1(b), Dec. 4, 1991, 105 Stat. 1280, provided that: "In the case of the term of the chairman of the United States International Trade Commission beginning June 17, 1992—

"(1) section 330(c)(3)(A) of the Tariff Act of 1930 [19 U.S.C. 1330(c)(3)(A)] shall not apply, and

"(2) the President shall designate as chairman a Commissioner who is a member of the same political party as the chairman of the Commission serving on June 16, 1986."

1 So in original. Probably should not be capitalized.

§1331. General powers

(a) Administration

(1)(A) Except as provided in paragraph (2), the chairman of the Commission shall—

(i) appoint and fix the compensation of such employees of the Commission as he deems necessary (other than the personal staff of each commissioner), including the secretary,

(ii) procure the services of experts and consultants in accordance with the provisions of section 3109 of title 5, and

(iii) exercise and be responsible for all other administrative functions of the Commission.


(B) The chairman of the Commission may accept, hold, administer, and utilize gifts, devises, and bequests of property, both real and personal, for the purpose of aiding or facilitating the work of the Commission.

(C) Any decision by the chairman under subparagraph (A) or (B) shall be subject to disapproval by a majority vote of all the commissioners in office.

(2) Subject to approval by a majority vote of all the commissioners in office, the chairman may—

(A) terminate the employment of any supervisory employee of the Commission whose duties involve substantial personal responsibility for Commission matters and who is compensated at a rate equal to, or in excess of, the rate for grade GS–15 of the General Schedule in section 5332 of title 5, and

(B) formulate the annual budget of the Commission.


(3) No member of the Commission, in making public statements with respect to any policy matter for which the Commission has responsibility, shall represent himself as speaking for the Commission, or his views as being the views of the Commission, with respect to such matter except to the extent that the Commission has adopted the policy being expressed.

(b) Application of civil service law

Except for employees excepted under civil service rules, all employees of the commission shall be appointed from lists of eligibles to be supplied by the Director of the Office of Personnel Management and in accordance with the civil service law.

(c) Expenses

All of the expenses of the commission, including all necessary expenses for transportation incurred by the commissioners or by their employees under their orders in making any investigation or upon official business in any other places than at their respective headquarters, shall be allowed and paid on the presentation of itemized vouchers therefor approved by the chairman (except that in the case of a commissioner, or the personal staff of any commissioner, such vouchers may be approved by that commissioner).

(d) Principal office at Washington

The principal office of the commission shall be in the city of Washington, but it may meet and exercise all its powers at any other place. The commission may, by one or more of its members, or by such agents as it may designate, prosecute any inquiry necessary to its duties in any part of the United States or in any foreign country.

(e) Office at New York

The commission is authorized to establish and maintain an office at the port of New York for the purpose of directing or carrying on any investigation, receiving and compiling statistics, selecting, describing, and filing samples of articles, and performing any of the duties or exercising any of the powers imposed upon it by law.

(f) Official seal

The commission is authorized to adopt an official seal, which shall be judicially noticed.

(June 17, 1930, ch. 497, title III, §331, 46 Stat. 697; Pub. L. 95–106, §3(a), (b), Aug. 17, 1977, 91 Stat. 868; 1978 Reorg. Plan No. 2, §102, eff. Jan. 1, 1979, 43 F.R. 36037, 92 Stat. 3783; Pub. L. 97–456, §1(b), Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2503.)

Codification

In subsec. (a), provisions which specified a salary of $7,500 per year for the secretary to the commission have been omitted as obsolete and superseded. Sections 1202 and 1204 of the Classification Act of 1949, 63 Stat. 972, 973, repealed the Classification Act of 1923 and all other laws or parts of laws inconsistent with the 1949 Act. The Classification Act of 1949 was repealed by Pub. L. 89–554, Sept. 6, 1966, §8(a), 80 Stat. 632, and reenacted as chapter 51 and subchapter III of chapter 53 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees. Section 5102 of Title 5 contains the applicability provisions of the 1949 Act, and section 5103 of Title 5 authorizes the Office of Personnel Management to determine the applicability to specific positions and employees.

In subsec. (b), the words "Except for employees excepted under the civil service rules" substituted for "With the exception of the secretary, a clerk to each commissioner, and such special experts as the commission may from time to time find necessary for the conduct of its work". Appointments are now subject to the civil service laws unless specifically excepted by such laws or by laws enacted subsequent to Executive Order 8743, Apr. 23, 1941, issued by the President pursuant to the act of Nov. 26, 1940, ch. 919, title I, §1, 54 Stat. 1211, which covered most excepted positions into the classified (competitive) civil service. The Order is set out as a note under section 3301 of Title 5.

Prior Provisions

Provisions similar to subsecs. (a) to (e) of this section were contained in act Sept. 8, 1916, ch. 463, §701, 39 Stat. 975. That section was superseded by section 331 of act June 17, 1930, comprising this section.

Provisions similar to those in subsecs. (f) and (g) of this section were contained in act Sept. 21, 1922, ch. 356, title III, §318, 42 Stat. 947. That section was superseded by section 331 of act June 17, 1930, comprising this section, and repealed by section 651(a)(1) of the 1930 act.

Amendments

1983—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 97–456 designated existing provisions relating to the chairman's exercise of and responsibility for all administrative functions as subpar. (A), redesignated former subpars. (A) through (C) as cls. (i) through (iii), added subpar. (B), designated provisions relating to disapproval by a majority of the commissioners of any decision by the chairman as subpar. (C), and in (C) as so designated, substituted "subparagraph (A) or (B)" for "this paragraph" after "chairman under".

1977—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 95–106, §3(a), designated existing provisions as par. (1), substituted provisions authorizing the chairman to perform certain required functions subject to approval by the Commission for provisions authorizing the Commission to perform certain required functions and inserted provisions requiring the chairman to exercise and be responsible for all other administrative functions of the Commission, and added pars. (2) and (3).

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 95–106, §3(b)(1), substituted "approved by the chairman (except that in the case of a commissioner, or the personal staff of any commissioner, such vouchers may be approved by that commissioner)" for "approved by the Commission".

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 95–106, §3(b)(2), redesignated subsecs. (e) to (g) as (d) to (f), respectively. Former subsec. (d), relating to offices and supplies, was struck out.

Effective Date of 1977 Amendment

Pub. L. 95–106, §3(c), Aug. 17, 1977, 91 Stat. 869, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section] take effect on the date of enactment of this Act [Aug. 17, 1977]."

Transfer of Functions

"Director of the Office of Personnel Management" substituted for "Civil Service Commission" in subsec. (b) pursuant to Reorg. Plan No. 2 of 1978, §102, 43 F.R. 36037, 92 Stat. 3783, set out under section 1101 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees, which transferred functions vested by statute in Civil Service Commission to Director of Office of Personnel Management (except as otherwise specified), effective Jan. 1, 1979, as provided by section 1–102 of Ex. Ord. No. 12107, Dec. 28, 1978, 44 F.R. 1055, set out under section 1101 of Title 5.

§1332. Investigations

(a) Investigations and reports

It shall be the duty of the commission to investigate the administration and fiscal and industrial effects of the customs laws of this country, the relations between the rates of duty on raw materials and finished or partly finished products, the effects of ad valorem and specific duties and of compound specific and ad valorem duties, all questions relative to the arrangement of schedules and classification of articles in the several schedules of the customs law, and, in general, to investigate the operation of customs laws, including their relation to the Federal revenues, their effect upon the industries and labor of the country, and to submit reports of its investigations as hereafter provided.

(b) Investigations of tariff relations

The commission shall have power to investigate the tariff relations between the United States and foreign countries, commercial treaties, preferential provisions, economic alliances, the effect of export bounties and preferential transportation rates, the volume of importations compared with domestic production and consumption, and conditions, causes, and effects relating to competition of foreign industries with those of the United States, including dumping and cost of production.

(c) Investigation of Paris Economy Pact

The commission shall have power to investigate the Paris Economy Pact and similar organizations and arrangements in Europe.

(d) Information for President and Congress

In order that the President and the Congress may secure information and assistance, it shall be the duty of the commission to—

(1) Ascertain conversion costs and costs of production in the principal growing, producing, or manufacturing centers of the United States of articles of the United States, whenever in the opinion of the commission it is practicable;

(2) Ascertain conversion costs and costs of production in the principal growing, producing, or manufacturing centers of foreign countries of articles imported into the United States, whenever in the opinion of the commission such conversion costs or costs of production are necessary for comparison with conversion costs or costs of production in the United States and can be reasonably ascertained;

(3) Select and describe articles which are representative of the classes or kinds of articles imported into the United States and which are similar to or comparable with articles of the United States; select and describe articles of the United States similar to or comparable with such imported articles; and obtain and file samples of articles so selected, whenever the commission deems it advisable;

(4) Ascertain import costs of such representative articles so selected;

(5) Ascertain the grower's, producer's, or manufacturer's selling prices in the principal growing, producing, or manufacturing centers of the United States of the articles of the United States so selected; and

(6) Ascertain all other facts which will show the differences in or which affect competition between articles of the United States and imported articles in the principal markets of the United States.

(e) Definitions

When used in this subdivision and in subdivision (d)—

(1) The term "article" includes any commodity, whether grown, produced, fabricated, manipulated, or manufactured;

(2) The term "import cost" means the transaction value of the imported merchandise determined in accordance with section 1401a(b) of this title plus, when not included in the transaction value, all necessary expenses, exclusive of customs duties, of bringing such merchandise to the United States.

(f) Omitted

(g) Reports to President and Congress

The commission shall put at the disposal of the President of the United States, the Committee on Ways and Means of the House of Representatives, and the Committee on Finance of the Senate, whenever requested, all information at its command, and shall make such investigations and reports as may be requested by the President or by either of said committees or by either branch of the Congress. However, the Commission may not release information which the Commission considers to be confidential business information unless the party submitting the confidential business information had notice, at the time of submission, that such information would be released by the Commission, or such party subsequently consents to the release of the information. The Commission shall report to Congress on the first Monday of December of each year after June 17, 1930, a statement of the methods adopted and all expenses incurred, a summary of all reports made during the year, and a list of all votes taken by the commission during the year, showing those commissioners voting in the affirmative and the negative on each vote and those commissioners not voting on each vote and the reasons for not voting. Each such annual report shall include a list of all complaints filed under section 1337 of this title during the year for which such report is being made, the date on which each such complaint was filed, and the action taken thereon, and the status of all investigations conducted by the commission under such section during such year and the date on which each such investigation was commenced.

(June 17, 1930, ch. 497, title III, §332, 46 Stat. 698; Pub. L. 93–618, title I, §173, title III, §341(b), Jan. 3, 1975, 88 Stat. 2010, 2056; Pub. L. 96–39, title II, §202(a)(1), July 26, 1979, 93 Stat. 201; Pub. L. 100–418, title I, §1613, Aug. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 1262; Pub. L. 100–647, title IX, §9001(a)(16), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3808.)

Codification

Subsec. (f) directed the Tariff Commission to ascertain the cost of crude petroleum during three years preceding 1930.

Prior Provisions

Provisions similar to subsecs. (a), (b), and (g) were contained in act Sept. 8, 1916, ch. 463, §§702 to 704, 39 Stat. 796. Those sections were superseded by section 332 of act June 17, 1930, comprising this section.

Provisions similar to those in subdiv. (c) were contained in act Sept. 8, 1916, ch. 463, §708, 39 Stat. 798. That section was superseded by section 332 of act June 17, 1930, comprising this section.

Provisions similar to subdivs. (d) and (e) were contained in act Sept. 21, 1922, ch. 356, title III, §318, 42 Stat. 947. Section 318 of act 1922 was superseded by section 332 of act June 17, 1930, comprising this section, and repealed by section 651(a)(1) of said 1930 act.

Act Oct. 3, 1913, ch. 16, §IV, R, 38 Stat. 201, directed President to ascertain certain facts and report to Congress when imports amounted to less than 5 per centum of domestic consumption, prior to repeal by act Sept. 21, 1922, ch. 356, title III, §321, 42 Stat. 947.

Amendments

1988—Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 100–647 substituted "report to Congress on the first" for "report to Congress. on the first".

Pub. L. 100–418 substituted ". However, the Commission may not release information which the Commission considers to be confidential business information unless the party submitting the confidential business information had notice, at the time of submission, that such information would be released by the Commission, or such party subsequently consents to the release of the information. The Commission shall report to Congress." for ", and shall report to Congress".

1979—Subsec. (e)(2). Pub. L. 96–39 substituted "the transaction value of the imported merchandise determined in accordance with section 1401a(b) of this title plus, when not included in the transaction value, all necessary expenses, exclusive of customs duties, of bringing such merchandise to the United States" for "the price at which an article is freely offered for sale in the ordinary course of trade in the usual wholesale quantities for exportation to the United States plus, when not included in such price, all necessary expenses, exclusive of customs duties, of bringing such imported article to the United States".

1975—Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 93–618 substituted "a summary of all reports made during the year, and a list of all votes taken by the commission during the year, showing those commissioners voting in the affirmative and the negative on each vote and those commissioners not voting on each vote and the reasons for not voting" for "and a summary of all reports made during the year", and inserted last sentence relating to complaints included in annual reports.

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 100–647 applicable as if such amendment took effect on Aug. 23, 1988, see section 9001(b) of Pub. L. 100–647, set out as an Effective and Termination Dates of 1988 Amendments note under section 58c of this title.

Effective Date of 1979 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 96–39 effective July 1, 1980, see section 204(a) of Pub. L. 96–39, set out as a note under section 1401a of this title.

Effective Date of 1975 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 93–618 effective on 90th day after Jan. 3, 1975, see section 341(c) of Pub. L. 93–618, set out as a note under section 1337 of this title.

Termination of Reporting Requirements

For termination, effective May 15, 2000, of provisions in subsec. (g) relating to an annual report to Congress on the first Monday of December of each year, see section 3003 of Pub. L. 104–66, set out as a note under section 1113 of Title 31, Money and Finance, and page 194 of House Document No. 103–7.

Delegation of Functions

Functions of President under subsec. (g) of this section regarding reports by United States International Trade Commission to President delegated to United States Trade Representative, see section 5–301 of Ex. Ord. No. 12661, Dec. 27, 1988, 54 F.R. 779, set out as a note under section 2901 of this title.

American Manufacturing Competitiveness

Pub. L. 114–159, May 20, 2016, 130 Stat. 396, provided that:

"SECTION 1. SHORT TITLE.

"This Act may be cited as the 'American Manufacturing Competitiveness Act of 2016'.

"SEC. 2. SENSE OF CONGRESS ON THE NEED FOR A MISCELLANEOUS TARIFF BILL.

"(a) Findings.—Congress makes the following findings:

"(1) As of the date of the enactment of this Act [May 20, 2016], the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States [see Publication of Harmonized Tariff Schedule note set out under section 1202 of this title] imposes duties on imported goods for which there is no domestic availability or insufficient domestic availability.

"(2) The imposition of duties on such goods creates artificial distortions in the economy of the United States that negatively affect United States manufacturers and consumers.

"(3) The manufacturing competitiveness of the United States around the world will be enhanced if Congress regularly and predictably updates the Harmonized Tariff Schedule to suspend or reduce duties on such goods.

"(4) Creating and maintaining an open and transparent process for consideration of petitions for duty suspensions and reductions builds confidence that the process is fair, open to all, and free of abuse.

"(5) Complying with the Rules of the House of Representatives and the Senate, in particular with clause 9 of rule XXI of the Rules of the House of Representatives and rule XLIV of the Standing Rules of the Senate, is essential to fostering and maintaining confidence in the process for considering a miscellaneous tariff bill.

"(6) A miscellaneous tariff bill developed under this process will not contain any—

"(A) congressional earmarks or limited tax benefits within the meaning of clause 9 of rule XXI of the Rules of the House of Representatives; or

"(B) congressionally directed spending items or limited tax benefits within the meaning of rule XLIV of the Standing Rules of the Senate.

"(7) Because any limited tariff benefits contained in any miscellaneous tariff bill following the process set forth by this Act will not have been the subject of legislation introduced by an individual Member of Congress and will be fully vetted through a transparent and fair process free of abuse, it is appropriate for Congress to consider limited tariff benefits as part of that miscellaneous tariff bill as long as—

"(A) in the case of a miscellaneous tariff bill considered in the House of Representatives, consistent with the Rules of the House of Representatives, a list of such limited tariff benefits is published in the reports of the Committee on Ways and Means of the House of Representatives accompanying the miscellaneous tariff bill, or in the Congressional Record; and

"(B) in the case of a miscellaneous tariff bill considered in the Senate, consistent with the Standing Rules of the Senate—

"(i) such limited tariff benefits have been identified through lists, charts, or other similar means; and

"(ii) the information identified in clause (i) has been available on a publicly accessible congressional website in a searchable format at least 48 hours before the vote on the motion to proceed to the miscellaneous tariff bill or the vote on the adoption of a report of a committee of conference in connection with the miscellaneous tariff bill, as the case may be.

"(8) When the process set forth under paragraph (7) is followed, it is consistent with the letter and intent of the Rules of the House of Representatives and the Senate and other related guidance.

"(b) Sense of Congress.—It is the sense of Congress that, to remove the competitive disadvantage to United States manufacturers and consumers and to promote the competitiveness of United States manufacturers, Congress should, not later than 90 days after the United States International Trade Commission issues a final report on petitions for duty suspensions and reductions under section 3(b)(3)(E), consider a miscellaneous tariff bill.

"SEC. 3. PROCESS FOR CONSIDERATION OF PETITIONS FOR DUTY SUSPENSIONS AND REDUCTIONS.

"(a) Purpose.—It is the purpose of this section to establish a process for the submission and consideration of petitions for duty suspensions and reductions.

"(b) Requirements of Commission.—

"(1) Initiation.—Not later than October 15, 2016, and October 15, 2019, the Commission shall publish in the Federal Register and on a publicly available Internet website of the Commission a notice requesting members of the public who can demonstrate that they are likely beneficiaries of duty suspensions or reductions to submit to the Commission during the 60-day period beginning on the date of such publication—

"(A) petitions for duty suspensions and reductions; and

"(B) Commission disclosure forms with respect to such duty suspensions and reductions.

"(2) Content of petitions.—Each petition for a duty suspension or reduction under paragraph (1)(A) shall include the following information:

"(A) The name and address of the petitioner.

"(B) A statement as to whether the petition provides for an extension of an existing duty suspension or reduction or provides for a new duty suspension or reduction.

"(C) A certification that the petitioner is a likely beneficiary of the proposed duty suspension or reduction.

"(D) An article description for the proposed duty suspension or reduction to be included in the amendment to subchapter II of chapter 99 of the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States.

"(E) To the extent available—

"(i) a classification of the article for purposes of the amendment to subchapter II of chapter 99 of the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States;

"(ii) a classification ruling of U.S. Customs and Border Protection with respect to the article; and

"(iii) a copy of a U.S. Customs and Border Protection entry summary indicating where the article is classified in the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States.

"(F) A brief and general description of the article.

"(G) A brief description of the industry in the United States that uses the article.

"(H) An estimate of the total value, in United States dollars, of imports of the article for each of the 5 calendar years after the calendar year in which the petition is filed, including an estimate of the total value of such imports by the person who submits the petition and by any other importers, if available.

"(I) The name of each person that imports the article, if available.

"(J) A description of any domestic production of the article, if available.

"(K) Such other information as the Commission may require.

"(3) Review.—

"(A) Commission publication and public availability.—As soon as practicable after the expiration of the 60-day period specified in paragraph (1), but in any case not later than 30 days after the expiration of such 60-day period, the Commission shall publish on a publicly available Internet website of the Commission—

"(i) the petitions for duty suspensions and reductions submitted under paragraph (1)(A) that contain the information required under paragraph (2); and

"(ii) the Commission disclosure forms with respect to such duty suspensions and reductions submitted under paragraph (1)(B).

"(B) Public comment.—

"(i) In general.—The Commission shall publish in the Federal Register and on a publicly available Internet website of the Commission a notice requesting members of the public to submit to the Commission during the 45-day period beginning on the date of publication described in subparagraph (A) comments on—

     "(I) the petitions for duty suspensions and reductions published by the Commission under subparagraph (A)(i); and

     "(II) the Commission disclosure forms with respect to such duty suspensions and reductions published by the Commission under subparagraph (A)(ii).

"(ii) Publication of comments.—The Commission shall publish a notice in the Federal Register directing members of the public to a publicly available Internet website of the Commission to view the comments of the members of the public received under clause (i).

"(C) Preliminary report.—

"(i) In general.—As soon as practicable after the expiration of the 120-day period beginning on the date of publication described in subparagraph (A), but in any case not later than 30 days after the expiration of such 120-day period, the Commission shall submit to the appropriate congressional committees a preliminary report on the petitions for duty suspensions and reductions submitted under paragraph (1)(A). The preliminary report shall contain the following information with respect to each petition for a duty suspension or reduction:

     "(I) The heading or subheading of the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States in which each article that is the subject of the petition for the duty suspension or reduction is classified, as identified by documentation supplied to the Commission, and any supporting information obtained by the Commission.

     "(II) A determination of whether or not domestic production of the article that is the subject of the petition for the duty suspension or reduction exists, taking into account the report of the Secretary of Commerce under subsection (c)(1), and, if such production exists, whether or not a domestic producer of the article objects to the duty suspension or reduction.

     "(III) Any technical changes to the article description of the article that is the subject of the petition for the duty suspension or reduction that are necessary for purposes of administration when the article is presented for importation, taking into account the report of the Secretary of Commerce under subsection (c)(2).

     "(IV) An estimate of the amount of loss in revenue to the United States that would no longer be collected if the duty suspension or reduction takes effect.

     "(V) A determination of whether or not the duty suspension or reduction is available to any person that imports the article that is the subject of the duty suspension or reduction.

     "(VI) The likely beneficiaries of each duty suspension or reduction, including whether the petitioner is a likely beneficiary.

"(ii) Categories of information.—The preliminary report submitted under clause (i) shall also contain the following information:

     "(I) A list of petitions for duty suspensions and reductions that meet the requirements of this Act without modifications.

     "(II) A list of petitions for duty suspensions and reductions for which the Commission recommends technical corrections in order to meet the requirements of this Act, with the correction specified.

     "(III) A list of petitions for duty suspensions and reductions for which the Commission recommends modifications to the amount of the duty suspension or reduction that is the subject of the petition to comply with the requirements of this Act, with the modification specified.

     "(IV) A list of petitions for duty suspensions and reductions for which the Commission recommends modifications to the scope of the articles that are the subject of such petitions to address objections by domestic producers to such petitions, with the modifications specified.

     "(V) A list of the following:

"(aa) Petitions for duty suspensions and reductions that the Commission has determined do not contain the information required under paragraph (2).

"(bb) Petitions for duty suspensions and reductions with respect to which the Commission has determined the petitioner is not a likely beneficiary.

     "(VI) A list of petitions for duty suspensions and reductions that the Commission does not recommend for inclusion in a miscellaneous tariff bill, other than petitions specified in subclause (V).

"(D) Additional information.—The Commission shall consider any information submitted by the appropriate congressional committees to the Commission relating to moving a petition that is contained in the list referred to in subclause (VI) of subparagraph (C)(ii) of the preliminary report submitted under subparagraph (C) to a list referred to in subclause (I), (II), (III), or (IV) of subparagraph (C)(ii).

"(E) Final report.—Not later than 60 days after the date on which the preliminary report is submitted under subparagraph (C), the Commission shall submit to the appropriate congressional committees a final report on each petition for a duty suspension or reduction specified in the preliminary report. The final report shall contain with respect to each such petition—

"(i) the information required under clauses (i) and (ii) of subparagraph (C) and updated as appropriate under subparagraph (D); and

"(ii) a determination of the Commission whether—

     "(I) the duty suspension or reduction can likely be administered by U.S. Customs and Border Protection;

     "(II) the estimated loss in revenue to the United States from the duty suspension or reduction does not exceed $500,000 in a calendar year during which the duty suspension or reduction would be in effect; and

     "(III) the duty suspension or reduction is available to any person importing the article that is the subject of the duty suspension or reduction.

"(F) Exclusions.—The appropriate congressional committees may exclude from a miscellaneous tariff bill any petition for a duty suspension or reduction that—

"(i) is contained in any list referred to in subclause (I), (II), (III), or (IV) of subparagraph (C)(ii), as updated as appropriate under subparagraph (E)(i);

"(ii) is the subject of an objection from a Member of Congress; or

"(iii) is for an article for which there is domestic production.

"(G) Estimates by the congressional budget office.—For purposes of reflecting the estimate of the Congressional Budget Office, the appropriate congressional committees shall adjust the amount of a duty suspension or reduction in a miscellaneous tariff bill only to assure that the estimated loss in revenue to the United States from that duty suspension or reduction, as estimated by the Congressional Budget Office, does not exceed $500,000 in a calendar year during which the duty suspension or reduction would be in effect.

"(H) Prohibitions.—Any petitions for duty suspensions or reductions that are contained in any list referred to in subclause (V) or (VI) of subparagraph (C)(ii), as updated as appropriate under subparagraph (E)(i), or have not otherwise undergone the processes required by this Act shall not be included in a miscellaneous tariff bill.

"(4) Confidential business information.—The procedures concerning the release of confidential business information set forth in section 332(g) of the Tariff Act of 1930 (19 U.S.C. 1332(g)) shall apply with respect to information received by the Commission in posting petitions on a publicly available website of the Commission and in preparing reports under this subsection.

"(5) Procedures.—The Commission shall prescribe and publish in the Federal Register and on a publicly available Internet website of the Commission procedures to be complied with by members of the public submitting petitions for duty suspensions and reductions under subsection (b)(1)(A).

"(c) Department of Commerce Report.—Not later than the end of the 90-day period beginning on the date of publication of the petitions for duty suspensions and reductions under subsection (b)(3)(A), the Secretary of Commerce, in consultation with U.S. Customs and Border Protection and other relevant Federal agencies, shall submit to the Commission and the appropriate congressional committees a report on each petition for a duty suspension or reduction submitted under subsection (b)(1)(A) that includes the following information:

"(1) A determination of whether or not domestic production of the article that is the subject of the petition for the duty suspension or reduction exists and, if such production exists, whether or not a domestic producer of the article objects to the petition for the duty suspension or reduction.

"(2) Any technical changes to the article description that are necessary for purposes of administration when articles are presented for importation.

"SEC. 4. REPORT ON EFFECTS OF DUTY SUSPENSIONS AND REDUCTIONS ON UNITED STATES ECONOMY.

"(a) In General.—Not later than 12 months after the date of the enactment of a miscellaneous tariff bill, the Commission shall submit to the appropriate congressional committees a report on the effects on the United States economy of duty suspensions and reductions enacted pursuant to this Act, including a broad assessment of the economic effects of such duty suspensions and reductions on producers, purchasers, and consumers in the United States, using case studies describing such effects on selected industries or by type of article as available data permit.

"(b) Recommendations.—The Commission shall also solicit and append to the report required under subsection (a) recommendations with respect to those domestic industry sectors or specific domestic industries that might benefit from permanent duty suspensions and reductions, either through a unilateral action of the United States or though [sic] negotiations for reciprocal tariff agreements, with a particular focus on inequities created by tariff inversions.

"(c) Form of Report.—Each report required by this section shall be submitted in unclassified form, but may include a classified annex.

"SEC. 5. PUBLICATION OF LIMITED TARIFF BENEFITS IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES AND THE SENATE.

"(a) House of Representatives.—

"(1) In general.—The chair of the Committee on Ways and Means of the House of Representatives shall include a list of limited tariff benefits contained in a miscellaneous tariff bill in the report to accompany such a bill or, in a case where a miscellaneous tariff bill is not reported by the committee, shall cause such a list to be printed in the appropriate section of the Congressional Record.

"(2) Limited tariff benefit defined.—For purposes of this subsection and consistent with clause 9 of rule XXI of the Rules of the House of Representatives, as in effect during the One Hundred Fourteenth Congress, the term 'limited tariff benefit' means a provision modifying the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States [see Publication of Harmonized Tariff Schedule note set out under section 1202 of this title] in a manner that benefits 10 or fewer entities.

"(b) Senate.—

"(1) In general.—The chairman of the Committee on Finance of the Senate, the Majority Leader of the Senate, or the designee of the Majority Leader of the Senate, shall provide for the publication in the Congressional Record of a certification that—

"(A) each limited tariff benefit contained in a miscellaneous tariff bill considered in the Senate has been identified through lists, charts, or other similar means; and

"(B) the information identified in subparagraph (A) has been available on a publicly accessible congressional website in a searchable format at least 48 hours before the vote on the motion to proceed to the miscellaneous tariff bill or the vote on the adoption of a report of a committee of conference in connection with the miscellaneous tariff bill, as the case may be.

"(2) Satisfaction of senate rules.—Publication of a certification in the Congressional Record under paragraph (1) satisfies the certification requirements of paragraphs 1(a), 2(a), and 3(a) of rule XLIV of the Standing Rules of the Senate.

"(3) Limited tariff benefit defined.—For purposes of this subsection and consistent with rule XLIV of the Standing Rules of the Senate, as in effect during the One Hundred Fourteenth Congress, the term 'limited tariff benefit' means a provision modifying the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States in a manner that benefits 10 or fewer entities.

"(c) Enactment as Exercise of Rulemaking Power of House of Representatives and Senate.—This section is enacted by Congress—

"(1) as an exercise of the rulemaking power of the House of Representatives and the Senate, respectively, and as such are deemed a part of the rules of each House, respectively, and such procedures supersede other rules only to the extent that they are inconsistent with such other rules; and

"(2) with full recognition of the constitutional right of either House to change the rules (so far as relating to the procedure of that House) at any time, in the same manner, and to the same extent as in the case of any other rule of that House.

"SEC. 6. JUDICIAL REVIEW PRECLUDED.

"The exercise of functions under this Act shall not be subject to judicial review.

"SEC. 7. DEFINITIONS.

"In this Act:

"(1) Appropriate congressional committees.—The term 'appropriate congressional committees' means the Committee on Ways and Means of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Finance of the Senate.

"(2) Commission.—The term 'Commission' means the United States International Trade Commission.

"(3) Commission disclosure form.—The term 'Commission disclosure form' means, with respect to a petition for a duty suspension or reduction, a document submitted by a petitioner to the Commission that contains the following:

"(A) The contact information for any known importers of the article to which the proposed duty suspension or reduction would apply.

"(B) A certification by the petitioner that the proposed duty suspension or reduction is available to any person importing the article to which the proposed duty suspension or reduction would apply.

"(C) A certification that the petitioner is a likely beneficiary of the proposed duty suspension or reduction.

"(4) Domestic producer.—The term 'domestic producer' means a person that demonstrates production, or imminent production, in the United States of an article that is identical to, or like or directly competitive with, an article to which a petition for a duty suspension or reduction would apply.

"(5) Domestic production.—The term 'domestic production' means the production of an article that is identical to, or like or directly competitive with, an article to which a petition for a duty suspension or reduction would apply, for which a domestic producer has demonstrated production, or imminent production, in the United States.

"(6) Duty suspension or reduction.—The term 'duty suspension or reduction' refers to an amendment to subchapter II of chapter 99 of the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States for a period not to exceed 3 years that—

"(A) extends an existing temporary duty suspension or reduction on an article under that subchapter; or

"(B) provides for a new temporary duty suspension or reduction on an article under that subchapter.

"(7) Likely beneficiary.—The term 'likely beneficiary' means an individual or entity likely to utilize, or benefit directly from the utilization of, an article that is the subject of a petition for a duty suspension or reduction.

"(8) Member of congress.—The term 'Member of Congress' means a Senator or Representative in, or Delegate or Resident Commissioner to, Congress.

"(9) Miscellaneous tariff bill.—The term 'miscellaneous tariff bill' means a bill of either House of Congress that contains only duty suspensions and reductions and related technical corrections that—

"(A) are included in the final report of the Commission submitted to the appropriate congressional committees under section 3(b)(3)(E), except for—

"(i) petitions for duty suspensions or reductions that the Commission has determined do not contain the information required under section 3(b)(2);

"(ii) petitions for duty suspensions and reductions with respect to which the Commission has determined the petitioner is not a likely beneficiary; and

"(iii) petitions for duty suspensions and reductions that the Commission does not recommend for inclusion in the miscellaneous tariff bill;

"(B) are not excluded under section 3(b)(3)(F); and

"(C) otherwise meet the applicable requirements of this Act."

Continuation of Reports With Respect to Synthetic Organic Chemicals

Pub. L. 95–106, §5, Aug. 17, 1977, 91 Stat. 869, directed International Trade Commission to make, for each calendar year ending before Jan. 1, 1981, reports with respect to synthetic organic chemicals similar in scope to reports made with respect to such chemicals for calendar year 1976.

Review of Customs Tariff Schedules

Act Sept. 1, 1954, ch. 1213, title I, §101, 68 Stat. 1136, as amended Aug. 2, 1956, ch. 894, 70 Stat. 955; May 19, 1958, Pub. L. 85–418, §3, 72 Stat. 120, provided for a complete study by the Tariff Commission for the purpose of clarifying and simplifying the tariff classification, with a report to go to the President and to the chairmen of the appropriate committees of Congress no later than Jan. 1, 1959. See section 1332 of this title.

§1332a. Importation of red cedar shingles

(a) Investigation by Commission

The United States International Trade Commission is directed to conduct an investigation as soon as practicable after the close of the calendar year 1939 and each calendar year thereafter, for the purpose of ascertaining the quantities of red cedar shingles shipped by producers in the United States and the quantities of imported red cedar shingles entered for consumption, or withdrawn from warehouse for consumption, during each of the three calendar years immediately preceding any such investigation.

(b) Duty on imported shingles; amount

If the Commission finds, on the basis of an investigation under subdivision (a) of this section, that in any calendar year after 1938 the quantity of imported red cedar shingles entered for consumption, or withdrawn from warehouse for consumption, was in excess of 30 per centum of the combined total for such year of the respective quantities ascertained in such investigation, it shall so report to the President. If the President approves the report of the Commission, he shall so proclaim, and on and after the day following the filing of such proclamation with the Division of the Federal Register and so long as any trade agreement entered into under the authority of section 1351 of this title, shall be in effect with respect to the importation into the United States of red cedar shingles, there shall be a duty upon imported red cedar shingles entered for consumption, or withdrawn from warehouse for consumption, in any calendar year in excess of 30 per centum of the annual average for the preceding three calendar years of the combined total of the quantity of such shingles shipped by producers in the United States and of the quantity of such imported shingles entered for consumption, or withdrawn from warehouse for consumption. The rate of such duty shall be 25 cents per square. Any duty imposed under this section shall be treated for the purposes of all provisions of law relating to customs revenue as a duty imposed by section 1001 1 of this title, and shall not apply to shingles entered for consumption before the duty becomes applicable.

(c) Exemptions from duty

The quantity of red cedar shingles entitled to exemption from any duty imposed pursuant to this section shall be ascertained for each quota period by the Commission and reported to the Secretary of the Treasury.

(July 1, 1940, ch. 499, 54 Stat. 708; Pub. L. 93–618, title I, §171(b), Jan. 3, 1975, 88 Stat. 2009.)

References in Text

Section 1001 of this title, referred to in subsec. (b), was struck out by Pub. L. 87–456, title I, §101(a), May 24, 1962, 76 Stat. 72.

Codification

Section was not enacted as a part of the Tariff Act of 1930 which comprises this chapter.

Amendments

1975—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 93–618 substituted "United States International Trade Commission" for "United States Tariff Commission".

1 See References in Text note below.

§1333. Testimony and production of papers

(a) Authority to obtain information

For the purposes of carrying out its functions and duties in connection with any investigation authorized by law, the commission or its duly authorized agent or agents (1) shall have access to and the right to copy any document, paper, or record, pertinent to the subject matter under investigation, in the possession of any person, firm, copartnership, corporation, or association engaged in the production, importation, or distribution of any article under investigation, (2) may summon witnesses, take testimony, and administer oaths, (3) may require any person, firm, copartnership, corporation, or association to produce books or papers relating to any matter pertaining to such investigation, and (4) may require any person, firm, copartnership, corporation, or association, to furnish in writing, in such detail and in such form as the commission may prescribe, information in their possession pertaining to such investigation. Any member of the commission may sign subpenas, and members and agents of the commission, when authorized by the commission, may administer oaths and affirmations, examine witnesses, take testimony, and receive evidence.

(b) Witnesses and evidence

Such attendance of witnesses and the production of such documentary evidence may be required from any place in the United States at any designated place of hearing. And in case of disobedience to a subpena the commission may invoke the aid of any district or territorial court of the United States in requiring the attendance and testimony of witnesses and the production of documentary evidence, and such court within the jurisdiction of which such inquiry is carried on may, in case of contumacy or refusal to obey a subpena issued to any corporation or other person, issue an order requiring such corporation or other person to appear before the commission, or to produce documentary evidence if so ordered or to give evidence touching the matter in question; and any failure to obey such order of the court may be punished by such court as a contempt thereof.

(c) Mandamus

At the request of the commission, any such court shall have jurisdiction to issue writs of mandamus commanding compliance with the provisions of this part or any order of the commission made in pursuance thereof.

(d) Depositions

The commission may order testimony to be taken by deposition in any proceeding or investigation pending before the commission at any stage of such proceeding or investigation. Such depositions may be taken before any person designated by the commission and having power to administer oaths. Such testimony shall be reduced to writing by the person taking the deposition, or under his direction, and shall then be subscribed by the deponent. Any person, firm, copartnership, corporation, or association, may be compelled to appear and depose and to produce documentary evidence in the same manner as witnesses may be compelled to appear and testify and produce documentary evidence before the commission, as hereinbefore provided.

(e) Fees and mileage of witnesses

Witnesses summoned before the commission shall be paid the same fees and mileage that are paid witnesses in the courts of the United States, and witnesses whose depositions are taken and the persons taking the same, except employees of the commission, shall severally be entitled to the same fees and mileage as are paid for like services in the courts of the United States.

(f) Statements under oath

The commission is authorized, in order to ascertain any facts required by subdivision (d) of section 1332 of this title to require any importer and any American grower, producer, manufacturer, or seller to file with the commission a statement, under oath, giving his selling prices in the United States of any article imported, grown, produced, fabricated, manipulated, or manufactured by him.

(g) Representation in court proceedings

The Commission shall be represented in all judicial proceedings by attorneys who are employees of the Commission or, at the request of the Commission, by the Attorney General of the United States.

(h) Administrative protective orders

Any correspondence, private letters of reprimand, and other documents and files relating to violations or possible violations of administrative protective orders issued by the Commission in connection with investigations or other proceedings under this subtitle shall be treated as information described in section 552(b)(3) of title 5.

(June 17, 1930, ch. 497, title III, §333, 46 Stat. 699; June 25, 1936, ch. 804, 49 Stat. 1921; June 25, 1948, ch. 646, §32(b), 62 Stat. 991; May 24, 1949, ch. 139, §127, 63 Stat. 107; Pub. L. 85–686, §9(a), (b), Aug. 20, 1958, 72 Stat. 679; Pub. L. 91–452, title II, §229, Oct. 15, 1970, 84 Stat. 930; Pub. L. 93–618, title I, §174, Jan. 3, 1975, 88 Stat. 2011; Pub. L. 101–382, title I, §135(a), Aug. 20, 1990, 104 Stat. 651.)

Codification

As originally enacted subsec. (b) contained a reference to the Supreme Court of the District of Columbia. Act June 25, 1936, substituted "the district court of the United States for the District of Columbia" for "the Supreme Court of the District of Columbia", and act June 25, 1948, as amended by act May 24, 1949, substituted "United States District Court for the District of Columbia" for "district court of the United States for the District of Columbia". However, the words "United States District Court for the District of Columbia" have been deleted entirely as superfluous in view of section 132(a) of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure, which states that "There shall be in each judicial district a district court which shall be a court of record known as the United States District Court for the district", and section 88 of Title 28 which states that "the District of Columbia constitutes one judicial district".

Prior Provisions

Provisions similar to those in this section were contained in act Sept. 8, 1916, ch. 463, §706, 39 Stat. 797, as amended by act Sept. 21, 1922, ch. 356, title III, §318(f), 42 Stat. 947. These acts were superseded by section 333 of act June 17, 1930, comprising this section, and section 318(f) of the 1922 act was repealed by section 651(a)(1) of the 1930 act.

Amendments

1990—Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 101–382 added subsec. (h).

1975—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 93–618, §174(1), substituted "At the request of" for "Upon application of the Attorney General of the United States, at the request of".

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 93–618, §174(2), added subsec. (g).

1970—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 91–452 struck out provisions relating to the immunity from prosecution of any natural person compelled to testify or produce evidence in obedience to the subpoena of the commission.

1958—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 85–686, §9(a), substituted "For the purposes of carrying out its functions and duties in connection with any investigation authorized by law" for "For the purposes of carrying Part II of this subtitle into effect", inserted provisions empowering the commission to require any person, firm, copartnership, corporation, or association to furnish in writing, in such detail and in such form as the commission may prescribe, information in their possession pertaining to an investigation.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 85–686, §9(b), substituted "pending before the commission" for "pending under Part II of this subtitle".

Effective Date of 1970 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 91–452 effective on sixtieth day following Oct. 15, 1970, and not to affect any immunity to which any individual is entitled under this section by reason of any testimony given before sixtieth day following Oct. 15, 1970, see section 260 of Pub. L. 91–452, set out as an Effective Date; Savings Provision note under section 6001 of Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure.

§1334. Cooperation with other agencies

The commission shall in appropriate matters act in conjunction and cooperation with the Treasury Department, the Department of Commerce, the Federal Trade Commission, or any other departments, or independent establishments of the Government, and such departments and independent establishments of the Government shall cooperate fully with the commission for the purposes of aiding and assisting in its work, and, when directed by the President, shall furnish to the commission, on its request, all records, papers, and information in their possession relating to any of the subjects of investigation by the commission and shall detail, from time to time, such officials and employees to said commission as he may direct.

(June 17, 1930, ch. 497, title III, §334, 46 Stat. 700.)

Prior Provisions

Provisions similar to those in this section were contained in act Sept. 8, 1916, ch. 463, §707, 39 Stat. 797. That section was superseded by section 334 of act June 17, 1930, comprising this section.

Transfer of Functions

Executive and administrative functions of Federal Trade Commission transferred, with certain reservations, to Chairman of such Commission by Reorg. Plan No. 8 of 1950, §1, eff. May 24, 1950, 15 F.R. 3175, 64 Stat. 1264, set out in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

§1335. Rules and regulations

The commission is authorized to adopt such reasonable procedures and rules and regulations as it deems necessary to carry out its functions and duties.

(June 17, 1930, ch. 497, title III, §335, as added Aug. 20, 1958, Pub. L. 85–686, §9(c)(2), 72 Stat. 680.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 335 of act June 17, 1930, related to disclosure of trade secrets and prescribed penalty therefor, prior to repeal by act June 25, 1948, ch. 645, §21, 62 Stat. 862, eff. Sept. 1, 1948. See section 1905 of Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure.

§1336. Equalization of costs of production

(a) Change of classification or duties

In order to put into force and effect the policy of Congress by this chapter intended, the commission (1) upon request of the President, or (2) upon resolution of either or both Houses of Congress, or (3) upon its own motion, or (4) when in the judgment of the commission there is good and sufficient reason therefor, upon application of any interested party, shall investigate the differences in the costs of production of any domestic article and of any like or similar foreign article. In the course of the investigation the commission shall hold hearings and give reasonable public notice thereof, and shall afford reasonable opportunity for parties interested to be present, to produce evidence, and to be heard at such hearings. The commission shall report to the President the results of the investigation and its findings with respect to such differences in costs of production. If the commission finds it shown by the investigation that the duties expressly fixed by statute do not equalize the differences in the costs of production of the domestic article and the like or similar foreign article when produced in the principal competing country, the commission shall specify in its report such increases or decreases in rates of duty expressly fixed by statute (including any necessary change in classification) as it finds shown by the investigation to be necessary to equalize such differences. In no case shall the total increase or decrease of such rates of duty exceed 50 per centum of the rates expressly fixed by statute.

(b) Repealed. Pub. L. 96–39, title II, §202(a)(2)(A), July 26, 1979, 93 Stat. 202

(c) Proclamation by the President

The President shall by proclamation approve the rates of duty and changes in classification specified in any report of the commission under this section, if in his judgment such rates of duty and changes are shown by such investigation of the commission to be necessary to equalize such differences in costs of production.

(d) Effective date of rates and changes

Commencing thirty days after the date of any presidential proclamation of approval the increased or decreased rates of duty and changes in classification specified in the report of the commission shall take effect.

(e) Ascertainment of differences in costs of production

In ascertaining under this section the differences in costs of production, the commission shall take into consideration, in so far as it finds it practicable:

(1) In the case of a domestic article

(A) The cost of production as hereinafter in this section defined; (B) transportation costs and other costs incident to delivery to the principal market or markets of the United States for the article; and (C) other relevant factors that constitute an advantage or disadvantage in competition.

(2) In the case of a foreign article

(A) The cost of production as hereinafter in this section defined, or, if the commission finds that such cost is not readily ascertainable, the commission may accept as evidence thereof, or as supplemental thereto, the weighted average of the invoice prices or values for a representative period and/or the average wholesale selling price for a representative period (which price shall be that at which the article is freely offered for sale to all purchasers in the principal market or markets of the principal competing country or countries in the ordinary course of trade and in the usual wholesale quantities in such market or markets); (B) transportation costs and other costs incident to delivery to the principal market or markets of the United States for the article; (C) other relevant factors that constitute an advantage or disadvantage in competition, including advantages granted to the foreign producers by a government, person, partnership, corporation, or association in a foreign country.

(f) Modification of changes in duty

Any increased or decreased rate of duty or change in classification which has taken effect as above provided may be modified or terminated in the same manner and subject to the same conditions and limitations (including time of taking effect) as is provided in this section in the case of original increases, decreases, or changes.

(g) Prohibition against transfers from the free list to the dutiable list or from the dutiable list to the free list

Nothing in this section shall be construed to authorize a transfer of an article from the dutiable list to the free list or from the free list to the dutiable list, nor a change in form of duty. Whenever it is provided in any paragraph of Subtitle I of this chapter, or in any amendatory act, that the duty or duties shall not exceed a specified ad valorem rate upon the articles provided for in such paragraph, no rate determined under the provisions of this section upon such articles shall exceed the maximum ad valorem rate so specified.

(h) Definitions

For the purpose of this section—

(1) The term "domestic article" means an article wholly or in part the growth or product of the United States; and the term "foreign article" means an article wholly or in part the growth or product of a foreign country.

(2) The term "United States" includes the several States and Territories and the District of Columbia.

(3) The term "foreign country" means any empire, country, dominion, colony, or protectorate, or any subdivision or subdivisions thereof (other than the United States and its possessions).

(4) The term "cost of production", when applied with respect to either a domestic article or a foreign article, includes, for a period which is representative of conditions in production of the article: (A) The price or cost of materials, labor costs, and other direct charges incurred in the production of the article and in the processes or methods employed in its production; (B) the usual general expenses, including charges for depreciation or depletion which are representative of the equipment and property employed in the production of the article and charges for rent or interest which are representative of the cost of obtaining capital or instruments of production; and (C) the cost of containers and coverings of whatever nature, and other costs, charges, and expenses incident to placing the article in condition packed ready for delivery.

(i) Rules and regulations of President

The President is authorized to make all needful rules and regulations for carrying out his functions under the provisions of this section.

(j) Repealed. Pub. L. 96–39, title II, §202(a)(2)(D), July 26, 1979, 93 Stat. 202

(k) Investigations prior to June 17, 1930

All uncompleted investigations instituted prior to June 17, 1930, under the provisions of sections 154 to 159 1 of this title, including investigations in which the President has not proclaimed changes in classification or increases or decreases in rates of duty, shall be dismissed without prejudice; but the information and evidence secured by the commission in any such investigation may be given due consideration in any investigation instituted under the provisions of this section.

(June 17, 1930, ch. 497, title III, §336, 46 Stat. 701; Aug. 2, 1956, ch. 887, §2(d), 70 Stat. 946; Pub. L. 85–686, §9(c)(1), Aug. 20, 1958, 72 Stat. 679; Pub. L. 96–39, title II, §202(a)(2), July 26, 1979, 93 Stat. 202.)

References in Text

Sections 154 to 159 of this title, referred to in subsec. (k), were repealed by section 651(a)(1) of act June 17, 1930.

Prior Provisions

Provisions similar to those in this section were contained in act Sept. 21, 1922, ch. 356, title III, §315, 42 Stat. 941. That section was superseded by section 336 of act June 17, 1930, comprising this section, and repealed by section 651(a)(1) of the 1930 act.

Amendments

1979—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 96–39, §202(a)(2)(A), struck out subsec. (b) which related to the setting of ad valorem rates based upon the American selling price of domestic articles as would be necessary to equalize differences in the costs of production.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 96–39, §202(a)(2)(B), substituted "changes in classification specified in any report" for "changes in classification and in basis of value specified in any report".

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 96–39, §202(a)(2)(C), substituted "changes in classification specified in the report" for "changes in classification or in basis of value specified in the report".

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 96–39, §202(a)(2)(C), substituted "change in classification which has taken effect" for "change in classification or in basis of value which has taken effect".

Subsec. (j). Pub. L. 96–39, §202(a)(2)(D), struck out subsec. (j) which authorized the Secretary of the Treasury to make necessary rules and regulations for the entry and declaration of foreign articles with respect to which a change in the basis of value had been made.

Subsec. (k). Pub. L. 96–39, §202(a)(2)(C), substituted "changes in classification or increases or decreases" for "changes in classification or in basis of value or increases or decreases".

1958—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 85–686 struck out provisions which authorized the commission to adopt such reasonable procedure and rules and regulations as it deemed necessary to execute its functions under this section. See section 1335 of this title.

1956—Subsec. (b). Act Aug. 2, 1956, struck out "(as defined in section 1402(g))" after "selling price".

Effective Date of 1979 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 96–39 effective July 1, 1980, see section 204(a) of Pub. L. 96–39, set out as a note under section 1401a of this title.

Effective Date of 1956 Amendment

Amendment by act Aug. 2, 1956, effective only as to articles entered, or withdrawn from warehouse, for consumption on or after thirtieth day following publication of the final list provided for in section 6(a) of said act, set out in note under section 1402 of this title, see section 8 of act Aug. 2, 1956, set out as an Effective Date note under section 1401a of this title.

1 See References in Text note below.

§1337. Unfair practices in import trade

(a) Unlawful activities; covered industries; definitions

(1) Subject to paragraph (2), the following are unlawful, and when found by the Commission to exist shall be dealt with, in addition to any other provision of law, as provided in this section:

(A) Unfair methods of competition and unfair acts in the importation of articles (other than articles provided for in subparagraphs (B), (C), (D), and (E)) into the United States, or in the sale of such articles by the owner, importer, or consignee, the threat or effect of which is—

(i) to destroy or substantially injure an industry in the United States;

(ii) to prevent the establishment of such an industry; or

(iii) to restrain or monopolize trade and commerce in the United States.


(B) The importation into the United States, the sale for importation, or the sale within the United States after importation by the owner, importer, or consignee, of articles that—

(i) infringe a valid and enforceable United States patent or a valid and enforceable United States copyright registered under title 17; or

(ii) are made, produced, processed, or mined under, or by means of, a process covered by the claims of a valid and enforceable United States patent.


(C) The importation into the United States, the sale for importation, or the sale within the United States after importation by the owner, importer, or consignee, of articles that infringe a valid and enforceable United States trademark registered under the Trademark Act of 1946 [15 U.S.C. 1051 et seq.].

(D) The importation into the United States, the sale for importation, or the sale within the United States after importation by the owner, importer, or consignee, of a semiconductor chip product in a manner that constitutes infringement of a mask work registered under chapter 9 of title 17.

(E) The importation into the United States, the sale for importation, or the sale within the United States after importation by the owner, importer, or consigner, of an article that constitutes infringement of the exclusive rights in a design protected under chapter 13 of title 17.


(2) Subparagraphs (B), (C), (D), and (E) of paragraph (1) apply only if an industry in the United States, relating to the articles protected by the patent, copyright, trademark, mask work, or design concerned, exists or is in the process of being established.

(3) For purposes of paragraph (2), an industry in the United States shall be considered to exist if there is in the United States, with respect to the articles protected by the patent, copyright, trademark, mask work, or design concerned—

(A) significant investment in plant and equipment;

(B) significant employment of labor or capital; or

(C) substantial investment in its exploitation, including engineering, research and development, or licensing.


(4) For the purposes of this section, the phrase "owner, importer, or consignee" includes any agent of the owner, importer, or consignee.

(b) Investigation of violations by Commission

(1) The Commission shall investigate any alleged violation of this section on complaint under oath or upon its initiative. Upon commencing any such investigation, the Commission shall publish notice thereof in the Federal Register. The Commission shall conclude any such investigation and make its determination under this section at the earliest practicable time after the date of publication of notice of such investigation. To promote expeditious adjudication, the Commission shall, within 45 days after an investigation is initiated, establish a target date for its final determination.

(2) During the course of each investigation under this section, the Commission shall consult with, and seek advice and information from, the Department of Health and Human Services, the Department of Justice, the Federal Trade Commission, and such other departments and agencies as it considers appropriate.

(3) Whenever, in the course of an investigation under this section, the Commission has reason to believe, based on information before it, that a matter, in whole or in part, may come within the purview of part II of subtitle IV of this chapter, it shall promptly notify the Secretary of Commerce so that such action may be taken as is otherwise authorized by such part II. If the Commission has reason to believe that the matter before it (A) is based solely on alleged acts and effects which are within the purview of section 1671 or 1673 of this title, or (B) relates to an alleged copyright infringement with respect to which action is prohibited by section 1008 of title 17, the Commission shall terminate, or not institute, any investigation into the matter. If the Commission has reason to believe the matter before it is based in part on alleged acts and effects which are within the purview of section 1671 or 1673 of this title, and in part on alleged acts and effects which may, independently from or in conjunction with those within the purview of such section, establish a basis for relief under this section, then it may institute or continue an investigation into the matter. If the Commission notifies the Secretary or the administering authority (as defined in section 1677(1) of this title) with respect to a matter under this paragraph, the Commission may suspend its investigation during the time the matter is before the Secretary or administering authority for final decision. Any final decision by the administering authority under section 1671 or 1673 of this title with respect to the matter within such section 1671 or 1673 of this title of which the Commission has notified the Secretary or administering authority shall be conclusive upon the Commission with respect to the issue of less-than-fair-value sales or subsidization and the matters necessary for such decision.

(c) Determinations; review

The Commission shall determine, with respect to each investigation conducted by it under this section, whether or not there is a violation of this section, except that the Commission may, by issuing a consent order or on the basis of an agreement between the private parties to the investigation, including an agreement to present the matter for arbitration, terminate any such investigation, in whole or in part, without making such a determination. Each determination under subsection (d) or (e) shall be made on the record after notice and opportunity for a hearing in conformity with the provisions of subchapter II of chapter 5 of title 5. All legal and equitable defenses may be presented in all cases. A respondent may raise any counterclaim in a manner prescribed by the Commission. Immediately after a counterclaim is received by the Commission, the respondent raising such counterclaim shall file a notice of removal with a United States district court in which venue for any of the counterclaims raised by the party would exist under section 1391 of title 28. Any counterclaim raised pursuant to this section shall relate back to the date of the original complaint in the proceeding before the Commission. Action on such counterclaim shall not delay or affect the proceeding under this section, including the legal and equitable defenses that may be raised under this subsection. Any person adversely affected by a final determination of the Commission under subsection (d), (e), (f), or (g) may appeal such determination, within 60 days after the determination becomes final, to the United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit for review in accordance with chapter 7 of title 5. Notwithstanding the foregoing provisions of this subsection, Commission determinations under subsections (d), (e), (f), and (g) with respect to its findings on the public health and welfare, competitive conditions in the United States economy, the production of like or directly competitive articles in the United States, and United States consumers, the amount and nature of bond, or the appropriate remedy shall be reviewable in accordance with section 706 of title 5. Determinations by the Commission under subsections (e), (f), and (j) with respect to forfeiture of bonds and under subsection (h) with respect to the imposition of sanctions for abuse of discovery or abuse of process shall also be reviewable in accordance with section 706 of title 5.

(d) Exclusion of articles from entry

(1) If the Commission determines, as a result of an investigation under this section, that there is a violation of this section, it shall direct that the articles concerned, imported by any person violating the provision of this section, be excluded from entry into the United States, unless, after considering the effect of such exclusion upon the public health and welfare, competitive conditions in the United States economy, the production of like or directly competitive articles in the United States, and United States consumers, it finds that such articles should not be excluded from entry. The Commission shall notify the Secretary of the Treasury of its action under this subsection directing such exclusion from entry, and upon receipt of such notice, the Secretary shall, through the proper officers, refuse such entry.

(2) The authority of the Commission to order an exclusion from entry of articles shall be limited to persons determined by the Commission to be violating this section unless the Commission determines that—

(A) a general exclusion from entry of articles is necessary to prevent circumvention of an exclusion order limited to products of named persons; or

(B) there is a pattern of violation of this section and it is difficult to identify the source of infringing products.

(e) Exclusion of articles from entry during investigation except under bond; procedures applicable; preliminary relief

(1) If, during the course of an investigation under this section, the Commission determines that there is reason to believe that there is a violation of this section, it may direct that the articles concerned, imported by any person with respect to whom there is reason to believe that such person is violating this section, be excluded from entry into the United States, unless, after considering the effect of such exclusion upon the public health and welfare, competitive conditions in the United States economy, the production of like or directly competitive articles in the United States, and United States consumers, it finds that such articles should not be excluded from entry. The Commission shall notify the Secretary of the Treasury of its action under this subsection directing such exclusion from entry, and upon receipt of such notice, the Secretary shall, through the proper officers, refuse such entry, except that such articles shall be entitled to entry under bond prescribed by the Secretary in an amount determined by the Commission to be sufficient to protect the complainant from any injury. If the Commission later determines that the respondent has violated the provisions of this section, the bond may be forfeited to the complainant.

(2) A complainant may petition the Commission for the issuance of an order under this subsection. The Commission shall make a determination with regard to such petition by no later than the 90th day after the date on which the Commission's notice of investigation is published in the Federal Register. The Commission may extend the 90-day period for an additional 60 days in a case it designates as a more complicated case. The Commission shall publish in the Federal Register its reasons why it designated the case as being more complicated. The Commission may require the complainant to post a bond as a prerequisite to the issuance of an order under this subsection. If the Commission later determines that the respondent has not violated the provisions of this section, the bond may be forfeited to the respondent.

(3) The Commission may grant preliminary relief under this subsection or subsection (f) to the same extent as preliminary injunctions and temporary restraining orders may be granted under the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure.

(4) The Commission shall prescribe the terms and conditions under which bonds may be forfeited under paragraphs (1) and (2).

(f) Cease and desist orders; civil penalty for violation of orders

(1) In addition to, or in lieu of, taking action under subsection (d) or (e), the Commission may issue and cause to be served on any person violating this section, or believed to be violating this section, as the case may be, an order directing such person to cease and desist from engaging in the unfair methods or acts involved, unless after considering the effect of such order upon the public health and welfare, competitive conditions in the United States economy, the production of like or directly competitive articles in the United States, and United States consumers, it finds that such order should not be issued. The Commission may at any time, upon such notice and in such manner as it deems proper, modify or revoke any such order, and, in the case of a revocation, may take action under subsection (d) or (e), as the case may be. If a temporary cease and desist order is issued in addition to, or in lieu of, an exclusion order under subsection (e), the Commission may require the complainant to post a bond, in an amount determined by the Commission to be sufficient to protect the respondent from any injury, as a prerequisite to the issuance of an order under this subsection. If the Commission later determines that the respondent has not violated the provisions of this section, the bond may be forfeited to the respondent. The Commission shall prescribe the terms and conditions under which the bonds may be forfeited under this paragraph.

(2) Any person who violates an order issued by the Commission under paragraph (1) after it has become final shall forfeit and pay to the United States a civil penalty for each day on which an importation of articles, or their sale, occurs in violation of the order of not more than the greater of $100,000 or twice the domestic value of the articles entered or sold on such day in violation of the order. Such penalty shall accrue to the United States and may be recovered for the United States in a civil action brought by the Commission in the Federal District Court for the District of Columbia or for the district in which the violation occurs. In such actions, the United States district courts may issue mandatory injunctions incorporating the relief sought by the Commission as they deem appropriate in the enforcement of such final orders of the Commission.

(g) Exclusion from entry or cease and desist order; conditions and procedures applicable

(1) If—

(A) a complaint is filed against a person under this section;

(B) the complaint and a notice of investigation are served on the person;

(C) the person fails to respond to the complaint and notice or otherwise fails to appear to answer the complaint and notice;

(D) the person fails to show good cause why the person should not be found in default; and

(E) the complainant seeks relief limited solely to that person;


the Commission shall presume the facts alleged in the complaint to be true and shall, upon request, issue an exclusion from entry or a cease and desist order, or both, limited to that person unless, after considering the effect of such exclusion or order upon the public health and welfare, competitive conditions in the United States economy, the production of like or directly competitive articles in the United States, and United States consumers, the Commission finds that such exclusion or order should not be issued.

(2) In addition to the authority of the Commission to issue a general exclusion from entry of articles when a respondent appears to contest an investigation concerning a violation of the provisions of this section, a general exclusion from entry of articles, regardless of the source or importer of the articles, may be issued if—

(A) no person appears to contest an investigation concerning a violation of the provisions of this section,

(B) such a violation is established by substantial, reliable, and probative evidence, and

(C) the requirements of subsection (d)(2) are met.

(h) Sanctions for abuse of discovery and abuse of process

The Commission may by rule prescribe sanctions for abuse of discovery and abuse of process to the extent authorized by Rule 11 and Rule 37 of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure.

(i) Forfeiture

(1) In addition to taking action under subsection (d), the Commission may issue an order providing that any article imported in violation of the provisions of this section be seized and forfeited to the United States if—

(A) the owner, importer, or consignee of the article previously attempted to import the article into the United States;

(B) the article was previously denied entry into the United States by reason of an order issued under subsection (d); and

(C) upon such previous denial of entry, the Secretary of the Treasury provided the owner, importer, or consignee of the article written notice of—

(i) such order, and

(ii) the seizure and forfeiture that would result from any further attempt to import the article into the United States.


(2) The Commission shall notify the Secretary of the Treasury of any order issued under this subsection and, upon receipt of such notice, the Secretary of the Treasury shall enforce such order in accordance with the provisions of this section.

(3) Upon the attempted entry of articles subject to an order issued under this subsection, the Secretary of the Treasury shall immediately notify all ports of entry of the attempted importation and shall identify the persons notified under paragraph (1)(C).

(4) The Secretary of the Treasury shall provide—

(A) the written notice described in paragraph (1)(C) to the owner, importer, or consignee of any article that is denied entry into the United States by reason of an order issued under subsection (d); and

(B) a copy of such written notice to the Commission.

(j) Referral to President

(1) If the Commission determines that there is a violation of this section, or that, for purposes of subsection (e), there is reason to believe that there is such a violation, it shall—

(A) publish such determination in the Federal Register, and

(B) transmit to the President a copy of such determination and the action taken under subsection (d), (e), (f), (g), or (i), with respect thereto, together with the record upon which such determination is based.


(2) If, before the close of the 60-day period beginning on the day after the day on which he receives a copy of such determination, the President, for policy reasons, disapproves such determination and notifies the Commission of his disapproval, then, effective on the date of such notice, such determination and the action taken under subsection (d), (e), (f), (g), or (i) with respect thereto shall have no force or effect.

(3) Subject to the provisions of paragraph (2), such determination shall, except for purposes of subsection (c), be effective upon publication thereof in the Federal Register, and the action taken under subsection (d), (e), (f), (g), or (i), with respect thereto shall be effective as provided in such subsections, except that articles directed to be excluded from entry under subsection (d) or subject to a cease and desist order under subsection (f) shall, until such determination becomes final, be entitled to entry under bond prescribed by the Secretary in an amount determined by the Commission to be sufficient to protect the complainant from any injury. If the determination becomes final, the bond may be forfeited to the complainant. The Commission shall prescribe the terms and conditions under which bonds may be forfeited under this paragraph.

(4) If the President does not disapprove such determination within such 60-day period, or if he notifies the Commission before the close of such period that he approves such determination, then, for purposes of paragraph (3) and subsection (c) such determination shall become final on the day after the close of such period or the day on which the President notifies the Commission of his approval, as the case may be.

(k) Period of effectiveness; termination of violation or modification or rescission of exclusion or order

(1) Except as provided in subsections (f) and (j), any exclusion from entry or order under this section shall continue in effect until the Commission finds, and in the case of exclusion from entry notifies the Secretary of the Treasury, that the conditions which led to such exclusion from entry or order no longer exist.

(2) If any person who has previously been found by the Commission to be in violation of this section petitions the Commission for a determination that the petitioner is no longer in violation of this section or for a modification or rescission of an exclusion from entry or order under subsection (d), (e), (f), (g), or (i)—

(A) the burden of proof in any proceeding before the Commission regarding such petition shall be on the petitioner; and

(B) relief may be granted by the Commission with respect to such petition—

(i) on the basis of new evidence or evidence that could not have been presented at the prior proceeding, or

(ii) on grounds which would permit relief from a judgment or order under the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure.

(l) Importation by or for United States

Any exclusion from entry or order under subsection (d), (e), (f), (g), or (i), in cases based on a proceeding involving a patent, copyright, mask work, or design under subsection (a)(1), shall not apply to any articles imported by and for the use of the United States, or imported for, and to be used for, the United States with the authorization or consent of the Government. Whenever any article would have been excluded from entry or would not have been entered pursuant to the provisions of such subsections but for the operation of this subsection, an owner of the patent, copyright, mask work, or design adversely affected shall be entitled to reasonable and entire compensation in an action before the United States Court of Federal Claims pursuant to the procedures of section 1498 of title 28.

(m) "United States" defined

For purposes of this section and sections 1338 and 1340 1 of this title, the term "United States" means the customs territory of the United States as defined in general note 2 of the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States.

(n) Disclosure of confidential information

(1) Information submitted to the Commission or exchanged among the parties in connection with proceedings under this section which is properly designated as confidential pursuant to Commission rules may not be disclosed (except under a protective order issued under regulations of the Commission which authorizes limited disclosure of such information) to any person (other than a person described in paragraph (2)) without the consent of the person submitting it.

(2) Notwithstanding the prohibition contained in paragraph (1), information referred to in that paragraph may be disclosed to—

(A) an officer or employee of the Commission who is directly concerned with—

(i) carrying out the investigation or related proceeding in connection with which the information is submitted,

(ii) the administration of a bond posted pursuant to subsection (e), (f), or (j),

(iii) the administration or enforcement of an exclusion order issued pursuant to subsection (d), (e), or (g), a cease and desist order issued pursuant to subsection (f), or a consent order issued pursuant to subsection (c),

(iv) proceedings for the modification or rescission of a temporary or permanent order issued under subsection (d), (e), (f), (g), or (i), or a consent order issued under this section, or

(v) maintaining the administrative record of the investigation or related proceeding,


(B) an officer or employee of the United States Government who is directly involved in the review under subsection (j), or

(C) an officer or employee of the United States Customs Service who is directly involved in administering an exclusion from entry under subsection (d), (e), or (g) resulting from the investigation or related proceeding in connection with which the information is submitted.

(June 17, 1930, ch. 497, title III, §337, 46 Stat. 703; Proc. No. 2695, July 4, 1946, 11 F.R. 7517, 60 Stat. 1352; Pub. L. 85–686, §9(c)(1), Aug. 20, 1958, 72 Stat. 679; Pub. L. 93–618, title III, §341(a), Jan. 3, 1975, 88 Stat. 2053; Pub. L. 96–39, title I, §106(b)(1), title XI, §1105, July 26, 1979, 93 Stat. 193, 310; Pub. L. 96–417, title VI, §604, Oct. 10, 1980, 94 Stat. 1744; Pub. L. 97–164, title I, §§160(a)(5), 163(a)(4), Apr. 2, 1982, 96 Stat. 48, 49; Pub. L. 98–620, title IV, §413, Nov. 8, 1984, 98 Stat. 3362; Pub. L. 100–418, title I, §§1214(h)(3), 1342(a), (b), Aug. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 1157, 1212, 1215; Pub. L. 100–647, title IX, §9001(a)(7), (12), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3807; Pub. L. 102–563, §3(d), Oct. 28, 1992, 106 Stat. 4248; Pub. L. 103–465, title II, §261(d)(1)(B)(ii), title III, §321(a), Dec. 8, 1994, 108 Stat. 4909, 4943; Pub. L. 104–295, §20(b)(11), (12), (c)(2), Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3527, 3528; Pub. L. 106–113, div. B, §1000(a)(9) [title V, §5005(b)], Nov. 29, 1999, 113 Stat. 1536, 1501A-594; Pub. L. 108–429, title II, §2004(d)(5), Dec. 3, 2004, 118 Stat. 2592.)

References in Text

The Trademark Act of 1946, referred to in subsec. (a)(1)(C), is act July 5, 1946, ch. 540, 60 Stat. 427, as amended, also popularly known as the Lanham Act, which is classified generally to chapter 22 (§1051 et seq.) of Title 15, Commerce and Trade. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1051 of Title 15 and Tables.

The Federal Rules of Civil Procedure, referred to in subsecs. (e)(3), (h), and (k)(2)(B)(ii), are set out in the Appendix to Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure.

Section 1340 of this title, referred to in subsec. (m), was omitted from the Code.

The Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States, referred to in subsec. (m), is not set out in the Code. See Publication of Harmonized Tariff Schedule note set out under section 1202 of this title.

Codification

The reference to the Philippine Islands, formerly contained in subsec. (k), was omitted because of independence of the Philippines proclaimed by the President of the United States in Proc. No. 2695, issued pursuant to section 1394 of Title 22, Foreign Relations and Intercourse, and set out as a note thereunder.

Prior Provisions

Provisions similar to those in this section were contained in act Sept. 21, 1922, ch. 356, title III, §316, 42 Stat. 943. That section was superseded by section 337 of act June 17, 1930, comprising this section, and repealed by section 651(a)(1) of the 1930 act.

Amendments

2004—Subsec. (a)(1)(E). Pub. L. 108–429, §2004(d)(5)(A), realigned margins.

Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 108–429, §2004(d)(5)(B), substituted "(D), and (E)" for "and (D)".

1999—Subsec. (a)(1)(A). Pub. L. 106–113, §1000(a)(9) [title V, §5005(b)(1)(A)(i)], substituted "(D), and (E)" for "and (D)".

Subsec. (a)(1)(E). Pub. L. 106–113, §1000(a)(9) [title V, §5005(b)(1)(A)(ii)], added subpar. (E).

Subsec. (a)(2), (3). Pub. L. 106–113, §1000(a)(9) [title V, §5005(b)(1)(B)], substituted "mask work, or design" for "or mask work".

Subsec. (l). Pub. L. 106–113, §1000(a)(9) [title V, §5005(b)(2)], substituted "mask work, or design" for "or mask work" in two places.

1996—Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 104–295, §20(c)(2), amended Pub. L. 103–465, §321(a)(1)(C)(i). See 1994 Amendment note below.

Pub. L. 104–295, §20(b)(12), struck out "such section and" before "such part II" in first sentence.

Pub. L. 104–295, §20(b)(11), amended Pub. L. 103–465, §261(d)(1)(B)(ii)(I). See 1994 Amendment note below.

1994—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 103–465, §321(a)(1)(A), struck out "; time limits" after "Commission" in heading.

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 103–465, §321(a)(1)(B), substituted third and fourth sentences for "The Commission shall conclude any such investigation, and make its determination under this section, at the earliest practicable time, but not later than one year (18 months in more complicated cases) after the date of publication of notice of such investigation. The Commission shall publish in the Federal Register its reasons for designating any investigation as a more complicated investigation. For purposes of the one-year and 18-month periods prescribed by this subsection, there shall be excluded any period of time during which such investigation is suspended because of proceedings in a court or agency of the United States involving similar questions concerning the subject matter of such investigation."

Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 103–465, §321(a)(1)(C)(ii), struck out after fourth sentence "For purposes of computing the 1-year or 18-month periods prescribed by this subsection, there shall be excluded such period of suspension."

Pub. L. 103–465, §321(a)(1)(C)(i), as amended by Pub. L. 104–295, §20(c)(2), in first sentence, made technical amendment to reference in original act which appears in text as reference to "such part II".

Pub. L. 103–465, §261(d)(1)(B)(ii)(II)–(V), in second sentence, struck out "1303," after "purview of section" and comma after "1671" and made technical amendment to references to sections 1671 and 1673 of this title to correct references to corresponding sections of original act, in third sentence, substituted "1671" for "1303, 1671,", and in last sentence, struck out "of the Secretary under section 1303 of this title or" after "Any final decision" and substituted "1671 or" for "1303, 1671, or".

Pub. L. 103–465, §261(d)(1)(B)(ii)(I), as amended by Pub. L. 104–295, §20(b)(11), in first sentence, struck out reference to section 1303 of this title after "within the purview" and made technical amendment to reference to part II of subtitle IV of this chapter by substituting in the original "of subtitle B of title VII of this Act" for "of section 303 or of subtitle B of title VII of the Tariff Act of 1930".

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 103–465, §321(a)(2), in first sentence, substituted "an agreement between the private parties to the investigation, including an agreement to present the matter for arbitration" for "a settlement agreement", inserted after third sentence "A respondent may raise any counterclaim in a manner prescribed by the Commission. Immediately after a counterclaim is received by the Commission, the respondent raising such counterclaim shall file a notice of removal with a United States district court in which venue for any of the counterclaims raised by the party would exist under section 1391 of title 28. Any counterclaim raised pursuant to this section shall relate back to the date of the original complaint in the proceeding before the Commission. Action on such counterclaim shall not delay or affect the proceeding under this section, including the legal and equitable defenses that may be raised under this subsection.", and inserted at end "Determinations by the Commission under subsections (e), (f), and (j) with respect to forfeiture of bonds and under subsection (h) with respect to the imposition of sanctions for abuse of discovery or abuse of process shall also be reviewable in accordance with section 706 of title 5."

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 103–465, §321(a)(5)(A), designated existing provisions as par. (1), substituted "there is a violation" for "there is violation" in first sentence, and added par. (2).

Subsec. (e)(1). Pub. L. 103–465, §321(a)(3)(A), in last sentence, substituted "prescribed by the Secretary in an amount determined by the Commission to be sufficient to protect the complainant from any injury. If the Commission later determines that the respondent has violated the provisions of this section, the bond may be forfeited to the complainant." for "determined by the Commission and prescribed by the Secretary."

Subsec. (e)(2). Pub. L. 103–465, §321(a)(3)(B), inserted at end "If the Commission later determines that the respondent has not violated the provisions of this section, the bond may be forfeited to the respondent."

Subsec. (e)(4). Pub. L. 103–465, §321(a)(3)(C), added par. (4).

Subsec. (f)(1). Pub. L. 103–465, §321(a)(4), inserted at end "If a temporary cease and desist order is issued in addition to, or in lieu of, an exclusion order under subsection (e), the Commission may require the complainant to post a bond, in an amount determined by the Commission to be sufficient to protect the respondent from any injury, as a prerequisite to the issuance of an order under this subsection. If the Commission later determines that the respondent has not violated the provisions of this section, the bond may be forfeited to the respondent. The Commission shall prescribe the terms and conditions under which the bonds may be forfeited under this paragraph."

Subsec. (g)(2)(C). Pub. L. 103–465, §321(a)(5)(B), added subpar. (C).

Subsec. (j)(3). Pub. L. 103–465, §321(a)(6), substituted "shall, until such determination becomes final, be entitled to entry under bond prescribed by the Secretary in an amount determined by the Commission to be sufficient to protect the complainant from any injury. If the determination becomes final, the bond may be forfeited to the complainant. The Commission shall prescribe the terms and conditions under which bonds may be forfeited under this paragraph." for "shall be entitled to entry under bond determined by the Commission and prescribed by the Secretary until such determination becomes final."

Subsec. (l). Pub. L. 103–465, §321(a)(8), substituted "Court of Federal Claims" for "Claims Court".

Subsec. (n)(2)(A). Pub. L. 103–465, §321(a)(7)(A), amended subpar. (A) generally. Prior to amendment, subpar. (A) read as follows: "an officer or employee of the Commission who is directly concerned with carrying out the investigation in connection with which the information is submitted,".

Subsec. (n)(2)(C). Pub. L. 103–465, §321(a)(7)(B), amended subpar. (C) generally. Prior to amendment, subpar. (C) read as follows: "an officer or employee of the United States Customs Service who is directly involved in administering an exclusion from entry under this section resulting from the investigation in connection with which the information is submitted."

1992—Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 102–563 amended second sentence generally. Prior to amendment, second sentence read as follows: "If the Commission has reason to believe the matter before it is based solely on alleged acts and effects which are within the purview of section 1303, 1671, or 1673 of this title, it shall terminate, or not institute, any investigation into the matter."

1988—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 100–418, §1342(a)(1), amended subsec. (a) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (a) read as follows: "Unfair methods of competition and unfair acts in the importation of articles into the United States, or in their sale by the owner, importer, consignee, or agent of either, the effect or tendency of which is to destroy or substantially injure an industry, efficiently and economically operated, in the United States, or to prevent the establishment of such an industry, or to restrain or monopolize trade and commerce in the United States, are declared unlawful, and when found by the Commission to exist shall be dealt with, in addition to any other provisions of law, as provided in this section."

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 100–418, §1342(b)(1)(A), substituted "Department of Health and Human Services" for "Department of Health, Education, and Welfare".

Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 100–418, §1342(b)(1)(B), substituted "Secretary of Commerce" for "Secretary of the Treasury".

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 100–418, §1342(a)(2), inserted before period at end of first sentence ", except that the Commission may, by issuing a consent order or on the basis of a settlement agreement, terminate any such investigation, in whole or in part, without making such a determination".

Pub. L. 100–418, §1342(b)(2), inserted reference to subsec. (g) in two places.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 100–418, §1342(a)(3), designated existing provisions as par. (1) and added pars. (2) and (3).

Subsec. (f)(1). Pub. L. 100–418, §1342(a)(4)(A), substituted "In addition to, or in lieu of," for "In lieu of".

Subsec. (f)(2). Pub. L. 100–418, §1342(a)(4)(B), substituted "$100,000 or twice" for "$10,000 or".

Subsecs. (g) to (i). Pub. L. 100–418, §1342(a)(5), added subsecs. (g) to (i). Former subsecs. (g) to (i) redesignated (j) to (l), respectively.

Subsec. (j). Pub. L. 100–418, §1342(a)(5)(A), redesignated former subsec. (g) as (j). Former subsec. (j) redesignated (m).

Subsec. (j)(1)(B), (2), (3). Pub. L. 100–418, §1342(b)(3), inserted reference to subsecs. (g) and (i).

Subsec. (k). Pub. L. 100–418, §1342(b)(4), which directed the substitution "(j)" for "(g)" was executed by making that substitution in par. (1) and not in par. (2), as added by Pub. L. 100–418, §1342(a)(6), to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

Pub. L. 100–418, §1342(a)(6), as amended by Pub. L. 100–647, §9001(a)(7), designated existing provisions as par. (1) and added par. (2).

Pub. L. 100–418, §1342(a)(5)(A), redesignated former subsec. (h) as (k).

Subsec. (l). Pub. L. 100–418, §1342(b)(5), inserted reference to subsecs. (g) and (i).

Pub. L. 100–418, §1342(a)(7), substituted "a proceeding involving a patent, copyright, or mask work under subsection (a)(1)" for "claims of United States letters patent" and "an owner of the patent, copyright, or mask work" for "a patent owner".

Pub. L. 100–418, §1342(a)(5)(A), redesignated former subsec. (i) as (l).

Subsec. (m). Pub. L. 100–418, §1342(a)(5)(A), redesignated former subsec. (j) as (m).

Pub. L. 100–418, §1214(h)(3), substituted "general note 2 of the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States" for "general headnote 2 of the Tariff Schedules of the United States".

Subsec. (n). Pub. L. 100–418, §1342(a)(8), added subsec. (n).

Subsec. (n)(2)(B). Pub. L. 100–647, §9001(a)(12), substituted "subsection (j)" for "subsection (h)".

1984—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 98–620 inserted ", within 60 days after the determination becomes final," after "appeal such determination".

1982—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 97–164, §163(a)(4), substituted "Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit" for "Court of Customs and Patent Appeals".

Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 97–164, §160(a)(5), substituted "United States Claims Court" for "Court of Claims".

1980—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 96–417 provided that the appeal of determinations to the United States Court of Customs and Patent Appeals be reviewed in accordance with chapter 7 of title 5 and substituted provision that review of findings concerning the public health and welfare, competitive conditions in the United States economy, the production of like or directly competitive articles in the United States, and United States consumers, the amount and nature of bond, or the appropriate remedy, be in accordance with section 706 of title 5 for provision giving such court jurisdiction to review determinations in same manner and subject to same limitations and conditions as in case of appeals from decisions of the United States Customs Court.

1979—Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 96–39, §1105(a), substituted "a matter, in whole or in part," for "the matter" and inserted provisions relating to matters based solely or in part on alleged acts and effects within the purview of section 1303, 1671, or 1673 of this title.

Pub. L. 96–39, §106(b)(1), substituted "part II of subtitle IV of this chapter" for "the Antidumping Act, 1921".

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 96–39, §1105(c), substituted "Any person adversely affected by a final determination of the Commission under subsection (d), (e), or (f)" for "Any person adversely affected by a final determination of the Commission under subsection (d) or (e)".

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 96–39, §1105(b), designated existing provisions as par. (1) and added par. (2).

1975—Subsec. (a) Pub. L. 93–618 substituted "Commission" for "President" and "as provided in this section" for "as hereinafter provided".

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 93–618 designated existing provisions as first sentence of par. (1), substituted "The Commission shall investigate any alleged violation of this section" for "To assist the President in making any decisions under this section the commission is authorized to investigate any alleged violation hereof" in first sentence of par. (1) as so designated, and added remainder of par. (1) and pars. (2) and (3).

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 93–618 substituted provisions covering determinations by the Commission and appeals to the United States Court of Customs and Patent Appeals for provisions covering all aspects of hearings and review as part of investigations of unfair practices in import trade.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 93–618 substituted provisions covering the exclusion of articles from entry, formerly covered in subsec. (e), for provisions directing that final findings of the Commission be transmitted with the record to the President, covered by subsec. (g).

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 93–618 substituted provisions covering the entry of articles under bond during investigation, formerly covered in subsec. (f), for provisions covering the exclusion of articles from entry, covered by subsec. (d).

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 93–618 added subsec. (f). Provisions of former subsec. (f) covering entry of articles under bond are covered by subsec. (e).

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 93–618 substituted provisions covering referral to the President, formerly covered by subsec. (d), for provisions covering the continuance of exclusion, covered by subsec. (h).

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 93–618 substituted provisions covering the period of effectiveness, formerly covered by subsec. (g), for provisions defining "United States", covered by subsec. (j).

Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 93–618 added subsec. (i).

Subsec. (j). Pub. L. 93–618 added subsec. (j) defining "United States", formerly covered by subsec. (h).

1958—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 85–686 struck out "under and in accordance with such rules as it may promulgate" after "commission shall make such investigation". See section 1335 of this title.

Effective Date of 1994 Amendment

Amendment by section 261(d)(1)(B)(ii) of Pub. L. 103–465 effective on effective date of title II of Pub. L. 103–465, Jan. 1, 1995, see section 261(d)(2) of Pub. L. 103–465, set out as a note under section 1315 of this title.

Pub. L. 103–465, title III, §322, Dec. 8, 1994, 108 Stat. 4947, provided that: "The amendments made by this subtitle [subtitle C (§§321, 322) of title III of Pub. L. 103–465, enacting sections 1368 and 1659 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure, and amending this section and section 1446 of Title 28] apply—

"(1) with respect to complaints filed under section 337 of the Tariff Act of 1930 [19 U.S.C. 1337] on or after the date on which the WTO Agreement enters into force with respect to the United States [Jan. 1, 1995], or

"(2) in cases under such section 337 in which no complaint is filed, with respect to investigations initiated under such section on or after such date."

Effective Date of 1988 Amendments

Amendment by Pub. L. 100–647 applicable as if such amendment took effect on Aug. 23, 1988, see section 9001(b) of Pub. L. 100–647, set out as an Effective and Termination Dates of 1988 Amendments note under section 58c of this title.

Amendment by section 1214(h)(3) of Pub. L. 100–418 effective Jan. 1, 1989, and applicable with respect to articles entered on or after such date, see section 1217(b)(1) of Pub. L. 100–418, set out as an Effective Date note under section 3001 of this title.

Pub. L. 100–418, title I, §1342(d), Aug. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 1216, provided that:

"(1)(A) Subject to subparagraph (B), the amendments made by this section [amending this section and repealing section 1337a of this title] shall take effect on the date of the enactment of this Act [Aug. 23, 1988].

"(B) The United States International Trade Commission is not required to apply the provision in section 337(e)(2) of the Tariff Act of 1930 [19 U.S.C. 1337(e)(2)] (as amended by subsection (a)(3) of this section) relating to the posting of bonds until the earlier of—

"(i) the 90th day after such date of enactment; or

"(ii) the day on which the Commission issues interim regulations setting forth the procedures relating to such posting.

"(2) Notwithstanding any provision of section 337 of the Tariff Act of 1930, the United States International Trade Commission may extend, by not more than 90 days, the period within which the Commission is required to make a determination in an investigation conducted under such section 337 if—

"(A) the Commission would, but for this paragraph, be required to make such determination before the 180th day after the date of enactment of this Act; and

"(B) the Commission finds that the investigation is complicated."

Effective Date of 1982 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 97–164 effective Oct. 1, 1982, see section 402 of Pub. L. 97–164, set out as a note under section 171 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure.

Effective Date of 1980 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 96–417 applicable with respect to civil actions commenced on or after Nov. 1, 1980, see section 701(b)(2) of Pub. L. 96–417, set out as a note under section 251 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure.

Effective Date of 1979 Amendment

Amendment by section 106(b)(1) of Pub. L. 96–39 effective Jan. 1, 1980, see section 107 of Pub. L. 96–39, set out as an Effective Date note under section 1671 of this title.

Amendment by section 1105 of Pub. L. 96–39 effective July 26, 1979, see section 1114 of Pub. L. 96–39, set out as an Effective Date note under section 2581 of this title.

Effective Date of 1975 Amendment

Pub. L. 93–618, title III, §341(c), Jan. 3, 1975, 88 Stat. 2056, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 1337 of this title] shall take effect on the 90th day after the date of the enactment of this Act [Jan. 3, 1975], except that, for purposes of issuing regulations under section 337 of the Tariff Act of 1930 [this section], such amendments shall take effect on the date of the enactment of this Act [Jan. 3, 1975]. For purposes of applying section 337(b) of the Tariff Act of 1930 [subsec. (b) of this section] (as amended by subsection (a) [as amended by section 341(a) of Pub. L. 93–618]) with respect to investigations being conducted by the International Trade Commission under section 337 of the Tariff Act [this section] on the day prior to the 90th day after the date of the enactment of this Act [Jan. 3, 1975], such investigations shall be considered as having been commenced on such 90th day."

Transfer of Functions

For transfer of functions, personnel, assets, and liabilities of the United States Customs Service of the Department of the Treasury, including functions of the Secretary of the Treasury relating thereto, to the Secretary of Homeland Security, and for treatment of related references, see sections 203(1), 551(d), 552(d), and 557 of Title 6, Domestic Security, and the Department of Homeland Security Reorganization Plan of November 25, 2002, as modified, set out as a note under section 542 of Title 6. For establishment of U.S. Customs and Border Protection in the Department of Homeland Security, treated as if included in Pub. L. 107–296 as of Nov. 25, 2002, see section 211 of Title 6, as amended generally by Pub. L. 114–125, and section 802(b) of Pub. L. 114–125, set out as a note under section 211 of Title 6.

Congressional Findings and Purposes Respecting Part 3 of Pub. L. 100–418

Pub. L. 100–418, title I, §1341, Aug. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 1211, provided that:

"(a) Findings.—The Congress finds that—

"(1) United States persons that rely on protection of intellectual property rights are among the most advanced and competitive in the world; and

"(2) the existing protection under section 337 of the Tariff Act of 1930 [this section] against unfair trade practices is cumbersome and costly and has not provided United States owners of intellectual property rights with adequate protection against foreign companies violating such rights.

"(b) Purpose.—The purpose of this part [part 3 (§§1341, 1342) of subtitle C of title I of Pub. L. 100–418, amending this section, repealing section 1337a of this title, and enacting provisions set out as a note above] is to amend section 337 of the Tariff Act of 1930 to make it a more effective remedy for the protection of United States intellectual property rights."

Assignment of Certain Functions

Memorandum of President of the United States, July 21, 2005, 70 F.R. 43251, provided:

Memorandum for the United States Trade Representative

By the authority vested in me by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including section 301 of title 3, United States Code, I hereby assign to you the functions of the President under section 337(j)(1)(B), section 337(j)(2), and section 337(j)(4) of the Tariff Act of 1930, as amended (19 U.S.C. 1337(j)(1), (j)(2), and (j)(4)).

You are authorized and directed to publish this memorandum in the Federal Register.

George W. Bush.      

1 See References in Text note below.

§1337a. Repealed. Pub. L. 100–418, title I, §1342(c), Aug. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 1215

Section, act July 2, 1940, ch. 515, 54 Stat. 724, related to importation of products produced under process covered by claims of unexpired patent.

Effective Date of Repeal

Repeal effective Aug. 23, 1988, see section 1342(d) of Pub. L. 100–418, set out as an Effective Date of 1988 Amendment note under section 1337 of this title.

§1338. Discrimination by foreign countries

(a) Additional duties

The President when he finds that the public interest will be served shall by proclamation specify and declare new or additional duties as hereinafter provided upon articles wholly or in part the growth or product of, or imported in a vessel of, any foreign country whenever he shall find as a fact that such country—

(1) Imposes, directly or indirectly, upon the disposition in or transportation in transit through or reexportation from such country of any article wholly or in part the growth or product of the United States any unreasonable charge, exaction, regulation, or limitation which is not equally enforced upon the like articles of every foreign country; or

(2) Discriminates in fact against the commerce of the United States, directly or indirectly, by law or administrative regulation or practice, by or in respect to any customs, tonnage, or port duty, fee, charge, exaction, classification, regulation, condition, restriction, or prohibition, in such manner as to place the commerce of the United States at a disadvantage compared with the commerce of any foreign country.

(b) Exclusion from importation

If at any time the President shall find it to be a fact that any foreign country has not only discriminated against the commerce of the United States, as aforesaid, but has, after the issuance of a proclamation as authorized in subdivision (a) of this section, maintained or increased its said discriminations against the commerce of the United States, the President is authorized, if he deems it consistent with the interests of the United States, to issue a further proclamation directing that such products of said country or such articles imported in its vessels as he shall deem consistent with the public interests shall be excluded from importation into the United States.

(c) Application of proclamation

Any proclamation issued by the President under the authority of this section shall, if he deems it consistent with the interests of the United States, extend to the whole of any foreign country or may be confined to any subdivision or subdivisions thereof; and the President shall, whenever he deems the public interests require, suspend, revoke, supplement, or amend any such proclamation.

(d) Duties to offset commercial disadvantages

Whenever the President shall find as a fact that any foreign country places any burden or disadvantage upon the commerce of the United States by any of the unequal impositions or discriminations aforesaid, he shall, when he finds that the public interest will be served thereby, by proclamation specify and declare such new or additional rate or rates of duty as he shall determine will offset such burden or disadvantage, not to exceed 50 per centum ad valorem or its equivalent, on any products of, or on articles imported in a vessel of, such foreign country; and thirty days after the date of such proclamation there shall be levied, collected, and paid upon the articles enumerated in such proclamation when imported into the United States from such foreign country such new or additional rate or rates of duty; or, in case of articles declared subject to exclusion from importation into the United States under the provisions of subdivision (b) of this section, such articles shall be excluded from importation.

(e) Duties to offset benefits to third country

Whenever the President shall find as a fact that any foreign country imposes any unequal imposition or discrimination as aforesaid upon the commerce of the United States, or that any benefits accrue or are likely to accrue to any industry in any foreign country by reason of any such imposition or discrimination imposed by any foreign country other than the foreign country in which such industry is located, and whenever the President shall determine that any new or additional rate or rates of duty or any prohibition hereinbefore provided for do not effectively remove such imposition or discrimination and that any benefits from any such imposition or discrimination accrue or are likely to accrue to any industry in any foreign country, he shall, when he finds that the public interest will be served thereby, by proclamation specify and declare such new or additional rate or rates of duty upon the articles wholly or in part the growth or product of any such industry as he shall determine will offset such benefits, not to exceed 50 per centum ad valorem or its equivalent, upon importation from any foreign country into the United States of such articles; and on and after thirty days after the date of any such proclamation such new or additional rate or rates of duty so specified and declared in such proclamation shall be levied, collected, and paid upon such articles.

(f) Forfeiture of articles

All articles imported contrary to the provisions of this section shall be forfeited to the United States and shall be liable to be seized, prosecuted, and condemned in like manner and under the same regulations, restrictions, and provisions as may from time to time be established for the recovery, collection, distribution, and remission of forfeitures to the United States by the several revenue laws. Whenever the provisions of this chapter shall be applicable to importations into the United States of articles wholly or in part the growth or product of any foreign country, they shall be applicable thereto whether such articles are imported directly or indirectly.

(g) Ascertainment by Commission of discriminations

It shall be the duty of the commission to ascertain and at all times to be informed whether any of the discriminations against the commerce of the United States enumerated in subdivisions (a), (b), and (e) of this section are practiced by any country; and if and when such discriminatory acts are disclosed, it shall be the duty of the commission to bring the matter to the attention of the President, together with recommendations.

(h) Rules and regulations of Secretary of the Treasury

The Secretary of the Treasury with the approval of the President shall make such rules and regulations as are necessary for the execution of such proclamations as the President may issue in accordance with the provisions of this section.

(i) "Foreign country" defined

When used in this section the term "foreign country" means any empire, country, dominion, colony or protectorate, or any subdivision or subdivisions thereof (other than the United States and its possessions), within which separate tariff rates or separate regulations of commerce are enforced.

(June 17, 1930, ch. 497, title III, §338, 46 Stat. 704.)

Prior Provisions

Provisions similar to those in this section were contained in act Sept. 21, 1922, ch. 356, title III, §317, 42 Stat. 944. That section was superseded by section 338 of act June 17, 1930, comprising this section, and repealed by section 651(a)(1) of the 1930 Act.

§1339. Trade Remedy Assistance Office

(a) Establishment; public information

There is established in the Commission a separate office to be known as the Trade Remedy Assistance Office which shall provide full information to the public upon request and shall, to the extent feasible, provide assistance and advice to interested parties concerning—

(1) remedies and benefits available under the trade laws, and

(2) the petition and application procedures, and the appropriate filing dates, with respect to such remedies and benefits.

(b) Procedural assistance by Office and other agencies

The Trade Remedy Assistance Office, in coordination with each agency responsible for administering a trade law, shall provide technical and legal assistance and advice to eligible small businesses to enable them—

(1) to prepare and file petitions and applications (other than those which, in the opinion of the Office, are frivolous); and

(2) to seek to obtain the remedies and benefits available under the trade laws, including any administrative review or administrative appeal thereunder.

(c) Definitions

For purposes of this section—

(1) The term "eligible small business" means any business concern which, in the agency's judgment, due to its small size, has neither adequate internal resources nor financial ability to obtain qualified outside assistance in preparing and filing petitions and applications for remedies and benefits under trade laws. In determining whether a business concern is an "eligible small business", the agency may consult with the Small Business Administration, and shall consult with any other agency that has provided assistance under subsection (b) to that business concern. An agency decision regarding whether a business concern is an eligible small business for purposes of this section is not reviewable by any other agency or by any court.

(2) The term "trade laws" means—

(A) chapter 1 of title II of the Trade Act of 1974 (19 U.S.C. 2251 et seq., relating to injury caused by import competition);

(B) chapters 2 and 3 of such title II [19 U.S.C. 2271 et seq., 2341 et seq.] (relating to adjustment assistance for workers and firms);

(C) chapter 1 of title III of the Trade Act of 1974 (19 U.S.C. 2411 et seq., relating to relief from foreign import restrictions and export subsidies);

(D) subtitle IV of this chapter (relating to the imposition of countervailing duties and antidumping duties);

(E) section 1862 of this title (relating to the safeguarding of national security); and

(F) section 1337 of this title (relating to unfair practices in import trade).

(June 17, 1930, ch. 497, title III, §339, as added Pub. L. 98–573, title II, §221[(a)], Oct. 30, 1984, 98 Stat. 2989; Pub. L. 99–514, title XVIII, §1888(3), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2924; Pub. L. 100–418, title I, §1614, Aug. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 1263.)

References in Text

The Trade Act of 1974, referred to in subsec. (c)(2)(A) to (C), is Pub. L. 93–618, Jan. 3, 1975, 88 Stat. 1978, as amended. Chapters 1, 2, and 3 of title II of the Trade Act of 1974 are classified generally to parts 1 (§2251 et seq.), 2 (§2271 et seq.), and 3 (§2341 et seq.) of subchapter II of chapter 12 of this title, respectively. Chapter 1 of title III of the Trade Act of 1974 is classified generally to subchapter III (§2411 et seq.) of chapter 12 of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 2101 of this title and Tables.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 339 of act June 17, 1930, related to effect of repeal and reenactment of laws relating to Tariff Commission upon status of appropriations, employees, and privileges, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 89–554, §8(a), Sept. 6, 1966, 80 Stat. 648.

Amendments

1988—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 100–418, §1614(1), substituted "a separate office to be known as the Trade" for "a Trade", and "upon request and shall, to the extent feasible, provide assistance and advice to interested parties" for ", upon request," in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 100–418, §1614(2), amended subsec. (b) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (b) read as follows: "Each agency responsible for administering a trade law shall provide technical assistance to eligible small businesses to enable them to prepare and file petitions and applications (other than those which, in the opinion of the agency, are frivolous) to obtain the remedies and benefits that may be available under that law."

1986—Subsec. (c)(2)(A). Pub. L. 99–514 substituted "injury" for "relief".

Effective Date

Pub. L. 98–573, title II, §221(b), Oct. 30, 1984, 98 Stat. 2990, provided that: "Section 339 of the Tariff Act of 1930 [this section] (as added by subsection (a)) shall take effect on the 90th day after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 30, 1984]."

Plan Amendments Not Required Until January 1, 1989

For provisions directing that if any amendments made by subtitle A or subtitle C of title XI [§§1101–1147 and 1171–1177] or title XVIII [§§1801–1899A] of Pub. L. 99–514 require an amendment to any plan, such plan amendment shall not be required to be made before the first plan year beginning on or after Jan. 1, 1989, see section 1140 of Pub. L. 99–514, as amended, set out as a note under section 401 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

§1340. Omitted

Codification

Section, act June 17, 1930, ch. 497, title III, §340, 46 Stat. 706, related to preparation of a certain report by commission to Congress. See Tariff Commission Reports, No. 46, Parts 1 to 8.

§1341. Interference with functions of Commission

(a) Interfering with or influencing the Commission or its employees

It shall be unlawful for any person (1) to prevent or attempt to prevent, by force, intimidation, threat, or in any other manner, any member or employee of the commission from exercising the functions imposed upon the commission by this subtitle, or (2) to induce, or attempt to induce, by like means any such member or employee to make any decision or order, or to take any action, with respect to any matter within the authority of the commission.

(b) Penalty

Any person who violates any of the provisions of this section shall, upon conviction thereof, be fined not more than $1,000 or imprisonment for not more than one year, or both.

(c) "Person" defined

As used in this section the term "person" includes an individual, corporation, association, partnership, or any other organization or group of individuals.

(June 17, 1930, ch. 497, title III, §341, 46 Stat. 707.)