[USC02] 19 USC CHAPTER 4, SUBTITLE IV, Part IV: General Provisions
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19 USC CHAPTER 4, SUBTITLE IV, Part IV: General Provisions
From Title 19—CUSTOMS DUTIESCHAPTER 4—TARIFF ACT OF 1930SUBTITLE IV—COUNTERVAILING AND ANTIDUMPING DUTIES

Part IV—General Provisions

Codification

The designation "Part IV" was in the original "Subtitle D" and was editorially changed in order to conform the numbering format of this subtitle to the usages employed in the codification of the remainder of the Tariff Act of 1930 as originally enacted.

§1677. Definitions; special rules

For purposes of this subtitle—

(1) Administering authority

The term "administering authority" means the Secretary of Commerce, or any other officer of the United States to whom the responsibility for carrying out the duties of the administering authority under this subtitle are transferred by law.

(2) Commission

The term "Commission" means the United States International Trade Commission.

(3) Country

The term "country" means a foreign country, a political subdivision, dependent territory, or possession of a foreign country, and, except for the purpose of antidumping proceedings, may include an association of 2 or more foreign countries, political subdivisions, dependent territories, or possessions of countries into a customs union outside the United States.

(4) Industry

(A) In general

The term "industry" means the producers as a whole of a domestic like product, or those producers whose collective output of a domestic like product constitutes a major proportion of the total domestic production of the product.

(B) Related parties

(i) If a producer of a domestic like product and an exporter or importer of the subject merchandise are related parties, or if a producer of the domestic like product is also an importer of the subject merchandise, the producer may, in appropriate circumstances, be excluded from the industry.

(ii) For purposes of clause (i), a producer and an exporter or importer shall be considered to be related parties, if—

(I) the producer directly or indirectly controls the exporter or importer,

(II) the exporter or importer directly or indirectly controls the producer,

(III) a third party directly or indirectly controls the producer and the exporter or importer, or

(IV) the producer and the exporter or importer directly or indirectly control a third party and there is reason to believe that the relationship causes the producer to act differently than a nonrelated producer.


For purposes of this subparagraph, a party shall be considered to directly or indirectly control another party if the party is legally or operationally in a position to exercise restraint or direction over the other party.

(C) Regional industries

In appropriate circumstances, the United States, for a particular product market, may be divided into 2 or more markets and the producers within each market may be treated as if they were a separate industry if—

(i) the producers within such market sell all or almost all of their production of the domestic like product in question in that market, and

(ii) the demand in that market is not supplied, to any substantial degree, by producers of the product in question located elsewhere in the United States.


In such appropriate circumstances, material injury, the threat of material injury, or material retardation of the establishment of an industry may be found to exist with respect to an industry even if the domestic industry as a whole, or those producers whose collective output of a domestic like product constitutes a major proportion of the total domestic production of that product, is not injured, if there is a concentration of dumped imports or imports of merchandise benefiting from a countervailable subsidy into such an isolated market and if the producers of all, or almost all, of the production within that market are being materially injured or threatened by material injury, or if the establishment of an industry is being materially retarded, by reason of the dumped imports or imports of merchandise benefiting from a countervailable subsidy. The term "regional industry" means the domestic producers within a region who are treated as a separate industry under this subparagraph.

(D) Product lines

The effect of dumped imports or imports of merchandise benefiting from a countervailable subsidy shall be assessed in relation to the United States production of a domestic like product if available data permit the separate identification of production in terms of such criteria as the production process or the producer's profits. If the domestic production of the domestic like product has no separate identity in terms of such criteria, then the effect of the dumped imports or imports of merchandise benefiting from a countervailable subsidy shall be assessed by the examination of the production of the narrowest group or range of products, which includes a domestic like product, for which the necessary information can be provided.

(E) Industry producing processed agricultural products

(i) In general

Subject to clause (v), in an investigation involving a processed agricultural product produced from any raw agricultural product, the producers or growers of the raw agricultural product may be considered part of the industry producing the processed product if—

(I) the processed agricultural product is produced from the raw agricultural product through a single continuous line of production; and

(II) there is a substantial coincidence of economic interest between the producers or growers of the raw agricultural product and the processors of the processed agricultural product based upon relevant economic factors, which may, in the discretion of the Commission, include price, added market value, or other economic interrelationships (regardless of whether such coincidence of economic interest is based upon any legal relationship).

(ii) Processing

For purposes of this subparagraph, the processed agricultural product shall be considered to be processed from a raw agricultural product through a single continuous line of production if—

(I) the raw agricultural product is substantially or completely devoted to the production of the processed agricultural product; and

(II) the processed agricultural product is produced substantially or completely from the raw product.

(iii) Relevant economic factors

For purposes of clause (i)(II), in addition to such other factors it considers relevant to the question of coincidence of economic interest, the Commission shall—

(I) if price is taken into account, consider the degree of correlation between the price of the raw agricultural product and the price of the processed agricultural product; and

(II) if added market value is taken into account, consider whether the value of the raw agricultural product constitutes a significant percentage of the value of the processed agricultural product.

(iv) Raw agricultural product

For purposes of this subparagraph, the term "raw agricultural product" means any farm or fishery product.

(v) Termination of this subparagraph

This subparagraph shall cease to have effect if the United States Trade Representative notifies the administering authority and the Commission that the application of this subparagraph is inconsistent with the international obligations of the United States.

(5) Countervailable subsidy

(A) In general

Except as provided in paragraph (5B), a countervailable subsidy is a subsidy described in this paragraph which is specific as described in paragraph (5A).

(B) Subsidy described

A subsidy is described in this paragraph in the case in which an authority—

(i) provides a financial contribution,

(ii) provides any form of income or price support within the meaning of Article XVI of the GATT 1994, or

(iii) makes a payment to a funding mechanism to provide a financial contribution, or entrusts or directs a private entity to make a financial contribution, if providing the contribution would normally be vested in the government and the practice does not differ in substance from practices normally followed by governments,


to a person and a benefit is thereby conferred. For purposes of this paragraph and paragraphs (5A) and (5B), the term "authority" means a government of a country or any public entity within the territory of the country.

(C) Other factors

The determination of whether a subsidy exists shall be made without regard to whether the recipient of the subsidy is publicly or privately owned and without regard to whether the subsidy is provided directly or indirectly on the manufacture, production, or export of merchandise. The administering authority is not required to consider the effect of the subsidy in determining whether a subsidy exists under this paragraph.

(D) Financial contribution

The term "financial contribution" means—

(i) the direct transfer of funds, such as grants, loans, and equity infusions, or the potential direct transfer of funds or liabilities, such as loan guarantees,

(ii) foregoing or not collecting revenue that is otherwise due, such as granting tax credits or deductions from taxable income,

(iii) providing goods or services, other than general infrastructure, or

(iv) purchasing goods.

(E) Benefit conferred

A benefit shall normally be treated as conferred where there is a benefit to the recipient, including—

(i) in the case of an equity infusion, if the investment decision is inconsistent with the usual investment practice of private investors, including the practice regarding the provision of risk capital, in the country in which the equity infusion is made,

(ii) in the case of a loan, if there is a difference between the amount the recipient of the loan pays on the loan and the amount the recipient would pay on a comparable commercial loan that the recipient could actually obtain on the market,

(iii) in the case of a loan guarantee, if there is a difference, after adjusting for any difference in guarantee fees, between the amount the recipient of the guarantee pays on the guaranteed loan and the amount the recipient would pay for a comparable commercial loan if there were no guarantee by the authority, and

(iv) in the case where goods or services are provided, if such goods or services are provided for less than adequate remuneration, and in the case where goods are purchased, if such goods are purchased for more than adequate remuneration.


For purposes of clause (iv), the adequacy of remuneration shall be determined in relation to prevailing market conditions for the good or service being provided or the goods being purchased in the country which is subject to the investigation or review. Prevailing market conditions include price, quality, availability, marketability, transportation, and other conditions of purchase or sale.

(F) Change in ownership

A change in ownership of all or part of a foreign enterprise or the productive assets of a foreign enterprise does not by itself require a determination by the administering authority that a past countervailable subsidy received by the enterprise no longer continues to be countervailable, even if the change in ownership is accomplished through an arm's length transaction.

(5A) Specificity

(A) In general

A subsidy is specific if it is an export subsidy described in subparagraph (B) or an import substitution subsidy described in subparagraph (C), or if it is determined to be specific pursuant to subparagraph (D).

(B) Export subsidy

An export subsidy is a subsidy that is, in law or in fact, contingent upon export performance, alone or as 1 of 2 or more conditions.

(C) Import substitution subsidy

An import substitution subsidy is a subsidy that is contingent upon the use of domestic goods over imported goods, alone or as 1 of 2 or more conditions.

(D) Domestic subsidy

In determining whether a subsidy (other than a subsidy described in subparagraph (B) or (C)) is a specific subsidy, in law or in fact, to an enterprise or industry within the jurisdiction of the authority providing the subsidy, the following guidelines shall apply:

(i) Where the authority providing the subsidy, or the legislation pursuant to which the authority operates, expressly limits access to the subsidy to an enterprise or industry, the subsidy is specific as a matter of law.

(ii) Where the authority providing the subsidy, or the legislation pursuant to which the authority operates, establishes objective criteria or conditions governing the eligibility for, and the amount of, a subsidy, the subsidy is not specific as a matter of law, if—

(I) eligibility is automatic,

(II) the criteria or conditions for eligibility are strictly followed, and

(III) the criteria or conditions are clearly set forth in the relevant statute, regulation, or other official document so as to be capable of verification.


 For purposes of this clause, the term "objective criteria or conditions" means criteria or conditions that are neutral and that do not favor one enterprise or industry over another.

(iii) Where there are reasons to believe that a subsidy may be specific as a matter of fact, the subsidy is specific if one or more of the following factors exist:

(I) The actual recipients of the subsidy, whether considered on an enterprise or industry basis, are limited in number.

(II) An enterprise or industry is a predominant user of the subsidy.

(III) An enterprise or industry receives a disproportionately large amount of the subsidy.

(IV) The manner in which the authority providing the subsidy has exercised discretion in the decision to grant the subsidy indicates that an enterprise or industry is favored over others.


 In evaluating the factors set forth in subclauses (I), (II), (III), and (IV), the administering authority shall take into account the extent of diversification of economic activities within the jurisdiction of the authority providing the subsidy, and the length of time during which the subsidy program has been in operation.

(iv) Where a subsidy is limited to an enterprise or industry located within a designated geographical region within the jurisdiction of the authority providing the subsidy, the subsidy is specific.


For purposes of this paragraph and paragraph (5B), any reference to an enterprise or industry is a reference to a foreign enterprise or foreign industry and includes a group of such enterprises or industries.

(5B) Categories of noncountervailable subsidies

(A) In general

Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraphs (5) and (5A), in the case of merchandise imported from a Subsidies Agreement country, a subsidy shall be treated as noncountervailable if the administering authority determines in an investigation under part I of this subtitle or a review under part III of this subtitle that the subsidy meets all of the criteria described in subparagraph (B), (C), or (D), as the case may be, or the provisions of subparagraph (E)(i) apply.

(B) Research subsidy

(i) In general

Except for a subsidy provided on the manufacture, production, or export of civil aircraft, a subsidy for research activities conducted by a person, or by a higher education or research establishment on a contract basis with a person, shall be treated as noncountervailable, if the subsidy covers not more than 75 percent of the costs of industrial research or not more than 50 percent of the costs of precompetitive development activity, and such subsidy is limited exclusively to—

(I) the costs of researchers, technicians, and other supporting staff employed exclusively in the research activity,

(II) the costs of instruments, equipment, land, or buildings that are used exclusively and permanently (except when disposed of on a commercial basis) for the research activity,

(III) the costs of consultancy and equivalent services used exclusively for the research activity, including costs for bought-in research, technical knowledge, and patents,

(IV) additional overhead costs incurred directly as a result of the research activity, and

(V) other operating costs (such as materials and supplies) incurred directly as a result of the research activity.

(ii) Definitions

For purposes of this subparagraph—

(I) Industrial research

The term "industrial research" means planned search or critical investigation aimed at the discovery of new knowledge, with the objective that such knowledge may be useful in developing new products, processes, or services, or in bringing about a significant improvement to existing products, processes, or services.

(II) Precompetitive development activity

The term "precompetitive development activity" means the translation of industrial research findings into a plan, blueprint, or design for new, modified, or improved products, processes, or services, whether intended for sale or use, including the creation of a first prototype that would not be capable of commercial use. The term also may include the conceptual formulation and design of products, processes, or services alternatives and initial demonstration or pilot projects, if these same projects cannot be converted or used for industrial application or commercial exploitation. The term does not include routine or periodic alterations to existing products, production lines, manufacturing processes, services, or other ongoing operations even if those alterations may represent improvements.

(iii) Calculation rules

(I) In general

In the case of a research activity that spans both industrial research and precompetitive development activity, the allowable level of the noncountervailable subsidy shall not exceed 62.5 percent of the costs set forth in subclauses (I), (II), (III), (IV), and (V) of clause (i).

(II) Total eligible costs

The allowable level of a noncountervailable subsidy described in clause (i) shall be based on the total eligible costs incurred over the duration of a particular project.

(C) Subsidy to disadvantaged regions

(i) In general

A subsidy provided, pursuant to a general framework of regional development, to a person located in a disadvantaged region within a country shall be treated as noncountervailable, if it is not specific (within the meaning of paragraph (5A)) within eligible regions and if the following conditions are met:

(I) Each region identified as disadvantaged within the territory of a country is a clearly designated, contiguous geographical area with a definable economic and administrative identity.

(II) Each region is considered a disadvantaged region on the basis of neutral and objective criteria indicating that the region is disadvantaged because of more than temporary circumstances, and such criteria are clearly stated in the relevant statute, regulation, or other official document so as to be capable of verification.

(III) The criteria described in subclause (II) include a measurement of economic development.

(IV) Programs provided within a general framework of regional development include ceilings on the amount of assistance that can be granted to a subsidized project. Such ceilings are differentiated according to the different levels of development of assisted regions, and are expressed in terms of investment costs or costs of job creation. Within such ceilings, the distribution of assistance is sufficiently broad and even to avoid the predominant use of a subsidy by, or the provision of disproportionately large amounts of a subsidy to, an enterprise or industry as described in paragraph (5A)(D).

(ii) Measurement of economic development

For purposes of clause (i), the measurement of economic development shall be based on one or more of the following factors:

(I) Per capita income, household per capita income, or per capita gross domestic product that does not exceed 85 percent of the average for the country subject to investigation or review.

(II) An unemployment rate that is at least 110 percent of the average unemployment rate for the country subject to investigation or review.


 The measurement of economic development shall cover a 3-year period, but may be a composite measurement and may include factors other than those set forth in this clause.

(iii) Definitions

For purposes of this subparagraph—

(I) General framework of regional development

The term "general framework of regional development" means that the regional subsidy programs are part of an internally consistent and generally applicable regional development policy, and that regional development subsidies are not granted in isolated geographical points having no, or virtually no, influence on the development of a region.

(II) Neutral and objective criteria

The term "neutral and objective criteria" means criteria that do not favor certain regions beyond what is appropriate for the elimination or reduction of regional disparities within the framework of the regional development policy.

(D) Subsidy for adaptation of existing facilities to new environmental requirements

(i) In general

A subsidy that is provided to promote the adaptation of existing facilities to new environmental requirements that are imposed by statute or by regulation, and that result in greater constraints and financial burdens on the recipient of the subsidy, shall be treated as noncountervailable, if the subsidy—

(I) is a one-time nonrecurring measure,

(II) is limited to 20 percent of the cost of adaptation,

(III) does not cover the cost of replacing and operating the subsidized investment, a cost that must be fully borne by the recipient,

(IV) is directly linked and proportionate to the recipient's planned reduction of nuisances and pollution, and does not cover any manufacturing cost savings that may be achieved, and

(V) is available to all persons that can adopt the new equipment or production processes.

(ii) Existing facilities

For purposes of this subparagraph, the term "existing facilities" means facilities that have been in operation for at least 2 years before the date on which the new environmental requirements are imposed.

(E) Notified subsidy program

(i) General rule

If a subsidy is provided pursuant to a program that has been notified in accordance with Article 8.3 of the Subsidies Agreement, the subsidy shall be treated as noncountervailable and shall not be subject to investigation or review under this subtitle.

(ii) Exception

Notwithstanding clause (i), a subsidy shall be treated as countervailable if—

(I) the Trade Representative notifies the administering authority that a determination has been made pursuant to Article 8.4 or 8.5 of the Subsidies Agreement that the subsidy, or the program pursuant to which the subsidy was provided, does not satisfy the conditions and criteria of Article 8.2 of the Subsidies Agreement; and

(II) the subsidy is specific within the meaning of paragraph (5A).

(F) Certain subsidies on agricultural products

Domestic support measures that are provided with respect to products listed in Annex 1 to the Agreement on Agriculture, and that the administering authority determines conform fully to the provisions of Annex 2 to that Agreement, shall be treated as noncountervailable. Upon request by the administering authority, the Trade Representative shall provide advice regarding the interpretation and application of Annex 2.

(G) Provisional application

(i) Subparagraphs (B), (C), (D), and (E) shall not apply on or after the first day of the month that is 66 months after the WTO Agreement enters into force, unless the provisions of such subparagraphs are extended pursuant to section 3572(c) of this title.

(ii) Subparagraph (F) shall not apply to imports from a WTO member country at the end of the 9-year period beginning on January 1, 1995. The Trade Representative shall determine the precise termination date for each WTO member country in accordance with paragraph (i) of Article 1 of the Agreement on Agriculture and such date shall be notified to the administering authority.

(6) Net countervailable subsidy

For the purpose of determining the net countervailable subsidy, the administering authority may subtract from the gross countervailable subsidy the amount of—

(A) any application fee, deposit, or similar payment paid in order to qualify for, or to receive, the benefit of the countervailable subsidy,

(B) any loss in the value of the countervailable subsidy resulting from its deferred receipt, if the deferral is mandated by Government order, and

(C) export taxes, duties, or other charges levied on the export of merchandise to the United States specifically intended to offset the countervailable subsidy received.

(7) Material injury

(A) In general

The term "material injury" means harm which is not inconsequential, immaterial, or unimportant.

(B) Volume and consequent impact

In making determinations under sections 1671b(a), 1671d(b), 1673b(a), and 1673d(b) of this title, the Commission, in each case—

(i) shall consider—

(I) the volume of imports of the subject merchandise,

(II) the effect of imports of that merchandise on prices in the United States for domestic like products, and

(III) the impact of imports of such merchandise on domestic producers of domestic like products, but only in the context of production operations within the United States; and


(ii) may consider such other economic factors as are relevant to the determination regarding whether there is material injury by reason of imports.


In the notification required under section 1671d(d) or 1673d(d) of this title, as the case may be, the Commission shall explain its analysis of each factor considered under clause (i), and identify each factor considered under clause (ii) and explain in full its relevance to the determination.

(C) Evaluation of relevant factors

For purposes of subparagraph (B)—

(i) Volume

In evaluating the volume of imports of merchandise, the Commission shall consider whether the volume of imports of the merchandise, or any increase in that volume, either in absolute terms or relative to production or consumption in the United States, is significant.

(ii) Price

In evaluating the effect of imports of such merchandise on prices, the Commission shall consider whether—

(I) there has been significant price underselling by the imported merchandise as compared with the price of domestic like products of the United States, and

(II) the effect of imports of such merchandise otherwise depresses prices to a significant degree or prevents price increases, which otherwise would have occurred, to a significant degree.

(iii) Impact on affected domestic industry

In examining the impact required to be considered under subparagraph (B)(i)(III), the Commission shall evaluate all relevant economic factors which have a bearing on the state of the industry in the United States, including, but not limited to—

(I) actual and potential decline in output, sales, market share, gross profits, operating profits, net profits, ability to service debt, productivity, return on investments, return on assets, and utilization of capacity,

(II) factors affecting domestic prices,

(III) actual and potential negative effects on cash flow, inventories, employment, wages, growth, ability to raise capital, and investment,

(IV) actual and potential negative effects on the existing development and production efforts of the domestic industry, including efforts to develop a derivative or more advanced version of the domestic like product, and

(V) in a proceeding under part II of this subtitle, the magnitude of the margin of dumping.


 The Commission shall evaluate all relevant economic factors described in this clause within the context of the business cycle and conditions of competition that are distinctive to the affected industry.

(iv) Captive production

If domestic producers internally transfer significant production of the domestic like product for the production of a downstream article and sell significant production of the domestic like product in the merchant market, and the Commission finds that—

(I) the domestic like product produced that is internally transferred for processing into that downstream article does not enter the merchant market for the domestic like product, and

(II) the domestic like product is the predominant material input in the production of that downstream article,


 then the Commission, in determining market share and the factors affecting financial performance set forth in clause (iii), shall focus primarily on the merchant market for the domestic like product.

(D) Special rules for agricultural products

(i) The Commission shall not determine that there is no material injury or threat of material injury to United States producers of an agricultural commodity merely because the prevailing market price is at or above the minimum support price.

(ii) In the case of agricultural products, the Commission shall consider any increased burden on government income or price support programs.

(E) Special rules

For purposes of this paragraph—

(i) Nature of countervailable subsidy

In determining whether there is a threat of material injury, the Commission shall consider information provided to it by the administering authority regarding the nature of the countervailable subsidy granted by a foreign country (particularly whether the countervailable subsidy is a subsidy described in Article 3 or 6.1 of the Subsidies Agreement) and the effects likely to be caused by the countervailable subsidy.

(ii) Standard for determination

The presence or absence of any factor which the Commission is required to evaluate under subparagraph (C) or (D) shall not necessarily give decisive guidance with respect to the determination by the Commission of material injury.

(F) Threat of material injury

(i) In general

In determining whether an industry in the United States is threatened with material injury by reason of imports (or sales for importation) of the subject merchandise, the Commission shall consider, among other relevant economic factors—

(I) if a countervailable subsidy is involved, such information as may be presented to it by the administering authority as to the nature of the subsidy (particularly as to whether the countervailable subsidy is a subsidy described in Article 3 or 6.1 of the Subsidies Agreement), and whether imports of the subject merchandise are likely to increase,

(II) any existing unused production capacity or imminent, substantial increase in production capacity in the exporting country indicating the likelihood of substantially increased imports of the subject merchandise into the United States, taking into account the availability of other export markets to absorb any additional exports,

(III) a significant rate of increase of the volume or market penetration of imports of the subject merchandise indicating the likelihood of substantially increased imports,

(IV) whether imports of the subject merchandise are entering at prices that are likely to have a significant depressing or suppressing effect on domestic prices, and are likely to increase demand for further imports,

(V) inventories of the subject merchandise,

(VI) the potential for product-shifting if production facilities in the foreign country, which can be used to produce the subject merchandise, are currently being used to produce other products,

(VII) in any investigation under this subtitle which involves imports of both a raw agricultural product (within the meaning of paragraph (4)(E)(iv)) and any product processed from such raw agricultural product, the likelihood that there will be increased imports, by reason of product shifting, if there is an affirmative determination by the Commission under section 1671d(b)(1) or 1673d(b)(1) of this title with respect to either the raw agricultural product or the processed agricultural product (but not both),

(VIII) the actual and potential negative effects on the existing development and production efforts of the domestic industry, including efforts to develop a derivative or more advanced version of the domestic like product, and

(IX) any other demonstrable adverse trends that indicate the probability that there is likely to be material injury by reason of imports (or sale for importation) of the subject merchandise (whether or not it is actually being imported at the time).

(ii) Basis for determination

The Commission shall consider the factors set forth in clause (i) as a whole in making a determination of whether further dumped or subsidized imports are imminent and whether material injury by reason of imports would occur unless an order is issued or a suspension agreement is accepted under this subtitle. The presence or absence of any factor which the Commission is required to consider under clause (i) shall not necessarily give decisive guidance with respect to the determination. Such a determination may not be made on the basis of mere conjecture or supposition.

(iii) Effect of dumping in third-country markets

(I) In general

In investigations under part II of this subtitle, the Commission shall consider whether dumping in the markets of foreign countries (as evidenced by dumping findings or antidumping remedies in other WTO member markets against the same class or kind of merchandise manufactured or exported by the same party as under investigation) suggests a threat of material injury to the domestic industry. In the course of its investigation, the Commission shall request information from the foreign manufacturer, exporter, or United States importer concerning this issue.

(II) WTO member market

For purposes of this clause, the term "WTO member market" means the market of any country which is a WTO member.

(III) European Communities

For purposes of this clause, the European Communities shall be treated as a foreign country.

(G) Cumulation for determining material injury

(i) In general

For purposes of clauses (i) and (ii) of subparagraph (C), and subject to clause (ii), the Commission shall cumulatively assess the volume and effect of imports of the subject merchandise from all countries with respect to which—

(I) petitions were filed under section 1671a(b) or 1673a(b) of this title on the same day,

(II) investigations were initiated under section 1671a(a) or 1673a(a) of this title on the same day, or

(III) petitions were filed under section 1671a(b) or 1673a(b) of this title and investigations were initiated under section 1671a(a) or 1673a(a) of this title on the same day,


 if such imports compete with each other and with domestic like products in the United States market.

(ii) Exceptions

The Commission shall not cumulatively assess the volume and effect of imports under clause (i)—

(I) with respect to which the administering authority has made a preliminary negative determination, unless the administering authority subsequently made a final affirmative determination with respect to those imports before the Commission's final determination is made;

(II) from any country with respect to which the investigation has been terminated;

(III) from any country designated as a beneficiary country under the Caribbean Basin Economic Recovery Act (19 U.S.C. 2701 et seq.) for purposes of making a determination with respect to that country, except that the volume and effect of imports of the subject merchandise from such country may be cumulatively assessed with imports of the subject merchandise from any other country designated as such a beneficiary country to the extent permitted by clause (i); or

(IV) from any country that is a party to an agreement with the United States establishing a free trade area, which entered into force and effect before January 1, 1987, unless the Commission determines that a domestic industry is materially injured or threatened with material injury by reason of imports from that country.

(iii) Records in final investigations

In each final determination in which it cumulatively assesses the volume and effect of imports under clause (i), the Commission shall make its determinations based on the record compiled in the first investigation in which it makes a final determination, except that when the administering authority issues its final determination in a subsequently completed investigation, the Commission shall permit the parties in the subsequent investigation to submit comments concerning the significance of the administering authority's final determination, and shall include such comments and the administering authority's final determination in the record for the subsequent investigation.

(iv) Regional industry determinations

In an investigation which involves a regional industry, and in which the Commission decides that the volume and effect of imports should be cumulatively assessed under this subparagraph, such assessment shall be based upon the volume and effect of imports into the region or regions determined by the Commission. The provisions of clause (iii) shall apply to such investigations.

(H) Cumulation for determining threat of material injury

To the extent practicable and subject to subparagraph (G)(ii), for purposes of clause (i)(III) and (IV) of subparagraph (F), the Commission may cumulatively assess the volume and price effects of imports of the subject merchandise from all countries with respect to which—

(i) petitions were filed under section 1671a(b) or 1673a(b) of this title on the same day,

(ii) investigations were initiated under section 1671a(a) or 1673a(a) of this title on the same day, or

(iii) petitions were filed under section 1671a(b) or 1673a(b) of this title and investigations were initiated under section 1671a(a) or 1673a(a) of this title on the same day,


if such imports compete with each other and with domestic like products in the United States market.

(I) Consideration of post-petition information

The Commission shall consider whether any change in the volume, price effects, or impact of imports of the subject merchandise since the filing of the petition in an investigation under part I or II of this subtitle is related to the pendency of the investigation and, if so, the Commission may reduce the weight accorded to the data for the period after the filing of the petition in making its determination of material injury, threat of material injury, or material retardation of the establishment of an industry in the United States.

(J) Effect of profitability

The Commission may not determine that there is no material injury or threat of material injury to an industry in the United States merely because that industry is profitable or because the performance of that industry has recently improved.

(8) Subsidies Agreement; Agreement on Agriculture

(A) Subsidies Agreement

The term "Subsidies Agreement" means the Agreement on Subsidies and Countervailing Measures referred to in section 3511(d)(12) of this title.

(B) Agreement on Agriculture

The term "Agreement on Agriculture" means the Agreement on Agriculture referred to in section 3511(d)(2) of this title.

(9) Interested party

The term "interested party" means—

(A) a foreign manufacturer, producer, or exporter, or the United States importer, of subject merchandise or a trade or business association a majority of the members of which are producers, exporters, or importers of such merchandise,

(B) the government of a country in which such merchandise is produced or manufactured or from which such merchandise is exported,

(C) a manufacturer, producer, or wholesaler in the United States of a domestic like product,

(D) a certified union or recognized union or group of workers which is representative of an industry engaged in the manufacture, production, or wholesale in the United States of a domestic like product,

(E) a trade or business association a majority of whose members manufacture, produce, or wholesale a domestic like product in the United States,

(F) an association, a majority of whose members is composed of interested parties described in subparagraph (C), (D), or (E) with respect to a domestic like product, and

(G) in any investigation under this subtitle involving an industry engaged in producing a processed agricultural product, as defined in paragraph (4)(E), a coalition or trade association which is representative of either—

(i) processors,

(ii) processors and producers, or

(iii) processors and growers,


but this subparagraph shall cease to have effect if the United States Trade Representative notifies the administering authority and the Commission that the application of this subparagraph is inconsistent with the international obligations of the United States.

(10) Domestic like product

The term "domestic like product" means a product which is like, or in the absence of like, most similar in characteristics and uses with, the article subject to an investigation under this subtitle.

(11) Affirmative determinations by divided Commission

If the Commissioners voting on a determination by the Commission, including a determination under section 1675 of this title, are evenly divided as to whether the determination should be affirmative or negative, the Commission shall be deemed to have made an affirmative determination. For the purpose of applying this paragraph when the issue before the Commission is to determine whether there is—

(A) material injury to an industry in the United States,

(B) threat of material injury to such an industry, or

(C) material retardation of the establishment of an industry in the United States,


by reason of imports of the merchandise, an affirmative vote on any of the issues shall be treated as a vote that the determination should be affirmative.

(12) Attribution of merchandise to country of manufacture or production

For purposes of part I of this subtitle, merchandise shall be treated as the product of the country in which it was manufactured or produced without regard to whether it is imported directly from that country and without regard to whether it is imported in the same condition as when exported from that country or in a changed condition by reason of remanufacture or otherwise.

(13) Repealed. Pub. L. 103–465, title II, §222(i)(2), Dec. 8, 1994, 108 Stat. 4876

(14) Sold or, in the absence of sales, offered for sale

The term "sold or, in the absence of sales, offered for sale" means sold or, in the absence of sales, offered—

(A) to all purchasers in commercial quantities, or

(B) in the ordinary course of trade to one or more selected purchasers in commercial quantities at a price which fairly reflects the market value of the merchandise,


without regard to restrictions as to the disposition or use of the merchandise by the purchaser except that, where such restrictions are found to affect the market value of the merchandise, adjustment shall be made therefor in calculating the price at which the merchandise is sold or offered for sale.

(15) Ordinary course of trade

The term "ordinary course of trade" means the conditions and practices which, for a reasonable time prior to the exportation of the subject merchandise, have been normal in the trade under consideration with respect to merchandise of the same class or kind. The administering authority shall consider the following sales and transactions, among others, to be outside the ordinary course of trade:

(A) Sales disregarded under section 1677b(b)(1) of this title.

(B) Transactions disregarded under section 1677b(f)(2) of this title.

(C) Situations in which the administering authority determines that the particular market situation prevents a proper comparison with the export price or constructed export price.

(16) Foreign like product

The term "foreign like product" means merchandise in the first of the following categories in respect of which a determination for the purposes of part II of this subtitle can be satisfactorily made:

(A) The subject merchandise and other merchandise which is identical in physical characteristics with, and was produced in the same country by the same person as, that merchandise.

(B) Merchandise—

(i) produced in the same country and by the same person as the subject merchandise,

(ii) like that merchandise in component material or materials and in the purposes for which used, and

(iii) approximately equal in commercial value to that merchandise.


(C) Merchandise—

(i) produced in the same country and by the same person and of the same general class or kind as the subject merchandise,

(ii) like that merchandise in the purposes for which used, and

(iii) which the administering authority determines may reasonably be compared with that merchandise.

(17) Usual commercial quantities

The term "usual commercial quantities", in any case in which the subject merchandise is sold in the market under consideration at different prices for different quantities, means the quantities in which such merchandise is there sold at the price or prices for one quantity in an aggregate volume which is greater than the aggregate volume sold at the price or prices for any other quantity.

(18) Nonmarket economy country

(A) In general

The term "nonmarket economy country" means any foreign country that the administering authority determines does not operate on market principles of cost or pricing structures, so that sales of merchandise in such country do not reflect the fair value of the merchandise.

(B) Factors to be considered

In making determinations under subparagraph (A) the administering authority shall take into account—

(i) the extent to which the currency of the foreign country is convertible into the currency of other countries; 1

(ii) the extent to which wage rates in the foreign country are determined by free bargaining between labor and management,

(iii) the extent to which joint ventures or other investments by firms of other foreign countries are permitted in the foreign country,

(iv) the extent of government ownership or control of the means of production,

(v) the extent of government control over the allocation of resources and over the price and output decisions of enterprises, and

(vi) such other factors as the administering authority considers appropriate.

(C) Determination in effect

(i) Any determination that a foreign country is a nonmarket economy country shall remain in effect until revoked by the administering authority.

(ii) The administering authority may make a determination under subparagraph (A) with respect to any foreign country at any time.

(D) Determinations not in issue

Notwithstanding any other provision of law, any determination made by the administering authority under subparagraph (A) shall not be subject to judicial review in any investigation conducted under part II of this subtitle.

(E) Collection of information

Upon request by the administering authority, the Commissioner of U.S. Customs and Border Protection shall provide the administering authority a copy of all public and proprietary information submitted to, or obtained by, the Commissioner of U.S. Customs and Border Protection that the administering authority considers relevant to proceedings involving merchandise from nonmarket economy countries. The administering authority shall protect proprietary information obtained under this section from public disclosure in accordance with section 1677f of this title.

(19) Equivalency of leases to sales

In determining whether a lease is equivalent to a sale for purposes of this subtitle, the administering authority shall consider—

(A) the terms of the lease,

(B) commercial practice within the industry,

(C) the circumstances of the transaction,

(D) whether the product subject to the lease is integrated into the operations of the lessee or importer,

(E) whether in practice there is a likelihood that the lease will be continued or renewed for a significant period of time, and

(F) other relevant factors, including whether the lease transaction would permit avoidance of antidumping or countervailing duties.

(20) Application to governmental importations

(A) In general

Except as otherwise provided by this paragraph, merchandise imported by, or for the use of, a department or agency of the United States Government (including merchandise provided for under chapter 98 of the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States) is subject to the imposition of countervailing duties or antidumping duties under this subtitle or section 1303 of this title.

(B) Exceptions

Merchandise imported by, or for the use of, the Department of Defense shall not be subject to the imposition of countervailing or antidumping duties under this subtitle if—

(i) the merchandise is acquired by, or for use of, such Department—

(I) from a country with which such Department had a Memorandum of Understanding which was in effect on January 1, 1988, and has continued to have a comparable agreement (including renewals) or superceding agreements, and

(II) in accordance with terms of the Memorandum of Understanding in effect at the time of importation, or


(ii) the merchandise has no substantial nonmilitary use.

(21) United States-Canada Agreement

The term "United States-Canada Agreement" means the United States-Canada Free-Trade Agreement.

(22) NAFTA

The term "NAFTA" means the North American Free Trade Agreement.

(23) Entry

The term "entry" includes, in appropriate circumstances as determined by the administering authority, a reconciliation entry created under a reconciliation process, defined in section 1401(s) of this title, that is initiated by an importer. The liability of an importer under an antidumping or countervailing duty proceeding for entries of merchandise subject to the proceeding will attach to the corresponding reconciliation entry or entries. Suspension of liquidation of the reconciliation entry or entries, for the purpose of enforcing this subtitle, is equivalent to the suspension of liquidation of the corresponding individual entries; but the suspension of liquidation of the reconciliation entry or entries for such purpose does not preclude liquidation for any other purpose.

(24) Negligible imports

(A) In general

(i) Less than 3 percent

Except as provided in clauses (ii) and (iv), imports from a country of merchandise corresponding to a domestic like product identified by the Commission are "negligible" if such imports account for less than 3 percent of the volume of all such merchandise imported into the United States in the most recent 12-month period for which data are available that precedes—

(I) the filing of the petition under section 1671a(b) or 1673a(b) of this title, or

(II) the initiation of the investigation, if the investigation was initiated under section 1671a(a) or 1673a(a) of this title.

(ii) Exception

Imports that would otherwise be negligible under clause (i) shall not be negligible if the aggregate volume of imports of the merchandise from all countries described in clause (i) with respect to which investigations were initiated on the same day exceeds 7 percent of the volume of all such merchandise imported into the United States during the applicable 12-month period.

(iii) Determination of aggregate volume

In determining aggregate volume under clause (ii) or (iv), the Commission shall not consider imports from any country specified in paragraph (7)(G)(ii).

(iv) Negligibility in threat analysis

Notwithstanding clauses (i) and (ii), the Commission shall not treat imports as negligible if it determines that there is a potential that imports from a country described in clause (i) will imminently account for more than 3 percent of the volume of all such merchandise imported into the United States, or that the aggregate volumes of imports from all countries described in clause (ii) will imminently exceed 7 percent of the volume of all such merchandise imported into the United States. The Commission shall consider such imports only for purposes of determining threat of material injury.

(B) Negligibility for certain countries in countervailing duty investigations

In the case of an investigation under section 1671 of this title, subparagraph (A) shall be applied to imports of subject merchandise from developing countries by substituting "4 percent" for "3 percent" in subparagraph (A)(i) and by substituting "9 percent" for "7 percent" in subparagraph (A)(ii).

(C) Computation of import volumes

In computing import volumes for purposes of subparagraphs (A) and (B), the Commission may make reasonable estimates on the basis of available statistics.

(D) Regional industries

In an investigation in which the Commission makes a regional industry determination under paragraph (4)(C), the Commission's examination under subparagraphs (A) and (B) shall be based upon the volume of subject merchandise exported for sale in the regional market in lieu of the volume of all subject merchandise imported into the United States.

(25) Subject merchandise

The term "subject merchandise" means the class or kind of merchandise that is within the scope of an investigation, a review, a suspension agreement, an order under this subtitle or section 1303 of this title, or a finding under the Antidumping Act, 1921.

(26) Section 1303

The terms "section 1303" and "1303" mean section 1303 of this title as in effect on the day before the effective date of title II of the Uruguay Round Agreements Act.

(27) Suspension agreement

The term "suspension agreement" means an agreement described in section 1671c(b), 1671c(c), 1673c(b), 1673c(c), or 1673c(l) of this title.

(28) Exporter or producer

The term "exporter or producer" means the exporter of the subject merchandise, the producer of the subject merchandise, or both where appropriate. For purposes of section 1677b of this title, the term "exporter or producer" includes both the exporter of the subject merchandise and the producer of the same subject merchandise to the extent necessary to accurately calculate the total amount incurred and realized for costs, expenses, and profits in connection with production and sale of that merchandise.

(29) WTO Agreement

The term "WTO Agreement" means the Agreement defined in section 3501(9) of this title.

(30) WTO member and WTO member country

The terms "WTO member" and "WTO member country" mean a state, or separate customs territory (within the meaning of Article XII of the WTO Agreement), with respect to which the United States applies the WTO Agreement.

(31) GATT 1994

The term "GATT 1994" means the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade annexed to the WTO Agreement.

(32) Trade representative

The term "Trade Representative" means the United States Trade Representative.

(33) Affiliated persons

The following persons shall be considered to be "affiliated" or "affiliated persons":

(A) Members of a family, including brothers and sisters (whether by the whole or half blood), spouse, ancestors, and lineal descendants.

(B) Any officer or director of an organization and such organization.

(C) Partners.

(D) Employer and employee.

(E) Any person directly or indirectly owning, controlling, or holding with power to vote, 5 percent or more of the outstanding voting stock or shares of any organization and such organization.

(F) Two or more persons directly or indirectly controlling, controlled by, or under common control with, any person.

(G) Any person who controls any other person and such other person.


For purposes of this paragraph, a person shall be considered to control another person if the person is legally or operationally in a position to exercise restraint or direction over the other person.

(34) Dumped; dumping

The terms "dumped" and "dumping" refer to the sale or likely sale of goods at less than fair value.

(35) Dumping margin; weighted average dumping margin

(A) Dumping margin

The term "dumping margin" means the amount by which the normal value exceeds the export price or constructed export price of the subject merchandise.

(B) Weighted average dumping margin

The term "weighted average dumping margin" is the percentage determined by dividing the aggregate dumping margins determined for a specific exporter or producer by the aggregate export prices and constructed export prices of such exporter or producer.

(C) Magnitude of the margin of dumping

The magnitude of the margin of dumping used by the Commission shall be—

(i) in making a preliminary determination under section 1673b(a) of this title in an investigation (including any investigation in which the Commission cumulatively assesses the volume and effect of imports under paragraph (7)(G)(i)), the dumping margin or margins published by the administering authority in its notice of initiation of the investigation;

(ii) in making a final determination under section 1673d(b) of this title, the dumping margin or margins most recently published by the administering authority prior to the closing of the Commission's administrative record;

(iii) in a review under section 1675(b)(2) of this title, the most recent dumping margin or margins determined by the administering authority under section 1675a(c)(3) of this title, if any, or under section 1673b(b) or 1673d(a) of this title; and

(iv) in a review under section 1675(c) of this title, the dumping margin or margins determined by the administering authority under section 1675a(c)(3) of this title.

(36) Developing and least developed country

(A) Developing country

The term "developing country" means a country designated as a developing country by the Trade Representative.

(B) Least developed country

The term "least developed country" means a country which the Trade Representative determines is—

(i) a country referred to as a least developed country within the meaning of paragraph (a) of Annex VII to the Subsidies Agreement, or

(ii) any other country listed in Annex VII to the Subsidies Agreement, but only if the country has a per capita gross national product of less than $1,000 per annum as measured by the most recent data available from the World Bank.

(C) Publication of list

The Trade Representative shall publish in the Federal Register, and update as necessary, a list of—

(i) developing countries that have eliminated their export subsidies on an expedited basis within the meaning of Article 27.11 of the Subsidies Agreement, and

(ii) countries determined by the Trade Representative to be least developed or developing countries.

(D) Factors to consider

In determining whether a country is a developing country under subparagraph (A), the Trade Representative shall consider such economic, trade, and other factors which the Trade Representative considers appropriate, including the level of economic development of such country (the assessment of which shall include a review of the country's per capita gross national product) and the country's share of world trade.

(E) Limitation on designation

A determination that a country is a developing or least developed country pursuant to this paragraph shall be for purposes of this subtitle only and shall not affect the determination of a country's status as a developing or least developed country with respect to any other law.

(June 17, 1930, ch. 497, title VII, §771, as added Pub. L. 96–39, title I, §101, July 26, 1979, 93 Stat. 176; amended Pub. L. 98–573, title VI, §612(a), Oct. 30, 1984, 98 Stat. 3033; Pub. L. 99–514, title XVIII, §1886(a)(9), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2922; Pub. L. 100–418, title I, §§1312, 1316(b), 1326(a)–(c), 1327–1330, 1335, Aug. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 1184, 1187, 1203-1206, 1210; Pub. L. 100–449, title IV, §403(d), Sept. 28, 1988, 102 Stat. 1887; Pub. L. 100–647, title IX, §9001(a)(5), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3807; Pub. L. 101–382, title I, §139(a)(3), title II, §224(a), (b), Aug. 20, 1990, 104 Stat. 653, 659, 660; Pub. L. 103–182, title IV, §412(b), title VI, §637(b), Dec. 8, 1993, 107 Stat. 2146, 2203; Pub. L. 103–465, title II, §§221(b), 222, 229(b), 233(a)(3), (4), (5)(BB)–(FF), (b), 251, 266, 267, 270(c)(2), (e), Dec. 8, 1994, 108 Stat. 4869, 4890, 4898-4902, 4915, 4917, 4918; Pub. L. 104–295, §20(b)(7), (14), Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3527; Pub. L. 114–27, title V, §§503, 504(a), June 29, 2015, 129 Stat. 384, 385; Pub. L. 114–125, title VIII, §802(d)(2), Feb. 24, 2016, 130 Stat. 210.)

Amendment of Section

For termination of amendment by section 501(c) of Pub. L. 100–449, see Effective and Termination Dates of 1988 Amendment note below.

References in Text

The Caribbean Basin Economic Recovery Act, referred to in par. (7)(G)(ii)(III), is title II of Pub. L. 98–67, Aug. 5, 1983, 97 Stat. 384, as amended, which is classified principally to chapter 15 (§2701 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2701 of this title and Tables.

The Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States, referred to in par. (20)(A), is not set out in the Code. See Publication of Harmonized Tariff Schedule note set out under section 1202 of this title.

Section 1303 of this title, referred to in pars. (20)(A), (25), and (26), was repealed, effective Jan. 1, 1995, by Pub. L. 103–465, title II, §261(a), Dec. 8, 1994, 108 Stat. 4908. For savings provisions and treatment of references to section 1303 in other laws, see section 261(b), (d)(1)(C) of Pub. L. 103–465, set out as notes under section 1303 of this title.

The Antidumping Act, 1921, referred to in par. (25), is act May 27, 1921, ch. 14, title II, 42 Stat. 11, as amended, which was classified generally to sections 160 to 171 of this title, and was repealed by Pub. L. 96–39, title I, §106(a), July 26, 1979, 93 Stat. 193.

For the effective date of title II of the Uruguay Round Agreements Act, referred to in par. (26), as Jan. 1, 1995, see Effective Date of 1994 Amendment note set out under section 1671 of this title.

Amendments

2015—Par. (7)(C)(iii)(I). Pub. L. 114–27, §503(b), amended subcl. (I) generally. Prior to amendment, subcl. (I) read as follows: "actual and potential decline in output, sales, market share, profits, productivity, return on investments, and utilization of capacity,".

Par. (7)(C)(iv)(I) to (III). Pub. L. 114–27, §503(c), inserted "and" at end of subcl. (I), struck out "and" after comma at end of subcl. (II), and struck out subcl. (III) which read as follows: "the production of the domestic like product sold in the merchant market is not generally used in the production of that downstream article,".

Par. (7)(J). Pub. L. 114–27, §503(a), added subpar. (J).

Par. (15)(C). Pub. L. 114–27, §504(a), added subpar. (C).

1996—Par. (16)(C)(i). Pub. L. 104–295, §20(b)(7), which directed substitution of "subject merchandise" for "merchandise which is the subject of the investigation" in subpar. (B)(i), was executed by making the substitution in subpar. (C)(i) to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

Par. (30). Pub. L. 104–295, §20(b)(14), substituted "Agreement" for "agreement" after "applies the WTO".

1994—Par. (1). Pub. L. 103–465, §233(b)(2), substituted "Secretary of Commerce" for "Secretary of the Treasury".

Par. (4)(A). Pub. L. 103–465, §222(a)(1), amended heading and text of subpar. (A) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "The term 'industry' means the domestic producers as a whole of a like product, or those producers whose collective output of the like product constitutes a major proportion of the total domestic production of that product; except that in the case of wine and grape products subject to investigation under this subtitle, the term also means the domestic producers of the principal raw agricultural product (determined on either a volume or value basis) which is included in the like domestic product, if those producers allege material injury, or threat of material injury, as a result of imports of such wine and grape products."

Par. (4)(B). Pub. L. 103–465, §222(a)(1), amended heading and text of subpar. (B) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "When some producers are related to the exporters or importers, or are themselves importers of the allegedly subsidized or dumped merchandise, the term 'industry' may be applied in appropriate circumstances by excluding such producers from those included in that industry."

Par. (4)(C). Pub. L. 103–465, §270(c)(2), in concluding provisions, substituted "dumped imports or imports of merchandise benefiting from a countervailable subsidy" for "subsidized or dumped imports" in two places.

Pub. L. 103–465, §§222(a)(2), 233(a)(3)(A)(i), substituted "domestic like product" for "like product" in cl. (i) and concluding provisions, and inserted at end of concluding provisions "The term 'regional industry' means the domestic producers within a region who are treated as a separate industry under this subparagraph."

Par. (4)(D). Pub. L. 103–465, §§233(a)(3)(A)(i), 270(c)(2), substituted "domestic like product" for "like product" wherever appearing and "dumped imports or imports of merchandise benefiting from a countervailable subsidy" for "subsidized or dumped imports" in two places.

Pars. (5) to (5B). Pub. L. 103–465, §251(a), added pars. (5) to (5B), and struck out former par. (5) which defined "subsidy".

Par. (6). Pub. L. 103–465, §251(b), inserted "countervailable" before "subsidy" wherever appearing in heading and text.

Par. (7)(B)(i)(I). Pub. L. 103–465, §233(a)(5)(BB), substituted "subject merchandise" for "merchandise which is the subject of the investigation".

Par. (7)(B)(i)(II), (III), (C)(ii)(I). Pub. L. 103–465, §233(a)(3)(B), substituted "domestic like products" for "like products".

Par. (7)(C)(iii). Pub. L. 103–465, §222(b)(3), substituted "subparagraph (B)(i)(III)" for "subparagraph (B)(iii)" in introductory provisions.

Par. (7)(C)(iii)(IV). Pub. L. 103–465, §233(a)(3)(A)(ii), substituted "domestic like product" for "like product".

Par. (7)(C)(iii)(V). Pub. L. 103–465, §222(b)(1), added subcl. (V).

Par. (7)(C)(iv). Pub. L. 103–465, §222(b)(2), added cl. (iv) and struck out former cl. (iv) which directed that Commission cumulatively assess volume and effect of imports from two or more countries of like products subject to investigation if such imports compete with each other and with like products of domestic industry in United States market, with an exception for imports which are products of country designated as beneficiary country under Caribbean Basin Economic Recovery Act.

Par. (7)(C)(v). Pub. L. 103–465, §222(d)(1), struck out heading and text of cl. (v). Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "The Commission is not required to apply clause (iv) or subparagraph (F)(iv) in any case in which the Commission determines that imports of the merchandise subject to investigation are negligible and have no discernable adverse impact on the domestic industry. For purposes of making such determination, the Commission shall evaluate all relevant economic factors regarding the imports, including, but not limited to, whether—

"(I) the volume and market share of the imports are negligible,

"(II) sales transactions involving the imports are isolated and sporadic, and

"(III) the domestic market for the like product is price sensitive by reason of the nature of the product, so that a small quantity of imports can result in price suppression or depression.

For purposes of this clause, the Commission may treat as negligible and having no discernable adverse impact on the domestic industry imports that are the product of any country that is a party to a free trade area agreement with the United States which entered into force and effect before January 1, 1987, if the Commission determines that the domestic industry is not being materially injured by reason of such imports."

Par. (7)(E)(i). Pub. L. 103–465, §266, amended heading and text of cl. (i) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "In determining whether there is a threat of material injury, the Commission shall consider such information as may be presented to it by the administering authority as to the nature of the subsidy (particularly as to whether the subsidy is an export subsidy inconsistent with the Agreement) provided by a foreign country and the effects likely to be caused by the subsidy."

Par. (7)(F)(i), (ii). Pub. L. 103–465, §222(c), amended cls. (i) and (ii) generally, substituting present provisions for provisions which listed factors in determining as well as basis for determining that an industry is threatened with material injury by reason of imports (or sales for importation) of the subject merchandise.

Par. (7)(F)(iii)(I), (II). Pub. L. 103–465, §233(b)(1)(A), in subcl. (I), substituted "WTO member" for "GATT member", and in subcl. (II), substituted "WTO member" for "GATT member" in heading and text before "market", and "WTO member." for "signatory to The Agreement on Implementation of Article VI of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (relating to antidumping measures)."

Par. (7)(F)(iv). Pub. L. 103–465, §222(e)(1), struck out heading and text of cl. (iv). Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "To the extent practicable and subject to subparagraph (C)(iv)(II) and (v), for purposes of clause (i)(III) and (IV) the Commission may cumulatively assess the volume and price effects of imports from two or more countries if such imports—

"(I) compete with each other, and with like products of the domestic industry, in the United States market, and

"(II) are subject to any investigation under section 1303, 1671, or 1673 of this title."

Par. (7)(G), (H). Pub. L. 103–465, §222(e)(2), added subpars. (G) and (H).

Par. (7)(I). Pub. L. 103–465, §222(f), added subpar. (I).

Par. (8). Pub. L. 103–465, §270(e), amended heading and text of par. (8) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "The terms 'Agreement on Subsidies and Countervailing Measures' and 'Agreement' mean the Agreement on Interpretation and Application of Articles VI, XVI, and XXIII of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (relating to subsidies and countervailing measures) approved under section 2503(a) of this title."

Par. (9)(A). Pub. L. 103–465, §§222(g)(1), 233(a)(5)(CC), substituted "subject merchandise" for "merchandise which is the subject of an investigation under this subtitle" and inserted "producers, exporters, or" before "importers".

Par. (9)(B). Pub. L. 103–465, §222(g)(2), inserted "or from which such merchandise is exported" after "manufactured".

Par. (9)(C) to (F). Pub. L. 103–465, §233(a)(3)(A)(iii), substituted "domestic like product" for "like product".

Par. (10). Pub. L. 103–465, §233(a)(3)(A)(iii), substituted "domestic like product" for "like product" in heading and text.

Par. (11). Pub. L. 103–465, §221(b), inserted ", including a determination under section 1675 of this title," after "determination by the Commission" in introductory provisions.

Par. (13). Pub. L. 103–465, §222(i)(2), struck out heading and text of par. (13). Text read as follows: "For the purpose of determining United States price, the term 'exporter' includes the person by whom or for whose account the merchandise is imported into the United States if—

"(A) such person is the agent or principal of the exporter, manufacturer, or producer;

"(B) such person owns or controls, directly or indirectly, through stock ownership or control or otherwise, any interest in the business of the exporter, manufacturer, or producer;

"(C) the exporter, manufacturer, or producer owns or controls, directly or indirectly, through stock ownership or control or otherwise, any interest in any business conducted by such person; or

"(D) any person or persons, jointly or severally, directly or indirectly, through stock ownership or control or otherwise, own or control in the aggregate 20 percent or more of the voting power or control in the business carried on by the person by whom or for whose account the merchandise is imported into the United States, and also 20 percent or more of such power or control in the business of the exporter, manufacturer, or producer."

Par. (15). Pub. L. 103–465, §222(h), substituted "subject merchandise" for "merchandise which is the subject of an investigation" and inserted at end "The administering authority shall consider the following sales and transactions, among others, to be outside the ordinary course of trade:

"(A) Sales disregarded under section 1677b(b)(1) of this title.

"(B) Transactions disregarded under section 1677b(f)(2) of this title."

Par. (16). Pub. L. 103–465, §233(a)(4), substituted "Foreign like product" for "Such or similar merchandise" as heading and "foreign like product" for "such or similar merchandise" in introductory provisions.

Par. (16)(A). Pub. L. 103–465, §233(a)(5)(DD), substituted "subject merchandise" for "merchandise which is the subject of an investigation".

Par. (16)(B)(i). Pub. L. 103–465, §233(a)(5)(EE), which directed the substitution of "subject merchandise" for "merchandise which is the subject of an investigation", was executed by making the substitution for text which contained the words "the investigation" rather than "an investigation", to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

Par. (17). Pub. L. 103–465, §233(a)(5)(FF), substituted "subject merchandise" for "merchandise which is the subject of the investigation".

Par. (24). Pub. L. 103–465, §222(d)(2), added par. (24).

Pars. (25) to (34). Pub. L. 103–465, §222(i)(1), added pars. (25) to (34).

Par. (35). Pub. L. 103–465, §229(b), added par. (35).

Par. (36). Pub. L. 103–465, §267, added par. (36).

1993—Pars. (18), (21). Pub. L. 103–182, §412(b)(1), redesignated par. (18), relating to United States-Canada Agreement, as (21).

Par. (22). Pub. L. 103–182, §412(b)(2), added (22).

Par. (23). Pub. L. 103–182, §637(b), added par. (23).

1990—Par. (7)(C)(iv). Pub. L. 101–382, §224(a), amended cl. (iv) generally. Prior to amendment, cl. (iv) read as follows: "For purposes of clauses (i) and (ii), the Commission shall cumulatively assess the volume and effect of imports from two or more countries of like products subject to investigation if such imports compete with each other and with like products of the domestic industry in the United States market."

Par. (7)(F)(iv). Pub. L. 101–382, §224(b), substituted "(C)(iv)(II) and (v)" for "(C)(v)".

Par. (20)(A). Pub. L. 101–382, §139(a)(3), substituted "chapter 98 of the Harmonized Tariff Schedule" for "schedule 8 of the Tariff Schedules".

1988—Par. (4)(E). Pub. L. 100–418, §1326(a), added subpar. (E).

Par. (5). Pub. L. 100–418, §1312, amended par. (5) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (5) read as follows: "The term 'subsidy' has the same meaning as the term 'bounty or grant' as that term is used in section 1303 of this title, and includes, but is not limited to, the following:

"(A) Any export subsidy described in Annex A to the Agreement (relating to illustrative list of export subsidies).

"(B) The following domestic subsidies, if provided or required by government action to a specific enterprise or industry, or group of enterprises or industries, whether publicly or privately owned, and whether paid or bestowed directly or indirectly on the manufacture, production, or export of any class or kind of merchandise:

"(i) The provision of capital, loans, or loan guarantees on terms inconsistent with commercial considerations.

"(ii) The provision of goods or services at preferential rates.

"(iii) The grant of funds or forgiveness of debt to cover operating losses sustained by a specific industry.

"(iv) The assumption of any costs or expenses of manufacture, production, or distribution."

Par. (7)(B). Pub. L. 100–418, §1328(1), amended subpar. (B) generally. Prior to amendment, subpar. (B) read as follows: "In making its determinations under sections 1671b(a), 1671d(b), 1673b(a), and 1673d(b) of this title, the Commission shall consider, among other factors—

"(i) the volume of imports of the merchandise which is the subject of the investigation,

"(ii) the effect of imports of that merchandise on prices in the United States for like products, and

"(iii) the impact of imports of such merchandise on domestic producers of like products."

Par. (7)(C). Pub. L. 100–418, §1328(2), in heading substituted "relevant factors" for "volume and of price effects", in cl. (ii)(I) substituted "underselling" for "undercutting", and in cl. (iii) inserted "domestic" in heading and amended text generally. Prior to amendment, text of cl. (iii) read as follows: "In examining the impact on the affected industry, the Commission shall evaluate all relevant economic factors which have a bearing on the state of the industry, including, but not limited to—

"(I) actual and potential decline in output, sales, market share, profits, productivity, return on investments, and utilization of capacity,

"(II) factors affecting domestic prices, and

"(III) actual and potential negative effects on cash flow, inventories, employment, wages, growth, ability to raise capital, and investment."

Par. (7)(C)(v). Pub. L. 100–418, §1330(b), added cl. (v).

Par. (7)(F)(i)(IX). Pub. L. 100–418, §1326(b), which directed that par. (7)(F) be amended by adding subcl. (IX), was executed by adding subcl. (IX) to par. (7)(F)(i) to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

Par. (7)(F)(i)(X). Pub. L. 100–418, §1329(1)–(3), added subcl. (X).

Par. (7)(F)(iii). Pub. L. 100–418, §1329(4), added cl. (iii).

Par. (7)(F)(iv). Pub. L. 100–418, §1330(a), added cl. (iv).

Par. (9)(G). Pub. L. 100–418, §1326(c), added subpar. (G).

Par. (18). Pub. L. 100–449 temporarily added par. (18) relating to United States-Canada Agreement. See Effective and Termination Dates of 1988 Amendment note below.

Pub. L. 100–418, §1316(b), added par. (18) relating to nonmarket economy country.

Par. (19). Pub. L. 100–647 redesignated par. (19), relating to application to governmental importations, as (20).

Pub. L. 100–418, §1335, added par. (19) relating to application to governmental importations.

Pub. L. 100–418, §1327, added par. (19) relating to equivalency of leases to sales.

Par. (20). Pub. L. 100–647 redesignated par. (19), relating to application to governmental importations, as (20).

1986—Par. (7)(F)(i). Pub. L. 99–514 substituted "the merchandise" for "any merchandise" in introductory provisions and "final orders" for "find orders" in subcl. (VIII).

1984—Par. (4)(A). Pub. L. 98–573, §612(a)(1), inserted provision that in the case of wine and grape products subject to investigation under this subtitle, the term also means the domestic producers of the principal raw agricultural product (determined on either a volume or value basis) which is included in the like domestic product, if those producers allege material injury, or threat of material injury, as a result of imports of such wine and grape products.

Par. (7)(C)(iv). Pub. L. 98–623, §612(a)(2)(A), added cl. (iv).

Par. (7)(F). Pub. L. 98–573, §612(a)(2)(B), added subpar. (F).

Par. (9)(F). Pub. L. 98–573, §612(a)(3), added subpar. (F).

Par. (14)(A), (B). Pub. L. 98–573, §612(a)(4), substituted "in commercial quantities" for "at wholesale".

Par. (17). Pub. L. 98–573, §612(a)(5), substituted "commercial quantities" for "wholesale quantities".

Change of Name

"Commissioner of U.S. Customs and Border Protection" substituted for "Commissioner of Customs" in two places in par. (18)(E) on authority of section 802(d)(2) of Pub. L. 114–125, set out as a note under section 211 of Title 6, Domestic Security.

Effective Date of 1994 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 103–465 effective, except as otherwise provided, on the date on which the WTO Agreement enters into force with respect to the United States (Jan. 1, 1995), and applicable with respect to investigations, reviews, and inquiries initiated and petitions filed under specified provisions of this chapter after such date, see section 291 of Pub. L. 103–465, set out as a note under section 1671 of this title.

Effective Date of 1993 Amendment

Amendment by section 412(b) of Pub. L. 103–182 effective on the date the North American Free Trade Agreement enters into force with respect to the United States [Jan. 1, 1994], but not applicable to any final determination described in section 1516a(a)(1)(B) or (2)(B)(i), (ii), or (iii) of this title, notice of which is published in the Federal Register before such date, or to a determination described in section 1516a(a)(2)(B)(vi) of this title, notice of which is received by the Government of Canada or Mexico before such date, or to any binational panel review under the United States-Canada Free-Trade Agreement, or to any extraordinary challenge arising out of any such review that was commenced before such date, see section 416 of Pub. L. 103–182, set out as an Effective Date note under section 3431 of this title.

Effective Date of 1990 Amendment

Pub. L. 101–382, title II, §224(c), Aug. 20, 1990, 104 Stat. 660, provided that: "The amendments made by subsections (a) and (b) [amending this section] apply with respect to investigations (including investigations regarding products of Canadian origin) initiated under section 702 or 732 of the Tariff Act of 1930 [19 U.S.C. 1671a, 1673a] on or after the date of the enactment of this Act [Aug. 20, 1990]."

Effective and Termination Dates of 1988 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 100–647 applicable as if such amendment took effect on Aug. 23, 1988, see section 9001(b) of Pub. L. 100–647, set out as a note under section 58c of this title.

Amendment by Pub. L. 100–449 effective on date United States-Canada Free-Trade Agreement enters into force (Jan. 1, 1989), and to cease to have effect on date Agreement ceases to be in force, see section 501(a), (c) of Pub. L. 100–449, set out in a note under section 2112 of this title.

Amendment by sections 1312, 1316(b), 1326(a)–(c), and 1327–1329 of Pub. L. 100–418 applicable with respect to investigations initiated after Aug. 23, 1988, and to reviews initiated under section 1673e(c) or 1675 of this title after Aug. 23, 1988, see section 1337(b) of Pub. L. 100–418, set out as an Effective Date of 1988 Amendment note under section 1671 of this title.

Amendment by section 1330 of Pub. L. 100–418 applicable with respect to investigations initiated after Aug. 23, 1988, see section 1337(c) of Pub. L. 100–418.

Amendment by section 1335 of Pub. L. 100–418 applicable with respect to entries, and withdrawals from warehouse for consumption, that are liquidated on or after Aug. 23, 1988, see section 1337(e) of Pub. L. 100–418.

Effective and Termination Dates of 1984 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 98–573 applicable with respect to investigations initiated by petition or by the administering authority under parts I and II of this subtitle, and to reviews begun under section 1675 of this title, on or after Oct. 30, 1984; but provisions of this subtitle not to be interpreted to prevent refiling of a petition under section 1671a or 1673a of this title that was filed before Oct. 30, 1984, if the purpose of refiling was to avail petitioner of amendment of par. (4)(A) of this section by Pub. L. 98–573, and such amendment of par. (4)(A) inapplicable to petitions filed (or refiled) under section 1671a or 1673a of this title after Sept. 30, 1986, see section 626(b)(1), (c)(1), (2) of Pub. L. 98–573, as amended, set out as an Effective Date of 1984 Amendment note under section 1671 of this title.

Effective Date

Part effective Jan. 1, 1980, see section 107 of Pub. L. 96–39, set out as a note under section 1671 of this title.

Transfer of Functions

For transfer of functions, personnel, assets, and liabilities of the United States Customs Service of the Department of the Treasury, including functions of the Secretary of the Treasury relating thereto, to the Secretary of Homeland Security, and for treatment of related references, see sections 203(1), 551(d), 552(d), and 557 of Title 6, Domestic Security, and the Department of Homeland Security Reorganization Plan of November 25, 2002, as modified, set out as a note under section 542 of Title 6. For establishment of U.S. Customs and Border Protection in the Department of Homeland Security, treated as if included in Pub. L. 107–296 as of Nov. 25, 2002, see section 211 of Title 6, as amended generally by Pub. L. 114–125, and section 802(b) of Pub. L. 114–125, set out as a note under section 211 of Title 6.

All functions of the Secretary of the Treasury under this subtitle were transferred to the Secretary of Commerce pursuant to Reorg. Plan No. 3 of 1979, §5(a)(1)(C), 44 F.R. 69275, 93 Stat. 1381, eff. Jan. 2, 1980, as provided by section 1–107(a) of Ex. Ord. No. 12188, Jan. 2, 1980, 45 F.R. 993, set out as notes under section 2171 of this title, except that the Customs Service of the Department of the Treasury was to accept such deposits, bonds, or other security as deemed appropriate by the Secretary of Commerce, assess and collect such duties as directed by the Secretary of Commerce, and furnish such of its important records or copies thereof as requested by the Secretary incident to the functions transferred.

Uruguay Round Agreements: Entry Into Force

The Uruguay Round Agreements, including the World Trade Organization Agreement and agreements annexed to that Agreement, as referred to in section 3511(d) of this title, entered into force with respect to the United States on Jan. 1, 1995. See note set out under section 3511 of this title.

Effect of Termination of NAFTA Country Status

For provisions relating to effect of termination of NAFTA country status on the provisions of sections 401 to 416 of Pub. L. 103–182, see section 3451 of this title.

Plan Amendments Not Required Until January 1, 1989

For provisions directing that if any amendments made by subtitle A or subtitle C of title XI [§§1101–1147 and 1171–1177] or title XVIII [§§1801–1899A] of Pub. L. 99–514 require an amendment to any plan, such plan amendment shall not be required to be made before the first plan year beginning on or after Jan. 1, 1989, see section 1140 of Pub. L. 99–514, as amended, set out as a note under section 401 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

1 So in original. The semicolon probably should be a comma.

§1677–1. Upstream subsidies

(a) "Upstream subsidy" defined

The term "upstream subsidy" means any countervailable subsidy, other than an export subsidy, that—

(1) is paid or bestowed by an authority (as defined in section 1677(5) of this title) with respect to a product (hereafter in this section referred to as an "input product") that is used in the same country as the authority in the manufacture or production of merchandise which is the subject of a countervailing duty proceeding;

(2) in the judgment of the administering authority bestows a competitive benefit on the merchandise; and

(3) has a significant effect on the cost of manufacturing or producing the merchandise.


In applying this subsection, an association of two or more foreign countries, political subdivisions, dependent territories, or possessions of foreign countries organized into a customs union outside the United States shall be treated as being one country if the countervailable subsidy is provided by the customs union.

(b) Determination of competitive benefit

(1) In general

Except as provided in paragraph (2), the administering authority shall decide that a competitive benefit has been bestowed when the price for the input product referred to in subsection (a)(1) for such use is lower than the price that the manufacturer or producer of merchandise which is the subject of a countervailing duty proceeding would otherwise pay for the product in obtaining it from another seller in an arms-length transaction.

(2) Adjustments

If the administering authority has determined in a previous proceeding that a countervailable subsidy is paid or bestowed on the input product that is used for comparison under paragraph (1), the administering authority may (A) where appropriate, adjust the price that the manufacturer or producer of merchandise which is the subject of such proceeding would otherwise pay for the product to reflect the effects of the countervailable subsidy, or (B) select in lieu of that price a price from another source.

(c) Inclusion of amount of countervailable subsidy

If the administering authority decides, during the course of a countervailing duty proceeding that an upstream countervailable subsidy is being or has been paid or bestowed regarding the subject merchandise, the administering authority shall include in the amount of any countervailing duty imposed on the merchandise an amount equal to the amount of the competitive benefit referred to in subparagraph (1)(B),1 except that in no event shall the amount be greater than the amount of the countervailable subsidy determined with respect to the upstream product.

(June 17, 1930, ch. 497, title VII, §771A, as added Pub. L. 98–573, title VI, §613(a), Oct. 30, 1984, 98 Stat. 3035; amended Pub. L. 99–514, title XVIII, §1886(a)(10), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2922; Pub. L. 103–465, title II, §§233(a)(5)(GG), 268, 270(a)(1)(K), (L), (2)(B), (c)(3), Dec. 8, 1994, 108 Stat. 4901, 4916, 4917; Pub. L. 104–295, §20(b)(2), Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3527.)

Amendments

1996—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 104–295 amended directory language of Pub. L. 103–465, §270(a)(2)(B). See 1994 Amendment note below.

1994—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 103–465, §268, inserted introductory provisions and struck out former introductory provisions which read as follows: "The term 'upstream subsidy' means any subsidy described in section 1677(5)(B)(i), (ii), (iii), or (iv) of this title by the government of a country that—", and in concluding provisions, inserted "countervailable" before "subsidy".

Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 103–465, §268(1), added par. (1) and struck out former par. (1) which read as follows: "is paid or bestowed by that government with respect to a product (hereafter referred to as an 'input product') that is used in the manufacture or production in that country of merchandise which is the subject of a countervailing duty proceeding;".

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 103–465, §270(a)(1)(K), inserted "countervailable" before "subsidy" in two places.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 103–465, §270(a)(2)(B), as amended by Pub. L. 104–295, inserted "countervailable" before "subsidy" in heading.

Pub. L. 103–465, §270(a)(1)(L), (c)(3), inserted "countervailable" after "upstream" and substituted "the countervailable subsidy determined" for "subsidization determined".

Pub. L. 103–465, §233(a)(5)(GG), substituted "subject merchandise" for "merchandise under investigation".

1986—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 99–514 substituted "(ii), (iii), or (iv)" for "(ii), or (iii)" in introductory provisions.

Effective Date of 1994 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 103–465 effective, except as otherwise provided, on the date on which the WTO Agreement enters into force with respect to the United States (Jan. 1, 1995), and applicable with respect to investigations, reviews, and inquiries initiated and petitions filed under specified provisions of this chapter after such date, see section 291 of Pub. L. 103–465, set out as a note under section 1671 of this title.

Effective Date

Section effective Oct. 30, 1984, see section 626(a) of Pub. L. 98–573, set out as an Effective Date of 1984 Amendment note under section 1671 of this title.

Plan Amendments Not Required Until January 1, 1989

For provisions directing that if any amendments made by subtitle A or subtitle C of title XI [§§1101–1147 and 1171–1177] or title XVIII [§§1801–1899A] of Pub. L. 99–514 require an amendment to any plan, such plan amendment shall not be required to be made before the first plan year beginning on or after Jan. 1, 1989, see section 1140 of Pub. L. 99–514, as amended, set out as a note under section 401 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

1 So in original. Probably should be "subsection (a)(2) of this section,".

§1677–2. Calculation of countervailable subsidies on certain processed agricultural products

In the case of an agricultural product processed from a raw agricultural product in which—

(1) the demand for the prior stage product is substantially dependent on the demand for the latter stage product, and

(2) the processing operation adds only limited value to the raw commodity,


countervailable subsidies found to be provided to either producers or processors of the product shall be deemed to be provided with respect to the manufacture, production, or exportation of the processed product.

(June 17, 1930, ch. 497, title VII, §771B, as added Pub. L. 100–418, title I, §1313(a), Aug. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 1185; amended Pub. L. 100–647, title IX, §9001(a)(4), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3806; Pub. L. 103–465, title II, §270(b)(1)(D), (2), Dec. 8, 1994, 108 Stat. 4917.)

Amendments

1994Pub. L. 103–465 inserted "countervailable" before "subsidies" in section catchline and concluding provisions.

1988Pub. L. 100–647 amended section generally. Prior to amendment, section read as follows: "In the case of an agricultural product processed from a raw agricultural product in which (1) the demand for the prior stage product is substantially dependent on the demand for the latter stage product, and (2) the processing operation adds only limited value to the raw commodity, subsidies found to be provided to either producers or processors of the product shall be deemed to be provided with respect to the manufacture, production, or exportation of the processed product."

Effective Date of 1994 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 103–465 effective, except as otherwise provided, on the date on which the WTO Agreement enters into force with respect to the United States (Jan. 1, 1995), and applicable with respect to investigations, reviews, and inquiries initiated and petitions filed under specified provisions of this chapter after such date, see section 291 of Pub. L. 103–465, set out as a note under section 1671 of this title.

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 100–647 applicable as if such amendment took effect on Aug. 23, 1988, see section 9001(b) of Pub. L. 100–647, set out as an Effective and Termination Dates of 1988 Amendments note under section 58c of this title.

§1677a. Export price and constructed export price

(a) Export price

The term "export price" means the price at which the subject merchandise is first sold (or agreed to be sold) before the date of importation by the producer or exporter of the subject merchandise outside of the United States to an unaffiliated purchaser in the United States or to an unaffiliated purchaser for exportation to the United States, as adjusted under subsection (c).

(b) Constructed export price

The term "constructed export price" means the price at which the subject merchandise is first sold (or agreed to be sold) in the United States before or after the date of importation by or for the account of the producer or exporter of such merchandise or by a seller affiliated with the producer or exporter, to a purchaser not affiliated with the producer or exporter, as adjusted under subsections (c) and (d).

(c) Adjustments for export price and constructed export price

The price used to establish export price and constructed export price shall be—

(1) increased by—

(A) when not included in such price, the cost of all containers and coverings and all other costs, charges, and expenses incident to placing the subject merchandise in condition packed ready for shipment to the United States,

(B) the amount of any import duties imposed by the country of exportation which have been rebated, or which have not been collected, by reason of the exportation of the subject merchandise to the United States, and

(C) the amount of any countervailing duty imposed on the subject merchandise under part I of this subtitle to offset an export subsidy, and


(2) reduced by—

(A) except as provided in paragraph (1)(C), the amount, if any, included in such price, attributable to any additional costs, charges, or expenses, and United States import duties, which are incident to bringing the subject merchandise from the original place of shipment in the exporting country to the place of delivery in the United States, and

(B) the amount, if included in such price, of any export tax, duty, or other charge imposed by the exporting country on the exportation of the subject merchandise to the United States, other than an export tax, duty, or other charge described in section 1677(6)(C) of this title.

(d) Additional adjustments to constructed export price

For purposes of this section, the price used to establish constructed export price shall also be reduced by—

(1) the amount of any of the following expenses generally incurred by or for the account of the producer or exporter, or the affiliated seller in the United States, in selling the subject merchandise (or subject merchandise to which value has been added)—

(A) commissions for selling the subject merchandise in the United States;

(B) expenses that result from, and bear a direct relationship to, the sale, such as credit expenses, guarantees and warranties;

(C) any selling expenses that the seller pays on behalf of the purchaser; and

(D) any selling expenses not deducted under subparagraph (A), (B), or (C);


(2) the cost of any further manufacture or assembly (including additional material and labor), except in circumstances described in subsection (e); and

(3) the profit allocated to the expenses described in paragraphs (1) and (2).

(e) Special rule for merchandise with value added after importation

Where the subject merchandise is imported by a person affiliated with the exporter or producer, and the value added in the United States by the affiliated person is likely to exceed substantially the value of the subject merchandise, the administering authority shall determine the constructed export price for such merchandise by using one of the following prices if there is a sufficient quantity of sales to provide a reasonable basis for comparison and the administering authority determines that the use of such sales is appropriate:

(1) The price of identical subject merchandise sold by the exporter or producer to an unaffiliated person.

(2) The price of other subject merchandise sold by the exporter or producer to an unaffiliated person.


If there is not a sufficient quantity of sales to provide a reasonable basis for comparison under paragraph (1) or (2), or the administering authority determines that neither of the prices described in such paragraphs is appropriate, then the constructed export price may be determined on any other reasonable basis.

(f) Special rule for determining profit

(1) In general

For purposes of subsection (d)(3), profit shall be an amount determined by multiplying the total actual profit by the applicable percentage.

(2) Definitions

For purposes of this subsection:

(A) Applicable percentage

The term "applicable percentage" means the percentage determined by dividing the total United States expenses by the total expenses.

(B) Total United States expenses

The term "total United States expenses" means the total expenses described in subsection (d)(1) and (2).

(C) Total expenses

The term "total expenses" means all expenses in the first of the following categories which applies and which are incurred by or on behalf of the foreign producer and foreign exporter of the subject merchandise and by or on behalf of the United States seller affiliated with the producer or exporter with respect to the production and sale of such merchandise:

(i) The expenses incurred with respect to the subject merchandise sold in the United States and the foreign like product sold in the exporting country if such expenses were requested by the administering authority for the purpose of establishing normal value and constructed export price.

(ii) The expenses incurred with respect to the narrowest category of merchandise sold in the United States and the exporting country which includes the subject merchandise.

(iii) The expenses incurred with respect to the narrowest category of merchandise sold in all countries which includes the subject merchandise.

(D) Total actual profit

The term "total actual profit" means the total profit earned by the foreign producer, exporter, and affiliated parties described in subparagraph (C) with respect to the sale of the same merchandise for which total expenses are determined under such subparagraph.

(June 17, 1930, ch. 497, title VII, §772, as added Pub. L. 96–39, title I, §101, July 26, 1979, 93 Stat. 181; amended Pub. L. 98–573, title VI, §614, Oct. 30, 1984, 98 Stat. 3036; Pub. L. 103–465, title II, §223, Dec. 8, 1994, 108 Stat. 4876.)

Amendments

1994Pub. L. 103–465 amended section generally, substituting present provisions for provisions defining "United States price", "purchase price", and "exporter's sales price" and providing for adjustments to purchase price and exporter's sales price.

1984—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 98–573 inserted "a reseller or" before "the manufacturer".

Effective Date of 1994 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 103–465 effective, except as otherwise provided, on the date on which the WTO Agreement enters into force with respect to the United States (Jan. 1, 1995), and applicable with respect to investigations, reviews, and inquiries initiated and petitions filed under specified provisions of this chapter after such date, see section 291 of Pub. L. 103–465, set out as a note under section 1671 of this title.

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 98–573 effective Oct. 30, 1984, see section 626(a) of Pub. L. 98–573, set out as a note under section 1671 of this title.

§1677b. Normal value

(a) Determination

In determining under this subtitle whether subject merchandise is being, or is likely to be, sold at less than fair value, a fair comparison shall be made between the export price or constructed export price and normal value. In order to achieve a fair comparison with the export price or constructed export price, normal value shall be determined as follows:

(1) Determination of normal value

(A) In general

The normal value of the subject merchandise shall be the price described in subparagraph (B), at a time reasonably corresponding to the time of the sale used to determine the export price or constructed export price under section 1677a(a) or (b) of this title.

(B) Price

The price referred to in subparagraph (A) is—

(i) the price at which the foreign like product is first sold (or, in the absence of a sale, offered for sale) for consumption in the exporting country, in the usual commercial quantities and in the ordinary course of trade and, to the extent practicable, at the same level of trade as the export price or constructed export price, or

(ii) in a case to which subparagraph (C) applies, the price at which the foreign like product is so sold (or offered for sale) for consumption in a country other than the exporting country or the United States, if—

(I) such price is representative,

(II) the aggregate quantity (or, if quantity is not appropriate, value) of the foreign like product sold by the exporter or producer in such other country is 5 percent or more of the aggregate quantity (or value) of the subject merchandise sold in the United States or for export to the United States, and

(III) the administering authority does not determine that the particular market situation prevents a proper comparison with the export price or constructed export price.

(C) Third country sales

This subparagraph applies when—

(i) the foreign like product is not sold (or offered for sale) for consumption in the exporting country as described in subparagraph (B)(i),

(ii) the administering authority determines that the aggregate quantity (or, if quantity is not appropriate, value) of the foreign like product sold in the exporting country is insufficient to permit a proper comparison with the sales of the subject merchandise to the United States, or

(iii) the particular market situation in the exporting country does not permit a proper comparison with the export price or constructed export price.


For purposes of clause (ii), the aggregate quantity (or value) of the foreign like product sold in the exporting country shall normally be considered to be insufficient if such quantity (or value) is less than 5 percent of the aggregate quantity (or value) of sales of the subject merchandise to the United States.

(2) Fictitious markets

No pretended sale or offer for sale, and no sale or offer for sale intended to establish a fictitious market, shall be taken into account in determining normal value. The occurrence of different movements in the prices at which different forms of the foreign like product are sold (or, in the absence of sales, offered for sale) in the exporting country after the issuance of an antidumping duty order may be considered by the administering authority as evidence of the establishment of a fictitious market for the foreign like product if the movement in such prices appears to reduce the amount by which the normal value exceeds the export price (or the constructed export price) of the subject merchandise.

(3) Exportation from an intermediate country

Where the subject merchandise is exported to the United States from an intermediate country, normal value shall be determined in the intermediate country, except that normal value may be determined in the country of origin of the subject merchandise if—

(A) the producer knew at the time of the sale that the subject merchandise was destined for exportation;

(B) the subject merchandise is merely transshipped through the intermediate country;

(C) sales of the foreign like product in the intermediate country do not satisfy the conditions of paragraph (1)(C); or

(D) the foreign like product is not produced in the intermediate country.

(4) Use of constructed value

If the administering authority determines that the normal value of the subject merchandise cannot be determined under paragraph (1)(B)(i), then, notwithstanding paragraph (1)(B)(ii), the normal value of the subject merchandise may be the constructed value of that merchandise, as determined under subsection (e).

(5) Indirect sales or offers for sale

If the foreign like product is sold or, in the absence of sales, offered for sale through an affiliated party, the prices at which the foreign like product is sold (or offered for sale) by such affiliated party may be used in determining normal value.

(6) Adjustments

The price described in paragraph (1)(B) shall be—

(A) increased by the cost of all containers and coverings and all other costs, charges, and expenses incident to placing the subject merchandise in condition packed ready for shipment to the United States;

(B) reduced by—

(i) when included in the price described in paragraph (1)(B), the cost of all containers and coverings and all other costs, charges, and expenses incident to placing the foreign like product in condition packed ready for shipment to the place of delivery to the purchaser,

(ii) the amount, if any, included in the price described in paragraph (1)(B), attributable to any additional costs, charges, and expenses incident to bringing the foreign like product from the original place of shipment to the place of delivery to the purchaser, and

(iii) the amount of any taxes imposed directly upon the foreign like product or components thereof which have been rebated, or which have not been collected, on the subject merchandise, but only to the extent that such taxes are added to or included in the price of the foreign like product, and


(C) increased or decreased by the amount of any difference (or lack thereof) between the export price or constructed export price and the price described in paragraph (1)(B) (other than a difference for which allowance is otherwise provided under this section) that is established to the satisfaction of the administering authority to be wholly or partly due to—

(i) the fact that the quantities in which the subject merchandise is sold or agreed to be sold to the United States are greater than or less than the quantities in which the foreign like product is sold, agreed to be sold, or offered for sale,

(ii) the fact that merchandise described in subparagraph (B) or (C) of section 1677(16) of this title is used in determining normal value, or

(iii) other differences in the circumstances of sale.

(7) Additional adjustments

(A) Level of trade

The price described in paragraph (1)(B) shall also be increased or decreased to make due allowance for any difference (or lack thereof) between the export price or constructed export price and the price described in paragraph (1)(B) (other than a difference for which allowance is otherwise made under this section) that is shown to be wholly or partly due to a difference in level of trade between the export price or constructed export price and normal value, if the difference in level of trade—

(i) involves the performance of different selling activities; and

(ii) is demonstrated to affect price comparability, based on a pattern of consistent price differences between sales at different levels of trade in the country in which normal value is determined.


In a case described in the preceding sentence, the amount of the adjustment shall be based on the price differences between the two levels of trade in the country in which normal value is determined.

(B) Constructed export price offset

When normal value is established at a level of trade which constitutes a more advanced stage of distribution than the level of trade of the constructed export price, but the data available do not provide an appropriate basis to determine under subparagraph (A)(ii) a level of trade adjustment, normal value shall be reduced by the amount of indirect selling expenses incurred in the country in which normal value is determined on sales of the foreign like product but not more than the amount of such expenses for which a deduction is made under section 1677a(d)(1)(D) of this title.

(8) Adjustments to constructed value

Constructed value as determined under subsection (e), may be adjusted, as appropriate, pursuant to this subsection.

(b) Sales at less than cost of production

(1) Determination; sales disregarded

Whenever the administering authority has reasonable grounds to believe or suspect that sales of the foreign like product under consideration for the determination of normal value have been made at prices which represent less than the cost of production of that product, the administering authority shall determine whether, in fact, such sales were made at less than the cost of production. If the administering authority determines that sales made at less than the cost of production—

(A) have been made within an extended period of time in substantial quantities, and

(B) were not at prices which permit recovery of all costs within a reasonable period of time,


such sales may be disregarded in the determination of normal value. Whenever such sales are disregarded, normal value shall be based on the remaining sales of the foreign like product in the ordinary course of trade. If no sales made in the ordinary course of trade remain, the normal value shall be based on the constructed value of the merchandise.

(2) Definitions and special rules

For purposes of this subsection—

(A) Reasonable grounds to believe or suspect

(i) Review

In a review conducted under section 1675 of this title involving a specific exporter, there are reasonable grounds to believe or suspect that sales of the foreign like product have been made at prices that are less than the cost of production of the product if the administering authority disregarded some or all of the exporter's sales pursuant to paragraph (1) in the investigation or, if a review has been completed, in the most recently completed review.

(ii) Requests for information

In an investigation initiated under section 1673a of this title or a review conducted under section 1675 of this title, the administering authority shall request information necessary to calculate the constructed value and cost of production under subsections (e) and (f) to determine whether there are reasonable grounds to believe or suspect that sales of the foreign like product have been made at prices that represent less than the cost of production of the product.

(B) Extended period of time

The term "extended period of time" means a period that is normally 1 year, but not less than 6 months.

(C) Substantial quantities

Sales made at prices below the cost of production have been made in substantial quantities if—

(i) the volume of such sales represents 20 percent or more of the volume of sales under consideration for the determination of normal value, or

(ii) the weighted average per unit price of the sales under consideration for the determination of normal value is less than the weighted average per unit cost of production for such sales.

(D) Recovery of costs

If prices which are below the per unit cost of production at the time of sale are above the weighted average per unit cost of production for the period of investigation or review, such prices shall be considered to provide for recovery of costs within a reasonable period of time.

(3) Calculation of cost of production

For purposes of this part, the cost of production shall be an amount equal to the sum of—

(A) the cost of materials and of fabrication or other processing of any kind employed in producing the foreign like product, during a period which would ordinarily permit the production of that foreign like product in the ordinary course of business;

(B) an amount for selling, general, and administrative expenses based on actual data pertaining to production and sales of the foreign like product by the exporter in question; and

(C) the cost of all containers and coverings of whatever nature, and all other expenses incidental to placing the foreign like product in condition packed ready for shipment.


For purposes of subparagraph (A), if the normal value is based on the price of the foreign like product sold for consumption in a country other than the exporting country, the cost of materials shall be determined without regard to any internal tax in the exporting country imposed on such materials or their disposition which are remitted or refunded upon exportation.

(c) Nonmarket economy countries

(1) In general

If—

(A) the subject merchandise is exported from a nonmarket economy country, and

(B) the administering authority finds that available information does not permit the normal value of the subject merchandise to be determined under subsection (a),


the administering authority shall determine the normal value of the subject merchandise on the basis of the value of the factors of production utilized in producing the merchandise and to which shall be added an amount for general expenses and profit plus the cost of containers, coverings, and other expenses. Except as provided in paragraph (2), the valuation of the factors of production shall be based on the best available information regarding the values of such factors in a market economy country or countries considered to be appropriate by the administering authority.

(2) Exception

If the administering authority finds that the available information is inadequate for purposes of determining the normal value of subject merchandise under paragraph (1), the administering authority shall determine the normal value on the basis of the price at which merchandise that is—

(A) comparable to the subject merchandise, and

(B) produced in one or more market economy countries that are at a level of economic development comparable to that of the nonmarket economy country,


is sold in other countries, including the United States.

(3) Factors of production

For purposes of paragraph (1), the factors of production utilized in producing merchandise include, but are not limited to—

(A) hours of labor required,

(B) quantities of raw materials employed,

(C) amounts of energy and other utilities consumed, and

(D) representative capital cost, including depreciation.

(4) Valuation of factors of production

The administering authority, in valuing factors of production under paragraph (1), shall utilize, to the extent possible, the prices or costs of factors of production in one or more market economy countries that are—

(A) at a level of economic development comparable to that of the nonmarket economy country, and

(B) significant producers of comparable merchandise.

(5) Discretion to disregard certain price or cost values

In valuing the factors of production under paragraph (1) for the subject merchandise, the administering authority may disregard price or cost values without further investigation if the administering authority has determined that broadly available export subsidies existed or particular instances of subsidization occurred with respect to those price or cost values or if those price or cost values were subject to an antidumping order.

(d) Special rule for certain multinational corporations

Whenever, in the course of an investigation under this subtitle, the administering authority determines that—

(1) subject merchandise exported to the United States is being produced in facilities which are owned or controlled, directly or indirectly, by a person, firm, or corporation which also owns or controls, directly or indirectly, other facilities for the production of the foreign like product which are located in another country or countries,

(2) subsection (a)(1)(C) applies, and

(3) the normal value of the foreign like product produced in one or more of the facilities outside the exporting country is higher than the normal value of the foreign like product produced in the facilities located in the exporting country,


it shall determine the normal value of the subject merchandise by reference to the normal value at which the foreign like product is sold in substantial quantities from one or more facilities outside the exporting country. The administering authority, in making any determination under this paragraph, shall make adjustments for the difference between the cost of production (including taxes, labor, materials, and overhead) of the foreign like product produced in facilities outside the exporting country and costs of production of the foreign like product produced in facilities in the exporting country, if such differences are demonstrated to its satisfaction. For purposes of this subsection, in determining the normal value of the foreign like product produced in a country outside of the exporting country, the administering authority shall determine its price at the time of exportation from the exporting country and shall make any adjustments required by subsection (a) for the cost of all containers and coverings and all other costs, charges, and expenses incident to placing the merchandise in condition packed ready for shipment to the United States by reference to such costs in the exporting country.

(e) Constructed value

For purposes of this subtitle, the constructed value of imported merchandise shall be an amount equal to the sum of—

(1) the cost of materials and fabrication or other processing of any kind employed in producing the merchandise, during a period which would ordinarily permit the production of the merchandise in the ordinary course of trade;

(2)(A) the actual amounts incurred and realized by the specific exporter or producer being examined in the investigation or review for selling, general, and administrative expenses, and for profits, in connection with the production and sale of a foreign like product, in the ordinary course of trade, for consumption in the foreign country, or

(B) if actual data are not available with respect to the amounts described in subparagraph (A), then—

(i) the actual amounts incurred and realized by the specific exporter or producer being examined in the investigation or review for selling, general, and administrative expenses, and for profits, in connection with the production and sale, for consumption in the foreign country, of merchandise that is in the same general category of products as the subject merchandise,

(ii) the weighted average of the actual amounts incurred and realized by exporters or producers that are subject to the investigation or review (other than the exporter or producer described in clause (i)) for selling, general, and administrative expenses, and for profits, in connection with the production and sale of a foreign like product, in the ordinary course of trade, for consumption in the foreign country, or

(iii) the amounts incurred and realized for selling, general, and administrative expenses, and for profits, based on any other reasonable method, except that the amount allowed for profit may not exceed the amount normally realized by exporters or producers (other than the exporter or producer described in clause (i)) in connection with the sale, for consumption in the foreign country, of merchandise that is in the same general category of products as the subject merchandise; and


(3) the cost of all containers and coverings of whatever nature, and all other expenses incidental to placing the subject merchandise in condition packed ready for shipment to the United States.


For purposes of paragraph (1), if a particular market situation exists such that the cost of materials and fabrication or other processing of any kind does not accurately reflect the cost of production in the ordinary course of trade, the administering authority may use another calculation methodology under this part or any other calculation methodology. For purposes of paragraph (1), the cost of materials shall be determined without regard to any internal tax in the exporting country imposed on such materials or their disposition that is remitted or refunded upon exportation of the subject merchandise produced from such materials.

(f) Special rules for calculation of cost of production and for calculation of constructed value

For purposes of subsections (b) and (e).— 1

(1) Costs

(A) In general

Costs shall normally be calculated based on the records of the exporter or producer of the merchandise, if such records are kept in accordance with the generally accepted accounting principles of the exporting country (or the producing country, where appropriate) and reasonably reflect the costs associated with the production and sale of the merchandise. The administering authority shall consider all available evidence on the proper allocation of costs, including that which is made available by the exporter or producer on a timely basis, if such allocations have been historically used by the exporter or producer, in particular for establishing appropriate amortization and depreciation periods, and allowances for capital expenditures and other development costs.

(B) Nonrecurring costs

Costs shall be adjusted appropriately for those nonrecurring costs that benefit current or future production, or both.

(C) Startup costs

(i) In general

Costs shall be adjusted appropriately for circumstances in which costs incurred during the time period covered by the investigation or review are affected by startup operations.

(ii) Startup operations

Adjustments shall be made for startup operations only where—

(I) a producer is using new production facilities or producing a new product that requires substantial additional investment, and

(II) production levels are limited by technical factors associated with the initial phase of commercial production.


 For purposes of subclause (II), the initial phase of commercial production ends at the end of the startup period. In determining whether commercial production levels have been achieved, the administering authority shall consider factors unrelated to startup operations that might affect the volume of production processed, such as demand, seasonality, or business cycles.

(iii) Adjustment for startup operations

The adjustment for startup operations shall be made by substituting the unit production costs incurred with respect to the merchandise at the end of the startup period for the unit production costs incurred during the startup period. If the startup period extends beyond the period of the investigation or review under this subtitle, the administering authority shall use the most recent cost of production data that it reasonably can obtain, analyze, and verify without delaying the timely completion of the investigation or review. For purposes of this subparagraph, the startup period ends at the point at which the level of commercial production that is characteristic of the merchandise, producer, or industry concerned is achieved.

(2) Transactions disregarded

A transaction directly or indirectly between affiliated persons may be disregarded if, in the case of any element of value required to be considered, the amount representing that element does not fairly reflect the amount usually reflected in sales of merchandise under consideration in the market under consideration. If a transaction is disregarded under the preceding sentence and no other transactions are available for consideration, the determination of the amount shall be based on the information available as to what the amount would have been if the transaction had occurred between persons who are not affiliated.

(3) Major input rule

If, in the case of a transaction between affiliated persons involving the production by one of such persons of a major input to the merchandise, the administering authority has reasonable grounds to believe or suspect that an amount represented as the value of such input is less than the cost of production of such input, then the administering authority may determine the value of the major input on the basis of the information available regarding such cost of production, if such cost is greater than the amount that would be determined for such input under paragraph (2).

(June 17, 1930, ch. 497, title VII, §773, as added Pub. L. 96–39, title I, §101, July 26, 1979, 93 Stat. 182; amended Pub. L. 98–573, title VI, §§615, 620(b), Oct. 30, 1984, 98 Stat. 3036, 3039; Pub. L. 99–514, title XVIII, §1886(a)(11), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2922; Pub. L. 100–418, title I, §§1316(a), 1318, 1319, Aug. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 1186, 1189; Pub. L. 103–465, title II, §224, Dec. 8, 1994, 108 Stat. 4878; Pub. L. 114–27, title V, §§504(b), (c), 505, June 29, 2015, 129 Stat. 385.)

Amendments

2015—Subsec. (a)(1)(B)(ii)(III). Pub. L. 114–27, §504(b), which directed amendment of subcl. (III) by striking out "in such other country.", was executed by striking out "in such other country" after "particular market situation" to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

Subsec. (b)(2)(A). Pub. L. 114–27, §505(a), added subpar. (A) and struck out former subpar. (A). Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "There are reasonable grounds to believe or suspect that sales of the foreign like product were made at prices that are less than the cost of production of the product, if—

"(i) in an investigation initiated under section 1673a of this title or a review conducted under section 1675 of this title, an interested party described in subparagraph (C), (D), (E), (F), or (G) of section 1677(9) of this title provides information, based upon observed prices or constructed prices or costs, that sales of the foreign like product under consideration for the determination of normal value have been made at prices which represent less than the cost of production of the product; or

"(ii) in a review conducted under section 1675 of this title involving a specific exporter, the administering authority disregarded some or all of the exporter's sales pursuant to paragraph (1) in the investigation or if a review has been completed, in the most recently completed review."

Subsec. (c)(5). Pub. L. 114–27, §505(b), added par. (5).

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 114–27, §504(c)(2), in concluding provisions, substituted "For purposes of paragraph (1), if a particular market situation exists such that the cost of materials and fabrication or other processing of any kind does not accurately reflect the cost of production in the ordinary course of trade, the administering authority may use another calculation methodology under this part or any other calculation methodology. For purposes of paragraph (1), the cost of materials shall be determined without regard to any internal tax in the exporting country imposed on such materials or their disposition that is remitted or refunded upon exportation of the subject merchandise produced from such materials." for "For purposes of paragraph (1), the cost of materials shall be determined without regard to any internal tax in the exporting country imposed on such materials or their disposition which are remitted or refunded upon exportation of the subject merchandise produced from such materials."

Subsec. (e)(1). Pub. L. 114–27, §504(c)(1), substituted "trade" for "business".

1994Pub. L. 103–465 amended section generally, substituting present provisions for provisions relating to foreign market value, which provided for determination of value in subsec. (a), sales at less than cost of production in subsec. (b), treatment of merchandise from nonmarket economy countries in subsec. (c), special rule for certain multinational corporations in subsec. (d), determination of constructed value in subsec. (e), and exportation from an intermediate country in subsec. (f).

1988—Subsec. (a)(5). Pub. L. 100–418, §1319, added par. (5).

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 100–418, §1316(a), amended subsec. (c) generally, substituting provisions relating to nonmarket economy countries, for provisions relating to State-controlled economies.

Subsec. (e)(2) to (4). Pub. L. 100–418, §1318, substituted "(4)" for "(3)" wherever appearing in par. (2), added par. (3), and redesignated former par. (3) as (4) and in introductory provisions substituted "paragraphs (2) and (3)" for "paragraph (2)".

1986—Subsecs. (f), (g). Pub. L. 99–514 redesignated subsec. (g) as (f).

1984—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 98–573, §615(1), substituted "time such merchandise is first sold within the United States by the person for whom (or for whose account) the merchandise is imported to any other person who is not described in subsection (e)(3) of this section with respect to such person" for "time of exportation of such merchandise to the United States" in provisions before subpar. (A).

Subsecs. (a)(1)(A), (4)(A), (e)(1)(B). Pub. L. 98–573, §615(2), substituted "commercial quantities" for "wholesale quantities" wherever appearing.

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 98–573, §620(b), struck out subsec. (f) which related to the authority to use sampling techniques and to disregard insignificant adjustments.

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 98–573, §615(3), added subsec. (g).

Effective Date of 1994 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 103–465 effective, except as otherwise provided, on the date on which the WTO Agreement enters into force with respect to the United States (Jan. 1, 1995), and applicable with respect to investigations, reviews, and inquiries initiated and petitions filed under specified provisions of this chapter after such date, see section 291 of Pub. L. 103–465, set out as a note under section 1671 of this title.

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Amendment by sections 1316(a) and 1318 of Pub. L. 100–418 applicable with respect to investigations initiated after Aug. 23, 1988, and to reviews initiated under section 1673e(c) or 1675 of this title after Aug. 23, 1988, and amendment by section 1319 of Pub. L. 100–418 applicable with respect to reviews initiated under section 1673e(c) or 1675 of this title after Aug. 23, 1988, and to reviews initiated under such sections which are pending on Aug. 23, 1988, and in which a request for revocation is pending on Aug. 23, 1988, see section 1337(b), (f) of Pub. L. 100–418, set out as a note under section 1671 of this title.

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Amendment by section 615 of Pub. L. 98–573 effective Oct. 30, 1984, and amendment by section 620(b) of Pub. L. 98–573 applicable with respect to investigations initiated by petition or by the administering authority under parts I and II of this subtitle, and to reviews begun under section 1675 of this title, on or after Oct. 30, 1984, see section 626(a), (b)(1) of Pub. L. 98–573, as amended, set out as a note under section 1671 of this title.

Plan Amendments Not Required Until January 1, 1989

For provisions directing that if any amendments made by subtitle A or subtitle C of title XI [§§1101–1147 and 1171–1177] or title XVIII [§§1801–1899A] of Pub. L. 99–514 require an amendment to any plan, such plan amendment shall not be required to be made before the first plan year beginning on or after Jan. 1, 1989, see section 1140 of Pub. L. 99–514, as amended, set out as a note under section 401 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

1 So in original. The period preceding the dash probably should not appear.

§1677b–1. Currency conversion

(a) In general

In an antidumping proceeding under this subtitle, the administering authority shall convert foreign currencies into United States dollars using the exchange rate in effect on the date of sale of the subject merchandise, except that, if it is established that a currency transaction on forward markets is directly linked to an export sale under consideration, the exchange rate specified with respect to such currency in the forward sale agreement shall be used to convert the foreign currency. Fluctuations in exchange rates shall be ignored.

(b) Sustained movement in foreign currency value

In an investigation under part II of this subtitle, if there is a sustained movement in the value of the foreign currency relative to the United States dollar, the administering authority shall allow exporters at least 60 days to adjust their export prices to reflect such sustained movement.

(June 17, 1930, ch. 497, title VII, §773A, as added Pub. L. 103–465, title II, §225(a), Dec. 8, 1994, 108 Stat. 4886.)

Effective Date

Section effective, except as otherwise provided, on the date on which the WTO Agreement enters into force with respect to the United States (Jan. 1, 1995), and applicable with respect to investigations, reviews, and inquiries initiated and petitions filed under specified provisions of this chapter after such date, see section 291 of Pub. L. 103–465, set out as an Effective Date of 1994 Amendment note under section 1671 of this title.

§1677c. Hearings

(a) Investigation hearings

(1) In general

Except as provided in paragraph (2), the administering authority and the Commission shall each hold a hearing in the course of an investigation upon the request of any party to the investigation before making a final determination under section 1671d or 1673d of this title.

(2) Exception

If investigations are initiated under part I and part II of this subtitle regarding the same merchandise from the same country within 6 months of each other (but before a final determination is made in either investigation), the holding of a hearing by the Commission in the course of one of the investigations shall be treated as compliance with paragraph (1) for both investigations, unless the Commission considers that special circumstances require that a hearing be held in the course of each of the investigations. During any investigation regarding which the holding of a hearing is waived under this paragraph, the Commission shall allow any party to submit such additional written comment as it considers relevant.

(b) Procedures

Any hearing required or permitted under this subtitle shall be conducted after notice published in the Federal Register, and a transcript of the hearing shall be prepared and made available to the public. The hearing shall not be subject to the provisions of subchapter II of chapter 5 of title 5, or to section 702 of such title.

(June 17, 1930, ch. 497, title VII, §774, as added Pub. L. 96–39, title I, §101, July 26, 1979, 93 Stat. 186; amended Pub. L. 98–573, title VI, §616, Oct. 30, 1984, 98 Stat. 3037.)

Amendments

1984—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 98–573 designated existing provisions as par. (1), inserted "Except as provided in paragraph (2),", and added par. (2).

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 98–573 effective Oct. 30, 1984, see section 626(a) of Pub. L. 98–573, set out as a note under section 1671 of this title.

§1677d. Countervailable subsidy practices discovered during a proceeding

If, in the course of a proceeding under this subtitle, the administering authority discovers a practice which appears to be a countervailable subsidy, but was not included in the matters alleged in a countervailing duty petition, or if the administering authority receives notice from the Trade Representative that a subsidy or subsidy program is in violation of Article 8 of the Subsidies Agreement, then the administering authority—

(1) shall include the practice, subsidy, or subsidy program in the proceeding if the practice, subsidy, or subsidy program appears to be a countervailable subsidy with respect to the merchandise which is the subject of the proceeding, or

(2) shall transfer the information (other than confidential information) concerning the practice, subsidy, or subsidy program to the library maintained under section 1677f(a)(1) of this title, if the practice, subsidy, or subsidy program appears to be a countervailable subsidy with respect to any other merchandise.

(June 17, 1930, ch. 497, title VII, §775, as added Pub. L. 96–39, title I, §101, July 26, 1979, 93 Stat. 186; amended Pub. L. 98–573, title VI, §617, Oct. 30, 1984, 98 Stat. 3037; Pub. L. 99–514, title XVIII, §1886(a)(12), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2922; Pub. L. 103–465, title II, §283(b), Dec. 8, 1994, 108 Stat. 4930.)

Amendments

1994Pub. L. 103–465 substituted "Countervailable subsidy" for "Subsidy" in section catchline and amended text generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "If, in the course of a proceeding under this subtitle, the administering authority discovers a practice which appears to be a subsidy, but was not included in the matters alleged in a countervailing duty petition, then the administering authority—

"(1) shall include the practice in the proceeding if it appears to be a subsidy with respect to the merchandise which is the subject of the proceeding, or

"(2) shall transfer the information concerning the practice (other than confidential information) to the library maintained under section 1677f(a)(1) of this title, if the practice appears to be a subsidy with respect to any other merchandise."

1986Pub. L. 99–514 substituted "a proceeding" for "an proceeding" in introductory provisions.

1984Pub. L. 98–573 substituted "proceeding" for "investigation" wherever appearing.

Effective Date of 1994 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 103–465 effective, except as otherwise provided, on the date on which the WTO Agreement enters into force with respect to the United States (Jan. 1, 1995), and applicable with respect to investigations, reviews, and inquiries initiated and petitions filed under specified provisions of this chapter after such date, see section 291 of Pub. L. 103–465, set out as a note under section 1671 of this title.

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 98–573 effective Oct. 30, 1984, see section 626(a) of Pub. L. 98–573, set out as a note under section 1671 of this title.

Plan Amendments Not Required Until January 1, 1989

For provisions directing that if any amendments made by subtitle A or subtitle C of title XI [§§1101–1147 and 1171–1177] or title XVIII [§§1801–1899A] of Pub. L. 99–514 require an amendment to any plan, such plan amendment shall not be required to be made before the first plan year beginning on or after Jan. 1, 1989, see section 1140 of Pub. L. 99–514, as amended, set out as a note under section 401 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

§1677e. Determinations on basis of facts available

(a) In general

If—

(1) necessary information is not available on the record, or

(2) an interested party or any other person—

(A) withholds information that has been requested by the administering authority or the Commission under this subtitle,

(B) fails to provide such information by the deadlines for submission of the information or in the form and manner requested, subject to subsections (c)(1) and (e) of section 1677m of this title,

(C) significantly impedes a proceeding under this subtitle, or

(D) provides such information but the information cannot be verified as provided in section 1677m(i) of this title,


the administering authority and the Commission shall, subject to section 1677m(d) of this title, use the facts otherwise available in reaching the applicable determination under this subtitle.

(b) Adverse inferences

(1) In general

If the administering authority or the Commission (as the case may be) finds that an interested party has failed to cooperate by not acting to the best of its ability to comply with a request for information from the administering authority or the Commission, the administering authority or the Commission (as the case may be), in reaching the applicable determination under this subtitle—

(A) may use an inference that is adverse to the interests of that party in selecting from among the facts otherwise available; and

(B) is not required to determine, or make any adjustments to, a countervailable subsidy rate or weighted average dumping margin based on any assumptions about information the interested party would have provided if the interested party had complied with the request for information.

(2) Potential sources of information for adverse inferences

An adverse inference under paragraph (1)(A) may include reliance on information derived from—

(A) the petition,

(B) a final determination in the investigation under this subtitle,

(C) any previous review under section 1675 of this title or determination under section 1675b of this title, or

(D) any other information placed on the record.

(c) Corroboration of secondary information

(1) In general

Except as provided in paragraph (2), when the administering authority or the Commission relies on secondary information rather than on information obtained in the course of an investigation or review, the administering authority or the Commission, as the case may be, shall, to the extent practicable, corroborate that information from independent sources that are reasonably at their disposal.

(2) Exception

The administrative authority and the Commission shall not be required to corroborate any dumping margin or countervailing duty applied in a separate segment of the same proceeding.

(d) Subsidy rates and dumping margins in adverse inference determinations

(1) In general

If the administering authority uses an inference that is adverse to the interests of a party under subsection (b)(1)(A) in selecting among the facts otherwise available, the administering authority may—

(A) in the case of a countervailing duty proceeding—

(i) use a countervailable subsidy rate applied for the same or similar program in a countervailing duty proceeding involving the same country; or

(ii) if there is no same or similar program, use a countervailable subsidy rate for a subsidy program from a proceeding that the administering authority considers reasonable to use; and


(B) in the case of an antidumping duty proceeding, use any dumping margin from any segment of the proceeding under the applicable antidumping order.

(2) Discretion to apply highest rate

In carrying out paragraph (1), the administering authority may apply any of the countervailable subsidy rates or dumping margins specified under that paragraph, including the highest such rate or margin, based on the evaluation by the administering authority of the situation that resulted in the administering authority using an adverse inference in selecting among the facts otherwise available.

(3) No obligation to make certain estimates or address certain claims

If the administering authority uses an adverse inference under subsection (b)(1)(A) in selecting among the facts otherwise available, the administering authority is not required, for purposes of subsection (c) or for any other purpose—

(A) to estimate what the countervailable subsidy rate or dumping margin would have been if the interested party found to have failed to cooperate under subsection (b)(1) had cooperated; or

(B) to demonstrate that the countervailable subsidy rate or dumping margin used by the administering authority reflects an alleged commercial reality of the interested party.

(June 17, 1930, ch. 497, title VII, §776, as added Pub. L. 96–39, title I, §101, July 26, 1979, 93 Stat. 186; amended Pub. L. 98–573, title VI, §618, Oct. 30, 1984, 98 Stat. 3037; Pub. L. 100–418, title I, §§1326(d)(1), 1331, Aug. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 1204, 1207; Pub. L. 103–465, title II, §231(c), Dec. 8, 1994, 108 Stat. 4896; Pub. L. 114–27, title V, §502, June 29, 2015, 129 Stat. 383.)

Amendments

2015—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 114–27, §502(1), inserted par. (1) designation and heading before "If the administering", substituted "under this subtitle—" for "under this subtitle, may use", inserted "(A) may use" before "an inference that is adverse", substituted "facts otherwise available; and" for "facts otherwise available. Such adverse inference may include", added subpar. (B), inserted par. (2) designation, heading, and "An adverse inference under paragraph (1)(A) may include" before "reliance on information", and redesignated former pars. (1) to (4) as subpars. (A) to (D), respectively, of par. (2) and realigned margins.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 114–27, §502(2), designated existing provisions as par. (1) and inserted heading, substituted "Except as provided in paragraph (2), when the" for "When the", and added par. (2).

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 114–27, §502(3), added subsec. (d).

1994Pub. L. 103–465 amended section generally, substituting present provisions for provisions relating to verification of information, certification of submissions, and determinations required to be made on best information available.

1988—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 100–418, §1331(1), (3), added subsec. (a). Former subsec. (a) redesignated (b).

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 100–418, §1331(1), (2), redesignated former subsec. (a) as (b) and in heading substituted "Verification" for "General rule".

Subsec. (b)(3)(A). Pub. L. 100–418, §1326(d)(1), which directed the amendment of this subtitle by substituting "subparagraph (C), (D), (E), (F), or (G) of section 1677(9) of this title" for "subparagraph (C), (D), (E), or (F), of section 1677(9) of this title" was executed to subsec. (b)(3)(A) of this section by substituting "section 1677(9)(C), (D), (E), (F), or (G) of this title" for "section 1677(9)(C), (D), (E), or (F) of this title" to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 100–418, §1331(1), redesignated former subsec. (b) as (c).

1984—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 98–573 amended subsec. (a) generally, which prior to amendment read as follows: "Except with respect to information the verification of which is waived under section 1673b(b)(2) of this title, the administering authority shall verify all information relied upon in making a final determination in an investigation. In publishing such a determination, the administering authority shall report the methods and procedures used to verify such information. If the administering authority is unable to verify the accuracy of the information submitted, it shall use the best information available to it as the basis for its determination, which may include the information submitted in support of the petition."

Effective Date of 1994 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 103–465 effective, except as otherwise provided, on the date on which the WTO Agreement enters into force with respect to the United States (Jan. 1, 1995), and applicable with respect to investigations, reviews, and inquiries initiated and petitions filed under specified provisions of this chapter after such date, see section 291 of Pub. L. 103–465, set out as a note under section 1671 of this title.

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 100–418 applicable with respect to investigations initiated after Aug. 23, 1988, and to reviews initiated under section 1673e(c) or 1675 of this title after Aug. 23, 1988, see section 1337(b) of Pub. L. 100–418, set out as a note under section 1671 of this title.

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 98–573 effective Oct. 30, 1984, see section 626(a) of Pub. L. 98–573, set out as a note under section 1671 of this title.

§1677f. Access to information

(a) Information generally made available

(1) Public information function

There shall be established a library of information relating to foreign subsidy practices and countervailing measures. Copies of material in the library shall be made available to the public upon payment of the costs of preparing such copies.

(2) Progress of investigation reports

The administering authority and the Commission shall, from time to time upon request, inform the parties to an investigation of the progress of that investigation.

(3) Ex parte meetings

The administering authority and the Commission shall maintain a record of any ex parte meeting between—

(A) interested parties or other persons providing factual information in connection with a proceeding, and

(B) the person charged with making the determination, or any person charged with making a final recommendation to that person, in connection with that proceeding,


if information relating to that proceeding was presented or discussed at such meeting. The record of such an ex parte meeting shall include the identity of the persons present at the meeting, the date, time, and place of the meeting, and a summary of the matters discussed or submitted. The record of the ex parte meeting shall be included in the record of the proceeding.

(4) Summaries; non-proprietary submissions

The administering authority and the Commission shall disclose—

(A) any proprietary information received in the course of a proceeding if it is disclosed in a form which cannot be associated with, or otherwise be used to identify, operations of a particular person, and

(B) any information submitted in connection with a proceeding which is not designated as proprietary by the person submitting it.

(b) Proprietary information

(1) Proprietary status maintained

(A) In general

Except as provided in subsection (a)(4)(A) and subsection (c), information submitted to the administering authority or the Commission which is designated as proprietary by the person submitting the information shall not be disclosed to any person without the consent of the person submitting the information, other than—

(i) to an officer or employee of the administering authority or the Commission who is directly concerned with carrying out the investigation in connection with which the information is submitted or any review under this subtitle covering the same subject merchandise, or

(ii) to an officer or employee of the United States Customs Service who is directly involved in conducting an investigation regarding negligence, gross negligence, or fraud under this subtitle.

(B) Additional requirements

The administering authority and the Commission shall require that information for which proprietary treatment is requested be accompanied by—

(i) either—

(I) a non-proprietary summary in sufficient detail to permit a reasonable understanding of the substance of the information submitted in confidence, or

(II) a statement that the information is not susceptible to summary accompanied by a statement of the reasons in support of the contention, and


(ii) either—

(I) a statement which permits the administering authority or the Commission to release under administrative protective order, in accordance with subsection (c), the information submitted in confidence, or

(II) a statement to the administering authority or the Commission that the business proprietary information is of a type that should not be released under administrative protective order.

(2) Unwarranted designation

If the administering authority of the Commission determines, on the basis of the nature and extent of the information or its availability from public sources, that designation of any information as proprietary is unwarranted, then it shall notify the person who submitted it and ask for an explanation of the reasons for the designation. Unless that person persuades the administering authority or the Commission that the designation is warranted, or withdraws the designation, the administering authority or the Commission, as the case may be, shall return it to the party submitting it. In a case in which the administering authority or the Commission returns the information to the person submitting it, the person may thereafter submit other material concerning the subject matter of the returned information if the submission is made within the time otherwise provided for submitting such material.

(3) Section 1675 reviews

Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph (1), information submitted to the administering authority or the Commission in connection with a review under section 1675(b) or 1675(c) of this title which is designated as proprietary by the person submitting the information may, if the review results in the revocation of an order or finding (or termination of a suspended investigation) under section 1675(d) of this title, be used by the agency to which the information was originally submitted in any investigation initiated within 2 years after the date of the revocation or termination pursuant to a petition covering the same subject merchandise.

(c) Limited disclosure of certain proprietary information under protective order

(1) Disclosure by administering authority or Commission

(A) In general

Upon receipt of an application (before or after receipt of the information requested) which describes in general terms the information requested and sets forth the reasons for the request, the administering authority or the Commission shall make all business proprietary information presented to, or obtained by it, during a proceeding (except privileged information, classified information, and specific information of a type for which there is a clear and compelling need to withhold from disclosure) available to interested parties who are parties to the proceeding under a protective order described in subparagraph (B), regardless of when the information is submitted during a proceeding. Customer names obtained during any investigation which requires a determination under section 1671d(b) or 1673d(b) of this title may not be disclosed by the administering authority under protective order until either an order is published under section 1671e(a) or 1673e(a) of this title as a result of the investigation or the investigation is suspended or terminated. The Commission may delay disclosure of customer names under protective order during any such investigation until a reasonable time prior to any hearing provided under section 1677c of this title.

(B) Protective order

The protective order under which information is made available shall contain such requirements as the administering authority or the Commission may determine by regulation to be appropriate. The administering authority and the Commission shall provide by regulation for such sanctions as the administering authority and the Commission determine to be appropriate, including disbarment from practice before the agency.

(C) Time limitation on determinations

The administering authority or the Commission, as the case may be, shall determine whether to make information available under this paragraph—

(i) not later than 14 days (7 days if the submission pertains to a proceeding under section 1671b(a) or 1673b(a) of this title) after the date on which the information is submitted, or

(ii) if—

(I) the person that submitted the information raises objection to its release, or

(II) the information is unusually voluminous or complex,


 not later than 30 days (10 days if the submission pertains to a proceeding under section 1671b(a) or 1673b(a) of this title) after the date on which the information is submitted.

(D) Availability after determination

If the determination under subparagraph (C) is affirmative, then—

(i) the business proprietary information submitted to the administering authority or the Commission on or before the date of the determination shall be made available, subject to the terms and conditions of the protective order, on such date; and

(ii) the business proprietary information submitted to the administering authority or the Commission after the date of the determination shall be served as required by subsection (d).

(E) Failure to disclose

If a person submitting information to the administering authority refuses to disclose business proprietary information which the administering authority determines should be released under a protective order described in subparagraph (B), the administering authority shall return the information, and any nonconfidential summary thereof, to the person submitting the information and summary and shall not consider either.

(2) Disclosure under court order

If the administering authority denies a request for information under paragraph (1), then application may be made to the United States Customs Court for an order directing the administering authority or the Commission to make the information available. After notification of all parties to the investigation and after an opportunity for a hearing on the record, the court may issue an order, under such conditions as the court deems appropriate, which shall not have the effect of stopping or suspending the investigation, directing the administering authority or the Commission to make all or a portion of the requested information described in the preceding sentence available under a protective order and setting forth sanctions for violation of such order if the court finds that, under the standards applicable in proceedings of the court, such an order is warranted, and that—

(A) the administering authority or the Commission has denied access to the information under subsection (b)(1),

(B) the person on whose behalf the information is requested is an interested party who is a party to the investigation in connection with which the information was obtained or developed, and

(C) the party which submitted the information to which the request relates has been notified, in advance of the hearing, of the request made under this section and of its right to appear and be heard.

(d) Service

Any party submitting written information, including business proprietary information, to the administering authority or the Commission during a proceeding shall, at the same time, serve the information upon all interested parties who are parties to the proceeding, if the information is covered by a protective order. The administering authority or the Commission shall not accept any such information that is not accompanied by a certificate of service and a copy of the protective order version of the document containing the information. Business proprietary information shall only be served upon interested parties who are parties to the proceeding that are subject to protective order; however, a nonconfidential summary thereof shall be served upon all other interested parties who are parties to the proceeding.

(e) Repealed. Pub. L. 103–465, title II, §231(d)(1), Dec. 8, 1994, 108 Stat. 4897

(f) Disclosure of proprietary information under protective orders issued pursuant to the North American Free Trade Agreement or the United States-Canada Agreement

(1) Issuance of protective orders

(A) In general

If binational panel review of a determination under this subtitle is requested pursuant to article 1904 of the NAFTA or the United States-Canada Agreement, or an extraordinary challenge committee is convened under Annex 1904.13 of the NAFTA or the United States-Canada Agreement, the administering authority or the Commission, as appropriate, may make available to authorized persons, under a protective order described in paragraph (2), a copy of all proprietary material in the administrative record made during the proceeding in question. If the administering authority or the Commission claims a privilege as to a document or portion of a document in the administrative record of the proceeding in question and a binational panel or extraordinary challenge committee finds that in camera inspection or limited disclosure of that document or portion thereof is required by United States law, the administering authority or the Commission, as appropriate, may restrict access to such document or portion thereof to the authorized persons identified by the panel or committee as requiring access and may require such persons to obtain access under a protective order described in paragraph (2).

(B) Authorized persons

For purposes of this subsection, the term "authorized persons" means—

(i) the members of, and the appropriate staff of, the binational panel or the extraordinary challenge committee, as the case may be, and the Secretariat,

(ii) counsel for parties to such panel or committee proceeding, and employees, and persons under the direction and control, of such counsel,

(iii) any officer or employee of the United States Government designated by the administering authority or the Commission, as appropriate, to whom disclosure is necessary in order to make recommendations to the Trade Representative regarding the convening of extraordinary challenge committees under chapter 19 of the NAFTA or the Agreement, and

(iv) any officer or employee of the Government of a free trade area country (as defined in section 1516a(f)(10) of this title) designated by an authorized agency of such country to whom disclosure is necessary in order to make decisions regarding the convening of extraordinary challenge committees under chapter 19 of the NAFTA or the Agreement.

(C) Review

A decision concerning the disclosure or nondisclosure of material under protective order by the administering authority or the Commission shall not be subject to judicial review, and no court of the United States shall have power or jurisdiction to review such decision on any question of law or fact by an action in the nature of mandamus or otherwise.

(2) Contents of protective order

Each protective order issued under this subsection shall be in such form and contain such requirements as the administering authority or the Commission may determine by regulation to be appropriate. The administering authority and the Commission shall ensure that regulations issued pursuant to this paragraph shall be designed to provide an opportunity for participation in the binational panel proceeding, including any extraordinary challenge, equivalent to that available for judicial review of determinations by the administering authority or the Commission that are not subject to review by a binational panel.

(3) Prohibited acts

It is unlawful for any person to violate, to induce the violation of, or knowingly to receive information the receipt of which constitutes a violation of, any provision of a protective order issued under this subsection or to violate, to induce the violation of, or knowingly to receive information the receipt of which constitutes a violation of, any provision of an undertaking entered into with an authorized agency of a free trade area country (as defined in section 1516a(f)(10) of this title) to protect proprietary material during binational panel or extraordinary challenge committee review pursuant to article 1904 of the NAFTA or the United States-Canada Agreement.

(4) Sanctions for violation of protective orders

Any person, except a judge appointed to a binational panel or an extraordinary challenge committee under section 3432(b) of this title, who is found by the administering authority or the Commission, as appropriate, after notice and an opportunity for a hearing in accordance with section 554 of title 5 to have committed an act prohibited by paragraph (3) shall be liable to the United States for a civil penalty and shall be subject to such other administrative sanctions, including, but not limited to, debarment from practice before the administering authority or the Commission, as the administering authority or the Commission determines to be appropriate. The amount of the civil penalty shall not exceed $100,000 for each violation. Each day of a continuing violation shall constitute a separate violation. The amount of such civil penalty and other sanctions shall be assessed by the administering authority or the Commission by written notice, except that assessment shall be made by the administering authority for violation, inducement of a violation or receipt of information with reason to know that such information was disclosed in violation, of an undertaking entered into by any person with an authorized agency of a free trade area country (as defined in section 1516a(f)(10) of this title).

(5) Review of sanctions

Any person against whom sanctions are imposed under paragraph (4) may obtain review of such sanctions by filing a notice of appeal in the United States Court of International Trade within 30 days from the date of the order imposing the sanction and by simultaneously sending a copy of such notice by certified mail to the administering authority or the Commission, as appropriate. The administering authority or the Commission shall promptly file in such court a certified copy of the record upon which such violation was found or such sanction imposed, as provided in section 2112 of title 28. The findings and order of the administering authority or the Commission shall be set aside by the court only if the court finds that such findings and order are not supported by substantial evidence, as provided in section 706(2) of title 5.

(6) Enforcement of sanctions

If any person fails to pay an assessment of a civil penalty or to comply with other administrative sanctions after the order imposing such sanctions becomes a final and unappealable order, or after the United States Court of International Trade has entered final judgment in favor of the administering authority or the Commission, an action may be filed in such court to enforce the sanctions. In such action, the validity and appropriateness of the final order imposing the sanctions shall not be subject to review.

(7) Testimony and production of papers

(A) Authority to obtain information

For the purpose of conducting any hearing and carrying out other functions and duties under this subsection, the administering authority and the Commission, or their duly authorized agents—

(i) shall have access to and the right to copy any pertinent document, paper, or record in the possession of any individual, partnership, corporation, association, organization, or other entity,

(ii) may summon witnesses, take testimony, and administer oaths,

(iii) and may require any individual or entity to produce pertinent documents, books, or records.


Any member of the Commission, and any person so designated by the administering authority, may sign subpoenas, and members and agents of the administering authority and the Commission, when authorized by the administering authority or the Commission, as appropriate, may administer oaths and affirmations, examine witnesses, take testimony, and receive evidence.

(B) Witnesses and evidence

The attendance of witnesses who are authorized to be summoned, and the production of documentary evidence authorized to be ordered, under subparagraph (A) may be required from any place in the United States at any designated place of hearing. In the case of disobedience to a subpoena issued under subparagraph (A), an action may be filed in any district or territorial court of the United States to require the attendance and testimony of witnesses and the production of documentary evidence. Such court, within the jurisdiction of which such inquiry is carried on, may, in case of contumacy or refusal to obey a subpoena issued to any individual, partnership, corporation, association, organization or other entity, issue any order requiring such individual or entity to appear before the administering authority or the Commission, or to produce documentary evidence if so ordered or to give evidence concerning the matter in question. Any failure to obey such order of the court may be punished by the court as a contempt thereof.

(C) Mandamus

Any court referred to in subparagraph (B) shall have jurisdiction to issue writs of mandamus commanding compliance with the provisions of this subsection or any order of the administering authority or the Commission made in pursuance thereof.

(D) Depositions

For purposes of carrying out any functions or duties under this subsection, the administering authority or the Commission may order testimony to be taken by deposition. Such deposition may be taken before any person designated by the administering authority or Commission and having power to administer oaths. Such testimony shall be reduced to writing by the person taking the deposition, or under the direction of such person, and shall then be subscribed by the deponent. Any individual, partnership, corporation, association, organization or other entity may be compelled to appear and depose and to produce documentary evidence in the same manner as witnesses may be compelled to appear and testify and produce documentary evidence before the administering authority or Commission, as provided in this paragraph.

(E) Fees and mileage of witnesses

Witnesses summoned before the administering authority or the Commission shall be paid the same fees and mileage that are paid witnesses in the courts of the United States.

(g) Information relating to violations of protective orders and sanctions

The administering authority and the Commission may withhold from disclosure any correspondence, private letters of reprimand, settlement agreements, and documents and files compiled in relation to investigations and actions involving a violation or possible violation of a protective order issued under subsection (c) or (d), and such information shall be treated as information described in section 552(b)(3) of title 5.

(h) Opportunity for comment by consumers and industrial users

The administering authority and the Commission shall provide an opportunity for industrial users of the subject merchandise and, if the merchandise is sold at the retail level, for representative consumer organizations, to submit relevant information to the administering authority concerning dumping or a countervailable subsidy, and to the Commission concerning material injury by reason of dumped or subsidized imports.

(i) Publication of determinations; requirements for final determinations

(1) In general

Whenever the administering authority makes a determination under section 1671a or 1673a of this title whether to initiate an investigation, or the administering authority or the Commission makes a preliminary determination under section 1671b or 1673b of this title, a final determination under section 1671d of this title or section 1673d of this title, a preliminary or final determination in a review under section 1675 of this title, a determination to suspend an investigation under this subtitle, or a determination under section 1675b of this title, the administering authority or the Commission, as the case may be, shall publish the facts and conclusions supporting that determination, and shall publish notice of that determination in the Federal Register.

(2) Contents of notice or determination

The notice or determination published under paragraph (1) shall include, to the extent applicable—

(A) in the case of a determination of the administering authority—

(i) the names of the exporters or producers of the subject merchandise or, when providing such names is impracticable, the countries exporting the subject merchandise to the United States,

(ii) a description of the subject merchandise that is sufficient to identify the subject merchandise for customs purposes,

(iii)(I) with respect to a determination in an investigation under part I of this subtitle or section 1675b of this title or in a review of a countervailing duty order, the amount of the countervailable subsidy established and a full explanation of the methodology used in establishing the amount, and

(II) with respect to a determination in an investigation under part II of this subtitle or in a review of an antidumping duty order, the weighted average dumping margins established and a full explanation of the methodology used in establishing such margins, and

(iv) the primary reasons for the determination; and


(B) in the case of a determination of the Commission—

(i) considerations relevant to the determination of injury, and

(ii) the primary reasons for the determination.

(3) Additional requirements for final determinations

In addition to the requirements set forth in paragraph (2)—

(A) the administering authority shall include in a final determination described in paragraph (1) an explanation of the basis for its determination that addresses relevant arguments, made by interested parties who are parties to the investigation or review (as the case may be), concerning the establishment of dumping or a countervailable subsidy, or the suspension of the investigation, with respect to which the determination is made; and

(B) the Commission shall include in a final determination of injury an explanation of the basis for its determination that addresses relevant arguments that are made by interested parties who are parties to the investigation or review (as the case may be) concerning volume, price effects, and impact on the industry of imports of the subject merchandise.

(June 17, 1930, ch. 497, title VII, §777, as added Pub. L. 96–39, title I, §101, July 26, 1979, 93 Stat. 187; amended Pub. L. 98–573, title VI, §619, Oct. 30, 1984, 98 Stat. 3038; Pub. L. 99–514, title XVIII, §§1886(a)(13), 1889(8), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2922, 2926; Pub. L. 100–418, title I, §1332, Aug. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 1207; Pub. L. 100–449, title IV, §403(c), Sept. 28, 1988, 102 Stat. 1884; Pub. L. 101–382, title I, §§134(a)(4), 135(b), Aug. 20, 1990, 104 Stat. 650, 651; Pub. L. 103–182, title IV, §412(c), Dec. 8, 1993, 107 Stat. 2146; Pub. L. 103–465, title II, §§226–228, 231(b), (d)(1), Dec. 8, 1994, 108 Stat. 4886–4888, 4896, 4897; Pub. L. 114–125, title IV, §413(a), Feb. 24, 2016, 130 Stat. 159.)

Amendment of Section

For termination of amendment by section 501(c) of Pub. L. 100–449, see Effective and Termination Dates of 1988 Amendment note below.

Amendments

2016—Subsec. (b)(1)(A)(ii). Pub. L. 114–125 inserted "negligence, gross negligence, or" after "regarding".

1994—Subsec. (a)(4). Pub. L. 103–465, §231(b), substituted "shall disclose" for "may disclose" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 103–465, §226(a)(1), amended par. (1) generally, designating first sentence as subpar. (A), rearranging provisions for clarity, and inserting provisions in cl. (i) relating to reviews under this subtitle covering same subject merchandise, and designating second sentence as subpar. (B) with corresponding redesignations of former subpars. as cls. and cls. as subcls.

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 103–465, §226(b), inserted at end "In a case in which the administering authority or the Commission returns the information to the person submitting it, the person may thereafter submit other material concerning the subject matter of the returned information if the submission is made within the time otherwise provided for submitting such material."

Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 103–465, §226(a)(2), added par. (3).

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 103–465, §231(d)(1), struck out heading and text of subsec. (e). Text read as follows: "Information shall be submitted to the administering authority or the Commission during the course of a proceeding on a timely basis and shall be subject to comment by other parties within such reasonable time as the administering authority or the Commission shall provide. If information is submitted without an adequate opportunity for other parties to comment thereon, the administering authority or the Commission may return the information to the party submitting it and not consider it."

Subsecs. (h), (i). Pub. L. 103–465, §§227, 228, added subsecs. (h) and (i).

1993—Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 103–182, §412(c)(1), inserted "the North American Free Trade Agreement or" in heading.

Subsec. (f)(1)(A). Pub. L. 103–182, §412(c)(2), (3), inserted "the NAFTA or" before "the United States-Canada Agreement" in two places, in second sentence inserted "or extraordinary challenge committee" after "binational panel", and substituted "identified by the panel or committee" for "identified by the panel".

Subsec. (f)(1)(B). Pub. L. 103–182, §412(c)(4), in cl. (iii), inserted "the NAFTA or" before "the Agreement" and in cl. (iv), inserted "the NAFTA or" before "the Agreement" and substituted "Government of a free trade area country (as defined in section 1516a(f)(10) of this title) designated by an authorized agency of such country" for "Government of Canada designated by an authorized agency of Canada".

Subsec. (f)(2). Pub. L. 103–182, §412(c)(5), inserted ", including any extraordinary challenge," after "binational panel proceeding".

Subsec. (f)(3). Pub. L. 103–182, §412(c)(6), (7), substituted "agency of a free trade area country (as defined in section 1516a(f)(10) of this title)" for "agency of Canada" and inserted "or extraordinary challenge committee" after "binational panel" and "the NAFTA or" before "the United States-Canada Agreement".

Subsec. (f)(4). Pub. L. 103–182, §412(c)(7), (8), inserted ", except a judge appointed to a binational panel or an extraordinary challenge committee under section 3432(b) of this title," after "Any person" and substituted "agency of a free trade area country (as defined in section 1516a(f)(10) of this title)" for "agency of Canada".

1990—Subsec. (c)(1)(A). Pub. L. 101–382, §135(b)(1), inserted at end "Customer names obtained during any investigation which requires a determination under section 1671d(b) or 1673d(b) of this title may not be disclosed by the administering authority under protective order until either an order is published under section 1671e(a) or 1673e(a) of this title as a result of the investigation or the investigation is suspended or terminated. The Commission may delay disclosure of customer names under protective order during any such investigation until a reasonable time prior to any hearing provided under section 1677c of this title."

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 101–382, §134(a)(4), redesignated subsec. (d), relating to disclosure of proprietary information, etc., as (f).

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 101–382, §134(a)(4), redesignated subsec. (d), relating to disclosure of proprietary information, etc., as (f).

Subsec. (f)(1)(A). Pub. L. 101–382, §134(a)(4)(A), struck out "(but not privileged material as defined by the rules of procedure referred to in article 1904(14) of the United States-Canada Agreement)" after "all proprietary material" and inserted at end "If the administering authority or the Commission claims a privilege as to a document or portion of a document in the administrative record of the proceeding in question and a binational panel finds that in camera inspection or limited disclosure of that document or portion thereof is required by United States law, the administering authority or the Commission, as appropriate, may restrict access to such document or portion thereof to the authorized persons identified by the panel as requiring access and may require such persons to obtain access under a protective order described in paragraph (2)."

Subsec. (f)(1)(B)(ii) to (iv). Pub. L. 101–382, §134(a)(4)(B), inserted ", and persons under the direction and control," after "employees" in cl. (ii), substituted "make recommendations to the Trade Representative regarding the convening of extraordinary challenge committees under chapter 19 of the Agreement, and" for "implement the United States-Canada Agreement with respect to such proceeding." in cl. (iii), and added cl. (iv).

Subsec. (f)(3). Pub. L. 101–382, §134(a)(4)(C), struck out "or" after "violate," in two places and inserted "or knowingly to receive information the receipt of which constitutes a violation of," after "the violation of," in two places.

Subsec. (f)(4). Pub. L. 101–382, §134(a)(4)(D), inserted provisions relating to receipt of information with reason to know the information was disclosed in violation.

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 101–382, §135(b)(2), added subsec. (g).

1988—Subsec. (b)(1)(B)(ii). Pub. L. 100–418, §1332(1), amended cl. (ii) generally. Prior to amendment, cl. (ii) read as follows: "a statement that the information should not be released under administrative protective order."

Subsec. (c)(1)(A). Pub. L. 100–418, §1332(2)(A), amended subpar. (A) generally. Prior to amendment, subpar. (A) read as follows: "Upon receipt of an application, (before or after receipt of the information requested) which describes with particularity the information requested and sets forth the reasons for the request, the administering authority and the Commission may make proprietary information submitted by any other party to the investigation available under a protective order described in subparagraph (B)."

Subsec. (c)(1)(C) to (E). Pub. L. 100–418, §1332(2)(B), added subpars. (C) to (E).

Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 100–418, §1332(3), struck out "or the Commission denies a request for proprietary information submitted by the petitioner or an interested party in support of the petitioner concerning the domestic price or cost of production of the like product," after "information under paragraph (1),".

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 100–449 temporarily added subsec. (d) relating to disclosure of proprietary information, etc. See Effective and Termination Dates of 1988 Amendment note below.

Pub. L. 100–418, §1332(4), added subsec. (d) relating to service.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 100–418, §1332(4), added subsec. (e).

1986—Subsec. (a)(4). Pub. L. 99–514, §1886(a)(13)(A), substituted "non-proprietary" for "nonconfidential" in heading, and "proprietary" for "confidential" in two places in text.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 99–514, §1886(a)(13)(A), substituted "Proprietary" for "Confidential" in heading.

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 99–514, §1886(a)(13)(A), substituted "Proprietary status" for "Confidentiality" in heading, "proprietary" for "confidential" in two places in introductory provisions, and "non-proprietary" for "nonconfidential" in subpar. (A)(i).

Pub. L. 99–514, §1889(8), made technical correction to directory language of Pub. L. 98–573, §619(3), requiring no change in text. See 1984 Amendment note below.

Subsec. (b)(1)(B)(i). Pub. L. 99–514, §1886(a)(13)(B), inserted "or the Commission" after "authority".

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 99–514, §1886(a)(13)(A), substituted "proprietary" for "confidential".

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 99–514, §1886(a)(13)(A), substituted "proprietary" for "confidential" in heading and in pars. (1)(A) and (2).

1984—Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 98–573, §619(1), amended par. (3) generally, substituting in provisions preceding subpar. (A) "of any ex parte meeting" for "of ex parte meetings", in subpar. (A) "a proceeding" for "an investigation", in subpar. (B) "or any person" for "and any person" and "that proceeding," for "that investigation," and, in provisions following subpar. (B), "if information relating to that proceeding was presented or discussed at such meeting. The record of such an" for "The record of the".

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 98–573, §619(2), in first sentence, inserted provision referring to an officer or employee of the United States Customs Service who is directly involved in conducting an investigation regarding fraud under this subtitle.

Pub. L. 98–573, §619(3), as amended by Pub. L. 99–514, §1889(8), amended second sentence generally, and thereby substituted "the Commission shall require" for "the Commission may require", designated existing provisions as subpar. (A) and, in subpar. (A) as so designated, substituted "either— (i) a nonconfidential summary" for "a non-confidential summary", inserted designation "(ii)", substituted "summary accompanied" for "summary, accompanied", and added subpar. (B).

Subsec. (c)(1)(A). Pub. L. 98–573, §619(4), inserted "(before or after receipt of the information requested)".

Effective Date of 1994 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 103–465 effective, except as otherwise provided, on the date on which the WTO Agreement enters into force with respect to the United States (Jan. 1, 1995), and applicable with respect to investigations, reviews, and inquiries initiated and petitions filed under specified provisions of this chapter after such date, see section 291 of Pub. L. 103–465, set out as a note under section 1671 of this title.

Effective Date of 1993 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 103–182 effective on the date the North American Free Trade Agreement enters into force with respect to the United States [Jan. 1, 1994], but not applicable to any final determination described in section 1516a(a)(1)(B) or (2)(B)(i), (ii), or (iii) of this title, notice of which is published in the Federal Register before such date, or to a determination described in section 1516a(a)(2)(B)(vi) of this title, notice of which is received by the Government of Canada or Mexico before such date, or to any binational panel review under the United States-Canada Free-Trade Agreement, or to any extraordinary challenge arising out of any such review that was commenced before such date, see section 416 of Pub. L. 103–182, set out as an Effective Date note under section 3431 of this title.

Effective and Termination Dates of 1988 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 100–449 effective on date the United States-Canada Free-Trade Agreement enters into force (Jan. 1, 1989), and to cease to have effect on date Agreement ceases to be in force, see section 501(a), (c) of Pub. L. 100–449, set out in a note under section 2112 of this title.

Amendment by Pub. L. 100–418 applicable with respect to investigations initiated after Aug. 23, 1988, and to reviews initiated under section 1673e(c) or 1675 of this title after Aug. 23, 1988, see section 1337(b) of Pub. L. 100–418, set out as an Effective Date of 1988 Amendment note under section 1671 of this title.

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 98–573 effective Oct. 30, 1984, see section 626(a) of Pub. L. 98–573, set out as a note under section 1671 of this title.

Transfer of Functions

For transfer of functions, personnel, assets, and liabilities of the United States Customs Service of the Department of the Treasury, including functions of the Secretary of the Treasury relating thereto, to the Secretary of Homeland Security, and for treatment of related references, see sections 203(1), 551(d), 552(d), and 557 of Title 6, Domestic Security, and the Department of Homeland Security Reorganization Plan of November 25, 2002, as modified, set out as a note under section 542 of Title 6. For establishment of U.S. Customs and Border Protection in the Department of Homeland Security, treated as if included in Pub. L. 107–296 as of Nov. 25, 2002, see section 211 of Title 6, as amended generally by Pub. L. 114–125, and section 802(b) of Pub. L. 114–125, set out as a note under section 211 of Title 6.

Effect of Termination of NAFTA Country Status

For provisions relating to effect of termination of NAFTA country status on the provisions of sections 401 to 416 of Pub. L. 103–182, see section 3451 of this title.

Plan Amendments Not Required Until January 1, 1989

For provisions directing that if any amendments made by subtitle A or subtitle C of title XI [§§1101–1147 and 1171–1177] or title XVIII [§§1801–1899A] of Pub. L. 99–514 require an amendment to any plan, such plan amendment shall not be required to be made before the first plan year beginning on or after Jan. 1, 1989, see section 1140 of Pub. L. 99–514, as amended, set out as a note under section 401 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

§1677f–1. Sampling and averaging; determination of weighted average dumping margin and countervailable subsidy rate

(a) In general

For purposes of determining the export price (or constructed export price) under section 1677a of this title or the normal value under section 1677b of this title, and in carrying out reviews under section 1675 of this title, the administering authority may—

(1) use averaging and statistically valid samples, if there is a significant volume of sales of the subject merchandise or a significant number or types of products, and

(2) decline to take into account adjustments which are insignificant in relation to the price or value of the merchandise.

(b) Selection of averages and samples

The authority to select averages and statistically valid samples shall rest exclusively with the administering authority. The administering authority shall, to the greatest extent possible, consult with the exporters and producers regarding the method to be used to select exporters, producers, or types of products under this section.

(c) Determination of dumping margin

(1) General rule

In determining weighted average dumping margins under section 1673b(d), 1673d(c), or 1675(a) of this title, the administering authority shall determine the individual weighted average dumping margin for each known exporter and producer of the subject merchandise.

(2) Exception

If it is not practicable to make individual weighted average dumping margin determinations under paragraph (1) because of the large number of exporters or producers involved in the investigation or review, the administering authority may determine the weighted average dumping margins for a reasonable number of exporters or producers by limiting its examination to—

(A) a sample of exporters, producers, or types of products that is statistically valid based on the information available to the administering authority at the time of selection, or

(B) exporters and producers accounting for the largest volume of the subject merchandise from the exporting country that can be reasonably examined.

(d) Determination of less than fair value

(1) Investigations

(A) In general

In an investigation under part II of this subtitle, the administering authority shall determine whether the subject merchandise is being sold in the United States at less than fair value—

(i) by comparing the weighted average of the normal values to the weighted average of the export prices (and constructed export prices) for comparable merchandise, or

(ii) by comparing the normal values of individual transactions to the export prices (or constructed export prices) of individual transactions for comparable merchandise.

(B) Exception

The administering authority may determine whether the subject merchandise is being sold in the United States at less than fair value by comparing the weighted average of the normal values to the export prices (or constructed export prices) of individual transactions for comparable merchandise, if—

(i) there is a pattern of export prices (or constructed export prices) for comparable merchandise that differ significantly among purchasers, regions, or periods of time, and

(ii) the administering authority explains why such differences cannot be taken into account using a method described in paragraph (1)(A)(i) or (ii).

(2) Reviews

In a review under section 1675 of this title, when comparing export prices (or constructed export prices) of individual transactions to the weighted average price of sales of the foreign like product, the administering authority shall limit its averaging of prices to a period not exceeding the calendar month that corresponds most closely to the calendar month of the individual export sale.

(e) Determination of countervailable subsidy rate

(1) General rule

In determining countervailable subsidy rates under section 1671b(d), 1671d(c), or 1675(a) of this title, the administering authority shall determine an individual countervailable subsidy rate for each known exporter or producer of the subject merchandise.

(2) Exception

If the administering authority determines that it is not practicable to determine individual countervailable subsidy rates under paragraph (1) because of the large number of exporters or producers involved in the investigation or review, the administering authority may—

(A) determine individual countervailable subsidy rates for a reasonable number of exporters or producers by limiting its examination to—

(i) a sample of exporters or producers that the administering authority determines is statistically valid based on the information available to the administering authority at the time of selection, or

(ii) exporters and producers accounting for the largest volume of the subject merchandise from the exporting country that the administering authority determines can be reasonably examined; or


(B) determine a single country-wide subsidy rate to be applied to all exporters and producers.


The individual countervailable subsidy rates determined under subparagraph (A) shall be used to determine the all-others rate under section 1671d(c)(5) of this title.

(f) Adjustment of antidumping duty in certain proceedings relating to imports from nonmarket economy countries

(1) In general

If the administering authority determines, with respect to a class or kind of merchandise from a nonmarket economy country for which an antidumping duty is determined using normal value pursuant to section 1677b(c) of this title, that—

(A) pursuant to section 1671(a)(1) of this title, a countervailable subsidy (other than an export subsidy referred to in section 1677a(c)(1)(C) of this title) has been provided with respect to the class or kind of merchandise,

(B) such countervailable subsidy has been demonstrated to have reduced the average price of imports of the class or kind of merchandise during the relevant period, and

(C) the administering authority can reasonably estimate the extent to which the countervailable subsidy referred to in subparagraph (B), in combination with the use of normal value determined pursuant to section 1677b(c) of this title, has increased the weighted average dumping margin for the class or kind of merchandise,


the administering authority shall, except as provided in paragraph (2), reduce the antidumping duty by the amount of the increase in the weighted average dumping margin estimated by the administering authority under subparagraph (C).

(2) Maximum reduction in antidumping duty

The administering authority may not reduce the antidumping duty applicable to a class or kind of merchandise from a nonmarket economy country under this subsection by more than the portion of the countervailing duty rate attributable to a countervailable subsidy that is provided with respect to the class or kind of merchandise and that meets the conditions described in subparagraphs (A), (B), and (C) of paragraph (1).

(June 17, 1930, ch. 497, title VII, §777A, as added Pub. L. 98–573, title VI, §620(a), Oct. 30, 1984, 98 Stat. 3039; amended Pub. L. 103–465, title II, §§229(a), 269(a), (b)(1), Dec. 8, 1994, 108 Stat. 4889, 4916; Pub. L. 112–99, §2(a), Mar. 13, 2012, 126 Stat. 265.)

Amendments

2012—Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 112–99 added subsec. (f).

1994Pub. L. 103–465, §269(b)(1), inserted "and countervailable subsidy rate" after "margin" in section catchline.

Pub. L. 103–465, §269(a), added subsec. (e).

Pub. L. 103–465, §229(a), amended section generally, substituting present provisions for provisions authorizing use of averaging or generally recognized sampling techniques for purposes of determining United States price or foreign market value and for purposes of annual reviews under section 1675 of this title, and providing for selection of samples and averages by administering authority.

Effective Date of 2012 Amendment

Pub. L. 112–99, §2(b), Mar. 13, 2012, 126 Stat. 266, provided that: "Subsection (f) of section 777A of the Tariff Act of 1930 [19 U.S.C. 1677f–1(f)], as added by subsection (a) of this section, applies to—

"(1) all investigations and reviews initiated pursuant to title VII of that Act (19 U.S.C. 1671 et seq.) on or after the date of the enactment of this Act [Mar. 13, 2012]; and

"(2) subject to subsection (c) of section 129 of the Uruguay Round Agreements Act (19 U.S.C. 3538), all determinations issued under subsection (b)(2) of that section on or after the date of the enactment of this Act."

Effective Date of 1994 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 103–465 effective, except as otherwise provided, on the date on which the WTO Agreement enters into force with respect to the United States (Jan. 1, 1995), and applicable with respect to investigations, reviews, and inquiries initiated and petitions filed under specified provisions of this chapter after such date, see section 291 of Pub. L. 103–465, set out as a note under section 1671 of this title.

Effective Date

Section applicable with respect to investigations initiated by petition or by the administering authority under parts I and II of this subtitle, and to reviews begun under section 1675 of this title, on or after Oct. 30, 1984, see section 626(b)(1) of Pub. L. 98–573, as amended, set out as an Effective Date of 1984 Amendment note under section 1671 of this title.

§1677g. Interest on certain overpayments and underpayments

(a) General rule

Interest shall be payable on overpayments and underpayments of amounts deposited on merchandise entered, or withdrawn from warehouse, for consumption on and after—

(1) the date of publication of a countervailing or antidumping duty order under this subtitle or section 1303 1 of this title, or

(2) the date of a finding under the Antidumping Act, 1921.

(b) Rate

The rate of interest payable under subsection (a) for any period of time is the rate of interest established under section 6621 of title 26 for such period.

(June 17, 1930, ch. 497, title VII, §778, as added Pub. L. 96–39, title I, §101, July 26, 1979, 93 Stat. 188; amended Pub. L. 98–573, title VI, §621, Oct. 30, 1984, 98 Stat. 3039; Pub. L. 99–514, §2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095.)

References in Text

Section 1303 of this title, referred to in subsec. (a)(1), is defined in section 1677(26) of this title to mean section 1330 as in effect on the day before Jan. 1, 1995.

The Antidumping Act, 1921, referred to in subsec. (a)(2), is act May 27, 1921, ch. 14, title II, 42 Stat. 11, as amended, which was classified generally to sections 160 to 171 of this title, and was repealed by Pub. L. 96–39, title I, §106(a), July 26, 1979, 93 Stat. 193.

Amendments

1986—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 99–514 substituted "Internal Revenue Code of 1986" for "Internal Revenue Code of 1954", which for purposes of codification was translated as "title 26" thus requiring no change in text.

1984—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 98–573 amended subsec. (a) generally, substituting provisions making interest payable on and after the date of publication of a countervailing or antidumping duty order under this subtitle or section 1303 of this title or the date of a finding under the Antidumping Act, 1921 for provisions making interest payable on and after the date on which notice of an affirmative determination by the Commission under section 1671d(b) or 1673d(b) of this title with respect to such merchandise was published.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 98–573 amended subsec. (b) generally, substituting provisions that the rate of interest payable under subsec. (a) for any period of time is the rate of interest established under section 6621 of title 26 for such period for provision that the rate at which such interest was payable would be 8 percent per annum or, if higher, the rate in effect under section 6621 of title 26 on the date on which the rate or amount of the duty was finally determined.

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 98–573 applicable with respect to merchandise that is unliquidated on or after Nov. 4, 1984, see section 626(b)(4) of Pub. L. 98–573, set out as a note under section 1671 of this title.

1 See References in Text note below.

§1677h. Drawback treatment

For purposes of any law relating to the drawback of customs duties, countervailing duties and antidumping duties imposed by this subtitle shall not be treated as being regular customs duties.

(June 17, 1930, ch. 497, title VII, §779, as added Pub. L. 98–573, title VI, §622(a)(2), Oct. 30, 1984, 98 Stat. 3039; amended Pub. L. 100–418, title I, §1334(a), (b)(1), Aug. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 1209, 1210.)

Amendments

1988Pub. L. 100–418 substituted "Drawback treatment" for "Drawbacks" in section catchline and "not be treated as being regular" for "be treated as any other" in text.

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 100–418 applicable with respect to articles entered, or withdrawn from warehouse for consumption, on or after Aug. 23, 1988, see section 1337(d) of Pub. L. 100–418, set out as a note under section 1671 of this title.

Effective Date

Section effective Oct. 30, 1984, see section 626(a) of Pub. L. 98–573, set out as an Effective Date of 1984 Amendment note under section 1671 of this title.

§1677i. Downstream product monitoring

(a) Petition requesting monitoring

(1) In general

A domestic producer of an article that is like a component part or a downstream product may petition the administering authority to designate a downstream product for monitoring under subsection (b). The petition shall specify—

(A) the downstream product,

(B) the component product incorporated into such downstream product, and

(C) the reasons for suspecting that the imposition of antidumping or countervailing duties has resulted in a diversion of exports of the component part into increased production and exportation to the United States of such downstream product.

(2) Determination regarding petition

Within 14 days after receiving a petition submitted under paragraph (1), the administering authority shall determine—

(A) whether there is a reasonable likelihood that imports into the United States of the downstream product will increase as an indirect result of any diversion with respect to the component part, and

(B) whether—

(i) the component part is already subject to monitoring to aid in the enforcement of a bilateral arrangement (within the meaning of section 804 of the Trade and Tariff Act of 1984),

(ii) merchandise related to the component part and manufactured in the same foreign country in which the component part is manufactured has been the subject of a significant number of investigations suspended under section 1671c or 1673c of this title or countervailing or antidumping duty orders issued under this subtitle or section 1303 1 of this title, or

(iii) merchandise manufactured or exported by the manufacturer or exporter of the component part that is similar in description and use to the component part has been the subject of at least 2 investigations suspended under section 1671c or 1673c of this title or countervailing or antidumping duty orders issued under this subtitle or section 1303 1 of this title.

(3) Factors to take into account

In making a determination under paragraph (2)(A), the administering authority may, if appropriate, take into account such factors as—

(A) the value of the component part in relation to the value of the downstream product,

(B) the extent to which the component part has been substantially transformed as a result of its incorporation into the downstream product, and

(C) the relationship between the producers of component parts and producers of downstream products.

(4) Publication of determination

The administering authority shall publish in the Federal Register notice of each determination made under paragraph (2) and, if the determination made under paragraph (2)(A) and a determination made under any subparagraph of paragraph (2)(B) are affirmative, shall transmit a copy of such determinations and the petition to the Commission.

(5) Determinations not subject to judicial review

Notwithstanding any other provision of law, any determination made by the administering authority under paragraph (2) shall not be subject to judicial review.

(b) Monitoring by Commission

(1) In general

If the determination made under subsection (a)(2)(A) and a determination made under any clause of subsection (a)(2)(B) with respect to a petition are affirmative, the Commission shall immediately commence monitoring of trade in the downstream product that is the subject of the determination made under subsection (a)(2)(A). If the Commission finds that imports of a downstream product being monitored increased during any calendar quarter by 5 percent or more over the preceding quarter, the Commission shall analyze that increase in the context of overall economic conditions in the product sector.

(2) Reports

The Commission shall make quarterly reports to the administering authority regarding the monitoring and analyses conducted under paragraph (1). The Commission shall make the reports available to the public.

(c) Action on basis of monitoring reports

The administering authority shall review the information in the reports submitted by the Commission under subsection (b)(2) and shall—

(1) consider the information in determining whether to initiate an investigation under section 1671a(a) or 1673a(a) of this title regarding any downstream product, and

(2) request the Commission to cease monitoring any downstream product if the information indicates that imports into the United States are not increasing and there is no reasonable likelihood of diversion with respect to component parts.

(d) Definitions

For purposes of this section—

(1) The term "component part" means any imported article that—

(A) during the 5-year period ending on the date on which the petition is filed under subsection (a), has been subject to—

(i) a countervailing or antidumping duty order issued under this subtitle or section 1303 1 of this title that requires the deposit of estimated countervailing or antidumping duties imposed at a rate of at least 15 percent ad valorem, or

(ii) an agreement entered into under section 1671c, 1673c, or 1303 1 of this title after a preliminary affirmative determination under section 1671b(b), 1673b(b)(1), or 1303 1 of this title was made by the administering authority which included a determination that the estimated net countervailable subsidy was at least 15 percent ad valorem or that the estimated average amount by which the normal value exceeded the export price (or the constructed export price) was at least 15 percent ad valorem, and


(B) because of its inherent characteristics, is routinely used as a major part, component, assembly, subassembly, or material in a downstream product.


(2) The term "downstream product" means any manufactured article—

(A) which is imported into the United States, and

(B) into which is incorporated any component part.

(June 17, 1930, ch. 497, title VII, §780, as added Pub. L. 100–418, title I, §1320(a), Aug. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 1189; amended Pub. L. 103–465, title II, §§233(a)(1)(E), (2)(A)(vi), 261(d)(1)(B)(iv), 270(a)(1)(M), Dec. 8, 1994, 108 Stat. 4898, 4910, 4917.)

References in Text

Section 804 of the Trade and Tariff Act of 1984, referred to in subsec. (a)(2)(B)(i), is section 804 of Pub. L. 98–573, which is set out as a note under section 2253 of this title.

Section 1303 of this title, referred to in subsecs. (a)(2)(B)(ii), (iii) and (d)(1)(A)(i), (ii), is defined in section 1677(26) of this title to mean section 1330 as in effect on the day before Jan. 1, 1995.

Amendments

1994—Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 103–465, §261(d)(1)(B)(iv), substituted "or 1673a(a)" for ", 1673a(a), or 1303".

Subsec. (d)(1)(A)(ii). Pub. L. 103–465, §270(a)(1)(M), inserted "countervailable" before "subsidy".

Pub. L. 103–465, §233(a)(1)(E), (2)(A)(vi), substituted "normal value" for "foreign market value" and "export price (or the constructed export price)" for "United States price".

Effective Date of 1994 Amendment

Amendment by sections 233(a)(1)(E), (2)(A)(vi) and 270(a)(1)(M) of Pub. L. 103–465 effective, except as otherwise provided, on the date on which the WTO Agreement enters into force with respect to the United States (Jan. 1, 1995), and applicable with respect to investigations, reviews, and inquiries initiated and petitions filed under specified provisions of this chapter after such date, see section 291 of Pub. L. 103–465, set out as a note under section 1671 of this title.

Amendment by section 261(d)(1)(B)(iv) of Pub. L. 103–465 effective on the effective date of title II of Pub. L. 103–465, Jan. 1, 1995, see section 261(d)(2) of Pub. L. 103–465, set out as a note under section 1315 of this title.

1 See References in Text note below.

§1677j. Prevention of circumvention of antidumping and countervailing duty orders

(a) Merchandise completed or assembled in United States

(1) In general

If—

(A) merchandise sold in the United States is of the same class or kind as any other merchandise that is the subject of—

(i) an antidumping duty order issued under section 1673e of this title,

(ii) a finding issued under the Antidumping Act, 1921, or

(iii) a countervailing duty order issued under section 1671e of this title or section 1303 1 of this title,


(B) such merchandise sold in the United States is completed or assembled in the United States from parts or components produced in the foreign country with respect to which such order or finding applies,

(C) the process of assembly or completion in the United States is minor or insignificant, and

(D) the value of the parts or components referred to in subparagraph (B) is a significant portion of the total value of the merchandise,


the administering authority, after taking into account any advice provided by the Commission under subsection (e), may include within the scope of such order or finding the imported parts or components referred to in subparagraph (B) that are used in the completion or assembly of the merchandise in the United States at any time such order or finding is in effect.

(2) Determination of whether process is minor or insignificant

In determining whether the process of assembly or completion is minor or insignificant under paragraph (1)(C), the administering authority shall take into account—

(A) the level of investment in the United States,

(B) the level of research and development in the United States,

(C) the nature of the production process in the United States,

(D) the extent of production facilities in the United States, and

(E) whether the value of the processing performed in the United States represents a small proportion of the value of the merchandise sold in the United States.

(3) Factors to consider

In determining whether to include parts or components in a countervailing or antidumping duty order or finding under paragraph (1), the administering authority shall take into account such factors as—

(A) the pattern of trade, including sourcing patterns,

(B) whether the manufacturer or exporter of the parts or components is affiliated with the person who assembles or completes the merchandise sold in the United States from the parts or components produced in the foreign country with respect to which the order or finding described in paragraph (1) applies, and

(C) whether imports into the United States of the parts or components produced in such foreign country have increased after the initiation of the investigation which resulted in the issuance of such order or finding.

(b) Merchandise completed or assembled in other foreign countries

(1) In general

If—

(A) merchandise imported into the United States is of the same class or kind as any merchandise produced in a foreign country that is the subject of—

(i) an antidumping duty order issued under section 1673e of this title,

(ii) a finding issued under the Antidumping Act, 1921, or

(iii) a countervailing duty order issued under section 1671e of this title or section 1303 1 of this title,


(B) before importation into the United States, such imported merchandise is completed or assembled in another foreign country from merchandise which—

(i) is subject to such order or finding, or

(ii) is produced in the foreign country with respect to which such order or finding applies,


(C) the process of assembly or completion in the foreign country referred to in subparagraph (B) is minor or insignificant,

(D) the value of the merchandise produced in the foreign country to which the antidumping duty order applies is a significant portion of the total value of the merchandise exported to the United States, and

(E) the administering authority determines that action is appropriate under this paragraph to prevent evasion of such order or finding,


the administering authority, after taking into account any advice provided by the Commission under subsection (e), may include such imported merchandise within the scope of such order or finding at any time such order or finding is in effect.

(2) Determination of whether process is minor or insignificant

In determining whether the process of assembly or completion is minor or insignificant under paragraph (1)(C), the administering authority shall take into account—

(A) the level of investment in the foreign country,

(B) the level of research and development in the foreign country,

(C) the nature of the production process in the foreign country,

(D) the extent of production facilities in the foreign country, and

(E) whether the value of the processing performed in the foreign country represents a small proportion of the value of the merchandise imported into the United States.

(3) Factors to consider

In determining whether to include merchandise assembled or completed in a foreign country in a countervailing duty order or an antidumping duty order or finding under paragraph (1), the administering authority shall take into account such factors as—

(A) the pattern of trade, including sourcing patterns,

(B) whether the manufacturer or exporter of the merchandise described in paragraph (1)(B) is affiliated with the person who uses the merchandise described in paragraph (1)(B) to assemble or complete in the foreign country the merchandise that is subsequently imported into the United States, and

(C) whether imports into the foreign country of the merchandise described in paragraph (1)(B) have increased after the initiation of the investigation which resulted in the issuance of such order or finding.

(c) Minor alterations of merchandise

(1) In general

The class or kind of merchandise subject to—

(A) an investigation under this subtitle,

(B) an antidumping duty order issued under section 1673e of this title,

(C) a finding issued under the Antidumping Act, 1921, or

(D) a countervailing duty order issued under section 1671e of this title or section 1303 1 of this title,


shall include articles altered in form or appearance in minor respects (including raw agricultural products that have undergone minor processing), whether or not included in the same tariff classification.

(2) Exception

Paragraph (1) shall not apply with respect to altered merchandise if the administering authority determines that it would be unnecessary to consider the altered merchandise within the scope of the investigation, order, or finding.

(d) Later-developed merchandise

(1) In general

For purposes of determining whether merchandise developed after an investigation is initiated under this subtitle or section 1303 1 of this title (hereafter in this paragraph referred to as the "later-developed merchandise") is within the scope of an outstanding antidumping or countervailing duty order issued under this subtitle or section 1303 1 of this title as a result of such investigation, the administering authority shall consider whether—

(A) the later-developed merchandise has the same general physical characteristics as the merchandise with respect to which the order was originally issued (hereafter in this paragraph referred to as the "earlier product"),

(B) the expectations of the ultimate purchasers of the later-developed merchandise are the same as for the earlier product,

(C) the ultimate use of the earlier product and the later-developed merchandise are the same,

(D) the later-developed merchandise is sold through the same channels of trade as the earlier product, and

(E) the later-developed merchandise is advertised and displayed in a manner similar to the earlier product.


The administering authority shall take into account any advice provided by the Commission under subsection (e) before making a determination under this subparagraph.

(2) Exclusion from orders

The administering authority may not exclude a later-developed merchandise from a countervailing or antidumping duty order merely because the merchandise—

(A) is classified under a tariff classification other than that identified in the petition or the administering authority's prior notices during the proceeding, or

(B) permits the purchaser to perform additional functions, unless such additional functions constitute the primary use of the merchandise and the cost of the additional functions constitute more than a significant proportion of the total cost of production of the merchandise.

(e) Commission advice

(1) Notification to Commission of proposed action

Before making a determination—

(A) under subsection (a) with respect to merchandise completed or assembled in the United States (other than minor completion or assembly),

(B) under subsection (b) with respect to merchandise completed or assembled in other foreign countries, or

(C) under subsection (d) with respect to any later-developed merchandise which incorporates a significant technological advance or significant alteration of an earlier product,


with respect to an antidumping or countervailing duty order or finding as to which the Commission has made an affirmative injury determination, the administering authority shall notify the Commission of the proposed inclusion of such merchandise in such countervailing or antidumping order or finding. Notwithstanding any other provision of law, a decision by the administering authority regarding whether any merchandise is within a category for which notice is required under this paragraph is not subject to judicial review.

(2) Request for consultation

After receiving notice under paragraph (1), the Commission may request consultations with the administering authority regarding the inclusion. Upon the request of the Commission, the administering authority shall consult with the Commission and any such consultation shall be completed within 15 days after the date of the request.

(3) Commission advice

If the Commission believes, after consultation under paragraph (2), that a significant injury issue is presented by the proposed inclusion, the Commission may provide written advice to the administering authority as to whether the inclusion would be inconsistent with the affirmative determination of the Commission on which the order or finding is based. If the Commission decides to provide such written advice, it shall promptly notify the administering authority of its intention to do so, and must provide such advice within 60 days after the date of notification under paragraph (1). For purposes of formulating its advice with respect to merchandise completed or assembled in the United States from parts or components produced in a foreign country, the Commission shall consider whether the inclusion of such parts or components taken as a whole would be inconsistent with its prior affirmative determination.

(f) Time limits for administering authority determinations

The administering authority shall, to the maximum extent practicable, make the determinations under this section within 300 days from the date of the initiation of a countervailing duty or antidumping circumvention inquiry under this section.

(June 17, 1930, ch. 497, title VII, §781, as added Pub. L. 100–418, title I, §1321(a), Aug. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 1192; amended Pub. L. 103–465, title II, §230, Dec. 8, 1994, 108 Stat. 4891.)

References in Text

The Antidumping Act, 1921, referred to in subsecs. (a)(1)(A)(ii), (b)(1)(A)(ii), and (c)(1)(C), is act May 27, 1921, ch. 14, title II, 42 Stat. 11, as amended, which was classified generally to sections 160 to 171 of this title, and was repealed by Pub. L. 96–39, title I, §106(a), July 26, 1979, 93 Stat. 193.

Section 1303 of this title, referred to in subsecs. (a)(1)(A)(iii), (b)(1)(A)(iii), (c)(1)(D), and (d)(1), is defined in section 1677(26) of this title to mean section 1330 as in effect on the day before Jan. 1, 1995.

Amendments

1994—Subsecs. (a), (b). Pub. L. 103–465, §230(a), amended subsecs. (a) and (b) generally, to include provisions relating to whether process of assembly or completion of merchandise in United States or foreign countries is minor or insignificant.

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 103–465, §230(b), added subsec. (f).

Effective Date of 1994 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 103–465 effective, except as otherwise provided, on the date on which the WTO Agreement enters into force with respect to the United States (Jan. 1, 1995), and applicable with respect to investigations, reviews, and inquiries initiated and petitions filed under specified provisions of this chapter after such date, see section 291 of Pub. L. 103–465, set out as a note under section 1671 of this title.

Effective Date

Section applicable with respect to articles entered, or withdrawn from warehouse for consumption, on or after Aug. 23, 1988, see section 1337(d) of Pub. L. 100–418, set out as an Effective Date of 1988 Amendment note under section 1671 of this title.

1 See References in Text note below.

§1677k. Third-country dumping

(a) Definitions

For purposes of this section:

(1)(A) The term "Agreement" means the Agreement on Implementation of Article VI of the GATT 1994 (relating to antidumping measures).

(B) The term "GATT 1994" has the meaning given that term in section 3501(1)(B) of this title.

(2) The term "Agreement country" means a foreign country that has accepted the Agreement.

(3) The term "Trade Representative" means the United States Trade Representative.

(b) Petition by domestic industry

(1) A domestic industry that produces a product that is like or directly competitive with merchandise produced by a foreign country (whether or not an Agreement country) may, if it has reason to believe that—

(A) such merchandise is being dumped in an Agreement country; and

(B) such domestic industry is being materially injured, or threatened with material injury, by reason of such dumping;


submit a petition to the Trade Representative that alleges the elements referred to in subparagraphs (A) and (B) and requests the Trade Representative to take action under subsection (c) on behalf of the domestic industry.

(2) A petition submitted under paragraph (1) shall contain such detailed information as the Trade Representative may require in support of the allegations in the petition.

(c) Application for antidumping action on behalf of domestic industry

(1) If the Trade Representative, on the basis of the information contained in a petition submitted under paragraph (1), determines that there is a reasonable basis for the allegations in the petition, the Trade Representative shall submit to the appropriate authority of the Agreement country where the alleged dumping is occurring an application pursuant to Article 12 of the Agreement which requests that appropriate antidumping action under the law of that country be taken, on behalf of the United States, with respect to imports into that country of the merchandise concerned.

(2) At the request of the Trade Representative, the appropriate officers of the Department of Commerce and the United States International Trade Commission shall assist the Trade Representative in preparing the application under paragraph (1).

(d) Consultation after submission of application

After submitting an application under subsection (c)(1), the Trade Representative shall seek consultations with the appropriate authority of the Agreement country regarding the request for antidumping action.

(e) Action upon refusal of Agreement country to act

If the appropriate authority of an Agreement country refuses to undertake antidumping measures in response to a request made therefor by the Trade Representative under subsection (c), the Trade Representative shall promptly consult with the domestic industry on whether action under any other law of the United States is appropriate.

(Pub. L. 100–418, title I, §1317, Aug. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 1188; Pub. L. 103–465, title VI, §621(a)(1), Dec. 8, 1994, 108 Stat. 4992.)

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act of 1988, and not as part of the Tariff Act of 1930 which comprises this chapter.

Amendments

1994—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 103–465 designated existing provisions as subpar. (A), substituted "GATT 1994" for "General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade", and added subpar. (B).

Effective Date of 1994 Amendment

Pub. L. 103–465, title VI, §621(b), Dec. 8, 1994, 108 Stat. 4993, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 2171, 2411, 2702, 2905, 2906, 3107, 3111, and 3202 of this title] shall take effect on the date on which the WTO Agreement enters into force with respect to the United States (Jan. 1, 1995)."

§1677l. Antidumping and countervailing duty collections

The Commissioner of U.S. Customs and Border Protection shall before the 60th day of each fiscal year after fiscal year 1994 submit to Congress a report regarding the collection during the preceding fiscal year of duties imposed under the antidumping and countervailing duty laws.

(Pub. L. 103–182, title VI, §691(a), Dec. 8, 1993, 107 Stat. 2223; Pub. L. 114–125, title VIII, §802(d)(2), Feb. 24, 2016, 130 Stat. 210.)

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the North American Free Trade Agreement Implementation Act, and not as part of the Tariff Act of 1930 which comprises this chapter.

Change of Name

"Commissioner of U.S. Customs and Border Protection" substituted for "Commissioner of Customs" in text on authority of section 802(d)(2) of Pub. L. 114–125, set out as a note under section 211 of Title 6, Domestic Security.

Transfer of Functions

For transfer of functions, personnel, assets, and liabilities of the United States Customs Service of the Department of the Treasury, including functions of the Secretary of the Treasury relating thereto, to the Secretary of Homeland Security, and for treatment of related references, see sections 203(1), 551(d), 552(d), and 557 of Title 6, Domestic Security, and the Department of Homeland Security Reorganization Plan of November 25, 2002, as modified, set out as a note under section 542 of Title 6. For establishment of U.S. Customs and Border Protection in the Department of Homeland Security, treated as if included in Pub. L. 107–296 as of Nov. 25, 2002, see section 211 of Title 6, as amended generally by Pub. L. 114–125, and section 802(b) of Pub. L. 114–125, set out as a note under section 211 of Title 6.

§1677m. Conduct of investigations and administrative reviews

(a) Treatment of voluntary responses in countervailing or antidumping duty investigations and reviews

(1) In general

In any investigation under part I or II of this subtitle or a review under section 1675(a) of this title in which the administering authority has, under section 1677f–1(c)(2) of this title or section 1677f–1(e)(2)(A) of this title (whichever is applicable), limited the number of exporters or producers examined, or determined a single country-wide rate, the administering authority shall establish an individual countervailable subsidy rate or an individual weighted average dumping margin for any exporter or producer not initially selected for individual examination under such sections who submits to the administering authority the information requested from exporters or producers selected for examination, if—

(A) such information is so submitted by the date specified—

(i) for exporters and producers that were initially selected for examination, or

(ii) for the foreign government, in a countervailing duty case where the administering authority has determined a single country-wide rate; and


(B) the number of exporters or producers subject to the investigation or review is not so large that any additional individual examination of such exporters or producers would be unduly burdensome to the administering authority and inhibit the timely completion of the investigation or review.

(2) Determination of unduly burdensome

In determining if an individual examination under paragraph (1)(B) would be unduly burdensome, the administering authority may consider the following:

(A) The complexity of the issues or information presented in the proceeding, including questionnaires and any responses thereto.

(B) Any prior experience of the administering authority in the same or similar proceeding.

(C) The total number of investigations under part I or II and reviews under section 1675 of this title being conducted by the administering authority as of the date of the determination.

(D) Such other factors relating to the timely completion of each such investigation and review as the administering authority considers appropriate.

(b) Certification of submissions

Any person providing factual information to the administering authority or the Commission in connection with a proceeding under this subtitle on behalf of the petitioner or any other interested party shall certify that such information is accurate and complete to the best of that person's knowledge.

(c) Difficulties in meeting requirements

(1) Notification by interested party

If an interested party, promptly after receiving a request from the administering authority or the Commission for information, notifies the administering authority or the Commission (as the case may be) that such party is unable to submit the information requested in the requested form and manner, together with a full explanation and suggested alternative forms in which such party is able to submit the information, the administering authority or the Commission (as the case may be) shall consider the ability of the interested party to submit the information in the requested form and manner and may modify such requirements to the extent necessary to avoid imposing an unreasonable burden on that party.

(2) Assistance to interested parties

The administering authority and the Commission shall take into account any difficulties experienced by interested parties, particularly small companies, in supplying information requested by the administering authority or the Commission in connection with investigations and reviews under this subtitle, and shall provide to such interested parties any assistance that is practicable in supplying such information.

(d) Deficient submissions

If the administering authority or the Commission determines that a response to a request for information under this subtitle does not comply with the request, the administering authority or the Commission (as the case may be) shall promptly inform the person submitting the response of the nature of the deficiency and shall, to the extent practicable, provide that person with an opportunity to remedy or explain the deficiency in light of the time limits established for the completion of investigations or reviews under this subtitle. If that person submits further information in response to such deficiency and either—

(1) the administering authority or the Commission (as the case may be) finds that such response is not satisfactory, or

(2) such response is not submitted within the applicable time limits,


then the administering authority or the Commission (as the case may be) may, subject to subsection (e), disregard all or part of the original and subsequent responses.

(e) Use of certain information

In reaching a determination under section 1671b, 1671d, 1673b, 1673d, 1675, or 1675b of this title the administering authority and the Commission shall not decline to consider information that is submitted by an interested party and is necessary to the determination but does not meet all the applicable requirements established by the administering authority or the Commission, if—

(1) the information is submitted by the deadline established for its submission,

(2) the information can be verified,

(3) the information is not so incomplete that it cannot serve as a reliable basis for reaching the applicable determination,

(4) the interested party has demonstrated that it acted to the best of its ability in providing the information and meeting the requirements established by the administering authority or the Commission with respect to the information, and

(5) the information can be used without undue difficulties.

(f) Nonacceptance of submissions

If the administering authority or the Commission declines to accept into the record any information submitted in an investigation or review under this subtitle, it shall, to the extent practicable, provide to the person submitting the information a written explanation of the reasons for not accepting the information.

(g) Public comment on information

Information that is submitted on a timely basis to the administering authority or the Commission during the course of a proceeding under this subtitle shall be subject to comment by other parties to the proceeding within such reasonable time as the administering authority or the Commission shall provide. The administering authority and the Commission, before making a final determination under section 1671d, 1673d, 1675, or 1675b of this title shall cease collecting information and shall provide the parties with a final opportunity to comment on the information obtained by the administering authority or the Commission (as the case may be) upon which the parties have not previously had an opportunity to comment. Comments containing new factual information shall be disregarded.

(h) Termination of investigation or revocation of order for lack of interest

The administering authority may—

(1) terminate an investigation under part I or II of this subtitle with respect to a domestic like product if, prior to publication of an order under section 1671e or 1673e of this title, the administering authority determines that producers accounting for substantially all of the production of that domestic like product have expressed a lack of interest in issuance of an order; and

(2) revoke an order issued under section 1671e or 1673e of this title with respect to a domestic like product, or terminate an investigation suspended under section 1671c or 1673c of this title with respect to a domestic like product, if the administering authority determines that producers accounting for substantially all of the production of that domestic like product, have expressed a lack of interest in the order or suspended investigation.

(i) Verification

The administering authority shall verify all information relied upon in making—

(1) a final determination in an investigation,

(2) a revocation under section 1675(d) of this title, and

(3) a final determination in a review under section 1675(a) of this title, if—

(A) verification is timely requested by an interested party as defined in section 1677(9)(C), (D), (E), (F), or (G) of this title, and

(B) no verification was made under this subparagraph during the 2 immediately preceding reviews and determinations under section 1675(a) of this title of the same order, finding, or notice, except that this clause shall not apply if good cause for verification is shown.

(June 17, 1930, ch. 497, title VII, §782, as added Pub. L. 103–465, title II, §231(a), Dec. 8, 1994, 108 Stat. 4893; amended Pub. L. 114–27, title V, §506, June 29, 2015, 129 Stat. 386.)

Amendments

2015—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 114–27 designated existing provisions as par. (1) and inserted heading, redesignated former par. (1) and subpars. (A) and (B) as subpar. (A) and cls. (i) and (ii), respectively, added par. (2), and redesignated former par. (2) as subpar. (B) of par. (1) and amended it generally. Prior to amendment, subpar. (B) of par. (1) read as follows: "the number of exporters or producers who have submitted such information is not so large that individual examination of such exporters or producers would be unduly burdensome and inhibit the timely completion of the investigation."

Effective Date

Section effective, except as otherwise provided, on the date on which the WTO Agreement enters into force with respect to the United States (Jan. 1, 1995), and applicable with respect to investigations, reviews, and inquiries initiated and petitions filed under specified provisions of this chapter after such date, see section 291 of Pub. L. 103–465, set out as an Effective Date of 1994 Amendment note under section 1671 of this title.

§1677n. Antidumping petitions by third countries

(a) Filing of petition

The government of a WTO member may file with the Trade Representative a petition requesting that an investigation be conducted to determine if—

(1) imports from another country are being sold in the United States at less than fair value, and

(2) an industry in the petitioning country is materially injured by reason of those imports.

(b) Initiation

The Trade Representative, after consultation with the administering authority and the Commission and obtaining the approval of the WTO Council for Trade in Goods, shall determine whether to initiate an investigation described in subsection (a).

(c) Determinations

Upon initiation of an investigation under this section, the Trade Representative shall request the following determinations be made according to substantive and procedural requirements specified by the Trade Representative, notwithstanding any other provision of this subtitle:

(1) The administering authority shall determine whether imports into the United States of the subject merchandise are being sold at less than fair value.

(2) The Commission shall determine whether an industry in the petitioning country is materially injured by reason of imports of the subject merchandise into the United States.

(d) Public comment

An opportunity for public comment shall be provided, as appropriate—

(1) by the Trade Representative, in making the determination required by subsection (b), and

(2) by the administering authority and the Commission, in making the determination required by subsection (c).

(e) Issuance of order

If the administering authority makes an affirmative determination under paragraph (1) of subsection (c), and the Commission makes an affirmative determination under paragraph (2) of subsection (c), the administering authority shall issue an antidumping duty order in accordance with section 1673e of this title and take such other actions as are required by section 1673e of this title.

(f) Reviews of determinations

For purposes of review under section 1516a of this title or review under section 1675 of this title, if an order is issued under subsection (e), the final determinations of the administering authority and the Commission under this section shall be treated as final determinations made under section 1673d of this title.

(g) Access to information

Section 1677f of this title shall apply to investigations under this section, to the extent specified by the Trade Representative, after consultation with the administering authority and the Commission.

(June 17, 1930, ch. 497, title VII, §783, as added Pub. L. 103–465, title II, §232(a), Dec. 8, 1994, 108 Stat. 4897; amended Pub. L. 104–295, §20(b)(17), Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3528.)

Amendments

1996—Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 104–295 substituted "subsection (e)" for "subsection (d)".

Effective Date

Section effective, except as otherwise provided, on the date on which the WTO Agreement enters into force with respect to the United States (Jan. 1, 1995), and applicable with respect to investigations, reviews, and inquiries initiated and petitions filed under specified provisions of this chapter after such date, see section 291 of Pub. L. 103–465, set out as an Effective Date of 1994 Amendment note under section 1671 of this title.