[USC02] 19 USC CHAPTER 7, SUBCHAPTER II: TRADE AGREEMENTS
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19 USC CHAPTER 7, SUBCHAPTER II: TRADE AGREEMENTS
From Title 19—CUSTOMS DUTIESCHAPTER 7—TRADE EXPANSION PROGRAM

SUBCHAPTER II—TRADE AGREEMENTS

Part I—General Authority

§1821. Basic authority for trade agreements

(a) Determination by President; trade agreements; modification or continuance of existing duties

Whenever the president determines that any existing duties or other import restrictions of any foreign country or the United States are unduly burdening and restricting the foreign trade of the United States and that any of the purposes stated in section 1801 of this title will be promoted thereby, the President may—

(1) after June 30, 1962, and before July 1, 1967, enter into trade agreements with foreign countries or instrumentalities thereof; and

(2) proclaim such modification or continuance of any existing duty or other import restriction, such continuance of existing duty-free or excise treatment, or such additional import restrictions, as he determines to be required or appropriate to carry out any such trade agreement.

(b) Restrictions on decrease or increase in rate of duty

Except as otherwise provided in this subchapter, no proclamation pursuant to subsection (a) shall be made—

(1) decreasing any rate of duty to a rate below 50 percent of the rate existing on July 1, 1962; or

(2) increasing any rate of duty to (or imposing) a rate more than 50 percent above the rate existing on July 1, 1934.

(Pub. L. 87–794, title II, §201, Oct. 11, 1962, 76 Stat. 872.)

Wood-Wind and Parts of Wood-Wind Instruments

Pub. L. 90–234, §2(b)(2), Dec. 30, 1967, 81 Stat. 752, provided that: "The amendments made by the first section of this Act, insofar as such amendments relate to items 725.24 and 726.70 of the Tariff Schedules of the United States, shall not affect the authority of the President contained in section 201(a)(2) of the Trade Expansion Act of 1962 [subsec. (a)(2) of this section]."

Dicyandiamide and Limestone: Duty-Free Entry

Duty-free treatment pursuant to this chapter of dicyandiamide in item 425.40 and limestone when imported for use in manufacture of cement in item 513.34 of the Tariff Schedules of the United States, by provision for non-application of subsec. (b)(1) of this section, see section 1823 of this title.

§1822. Repealed. Pub. L. 93–618, title VI, §602(d), Jan. 3, 1975, 88 Stat. 2072

Section, Pub. L. 87–794, title II, §202, Oct. 11, 1962, 76 Stat. 872, made special provision for low-rate articles.

§1823. Waiver of limitation on decrease in duty and negotiation and staging requirements for dicyandiamide and limestone

For purposes of the Trade Expansion Act of 1962 [19 U.S.C. 1801 et seq.], section 201(b)(1) [19 U.S.C. 1821(b)(1)] (relating to limit on decrease in duty), sections 221, 223, and 224 [19 U.S.C. 1841, 1843, 1844] (relating to certain requirements concerning negotiations), and section 253 [19 U.S.C. 1883] (relating to staging requirements) of such Act shall not apply with respect to dicyandiamide provided for in item 425.40 of the Tariff Schedules of the United States, and shall not apply with respect to limestone, when imported to be used in the manufacture of cement, provided for in item 513.34 of such Schedules.

(Pub. L. 90–14, May 5, 1967, 81 Stat. 14.)

References in Text

The Trade Expansion Act of 1962, referred to in text, is Pub. L. 87–794, Oct. 11, 1962, 76 Stat. 872, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1801 of this title and Tables.

Sections 221, 223, 224 and 253 of the Trade Expansion Act of 1962, referred to in text, were repealed by Pub. L. 93–618, title VI, §602(d), Jan. 3, 1975, 88 Stat. 2072.

The Tariff Schedules of the United States, referred to in text, to be treated as a reference to the Harmonized Tariff Schedule pursuant to section 3012 of this title. The Harmonized Tariff Schedule is not set out in the Code. See Publication of Harmonized Tariff Schedule note set out under section 1202 of this title.

Codification

Section was not enacted as part of the Trade Expansion Act of 1962 which is classified principally to this chapter.

Part II—European Economic Community

§§1831 to 1833. Repealed. Pub. L. 93–618, title VI, §602(d), Jan. 3, 1975, 88 Stat. 2072

Section 1831, Pub. L. 87–794, title II, §211, Oct. 11, 1962, 76 Stat. 873, made provision for trade agreements with the European Economic Community.

Section 1832, Pub. L. 87–794, title II, §212, Oct. 11, 1962, 76 Stat. 874, made special provision for trade agreements covering agricultural commodities.

Section 1833, Pub. L. 87–794, title II, §213, Oct. 11, 1962, 76 Stat. 874, made special provision for trade agreements covering tropical agricultural and forestry commodities.

Part III—Requirements Concerning Negotiations

§§1841 to 1846. Repealed. Pub. L. 93–618, title VI, §602(d), Jan. 3, 1975, 88 Stat. 2072

Section 1841, Pub. L. 87–794, title II, §221, Oct. 11, 1962, 76 Stat. 874, made provision for the giving of advice by the Tariff Commission [now the United States International Trade Commission] concerning trade agreements. See section 2151 of this title.

Section 1842, Pub. L. 87–794, title II, §222, Oct. 11, 1962, 76 Stat. 875, made provision for the giving of advice by other sources concerning trade agreements. See section 2152 of this title.

Section 1843, Pub. L. 87–794, title II, §223, Oct. 11, 1962, 76 Stat. 875, provided for public hearings in connection with proposed trade agreements. See section 2153 of this title.

Section 1844, Pub. L. 87–794, title II, §224, Oct. 11, 1962, 76 Stat. 875, set out prerequisites for offers for modification or continuance of duties or other import restrictions, or continuance of duty-free or excise treatment. See section 2154 of this title.

Section 1845, Pub. L. 87–794, title II, §225, Oct. 11, 1962, 76 Stat. 876, provided for the reservation of articles from trade negotiations. See section 2137 of this title.

Section 1846, Pub. L. 87–794, title II, §226, Oct. 11, 1962, 76 Stat. 876, provided for the transmission of agreements to Congress. See section 2212 of this title.

Part IV—National Security

§1861. Repealed. Pub. L. 93–618, title VI, §602(d), Jan. 3, 1975, 88 Stat. 2072

Section, Pub. L. 87–794, title II, §231, Oct. 11, 1962, 76 Stat. 876; Pub. L. 88–205, pt. IV, §402, Dec. 16, 1963, 77 Stat. 390, covered products of Communist countries or areas.

§1862. Safeguarding national security

(a) Prohibition on decrease or elimination of duties or other import restrictions if such reduction or elimination would threaten to impair national security

No action shall be taken pursuant to section 1821(a) of this title or pursuant to section 1351 of this title to decrease or eliminate the duty or other import restrictions on any article if the President determines that such reduction or elimination would threaten to impair the national security.

(b) Investigations by Secretary of Commerce to determine effects on national security of imports of articles; consultation with Secretary of Defense and other officials; hearings; assessment of defense requirements; report to President; publication in Federal Register; promulgation of regulations

(1)(A) Upon request of the head of any department or agency, upon application of an interested party, or upon his own motion, the Secretary of Commerce (hereafter in this section referred to as the "Secretary") shall immediately initiate an appropriate investigation to determine the effects on the national security of imports of the article which is the subject of such request, application, or motion.

(B) The Secretary shall immediately provide notice to the Secretary of Defense of any investigation initiated under this section.

(2)(A) In the course of any investigation conducted under this subsection, the Secretary shall—

(i) consult with the Secretary of Defense regarding the methodological and policy questions raised in any investigation initiated under paragraph (1),

(ii) seek information and advice from, and consult with, appropriate officers of the United States, and

(iii) if it is appropriate and after reasonable notice, hold public hearings or otherwise afford interested parties an opportunity to present information and advice relevant to such investigation.


(B) Upon the request of the Secretary, the Secretary of Defense shall provide the Secretary an assessment of the defense requirements of any article that is the subject of an investigation conducted under this section.

(3)(A) By no later than the date that is 270 days after the date on which an investigation is initiated under paragraph (1) with respect to any article, the Secretary shall submit to the President a report on the findings of such investigation with respect to the effect of the importation of such article in such quantities or under such circumstances upon the national security and, based on such findings, the recommendations of the Secretary for action or inaction under this section. If the Secretary finds that such article is being imported into the United States in such quantities or under such circumstances as to threaten to impair the national security, the Secretary shall so advise the President in such report.

(B) Any portion of the report submitted by the Secretary under subparagraph (A) which does not contain classified information or proprietary information shall be published in the Federal Register.

(4) The Secretary shall prescribe such procedural regulations as may be necessary to carry out the provisions of this subsection.

(c) Adjustment of imports; determination by President; report to Congress; additional actions; publication in Federal Register

(1)(A) Within 90 days after receiving a report submitted under subsection (b)(3)(A) in which the Secretary finds that an article is being imported into the United States in such quantities or under such circumstances as to threaten to impair the national security, the President shall—

(i) determine whether the President concurs with the finding of the Secretary, and

(ii) if the President concurs, determine the nature and duration of the action that, in the judgment of the President, must be taken to adjust the imports of the article and its derivatives so that such imports will not threaten to impair the national security.


(B) If the President determines under subparagraph (A) to take action to adjust imports of an article and its derivatives, the President shall implement that action by no later than the date that is 15 days after the day on which the President determines to take action under subparagraph (A).

(2) By no later than the date that is 30 days after the date on which the President makes any determinations under paragraph (1), the President shall submit to the Congress a written statement of the reasons why the President has decided to take action, or refused to take action, under paragraph (1). Such statement shall be included in the report published under subsection (e).

(3)(A) If—

(i) the action taken by the President under paragraph (1) is the negotiation of an agreement which limits or restricts the importation into, or the exportation to, the United States of the article that threatens to impair national security, and

(ii) either—

(I) no such agreement is entered into before the date that is 180 days after the date on which the President makes the determination under paragraph (1)(A) to take such action, or

(II) such an agreement that has been entered into is not being carried out or is ineffective in eliminating the threat to the national security posed by imports of such article,


the President shall take such other actions as the President deems necessary to adjust the imports of such article so that such imports will not threaten to impair the national security. The President shall publish in the Federal Register notice of any additional actions being taken under this section by reason of this subparagraph.

(B) If—

(i) clauses (i) and (ii) of subparagraph (A) apply, and

(ii) the President determines not to take any additional actions under this subsection,


the President shall publish in the Federal Register such determination and the reasons on which such determination is based.

(d) 1 Domestic production for national defense; impact of foreign competition on economic welfare of domestic industries

For the purposes of this section, the Secretary and the President shall, in the light of the requirements of national security and without excluding other relevant factors, give consideration to domestic production needed for projected national defense requirements, the capacity of domestic industries to meet such requirements, existing and anticipated availabilities of the human resources, products, raw materials, and other supplies and services essential to the national defense, the requirements of growth of such industries and such supplies and services including the investment, exploration, and development necessary to assure such growth, and the importation of goods in terms of their quantities, availabilities, character, and use as those affect such industries and the capacity of the United States to meet national security requirements. In the administration of this section, the Secretary and the President shall further recognize the close relation of the economic welfare of the Nation to our national security, and shall take into consideration the impact of foreign competition on the economic welfare of individual domestic industries; and any substantial unemployment, decrease in revenues of government, loss of skills or investment, or other serious effects resulting from the displacement of any domestic products by excessive imports shall be considered, without excluding other factors, in determining whether such weakening of our internal economy may impair the national security.

(d) 1 Report by Secretary of Commerce

(1) Upon the disposition of each request, application, or motion under subsection (b), the Secretary shall submit to the Congress, and publish in the Federal Register, a report on such disposition.

(2) Omitted.

(f) Congressional disapproval of Presidential adjustment of imports of petroleum or petroleum products; disapproval resolution

(1) An action taken by the President under subsection (c) to adjust imports of petroleum or petroleum products shall cease to have force and effect upon the enactment of a disapproval resolution, provided for in paragraph (2), relating to that action.

(2)(A) This paragraph is enacted by the Congress—

(i) as an exercise of the rulemaking power of the House of Representatives and the Senate, respectively, and as such is deemed a part of the rules of each House, respectively, but applicable only with respect to the procedures to be followed in that House in the case of disapproval resolutions and such procedures supersede other rules only to the extent that they are inconsistent therewith; and

(ii) with the full recognition of the constitutional right of either House to change the rules (so far as relating to the procedure of that House) at any time, in the same manner, and to the same extent as any other rule of that House.


(B) For purposes of this subsection, the term "disapproval resolution" means only a joint resolution of either House of Congress the matter after the resolving clause of which is as follows: "That the Congress disapproves the action taken under section 232 of the Trade Expansion Act of 1962 with respect to petroleum imports under ____________ dated ____________.", the first blank space being filled with the number of the proclamation, Executive order, or other Executive act issued under the authority of subsection (c) of this section for purposes of adjusting imports of petroleum or petroleum products and the second blank being filled with the appropriate date.

(C)(i) All disapproval resolutions introduced in the House of Representatives shall be referred to the Committee on Ways and Means and all disapproval resolutions introduced in the Senate shall be referred to the Committee on Finance.

(ii) No amendment to a disapproval resolution shall be in order in either the House of Representatives or the Senate, and no motion to suspend the application of this clause shall be in order in either House nor shall it be in order in either House for the Presiding Officer to entertain a request to suspend the application of this clause by unanimous consent.

(Pub. L. 87–794, title II, §232, Oct. 11, 1962, 76 Stat. 877; Pub. L. 93–618, title I, §127(d), Jan. 3, 1975, 88 Stat. 1993; Pub. L. 96–223, title IV, §402, Apr. 2, 1980, 94 Stat. 301; Pub. L. 100–418, title I, §1501(a), (b)(1), Aug. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 1257, 1259.)

References in Text

Section 232 of the Trade Expansion Act of 1962, referred to in subsec. (f)(2)(B), is classified to this section.

Codification

Subsection (d)(2), which required the President to submit an annual report to Congress on the operation of this section, terminated, effective May 15, 2000, pursuant to section 3003 of Pub. L. 104–66, as amended, set out as a note under section 1113 of Title 31, Money and Finance. See, also, page 28 of House Document No. 103–7.

Amendments

1988—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 100–418, §1501(a)(3), in adding subsec. (b) and striking out former subsec. (b) relating to similar subject matter, changed structure of subsec. (b) from a single unnumbered par. to one consisting of pars. (1) to (4).

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 100–418, §1501(a)(2), (3), added subsec. (c) and redesignated former subsec. (c) as (d).

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 100–418, §1501(b)(1), redesignated subsec. (e), as redesignated by section 1501(a)(2) of Pub. L. 100–418, as subsec. (d) and amended it generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (d) read as follows: "A report shall be made and published upon the disposition of each request, application, or motion under subsection (b) of this section. The Secretary shall publish procedural regulations to give effect to the authority conferred on him by subsection (b) of this section."

Pub. L. 100–418, §1501(a)(2), redesignated subsec. (c), relating to domestic production for national defense and the impact of foreign competition on economic welfare of domestic industries, as (d). Former subsec. (d), relating to reports on investigations by Secretary of Commerce, redesignated (e).

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 100–418, §1501(b)(1), redesignated subsec. (e), as redesignated by section 1501(a)(2) of Pub. L. 100–418, as subsec. (d) and amended it generally.

Pub. L. 100–418, §1501(a)(2), redesignated subsec. (d), relating to reports on investigations by Secretary of Commerce, as (e). Former subsec. (e) redesignated (f).

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 100–418, §1501(a)(1), (2), redesignated subsec. (e) as (f), and substituted reference to subsec. (c) of this section for reference to subsec. (b) of this section in pars. (1) and (2)(B).

1980—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 96–223 added subsec. (e).

1975—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 93–618, §127(d)(1)–(3), substituted "Secretary of the Treasury (hereinafter referred to as the 'Secretary')" for "Director of the Office of Emergency Planning (hereinafter in this section referred to as the 'Director')", substituted "advice from, and shall consult with, the Secretary of Defense, the Secretary of Commerce, and other appropriate officers of the United States" for "advice from other appropriate departments and agencies", inserted provision for public hearings by the Secretary as part of his investigation, inserted requirement that the Secretary report to the President when he recommends inaction in the same way that a report to the President is required when he recommends action under this section, and placed a 1-year time limit on the Secretary's investigation before making his recommendation to the President.

Subsecs. (c), (d). Pub. L. 93–618, §127(d)(4), substituted "Secretary" for "Director".

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Pub. L. 100–418, title I, §1501(d), Aug. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 1259, provided that:

"(1) Except as otherwise provided under this subsection, the amendments made by this section [amending this section and repealing section 1863 of this title] shall apply with respect to investigations initiated under section 232(b) of the Trade Expansion Act of 1962 [19 U.S.C. 1862(b)] on or after the date of enactment of this Act [Aug. 23, 1988].

"(2) The provisions of subsection (c) of section 232 of the Trade Expansion Act of 1962, as amended by this section, shall apply with respect to any report submitted by the Secretary of Commerce to the President under section 232(b) of such Act after the date of enactment of this Act.

"(3) By no later than the date that is 90 days after the date of enactment of this Act, the President shall make the determinations described in section 232(c)(1)(A) of the Trade Expansion Act of 1962, as amended by this section, with respect to any report—

"(A) which was submitted by the Secretary of Commerce to the President under section 232(b) of such Act before the date of enactment of this Act, and

"(B) with respect to which no action has been taken by the President before the date of enactment of this Act."

Petroleum Import Adjustment Program; Oil Import Fee of April 2, 1980; Cessation of Force and Effect of Presidential Action

Pub. L. 96–264, §2, June 6, 1980, 94 Stat. 439, provided that: "Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the action taken by the President under section 232(b) of the Trade Expansion Act of 1962 (19 U.S.C. 1862(b)) with respect to petroleum imports under Proclamation 4744, dated April 2, 1980, as amended [formerly set out below], shall cease to have force and effect upon the date of the enactment of this Act [June 6, 1980]."

Proclamation No. 3279

Proc. No. 3279, Mar. 10, 1959, 24 F.R. 1781, as amended by Proc. No. 3290, Apr. 30, 1959, 24 F.R. 3527; Proc. No. 3328, Dec. 10, 1959, 24 F.R. 10133; Proc. No. 3386, Dec. 24, 1960, 25 F.R. 13945; Proc. No. 3389, Jan. 17, 1961, 26 F.R. 507; Ex. Ord. No. 11051, Sept. 27, 1962, 27 F.R. 9683; Proc. No. 3509, Nov. 30, 1962, 27 F.R. 11985; Proc. No. 3531, Apr. 19, 1963, 28 F.R. 4077; Proc. No. 3541, June 12, 1963, 28 F.R. 5931; Proc. No. 3693, Dec. 10, 1965, 30 F.R. 15459; Proc. No. 3779, Apr. 10, 1967, 32 F.R. 5919; Proc. No. 3794, July 17, 1967, 32 F.R. 10547; Proc. No. 3820, Nov. 9, 1967, 32 F.R. 15701; Proc. No. 3823, Jan. 29, 1968, 33 F.R. 1171; Proc. No. 3969, Mar. 10, 1970, 35 F.R. 4321; Proc. No. 3990, June 17, 1970, 35 F.R. 10091; Proc. No. 4018, Oct. 16, 1970, 35 F.R. 16357; Proc. No. 4025, Dec. 22, 1970, 35 F.R. 19391; Proc. No. 4092, Nov. 5, 1971, 36 F.R. 21397; Proc. No. 4099, Dec. 20, 1971, 36 F.R. 24203; Proc. No. 4133, May 11, 1972, 37 F.R. 9543; Proc. No. 4156, Sept. 18, 1972, 37 F.R. 19115; Proc. No. 4175, Dec. 16, 1972, 37 F.R. 28043; Proc. No. 4178, Jan. 17, 1973, 38 F.R. 1719; Ex. Ord. No. 11703, Feb. 7, 1973, 38 F.R. 3579; Proc. No. 4202, Mar. 23, 1973, 38 F.R. 7977; Proc. No. 4210, Apr. 18, 1973, 38 F.R. 9645; Proc. No. 4227, June 19, 1973, 38 F.R. 16195; Ex. Ord. No. 11743, Oct. 23, 1973, 38 F.R. 29459; Ex. Ord. No. 11775, Mar. 26, 1974, 39 F.R. 11415; Ex. Ord. No. 11790, June 25, 1974, 39 F.R. 23185; Proc. No. 4317, Sept. 27, 1974, 39 F.R. 35103; Proc. No. 4341, Jan. 23, 1975, 40 F.R. 3965; Proc. No. 4355, Mar. 4, 1975, 40 F.R. 10437; Proc. No. 4370, Apr. 30, 1975, 40 F.R. 19421; Proc. No. 4377, May 27, 1975, 40 F.R. 23429; Proc. No. 4412, Jan. 3, 1976, 41 F.R. 1037; Proc. No. 4543, Dec. 27, 1977, 42 F.R. 64849; Ex. Ord. No. 12038, Feb. 3, 1978, 43 F.R. 4947; Proc. No. 4629, Dec. 8, 1978, 43 F.R. 58077; Proc. No. 4655, Apr. 6, 1979, 44 F.R. 21243; Proc. No. 4702, Nov. 12, 1979, 44 F.R. 65581; Proc. No. 4744, Apr. 2, 1980, 45 F.R. 22864; Proc. No. 4766, June 19, 1980, 45 F.R. 41899; Proc. No. 4907, Mar. 10, 1982, 47 F.R. 10507, which set forth regulations governing the licensing of imports of petroleum and petroleum products, was revoked by Proc. No. 5141, Dec. 22, 1983, 48 F.R. 56929, set out below.

Proclamation No. 4744

Proc. No. 4744, Apr. 2, 1980, 45 F.R. 22864, as amended by Proc. No. 4748, Apr. 11, 1980, 45 F.R. 25371; Proc. No. 4751, Apr. 23, 1980, 45 F.R. 27905, which related to the petroleum import adjustment program, was rescinded by Proc. No. 4766, June 19, 1980, 45 F.R. 41899, effective Mar. 15, 1980.

Proclamation No. 4762

Proc. No. 4762, June 6, 1980, 45 F.R. 39237, relating to petroleum import licensing requirements, was revoked by Proc. No. 4766, June 19, 1980, 45 F.R. 41899.

Proc. No. 5141. Imports of Petroleum and Petroleum Products

Proc. No. 5141, Dec. 22, 1983, 48 F.R. 56929, provided:

The Secretary of Energy has advised me that no purpose is currently served by the existing system of licensing of imports of petroleum and petroleum products. The Secretary of Energy also recommends that I retain the current prohibition on imports of Libyan crude oil into the United States, its territories and possessions, which was adopted in Proclamation No. 4907 [amending Proc. No. 3279, formerly set out above], on the ground that such imports would be inimical to the United States national security. The Secretary further recommends that he continue to monitor imports of petroleum and petroleum products in order to be able to advise me as to the need for further action, as appropriate, under Section 232 of the Trade Expansion Act of 1962, as amended [this section].

I agree with the recommendations of the Secretary of Energy.

NOW, THEREFORE, I, RONALD REAGAN, President of the United States of America, by the authority vested in me by the Constitution and laws of the United States, including Section 232 of the Trade Expansion Act of 1962, as amended (19 U.S.C. 1862), do hereby proclaim that:

Section 1. Proclamation No. 3279, as amended, is revoked.

Sec. 2. The Secretary of Energy shall continue to monitor imports of petroleum and petroleum products and shall, from time to time, in consultation with the Secretary of State, the Secretary of Commerce, and such other federal agencies as he deems appropriate, review the status of such imports with respect to the national security. The Secretary shall inform the President of any circumstances which in his opinion might indicate the need for further action by the President under Section 232 of the Trade Expansion Act [this section].

Sec. 3. (a) No crude oil produced in Libya may be imported into the United States, its territories or possessions.

(b) The Secretary of the Treasury may issue such regulations and interpretations as he deems necessary to implement this section.

Sec. 4. The Secretary of Energy may continue to consider requests for refund of fees paid under Proclamation No. 3279, as amended, if such requests were filed with the Secretary prior to the effective date of this Proclamation [Dec. 22, 1983]. Any such requests shall be considered in accordance with the previously applicable provisions of Proclamation No. 3279, as amended, and implementing regulations thereunder.

Sec. 5. The revocation of Proclamation No. 3279, as amended, shall not affect the authority of any federal department or agency to institute and conduct any administrative, civil or criminal audit, investigation or proceeding based on any act committed or liability incurred while that Proclamation was in effect.

Sec. 6. The revocation of Proclamation No. 3279, as amended, shall not affect the presently applicable tariff rates for imports of petroleum and petroleum products, as reflected in the Tariff Schedules of the United States, Schedule 4, part 10.

Sec. 7. This Proclamation shall be effective immediately.

IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand this 22nd day of December, in the year of our Lord nineteen hundred and eighty-three, and of the Independence of the United States of America the two hundred and eighth.

Ronald Reagan.      

[The Tariff Schedules of the United States were replaced by the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States which is not set out in the Code. See Publication of Harmonized Tariff Schedule note set out under section 1202 of this title.]

Ex. Ord. No. 11703. Assigning Policy Development and Directing Functions Respecting Oil Import Control Program

Ex. Ord. No. 11703, Feb. 7, 1973, 38 F.R. 3579, as amended by Ex. Ord. No. 12188, Jan. 2, 1980, 45 F.R. 989, provided:

By virtue of the authority vested in me by the Constitution and statutes of the United States, including section 301 of title 3 of the United States Code, and as President of the United States, it is hereby ordered as follows:

Section 1. The Oil Policy Committee, as reconstituted by this order, is hereby continued.

Sec. 2. The Chairman of the Oil Policy Committee shall provide policy direction, coordination, and surveillance of the oil import control program established by Proclamation No. 3279 of March 10, 1959, as amended [set out below], including approval of regulations hereafter issued pursuant to such proclamation. He shall perform those functions after receiving the advice of the Oil Policy Committee and in accordance with guidance from the Assistant to the President with responsibility in the area of economic affairs.

Sec. 3. The Oil Policy Committee shall henceforth consist of the United States Trade Representative, chair, and the Secretaries of State, Treasury, Defense, the Interior, Commerce and Energy, the Attorney General, and the Chairman of the Council of Economic Advisers, as members. The President may, from time to time, designate other officials to serve as members of the Committee. The Chairman may create subcommittees of the Committee to study and report to the Committee concerning specified subject matters.

Sec. 4. The Oil Policy Committee shall consult with and advise the Chairman on oil import policy, including the operation of the control program under Proclamation No. 3279, as amended, and on recommendations for changes in the program by the issuance of new proclamations with respect to it, or otherwise.

Sec. 5. Section 6 of Proclamation No. 3279 of March 10, 1959, as amended, is amended to read as follows:

"Sec. 6. The Chairman of the Oil Policy Committee shall maintain a constant surveillance of imports of petroleum and its primary derivatives in respect to the national security and, after consultation with the Oil Policy Committee, he shall inform the President of any circumstances which, in the Chairman's opinion might indicate the need for further Presidential action under section 232 of the Trade Expansion Act of 1962 (19 U.S.C. 1862), as amended. In the event prices of crude oil or its products or derivatives should be increased after the effective date of this proclamation, such surveillance shall include a determination as to whether such increase or increases are necessary to accomplish the national security objectives of section 232 of the Trade Expansion Act of 1962, as amended, and of this proclamation."

Sec. 6. So much of the personnel, property, records, and unexpended balances of appropriations, allocations, and other funds employed, used, held, available, or to be made available in connection with the functions transferred by sections 2 and 5 of this order from the Director of the Office of Emergency Preparedness to the Deputy Secretary of the Treasury, as Chairman of the Oil Policy Committee, as the Director of the Office of Management and Budget shall determine, in conformity with section 202(b) of the Budget and Accounting Act of 1950 (31 U.S.C. 581c(b)), shall be transferred at such time or times as he shall direct for use in connection with the functions transferred.

Executive Order No. 11743

Ex. Ord. No. 11743, Oct. 23, 1973, 38 F.R. 29459, formerly set out as a note under this section, which related to the continuation of the Oil Policy Committee, was superseded by Ex. Ord. No. 11775, Mar. 26, 1974, 39 F.R. 11415.

Executive Order No. 12538

Ex. Ord. No. 12538, Nov. 15, 1985, 50 F.R. 47527, which related to imports of refined petroleum products from Libya, was revoked by Ex. Ord. No. 13357, Sept. 20, 2004, 69 F.R. 56665, listed in a table under section 1701 of Title 50, War and National Defense.

1 So in original. There are two subsecs. designated (d). Second subsec. (d) probably should be designated (e).

§1863. Repealed. Pub. L. 100–418, title I, §1501(b)(2), Aug. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 1259

Section, Pub. L. 93–618, title I, §127(c), Jan. 3, 1975, 88 Stat. 1993, directed that reports to Congress be submitted annually and within 60 days after any action was taken under section 1862 of this title.

Effective Date of Repeal

Repeal of section applicable with respect to investigations initiated under section 1862(b) of this title on or after Aug. 23, 1988, see section 1501(d)(1) of Pub. L. 100–418, set out as an Effective Date of 1988 Amendment note under section 1862 of this title.

§1864. Import sanctions for export violations

Any person who violates any national security export control imposed under section 4604 1 of title 50 or any regulation, order, or license issued under that section, may be subject to such controls on the importing of goods or technology into the United States as the President may prescribe.

(Pub. L. 87–794, title II, §233, as added Pub. L. 99–64, title I, §121, July 12, 1985, 99 Stat. 155; amended Pub. L. 100–418, title II, §2447(a), Aug. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 1370.)

References in Text

Section 4604 of title 50, referred to in text, was repealed by Pub. L. 115–232, div. A, title XVII, §1766(a), Aug. 13, 2018, 132 Stat. 2232.

Amendments

1988Pub. L. 100–418 struck out designation "(a)" and struck out subsec. (b) which related to prerequisites to imposition of sanctions.

1 See References in Text note below.

Part V—Administrative Provisions

§1871. Repealed. Pub. L. 93–618, title VI, §602(d), Jan. 3, 1975, 88 Stat. 2072

Section, Pub. L. 87–794, title II, §241, Oct. 11, 1962, 76 Stat. 878, provided for appointment of Special Representative for Trade Negotiations. See section 2171 of this title.

§1872. Interagency trade organization

(a) Establishment; functions; membership and composition; participation of representatives of other agencies; meetings

(1) The President shall establish an interagency organization.

(2) The functions of the organization are—

(A) to assist, and make recommendations to, the President in carrying out the functions vested in him by the trade laws and to advise the United States Trade Representative (hereinafter in this section referred to as the "Trade Representative") in carrying out the functions set forth in section 2171 of this title;

(B) to assist the President, and advise the Trade Representative, with respect to the development and implementation of the international trade policy objectives of the United States; and

(C) to advise the President and the Trade Representative with respect to the relationship between the international trade policy objectives of the United States and other major policy areas which may significantly affect the overall international trade policy and trade competitiveness of the United States.


(3) The interagency organization shall be composed of the following:

(A) The Trade Representative, who shall be chairperson.

(B) The Secretary of Commerce.

(C) The Secretary of State.

(D) The Secretary of the Treasury.

(E) The Secretary of Agriculture.

(F) The Secretary of Labor.


The Trade Representative may invite representatives from other agencies, as appropriate, to attend particular meetings if subject matters of specific functional interest to such agencies are under consideration. It shall meet at such times and with respect to such matters as the President or the Chairman shall direct.

(b) Duties

In assisting the President, the organization shall—

(1) make recommendations to the President on basic policy issues arising in the administration of the trade agreements program,

(2) make recommendations to the President as to what action, if any, he should take on reports submitted to him by the United States International Trade Commission under section 2251(d) 1 of this title,

(3) advise the President of the results of hearings held pursuant to section 2412(b)(2) 1 of this title, and recommend appropriate action with respect thereto, and

(4) perform such other functions with respect to the trade agreements program as the President may from time to time designate.


In carrying out its functions under this subsection, the organization shall take into account the advice of the congressional advisers and private sector advisory committees, as well as that of any committee or other body established to advise the department, agency, or office which a member of the organization heads.

(c) Use of resources of agencies; procedures and committees

The organization shall, to the maximum extent practicable, draw upon the resources of the agencies represented in the organization, as well as such other agencies as it may determine, including the United States International Trade Commission. In addition, the President may establish by regulation such procedures and committees as he may determine to be necessary to enable the organization to provide for the conduct of hearings pursuant to section 2412(b)(2) of this title, and for the carrying out of other functions assigned to the organization pursuant to this section.

(Pub. L. 87–794, title II, §242, Oct. 11, 1962, 76 Stat. 878; Pub. L. 93–618, title I, §171(b), title VI, §602(b), Jan. 3, 1975, 88 Stat. 2009, 2072; Pub. L. 96–39, title IX, §902(c), July 26, 1979, 93 Stat. 300; Pub. L. 100–418, title I, §1621(a), Aug. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 1263.)

References in Text

Section 2251 of this title, referred to in subsec. (b)(2), was amended generally by Pub. L. 100–418, title I, §1401(a), Aug. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 1225, and as so amended does not contain a subsec. (d). See section 2252(f) of this title.

Section 2412 of this title, referred to in subsec. (b)(3), was amended generally by Pub. L. 100–418, title I, §1301(a), Aug. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 1168, and as so amended the provisions of subsec. (b)(2) of section 2412 are contained in subsec. (a)(4).

Amendments

1988—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 100–418, §1621(a)(1), amended subsec. (a) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (a) read as follows: "The President shall establish an interagency organization to assist him in carrying out the functions vested in him by this subchapter and sections 2251, 2252, and 2253 of this title. Such organization shall, in addition to the Special Representative for Trade Negotiations, be composed of the heads of such departments and of such other officers as the President shall designate. It shall meet at such times and with respect to such matters as the President or the chairman of the organization shall direct. The organization may invite the participation in its activities of any agency not represented in the organization when matters of interest to such agency are under consideration."

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 100–418, §1621(a)(2), inserted at end: "In carrying out its functions under this subsection, the organization shall take into account the advice of the congressional advisers and private sector advisory committees, as well as that of any committee or other body established to advise the department, agency, or office which a member of the organization heads."

1979—Subsecs. (b)(3), (c). Pub. L. 96–39 substituted "section 2412(b)(2) of this title" for "section 2411(c) and (d) of this title".

1975—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 93–618, §602(b)(1), substituted reference to sections 2251, 2252, and 2253 of this title for reference to sections 1981 and 1982 of this title.

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 93–618, §602(b)(2), (3), substituted "reports submitted to him" for "reports with respect to tariff adjustment submitted to him" and "section 2251(d) of this title" for "section 1901(e) of this title."

Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 93–618, §602(b)(4), (5), substituted "hearings held pursuant to" for hearings concerning foreign import restrictions held pursuant to" and "section 2411(c) and (d) of this title" for "section 1882(d) of this title".

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 93–618, §602(b)(5), substituted "section 2411(c) and (d) of this title" for "section 1882(d) of this title".

Pub. L. 93–618, §171(b), substituted "United States International Trade Commission" for "United States Tariff Commission".

Effective Date of 1979 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 96–39 effective July 26, 1979, see section 903 of Pub. L. 96–39, set out as an Effective Date note under section 2411 of this title.

Transfer of Functions From East-West Foreign Trade Board

East-West Foreign Trade Board, which was established by Pub. L. 93–618, title IV, §411, Jan. 3, 1975, 88 Stat. 2065, and classified to section 2441 of this title, abolished by Reorg. Plan No. 3 of 1979, §6, 44 Stat. 69275, 93 Stat. 1381, eff. Jan. 2, 1980, as provided by section 1–107(a) of Ex. Ord. No. 12188, Jan. 2, 1980, 45 F.R. 993, set out as notes under section 2171 of this title, and functions of Board under subsecs. (a) and (b) of section 411 of Pub. L. 93–618 transferred to interagency organization established under this section by section 5(e) of Reorg. Plan No. 3 of 1979. See section 2441 of this title.

Establishment of Interagency Group

For provisions establishing an interagency group within the interagency organization established under this section, relating to the implementation of chapter 10 of the United States-Mexico-Canada Agreement, see section 4582(c)(2) of this title.

For provisions establishing an interagency group within the interagency organization established under this section, relating to the implementation of chapters 18 and 19 of the United States-Canada Free-Trade Agreement, see section 405 of Pub. L. 100–449, set out in a note under section 2112 of this title.

Sense of Congress Respecting Role of Interagency Organization

Pub. L. 100–418, title I, §1621(b), Aug. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 1264, provided that: "It is the sense of Congress that the interagency organization established under subsection (a) [amending this section] should be the principal interagency forum within the executive branch on international trade policy matters."

Trade Policy Committee

For provisions relating to Trade Policy Committee, see section 3 of Ex. Ord. No. 11846, Mar. 27, 1975, 40 F.R. 14291, set out as a note under section 2111 of this title.

1 See References in Text note below.

§1873. Repealed. Pub. L. 93–618, title VI, §602(d), Jan. 3, 1975, 88 Stat. 2072

Section, Pub. L. 87–794, title II, §243, Oct. 11, 1962, 76 Stat. 878, made provision for Congressional delegates to trade negotiations. See section 2211 of this title.

Part VI—General Provisions

§1881. Normal trade relations

Except as otherwise provided in this subchapter, in section 1351 of this title, or in section 401(a) of the Tariff Classification Act of 1962, any duty or other import restriction or duty-free treatment proclaimed in carrying out any trade agreement under this subchapter or section 1351 of this title shall apply to products of all foreign countries, whether imported directly or indirectly.

(Pub. L. 87–794, title II, §251, Oct. 11, 1962, 76 Stat. 879; Pub. L. 105–206, title V, §5003(b)(1), July 22, 1998, 112 Stat. 789.)

References in Text

Section 401(a) of the Tariff Classification Act of 1962, referred to in text, is set out as a note under section 1351 of this title.

Amendments

1998Pub. L. 105–206 substituted existing catchline for "Most-favored-nation principle".

§§1882 to 1884. Repealed. Pub. L. 93–618, title VI, §602(d), Jan. 3, 1975, 88 Stat. 2072

Section 1882, Pub. L. 87–794, title II, §252, Oct. 11, 1962, 76 Stat. 879, provided for Presidential action in face of foreign import restrictions. See sections 2112 of this title.

Section 1883, Pub. L. 87–794, title II, §253, Oct. 11, 1962, 76 Stat. 880, covered area of staging requirements. See section 2119 of this title.

Section 1884, Pub. L. 87–794, title II, §254, Oct. 11, 1962, 76 Stat. 880, provided for rounding authority. See section 2119 of this title.

§1885. Termination of proclamations

(a) Repealed. Pub. L. 93–618, title VI, §602(d), Jan. 3, 1975, 88 Stat. 2072.

(b) The President may at any time terminate, in whole or in part, any proclamation made under this subchapter.

(Pub. L. 87–794, title II, §255, Oct. 11, 1962, 76 Stat. 880; Pub. L. 93–618, title VI, §602(d), Jan. 3, 1975, 88 Stat. 2072.)

Amendments

1975—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 93–618 struck out subsec. (a) which provided for termination of or withdrawal from trade agreements. See section 2135 of this title.

§1886. Repealed. Pub. L. 93–618, title VI, §602(d), Jan. 3, 1975, 88 Stat. 2072

Section, Pub. L. 87–794, title II, §256, Oct. 11, 1962, 76 Stat. 881, defined terms. See section 2481 of this title.

§1887. Limitation on imports under section 624 of title 7

Nothing contained in this chapter shall be construed to affect in any way the provisions of section 624 of title 7, or to apply to any import restriction heretofore or hereafter imposed under such section.

(Pub. L. 87–794, title II, §257(h), Oct. 11, 1962, 76 Stat. 883.)

§1888. References in other laws

All provisions of law (other than this chapter and the Trade Agreements Extension Act of 1951) in effect after June 30, 1962, referring to section 350 of the Tariff Act of 1930, to that section as amended, to the Act entitled "An Act to amend the Tariff Act of 1930", approved June 12, 1934, to that Act as amended, or to agreements entered into, or proclamations issued, under any of such provisions, shall be construed, unless clearly precluded by the context, to refer also to this chapter, or to agreements entered into or proclamations issued, pursuant to this chapter.

(Pub. L. 87–794, title II, §258, Oct. 11, 1962, 76 Stat. 883.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in text, was in the original "this Act", meaning Pub. L. 87–794, Oct. 11, 1962, 76 Stat. 872, as amended, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of Pub. L. 87–794, to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1801 of this title and Tables.

The Trade Agreements Extension Act of 1951, referred to in text, is act June 16, 1951, ch. 141, 65 Stat. 72, as amended. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title of 1951 Amendment note set out under section 1654 of this title and Tables.

Section 350 of the Tariff Act of 1930, referred to in text, is classified to section 1351 of this title.

The Act entitled "An Act to amend the Tariff Act of 1930", approved June 12, 1934, referred to in text, is act June 12, 1934, ch. 474, 48 Stat. 943, as amended, which is classified to sections 1351, 1352, 1353, and 1354 of this title.