[USC02] 20 USC CHAPTER 28, SUBCHAPTER VI, Part B: Business and International Education Programs
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20 USC CHAPTER 28, SUBCHAPTER VI, Part B: Business and International Education Programs
From Title 20—EDUCATIONCHAPTER 28—HIGHER EDUCATION RESOURCES AND STUDENT ASSISTANCESUBCHAPTER VI—INTERNATIONAL EDUCATION PROGRAMS

Part B—Business and International Education Programs

§1130. Findings and purposes

(a) Findings

The Congress finds that—

(1) the future economic welfare of the United States will depend substantially on increasing international skills in the business and educational community and creating an awareness among the American public of the internationalization of our economy;

(2) concerted efforts are necessary to engage business schools, language and area study programs, professional international affairs education programs, public and private sector organizations, and United States business in a mutually productive relationship which benefits the Nation's future economic interests;

(3) few linkages presently exist between the manpower and information needs of United States business and the international education, language training and research capacities of institutions of higher education in the United States, and public and private organizations; and

(4) organizations such as world trade councils, world trade clubs, chambers of commerce and State departments of commerce are not adequately used to link universities and business for joint venture exploration and program development.

(b) Purposes

It is the purpose of this part—

(1) to enhance the broad objective of this chapter by increasing and promoting the Nation's capacity for international understanding and economic enterprise through the provision of suitable international education and training for business personnel in various stages of professional development; and

(2) to promote institutional and noninstitutional educational and training activities that will contribute to the ability of United States business to prosper in an international economy.

(Pub. L. 89–329, title VI, §611, as added Pub. L. 96–374, title VI, §601(a), Oct. 3, 1980, 94 Stat. 1467; amended Pub. L. 99–498, title VI, §610, Oct. 17, 1986, 100 Stat. 1519; Pub. L. 102–325, title VI, §601, July 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 728; Pub. L. 105–244, title VI, §602(a), Oct. 7, 1998, 112 Stat. 1783.)

Amendments

1998Pub. L. 105–244 amended section catchline generally.

1992Pub. L. 102–325 amended section generally, inserting subsec. headings and reenacting text without substantial change.

1986—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 99–498 inserted "and educational" after "skills in the business".

Effective Date of 1998 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 105–244 effective Oct. 1, 1998, except as otherwise provided in Pub. L. 105–244, see section 3 of Pub. L. 105–244, set out as a note under section 1001 of this title.

Effective Date of 1992 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 102–325 effective Oct. 1, 1992, see section 2 of Pub. L. 102–325, set out as a note under section 1001 of this title.

§1130–1. Centers for international business education

(a) Program authorized

(1) Purpose

The purpose of this section is to coordinate the programs of the Federal Government in the areas of research, education, and training in international business and trade competitiveness.

(2) In general

The Secretary is authorized to make grants to institutions of higher education, or consortia of such institutions, to pay the Federal share of the cost of planning, establishing and operating centers for international business education which—

(A) will be national resources for the teaching of improved business techniques, strategies, and methodologies which emphasize the international context in which business is transacted;

(B) will provide instruction in critical foreign languages and international fields needed to provide understanding of the cultures and customs of United States trading partners; and

(C) will provide research and training in the international aspects of trade, commerce, and other fields of study.

(3) Special rule

In addition to providing training to students enrolled in the institution of higher education in which a center is located, such centers shall serve as regional resources to businesses proximately located by offering programs and providing research designed to meet the international training needs of such businesses. Such centers shall also serve other faculty, students, and institutions of higher education located within their region.

(b) Authorized expenditures

Each grant made under this section may be used to pay the Federal share of the cost of planning, establishing or operating a center, including the cost of—

(1) faculty and staff travel in foreign areas, regions, or countries;

(2) teaching and research materials;

(3) curriculum planning and development;

(4) bringing visiting scholars and faculty to the center to teach or to conduct research; and

(5) training and improvement of the staff, for the purpose of, and subject to such conditions as the Secretary finds necessary for, carrying out the objectives of this section.

(c) Authorized activities

(1) Mandatory activities

Programs and activities to be conducted by centers assisted under this section shall include—

(A) interdisciplinary programs which incorporate foreign language and international studies training into business, finance, management, communications systems, and other professional curricula;

(B) interdisciplinary programs which provide business, finance, management, communications systems, and other professional training for foreign language and international studies faculty and degree candidates;

(C) programs, such as intensive language programs, available to members of the business community and other professionals which are designed to develop or enhance their international skills, awareness, and expertise;

(D) collaborative programs, activities, or research involving other institutions of higher education, local educational agencies, professional associations, businesses, firms, or consortia thereof, to promote the development of international skills, awareness, and expertise among current and prospective members of the business community and other professionals;

(E) research designed to strengthen and improve the international aspects of business and professional education and to promote integrated curricula; and

(F) research designed to promote the international competitiveness of American businesses and firms, including those not currently active in international trade.

(2) Permissible activities

Programs and activities to be conducted by centers assisted under this section may include—

(A) the establishment of overseas internship programs for students and faculty designed to provide training and experience in international business activities, except that no Federal funds provided under this section may be used to pay wages or stipends to any participant who is engaged in compensated employment as part of an internship program;

(B) the establishment of linkages overseas with institutions of higher education and other organizations that contribute to the educational objectives of this section;

(C) summer institutes in international business, foreign area studies, foreign language studies, and other international studies designed to carry out the purposes of subparagraph (A) of this paragraph;

(D) the development of opportunities for business students to study abroad in locations which are important to the existing and future economic well-being of the United States;

(E) outreach activities or consortia with business programs located at other institutions of higher education (including those that are eligible to receive assistance under part A or B of subchapter III or under subchapter V) for the purpose of providing expertise regarding the internationalization of such programs, such as assistance in research, curriculum development, faculty development, or educational exchange programs;

(F) programs encouraging the advancement and understanding of technology-related disciplines, including manufacturing software systems and technology management; and

(G) other eligible activities prescribed by the Secretary.

(d) Advisory council

(1) Establishment

In order to be eligible for assistance under this section, an institution of higher education, or consortium of such institutions, shall establish a center advisory council which will conduct extensive planning prior to the establishment of a center concerning the scope of the center's activities and the design of its programs.

(2) Membership on advisory council

The center advisory council shall include—

(A) one representative of an administrative department or office of the institution of higher education;

(B) one faculty representative of the business or management school or department of such institution;

(C) one faculty representative of the international studies or foreign language school or department of such institution;

(D) one faculty representative of another professional school or department of such institution, as appropriate;

(E) one or more representatives of local or regional businesses or firms;

(F) one representative appointed by the Governor of the State in which the institution of higher education is located whose normal responsibilities include official oversight or involvement in State-sponsored trade-related activities or programs; and

(G) such other individuals as the institution of higher education deems appropriate, such as a representative of a community college in the region served by the center.

(3) Meetings

In addition to the initial planning activities required under subsection (d)(1), the center advisory council shall meet not less than once each year after the establishment of the center to assess and advise on the programs and activities conducted by the center.

(e) Grant duration; Federal share

(1) Duration of grants

The Secretary shall make grants under this section for a minimum of 3 years unless the Secretary determines that the provision of grants of shorter duration is necessary to carry out the objectives of this section.

(2) Federal share

The Federal share of the cost of planning, establishing and operating centers under this section shall be—

(A) not more than 90 percent for the first year in which Federal funds are received;

(B) not more than 70 percent for the second such year; and

(C) not more than 50 percent for the third such year and for each such year thereafter.

(3) Non-Federal share

The non-Federal share of the cost of planning, establishing, and operating centers under this section may be provided either in cash or in-kind.

(4) Waiver of non-Federal share

In the case of an institution of higher education receiving a grant under this part and conducting outreach or consortia activities with another institution of higher education in accordance with subsection (c)(2)(E), the Secretary may waive a portion of the requirements for the non-Federal share required in paragraph (2) equal to the amount provided by the institution of higher education receiving such grant to such other institution of higher education for carrying out such outreach or consortia activities. Any such waiver shall be subject to such terms and conditions as the Secretary deems necessary for carrying out the purposes of this section.

(f) Grant conditions

Grants under this section shall be made on such conditions as the Secretary determines to be necessary to carry out the objectives of this section. Such conditions shall include—

(1) evidence that the institution of higher education, or consortium of such institutions, will conduct extensive planning prior to the establishment of a center concerning the scope of the center's activities and the design of its programs in accordance with subsection (d)(1);

(2) assurance of ongoing collaboration in the establishment and operation of the center by faculty of the business, management, foreign language, international studies, professional international affairs, and other professional schools or departments, as appropriate;

(3) assurance that the education and training programs of the center will be open to students concentrating in each of these respective areas, as appropriate, and that diverse perspectives will be made available to students in programs under this section; and

(4) assurance that the institution of higher education, or consortium of such institutions, will use the assistance provided under this section to supplement and not to supplant activities conducted by institutions of higher education described in subsection (c)(1).

(Pub. L. 89–329, title VI, §612, as added Pub. L. 100–418, title VI, §6261(2), Aug. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 1520; amended Pub. L. 102–325, title VI, §601, July 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 729; Pub. L. 105–244, title VI, §602(b), Oct. 7, 1998, 112 Stat. 1783; Pub. L. 110–315, title VI, §§610, 611(a), Aug. 14, 2008, 122 Stat. 3338, 3339.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 612 of Pub. L. 89–329 was renumbered section 613 and is classified to section 1130a of this title.

Amendments

2008—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 110–315, §611(a)(1), added par. (1) and redesignated former pars. (1) and (2) as (2) and (3), respectively.

Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 110–315, §610(a), substituted "consortia" for "combinations" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (c)(1)(D). Pub. L. 110–315, §610(a), substituted "consortia" for "combinations".

Subsec. (c)(2)(E). Pub. L. 110–315, §611(a)(2)(A), inserted "(including those that are eligible to receive assistance under part A or B of subchapter III or under subchapter V)" after "other institutions of higher education".

Subsec. (c)(2)(F), (G). Pub. L. 110–315, §611(a)(2)(B)–(D), added subpar. (F) and redesignated former subpar. (F) as (G).

Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 110–315, §610(b), substituted "consortium" for "combination".

Subsec. (f)(1). Pub. L. 110–315, §610(b), substituted "consortium" for "combination".

Subsec. (f)(3). Pub. L. 110–315, §611(a)(3), inserted ", and that diverse perspectives will be made available to students in programs under this section" before semicolon.

Subsec. (f)(4). Pub. L. 110–315, §610(b), substituted "consortium" for "combination".

1998—Subsec. (c)(1)(B). Pub. L. 105–244, §602(b)(1)(A)(i), struck out "advanced" after "faculty and".

Subsec. (c)(1)(C). Pub. L. 105–244, §602(b)(1)(A)(ii), struck out "evening or summer" before "programs, such".

Subsec. (c)(2)(C). Pub. L. 105–244, §602(b)(1)(B), inserted "foreign language studies," after "area studies,".

Subsec. (d)(2)(G). Pub. L. 105–244, §602(b)(2), inserted ", such as a representative of a community college in the region served by the center" before the period.

1992Pub. L. 102–325 amended section generally, substituting present provisions for provisions relating to grants for establishing and operating international business education centers in subsec. (a), costs to be covered by Federal funds in subsec. (b), scope of programs and activities in subsec. (c), center advisory council in subsec. (d), duration of grants and allotment of Federal and non-Federal shares in subsec. (e), and conditions for grants in subsec. (f).

Effective Date of 1998 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 105–244 effective Oct. 1, 1998, except as otherwise provided in Pub. L. 105–244, see section 3 of Pub. L. 105–244, set out as a note under section 1001 of this title.

Effective Date of 1992 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 102–325 effective Oct. 1, 1992, see section 2 of Pub. L. 102–325, set out as a note under section 1001 of this title.

§1130a. Education and training programs

(a) Program authorized

The Secretary shall make grants to, and enter into contracts with, institutions of higher education to pay the Federal share of the cost of programs designed to promote linkages between such institutions and the American business community engaged in international economic activity. Each program assisted under this section shall both enhance the international academic programs of institutions of higher education and provide appropriate services to the business community which will expand its capacity to engage in commerce abroad.

(b) Authorized activities

Eligible activities to be conducted by institutions of higher education pursuant to grants or contracts awarded under this section shall include—

(1) innovation and improvement in international education curricula to serve the needs of the business community, including development of new programs for nontraditional, mid-career, or part-time students;

(2) development of programs to inform the public of increasing international economic interdependence and the role of American business within the international economic system;

(3) internationalization of curricula at the junior and community college level, and at undergraduate and graduate schools of business;

(4) development of area studies programs, and interdisciplinary international programs;

(5) establishment of export education programs through cooperative arrangements with regional and world trade centers and councils, and with bilateral and multilateral trade associations;

(6) research for and development of specialized teaching materials, including language materials, and facilities appropriate to business-oriented students;

(7) establishment of student and faculty fellowships and internships for training and education in international business activities;

(8) development of opportunities for junior business and other professional school faculty to acquire or strengthen international skills and perspectives;

(9) development of research programs on issues of common interest to institutions of higher education and private sector organizations and associations engaged in or promoting international economic activity;

(10) the establishment of internships overseas to enable foreign language students to develop their foreign language skills and knowledge of foreign cultures and societies;

(11) the establishment of linkages overseas with institutions of higher education and organizations that contribute to the educational objectives of this section; and

(12) summer institutes in international business, foreign area and other international studies designed to carry out the purposes of this section.

(c) Applications

No grant may be made and no contract may be entered into under this section unless an institution of higher education submits an application to the Secretary at such time and in such manner as the Secretary may reasonably require. Each such application shall be accompanied by a copy of the agreement entered into by the institution of higher education with a business enterprise, trade organization or association engaged in international economic activity, or a combination or consortium of such enterprises, organizations or associations, for the purpose of establishing, developing, improving or expanding activities eligible for assistance under subsection (b) of this section. Each such application shall contain assurances that the institution of higher education will use the assistance provided under this section to supplement and not to supplant activities conducted by institutions of higher education described in subsection (b). Each such application shall include an assurance that, where applicable, the activities funded by the grant will reflect diverse perspectives and a wide range of views on world regions and international affairs.

(d) Federal share

The Federal share under this part for each fiscal year shall not exceed 50 percent of the cost of such program.

(Pub. L. 89–329, title VI, §613, formerly §612, as added Pub. L. 96–374, title VI, §601(a), Oct. 3, 1980, 94 Stat. 1468; amended Pub. L. 99–498, title VI, §611, Oct. 17, 1986, 100 Stat. 1519; renumbered §613 and amended Pub. L. 100–418, title VI, §§6261(1), 6263, Aug. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 1520, 1523; Pub. L. 102–325, title VI, §601, July 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 732; Pub. L. 110–315, title VI, §611(b), Aug. 14, 2008, 122 Stat. 3339.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 613 of Pub. L. 89–329 was renumbered section 614 and is classified to section 1130b of this title.

Amendments

2008—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 110–315 inserted at end "Each such application shall include an assurance that, where applicable, the activities funded by the grant will reflect diverse perspectives and a wide range of views on world regions and international affairs."

1992Pub. L. 102–325 amended section generally, adding provisions relating to establishment of linkages overseas with institutions of higher education and organizations that contribute to educational objectives of this section and relating to summer institutes in international business, foreign area and other international studies designed to carry out purposes of this section.

1988—Subsecs. (a), (c), (d). Pub. L. 100–418 substituted "section" for "part" wherever appearing.

1986—Subsec. (b)(10). Pub. L. 99–498 added par. (10).

Effective Date of 1992 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 102–325 effective Oct. 1, 1992, see section 2 of Pub. L. 102–325, set out as a note under section 1001 of this title.

§1130b. Authorization of appropriations

(a) Centers for international business education

There are authorized to be appropriated such sums as may be necessary for the fiscal year 2009 and such sums as may be necessary for each of the five succeeding fiscal years to carry out the provisions of section 1130–1 of this title.

(b) Education and training programs

There are authorized to be appropriated such sums as may be necessary for fiscal year 2009, and such sums as may be necessary for the five succeeding fiscal years, to carry out the provisions of section 1130a of this title.

(Pub. L. 89–329, title VI, §614, formerly §613, as added Pub. L. 96–374, title VI, §601(a), Oct. 3, 1980, 94 Stat. 1469; amended Pub. L. 99–498, title VI, §612, Oct. 17, 1986, 100 Stat. 1519; renumbered §614 and amended Pub. L. 100–418, title VI, §§6261(1), 6262, Aug. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 1520, 1523; Pub. L. 101–600, §7, Nov. 16, 1990, 104 Stat. 3046; Pub. L. 102–325, title VI, §601, July 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 733; Pub. L. 105–244, title VI, §602(c), Oct. 7, 1998, 112 Stat. 1783; Pub. L. 110–315, title VI, §611(c), Aug. 14, 2008, 122 Stat. 3339.)

Amendments

2008—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 110–315, §611(c)(1), substituted "such sums as may be necessary" for "$11,000,000", "2009" for "1999", and "five" for "4".

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 110–315, §611(c)(2), substituted "such sums as may be necessary" for "$7,000,000", "2009" for "1999", and "five" for "4".

1998Pub. L. 105–244 substituted "1999" for "1993" in subsecs. (a) and (b).

1992Pub. L. 102–325 amended section generally. Prior to amendment, section read as follows:

"(a) There are authorized to be appropriated $7,500,000 for the fiscal year 1988 and for each of the 4 succeeding fiscal years to carry out the provisions of section 1130–1 of this title.

"(b) There are authorized to be appropriated $5,000,000 for fiscal year 1987, and such sums as may be necessary for the 4 succeeding fiscal years, to carry out the provisions of section 1130a of this title."

1990—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 101–600 substituted "$7,500,000" for "$5,000,000" and "4 succeeding" for "3 succeeding".

1988Pub. L. 100–418, §6262, amended section generally. Prior to amendment, section read as follows: "There are authorized to be appropriated to carry out this part $5,000,000 for fiscal year 1987, and such sums as may be necessary for the 4 succeeding fiscal years."

1986Pub. L. 99–498 amended section generally. Prior to amendment, section read as follows: "There are authorized to be appropriated $7,500,000 for fiscal year 1981 and for each of the succeeding fiscal years ending prior to October 1, 1985, to carry out the provisions of this part."

Effective Date of 1998 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 105–244 effective Oct. 1, 1998, except as otherwise provided in Pub. L. 105–244, see section 3 of Pub. L. 105–244, set out as a note under section 1001 of this title.

Effective Date of 1992 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 102–325 effective Oct. 1, 1992, see section 2 of Pub. L. 102–325, set out as a note under section 1001 of this title.