[USC02] 20 USC CHAPTER 28, SUBCHAPTER VII, Part D: Programs To Provide Students With Disabilities With a Quality Higher Education
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20 USC CHAPTER 28, SUBCHAPTER VII, Part D: Programs To Provide Students With Disabilities With a Quality Higher Education
From Title 20—EDUCATIONCHAPTER 28—HIGHER EDUCATION RESOURCES AND STUDENT ASSISTANCESUBCHAPTER VII—GRADUATE AND POSTSECONDARY IMPROVEMENT PROGRAMS

Part D—Programs To Provide Students With Disabilities With a Quality Higher Education

Prior Provisions

A prior part D consisted of sections 1140 to 1140d and related to demonstration projects to ensure that students with disabilities receive a quality higher education, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 110–315, title VII, §709(2), Aug. 14, 2008, 122 Stat. 3361.

§1140. Definitions

In this part:

(1) Comprehensive transition and postsecondary program for students with intellectual disabilities

The term "comprehensive transition and postsecondary program for students with intellectual disabilities" means a degree, certificate, or nondegree program that meets each of the following:

(A) Is offered by an institution of higher education.

(B) Is designed to support students with intellectual disabilities who are seeking to continue academic, career and technical, and independent living instruction at an institution of higher education in order to prepare for gainful employment.

(C) Includes an advising and curriculum structure.

(D) Requires students with intellectual disabilities to participate on not less than a half-time basis as determined by the institution, with such participation focusing on academic components, and occurring through 1 or more of the following activities:

(i) Regular enrollment in credit-bearing courses with nondisabled students offered by the institution.

(ii) Auditing or participating in courses with nondisabled students offered by the institution for which the student does not receive regular academic credit.

(iii) Enrollment in noncredit-bearing, nondegree courses with nondisabled students.

(iv) Participation in internships or work-based training in settings with nondisabled individuals.


(E) Requires students with intellectual disabilities to be socially and academically integrated with non-disabled students to the maximum extent possible.

(2) Student with an intellectual disability

The term "student with an intellectual disability" means a student—

(A) with a cognitive impairment, characterized by significant limitations in—

(i) intellectual and cognitive functioning; and

(ii) adaptive behavior as expressed in conceptual, social, and practical adaptive skills; and


(B) who is currently, or was formerly, eligible for a free appropriate public education under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act [20 U.S.C. 1400 et seq.].

(Pub. L. 89–329, title VII, §760, as added Pub. L. 110–315, title VII, §709(2), Aug. 14, 2008, 122 Stat. 3361; amended Pub. L. 111–39, title VII, §701(4), July 1, 2009, 123 Stat. 1954; Pub. L. 111–256, §2(a), Oct. 5, 2010, 124 Stat. 2643.)

References in Text

The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, referred to in par. (2)(B), is title VI of Pub. L. 91–230, Apr. 13, 1970, 84 Stat. 175, which is classified generally to chapter 33 (§1400 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 1400 of this title and Tables.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 1140, Pub. L. 89–329, title VII, §761, as added Pub. L. 105–244, title VII, §701, Oct. 7, 1998, 112 Stat. 1801, stated the purpose of former part D, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 110–315, title VII, §709(2), Aug. 14, 2008, 122 Stat. 3361.

Amendments

2010—Par. (2)(A). Pub. L. 111–256 struck out "mental retardation or" before "a cognitive impairment".

2009—Par. (1). Pub. L. 111–39 added par. (1) and struck out former par. (1) which contained provisions substantially similar to new subpars. (A) to (D), defining "comprehensive transition and postsecondary program for students with intellectual disabilities".

Effective Date of 2009 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 111–39 effective as if enacted on the date of enactment of Pub. L. 110–315 (Aug. 14, 2008), see section 3 of Pub. L. 111–39, set out as a note under section 1001 of this title.

Definitions

For meaning of references to an intellectual disability and to individuals with intellectual disabilities in provisions amended by section 2 of Pub. L. 111–256, see section 2(k) of Pub. L. 111–256, set out as a note under section 1400 of this title.

subpart 1—demonstration projects to support postsecondary faculty, staff, and administrators in educating students with disabilities

§1140a. Purpose

It is the purpose of this subpart to support model demonstration projects to provide technical assistance or professional development for postsecondary faculty, staff, and administrators in institutions of higher education to enable such faculty, staff, and administrators to provide students with disabilities with a quality postsecondary education.

(Pub. L. 89–329, title VII, §761, as added Pub. L. 110–315, title VII, §709(2), Aug. 14, 2008, 122 Stat. 3362.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 1140a, Pub. L. 89–329, title VII, §762, as added Pub. L. 105–244, title VII, §701, Oct. 7, 1998, 112 Stat. 1801, related to authorization of competitive grants, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 110–315, title VII, §709(2), Aug. 14, 2008, 122 Stat. 3361.

A prior section 761 of Pub. L. 89–329 was classified to section 1140 of this title, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 110–315.

Another prior section 761 of Pub. L. 89–329 was classified to section 1132g of this title, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 102–325.

Another prior section 761 of Pub. L. 89–329 was classified to section 1132d of this title, prior to the general amendment of this subchapter by Pub. L. 96–374.

§1140b. Grants, contracts, and cooperative agreements authorized

(a) Competitive grants, contracts, and cooperative agreements authorized

(1) In general

From amounts appropriated under section 1140e of this title, the Secretary may award grants, contracts, and cooperative agreements, on a competitive basis, to institutions of higher education to enable the institutions to carry out the activities under subsection (b).

(2) Awards for professional development and technical assistance

Not less than two grants, contracts, cooperative agreements, or a combination of such awards shall be awarded to institutions of higher education that provide professional development and technical assistance in order for students with learning disabilities to receive a quality postsecondary education.

(b) Duration; activities

(1) Duration

A grant, contract, or cooperative agreement under this subpart shall be awarded for a period of three years.

(2) Authorized activities

A grant, contract, or cooperative agreement awarded under this subpart shall be used to carry out one or more of the following activities:

(A) Teaching methods and strategies

The development of innovative, effective, and efficient teaching methods and strategies, consistent with the principles of universal design for learning, to provide postsecondary faculty, staff, and administrators with the skills and supports necessary to teach and meet the academic and programmatic needs of students with disabilities, in order to improve the retention of such students in, and the completion by such students of, postsecondary education. Such methods and strategies may include in-service training, professional development, customized and general technical assistance, workshops, summer institutes, distance learning, and training in the use of assistive and educational technology.

(B) Effective transition practices

The development of innovative and effective teaching methods and strategies to provide postsecondary faculty, staff, and administrators with the skill and supports necessary to ensure the successful and smooth transition of students with disabilities from secondary school to postsecondary education.

(C) Synthesizing research and information

The synthesis of research and other information related to the provision of postsecondary educational services to students with disabilities, including data on the impact of a postsecondary education on subsequent employment of students with disabilities. Such research, information, and data shall be made publicly available and accessible.

(D) Distance learning

The development of innovative and effective teaching methods and strategies to provide postsecondary faculty, staff, and administrators with the ability to provide accessible distance education programs or classes that would enhance the access of students with disabilities to postsecondary education, including the use of accessible curricula and electronic communication for instruction and advising.

(E) Disability career pathways

(i) In general

The provision of information, training, and technical assistance to secondary and postsecondary faculty, staff, and administrators with respect to disability-related fields that would enable such faculty, staff, and administrators to—

(I) encourage interest and participation in such fields, among students with disabilities and other students;

(II) enhance awareness and understanding of such fields among students with disabilities and other students;

(III) provide educational opportunities in such fields for students with disabilities and other students;

(IV) teach practical skills related to such fields to students with disabilities and other students; and

(V) offer work-based opportunities in such fields to students with disabilities and other students.

(ii) Development

The training and support described in subclauses (I) through (V) of clause (i) may include offering students—

(I) credit-bearing postsecondary-level coursework; and

(II) career and educational counseling.

(F) Professional development and training sessions

The conduct of professional development and training sessions for postsecondary faculty, staff, and administrators from other institutions of higher education to enable such individuals to meet the educational needs of students with disabilities.

(G) Accessibility of education

Making postsecondary education more accessible to students with disabilities through curriculum development, consistent with the principles of universal design for learning.

(3) Mandatory evaluation and dissemination

An institution of higher education awarded a grant, contract, or cooperative agreement under this subpart shall evaluate and disseminate to other institutions of higher education, the information obtained through the activities described in subparagraphs (A) through (G) of paragraph (2).

(c) Considerations in making awards

In awarding grants, contracts, or cooperative agreements under this subpart, the Secretary shall consider the following:

(1) Geographic distribution

Providing an equitable geographic distribution of such awards.

(2) Rural and urban areas

Distributing such awards to urban and rural areas.

(3) Range and type of institution

Ensuring that the activities to be assisted are developed for a range of types and sizes of institutions of higher education.

(4) Prior experience or exceptional programs

Distributing the awards to institutions of higher education with demonstrated prior experience in, or exceptional programs for, meeting the postsecondary educational needs of students with disabilities.

(d) Reports

(1) Initial report

Not later than one year after August 14, 2008, the Secretary shall prepare and submit to the authorizing committees, and make available to the public, a report on all demonstration projects awarded grants under this part for any of fiscal years 1999 through 2008, including a review of the activities and program performance of such demonstration projects based on existing information as of the date of the report.

(2) Subsequent report

Not later than three years after the date of the first award of a grant under this subpart after August 14, 2008, the Secretary shall prepare and submit to the authorizing committees, and make available to the public, a report that—

(A) reviews the activities and program performance of the demonstration projects authorized under this subpart; and

(B) provides guidance and recommendations on how effective projects can be replicated.

(Pub. L. 89–329, title VII, §762, as added Pub. L. 110–315, title VII, §709(2), Aug. 14, 2008, 122 Stat. 3362.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 1140b, Pub. L. 89–329, title VII, §763, as added Pub. L. 105–244, title VII, §701, Oct. 7, 1998, 112 Stat. 1802, related to applications, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 110–315, title VII, §709(2), Aug. 14, 2008, 122 Stat. 3361.

A prior section 762 of Pub. L. 89–329 was classified to section 1140a of this title, prior to repeal by Pub L. 110–315.

Another prior section 762 of Pub. L. 89–329 was classified to section 1132g–1 of this title, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 102–325.

Another prior section 762 of Pub. L. 89–329 was classified to section 1132d–1 of this title, prior to the general amendment of this subchapter by Pub. L. 96–374.

§1140c. Applications

Each institution of higher education desiring to receive a grant, contract, or cooperative agreement under this subpart shall submit an application to the Secretary at such time, in such manner, and accompanied by such information as the Secretary may require. Each application shall include—

(1) a description of the activities authorized under this subpart that the institution proposes to carry out, and how such institution plans to conduct such activities in order to further the purpose of this subpart;

(2) a description of how the institution consulted with a broad range of people within the institution to develop activities for which assistance is sought;

(3) a description of how the institution will coordinate and collaborate with the office that provides services to students with disabilities within the institution; and

(4) a description of the extent to which the institution will work to replicate the research-based and best practices of institutions of higher education with demonstrated effectiveness in serving students with disabilities.

(Pub. L. 89–329, title VII, §763, as added Pub. L. 110–315, title VII, §709(2), Aug. 14, 2008, 122 Stat. 3364.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 1140c, Pub. L. 89–329, title VII, §764, as added Pub. L. 105–244, title VII, §701, Oct. 7, 1998, 112 Stat. 1803, established a rule of construction, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 110–315, title VII, §709(2), Aug. 14, 2008, 122 Stat. 3361.

A prior section 763 of Pub. L. 89–329 was classified to section 1140b of this title, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 110–315.

Another prior section 763 of Pub. L. 89–329 was classified to section 1132g–2 of this title, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 102–325.

Another prior section 763 of Pub. L. 89–329 was classified to section 1132d–2 of this title, prior to the general amendment of this subchapter by Pub. L. 96–374.

§1140d. Rule of construction

Nothing in this subpart shall be construed to impose any additional duty, obligation, or responsibility on an institution of higher education or on the institution's faculty, administrators, or staff than is required under section 794 of title 29 and the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (42 U.S.C. 12101 et seq.).

(Pub. L. 89–329, title VII, §764, as added Pub. L. 110–315, title VII, §709(2), Aug. 14, 2008, 122 Stat. 3365.)

References in Text

The Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, referred to in text, is Pub. L. 101–336, July 26, 1990, 104 Stat. 327, which is classified principally to chapter 126 (§12101 et seq.) of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 12101 of Title 42 and Tables.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 1140d, Pub. L. 89–329, title VII, §765, as added Pub. L. 105–244, title VII, §701, Oct. 7, 1998, 112 Stat. 1803, authorized appropriations, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 110–315, title VII, §709(2), Aug. 14, 2008, 122 Stat. 3361.

A prior section 764 of Pub. L. 89–329 was classified to section 1140c of this title, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 110–315.

Another prior section 764 of Pub. L. 89–329 was classified to section 1132g–3 of this title, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 102–325.

Another prior section 764 of Pub. L. 89–329 was classified to section 1132d–3 of this title, prior to the general amendment of this subchapter by Pub. L. 96–374.

§1140e. Authorization of appropriations

There are authorized to be appropriated to carry out this subpart such sums as may be necessary for fiscal year 2009 and each of the five succeeding fiscal years.

(Pub. L. 89–329, title VII, §765, as added Pub. L. 110–315, title VII, §709(2), Aug. 14, 2008, 122 Stat. 3365.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 765 of Pub. L. 89–329 was classified to section 1140d of this title, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 110–315.

Another prior section 765 of Pub. L. 89–329 was classified to section 1132d–4 of this title, prior to the general amendment of this subchapter by Pub. L. 96–374.

subpart 2—transition programs for students with intellectual disabilities into higher education

§1140f. Purpose

It is the purpose of this subpart to support model demonstration programs that promote the successful transition of students with intellectual disabilities into higher education.

(Pub. L. 89–329, title VII, §766, as added Pub. L. 110–315, title VII, §709(2), Aug. 14, 2008, 122 Stat. 3365.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 766 of Pub. L. 89–329 was classified to section 1132d–5 of this title, prior to the general amendment of this subchapter by Pub. L. 96–374.

§1140g. Model comprehensive transition and postsecondary programs for students with intellectual disabilities

(a) Grants authorized

(1) In general

From amounts appropriated under section 1140i(a) of this title, the Secretary shall annually award grants, on a competitive basis, to institutions of higher education (or consortia of institutions of higher education), to enable the institutions or consortia to create or expand high quality, inclusive model comprehensive transition and postsecondary programs for students with intellectual disabilities.

(2) Administration

The program under this section shall be administered by the office in the Department that administers other postsecondary education programs.

(3) Duration of grants

A grant under this section shall be awarded for a period of 5 years.

(b) Application

An institution of higher education (or a consortium) desiring a grant under this section shall submit an application to the Secretary at such time, in such manner, and containing such information as the Secretary may require.

(c) Award basis

In awarding grants under this section, the Secretary shall—

(1) provide for an equitable geographic distribution of such grants;

(2) provide grant funds for model comprehensive transition and postsecondary programs for students with intellectual disabilities that will serve areas that are underserved by programs of this type; and

(3) give preference to applications submitted under subsection (b) that agree to incorporate into the model comprehensive transition and postsecondary program for students with intellectual disabilities carried out under the grant one or more of the following elements:

(A) The formation of a partnership with any relevant agency serving students with intellectual disabilities, such as a vocational rehabilitation agency.

(B) In the case of an institution of higher education that provides institutionally owned or operated housing for students attending the institution, the integration of students with intellectual disabilities into the housing offered to nondisabled students.

(C) The involvement of students attending the institution of higher education who are studying special education, general education, vocational rehabilitation, assistive technology, or related fields in the model program.

(d) Use of funds

An institution of higher education (or consortium) receiving a grant under this section shall use the grant funds to establish a model comprehensive transition and postsecondary program for students with intellectual disabilities that—

(1) serves students with intellectual disabilities;

(2) provides individual supports and services for the academic and social inclusion of students with intellectual disabilities in academic courses, extracurricular activities, and other aspects of the institution of higher education's regular postsecondary program;

(3) with respect to the students with intellectual disabilities participating in the model program, provides a focus on—

(A) academic enrichment;

(B) socialization;

(C) independent living skills, including self-advocacy skills; and

(D) integrated work experiences and career skills that lead to gainful employment;


(4) integrates person-centered planning in the development of the course of study for each student with an intellectual disability participating in the model program;

(5) participates with the coordinating center established under section 1140q(b) of this title in the evaluation of the model program;

(6) partners with one or more local educational agencies to support students with intellectual disabilities participating in the model program who are still eligible for special education and related services under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act [20 U.S.C. 1400 et seq.], including the use of funds available under part B of such Act [20 U.S.C. 1411 et seq.] to support the participation of such students in the model program;

(7) plans for the sustainability of the model program after the end of the grant period; and

(8) creates and offers a meaningful credential for students with intellectual disabilities upon the completion of the model program.

(e) Matching requirement

An institution of higher education (or consortium) that receives a grant under this section shall provide matching funds toward the cost of the model comprehensive transition and postsecondary program for students with intellectual disabilities carried out under the grant. Such matching funds may be provided in cash or in-kind, and shall be in an amount of not less than 25 percent of the amount of such costs.

(f) Report

Not later than five years after the date of the first grant awarded under this section, the Secretary shall prepare and disseminate a report to the authorizing committees and to the public that—

(1) reviews the activities of the model comprehensive transition and postsecondary programs for students with intellectual disabilities funded under this section; and

(2) provides guidance and recommendations on how effective model programs can be replicated.

(Pub. L. 89–329, title VII, §767, as added Pub. L. 110–315, title VII, §709(2), Aug. 14, 2008, 122 Stat. 3365.)

References in Text

The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, referred to in subsec. (d)(6), is title VI of Pub. L. 91–230, Apr. 13, 1970, 84 Stat. 175, which is classified generally to chapter 33 (§1400 et seq.) of this title. Part B of the Act is classified generally to subchapter II (§1411 et seq.) of chapter 33 of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 1400 of this title and Tables.

§1140h. Rule of construction

Nothing in this subpart shall be construed to reduce or expand—

(1) the obligation of a State or local educational agency to provide a free appropriate public education, as defined in section 1401 of this title; or

(2) eligibility requirements under any Federal, State, or local disability law, including the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (42 U.S.C. 12101 et seq.), the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 (29 U.S.C. 701 et seq.), or the Developmental Disabilities Assistance and Bill of Rights Act of 2000 (42 U.S.C. 15001 et seq.).

(Pub. L. 89–329, title VII, §768, as added Pub. L. 110–315, title VII, §709(2), Aug. 14, 2008, 122 Stat. 3367.)

References in Text

The Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, referred to in par. (2), is Pub. L. 101–336, July 26, 1990, 104 Stat. 327, which is classified principally to chapter 126 (§12101 et seq.) of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 12101 of Title 42 and Tables.

The Rehabilitation Act of 1973, referred to in par. (2), is Pub. L. 93–112, Sept. 26, 1973, 87 Stat. 355, which is classified generally to chapter 16 (§701 et seq.) of Title 29, Labor. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 701 of Title 29 and Tables.

The Developmental Disabilities Assistance and Bill of Rights Act of 2000, referred to in par. (2), is Pub. L. 106–402, Oct. 30, 2000, 114 Stat. 1677, which is classified principally to chapter 144 (§15001 et seq.) of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 15001 of Title 42 and Tables.

§1140i. Authorization of appropriations and reservation

(a) Authorization of appropriations

There are authorized to be appropriated to carry out this subpart such sums as may be necessary for fiscal year 2009 and each of the five succeeding fiscal years.

(b) Reservation of funds

For any fiscal year for which appropriations are made for this subpart, the Secretary shall reserve funds to enter into a cooperative agreement to establish the coordinating center under section 1140q(b) of this title, in an amount that is—

(1) not less than $240,000 for any year in which the amount appropriated to carry out this subpart is $8,000,000 or less; or

(2) equal to 3 percent of the amount appropriated to carry out this subpart for any year in which such amount appropriated is greater than $8,000,000.

(Pub. L. 89–329, title VII, §769, as added Pub. L. 110–315, title VII, §709(2), Aug. 14, 2008, 122 Stat. 3367.)

subpart 3—commission on accessible materials; programs to support improved access to materials

§1140k. Definition of student with a print disability

In this subpart, the term "student with a print disability" means a student with a disability who experiences barriers to accessing instructional material in nonspecialized formats, including an individual described in section 121(d)(2) of title 17.

(Pub. L. 89–329, title VII, §771, as added Pub. L. 110–315, title VII, §709(2), Aug. 14, 2008, 122 Stat. 3367.)

References in Text

Section 121(d) of title 17, referred to in text, was amended by Pub. L. 115–261, §2(a)(1)(D), Oct. 9, 2018, 132 Stat. 3667, and no longer defines blind or other persons with disabilities. However, section 121(d) of title 17, as amended, does define "eligible person" to include blind persons, persons with visual impairment or perceptual or reading disability, and persons with other physical disabilities that inhibit reading skills.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 771 of Pub. L. 89–329 was renumbered section 781, and is classified to section 1141 of this title.

Another prior section 771 of Pub. L. 89–329 was classified to section 1132h of this title, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 102–325.

Another prior section 771 of Pub. L. 89–329 was classified to section 1132d–11 of this title, prior to the general amendment of this subchapter by Pub. L. 96–374.

§1140l. Establishment of Advisory Commission on Accessible Instructional Materials in Postsecondary Education for Students with Disabilities

(a) Establishment

(1) In general

The Secretary shall establish a commission to be known as the Advisory Commission on Accessible Instructional Materials in Postsecondary Education for Students with Disabilities (in this section referred to as the "Commission").

(2) Membership

(A) Total number of members

The Commission shall include not more than 19 members, who shall be appointed by the Secretary in accordance with subparagraphs (B) and (C).

(B) Members of the Commission

The Commission members shall include one representative from each of the following categories:

(i) The Office of Postsecondary Education of the Department.

(ii) The Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services of the Department.

(iii) The Office for Civil Rights of the Department.

(iv) The Library of Congress National Digital Information and Infrastructure Preservation Program Copyright Working Group.

(v) The Association on Higher Education and Disability.

(vi) The Association of American Publishers.

(vii) The Association of American University Presses.

(viii) The National Council on Disability.

(ix) Recording for the Blind and Dyslexic.

(x) National organizations representing individuals with visual impairments.

(xi) National organizations representing individuals with learning disabilities.

(C) Additional members of the Commission

The Commission members shall include two representatives from each of the following categories:

(i) Staff from institutions of higher education with demonstrated experience teaching or supporting students with print disabilities, including representatives from both two-year and four-year institutions of higher education of different sizes.

(ii) Producers of accessible materials, publishing software, and supporting technologies in specialized formats, such as Braille, audio or synthesized speech, and digital media.

(iii) Individuals with visual impairments, including not less than one currently enrolled postsecondary student.

(iv) Individuals with dyslexia or other learning disabilities related to reading, including not less than one currently enrolled postsecondary student.

(D) Timing

The Secretary shall appoint the members of the Commission not later than 60 days after the Commission is established under paragraph (1).

(3) Chairperson and vice chairperson

The Commission shall select a chairperson and vice chairperson from among the members of the Commission.

(4) Meetings

(A) In general

The Commission shall meet at the call of the Chairperson.

(B) First meeting

Not later than 60 days after the appointment of the members of the Commission under paragraph (2)(D), the Commission shall hold the Commission's first meeting.

(5) Quorum

A majority of the members of the Commission shall constitute a quorum, but a lesser number of members may hold hearings.

(b) Duties of the Commission

(1) Study

(A) In general

The Commission shall conduct a comprehensive study to—

(i) assess the barriers and systemic issues that may affect, and technical solutions available that may improve, the timely delivery and quality of accessible instructional materials for postsecondary students with print disabilities, as well as the effective use of such materials by faculty and staff; and

(ii) make recommendations related to the development of a comprehensive approach to improve the opportunities for postsecondary students with print disabilities to access instructional materials in specialized formats in a timeframe comparable to the availability of instructional materials for postsecondary nondisabled students.

(B) Existing information

To the extent practicable, in carrying out the study under this paragraph, the Commission shall identify and use existing research, recommendations, and information.

(C) Recommendations

(i) In general

The Commission shall develop recommendations—

(I) to inform Federal regulations and legislation;

(II) to support the model demonstration programs authorized under section 1140m of this title;

(III) to identify best practices in systems for collecting, maintaining, processing, and disseminating materials in specialized formats to students with print disabilities at costs comparable to instructional materials for postsecondary nondisabled students;

(IV) to improve the effective use of such materials by faculty and staff, while complying with applicable copyright law; and

(V) to modify the definitions of instructional materials, authorized entities, and eligible students, as such terms are used in applicable Federal law, for the purpose of improving services to students with disabilities.

(ii) Considerations

In developing the recommendations under clause (i), the Commission shall consider—

(I) how students with print disabilities may obtain instructional materials in accessible formats—

(aa) within a timeframe comparable to the availability of instructional materials for nondisabled students; and

(bb) to the maximum extent practicable, at costs comparable to the costs of such materials for nondisabled students;


(II) the feasibility and technical parameters of establishing standardized electronic file formats, such as the National Instructional Materials Accessibility Standard as defined in section 1474(e)(3) of this title, to be provided by publishers of instructional materials to producers of materials in specialized formats, institutions of higher education, and eligible students;

(III) the feasibility of establishing a national clearinghouse, repository, or file-sharing network for electronic files in specialized formats and files used in producing instructional materials in specialized formats, and a list of possible entities qualified to administer such clearinghouse, repository, or network;

(IV) the feasibility of establishing market-based solutions involving collaborations among publishers of instructional materials, producers of materials in specialized formats, and institutions of higher education;

(V) solutions utilizing universal design; and

(VI) solutions for low-incidence, high-cost requests for instructional materials in specialized formats.

(2) Report

Not later than one year after the Commission's first meeting, the Commission shall submit a report to the Secretary and the authorizing committees detailing the findings and recommendations of the study conducted under paragraph (1).

(3) Dissemination of information

In carrying out the study under paragraph (1), the Commission shall disseminate information concerning the issues that are the subject of the study through—

(A) the National Technical Assistance Center established under subpart 4; and

(B) other means, as determined by the Commission.

(c) Termination of the Commission

The Commission shall terminate on the date that is 90 days after the date on which the Commission submits the report under subsection (b)(2) to the Secretary and the authorizing committees.

(Pub. L. 89–329, title VII, §772, as added Pub. L. 110–315, title VII, §709(2), Aug. 14, 2008, 122 Stat. 3368; amended Pub. L. 111–39, title VII, §701(5), July 1, 2009, 123 Stat. 1955.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 772 of Pub. L. 89–329 was classified to section 1132h–1 of this title, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 102–325.

Amendments

2009—Subsec. (a)(2)(A). Pub. L. 111–39, §701(5)(A), substituted "with" for "with in".

Subsec. (b)(1)(C)(ii). Pub. L. 111–39, §701(5)(B), substituted "clause (i)" for "subparagraph (C)" in introductory provisions.

Effective Date of 2009 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 111–39 effective as if enacted on the date of enactment of Pub. L. 110–315 (Aug. 14, 2008), see section 3 of Pub. L. 111–39, set out as a note under section 1001 of this title.

§1140m. Model demonstration programs to support improved access to postsecondary instructional materials for students with print disabilities

(a) Purpose

It is the purpose of this section to support model demonstration programs for the purpose of encouraging the development of systems to improve the quality of postsecondary instructional materials in specialized formats and such materials' timely delivery to postsecondary students with print disabilities, including systems to improve efficiency and reduce duplicative efforts across multiple institutions of higher education.

(b) Definition of eligible partnership

In this section, the term "eligible partnership" means a partnership that—

(1) shall include—

(A) an institution of higher education with demonstrated expertise in meeting the needs of students with print disabilities, including the retention of such students in, and such students' completion of, postsecondary education; and

(B) a public or private entity, other than an institution of higher education, with—

(i) demonstrated expertise in developing accessible instructional materials in specialized formats for postsecondary students with print disabilities; and

(ii) the technical development expertise necessary for the efficient dissemination of such materials, including procedures to protect against copyright infringement with respect to the creation, use, and distribution of instructional materials in specialized formats; and


(2) may include representatives of the publishing industry.

(c) Program authorized

From amounts appropriated under section 1140o of this title, the Secretary shall award grants or contracts, on a competitive basis, to not less than one eligible partnership to enable the eligible partnership to support the activities described in subsection (f) and, as applicable, subsection (g).

(d) Application

An eligible partnership that desires a grant or contract under this section shall submit an application at such time, in such manner, and in such format as the Secretary may prescribe. The application shall include information on how the eligible partnership will implement activities under subsection (f) and, as applicable, subsection (g).

(e) Priority

In awarding grants or contracts under this section, the Secretary shall give priority to any applications that include the development and implementation of the procedures and approaches described in paragraphs (2) and (3) of subsection (g).

(f) Required activities

An eligible partnership that receives a grant or contract under this section shall use the grant or contract funds to carry out the following:

(1) Supporting the development and implementation of the following:

(A) Processes and systems to help identify, and verify eligibility of, postsecondary students with print disabilities in need of instructional materials in specialized formats.

(B) Procedures and systems to facilitate and simplify request methods for accessible instructional materials in specialized formats from eligible students described in subparagraph (A), which may include a single point-of-entry system.

(C) Procedures and systems to coordinate among institutions of higher education, publishers of instructional materials, and entities that produce materials in specialized formats, to efficiently facilitate—

(i) requests for such materials;

(ii) the responses to such requests; and

(iii) the delivery of such materials.


(D) Delivery systems that will ensure the timely provision of instructional materials in specialized formats to eligible students, which may include electronic file distribution.

(E) Systems to reduce duplicative conversions and improve sharing of the same instructional materials in specialized formats for multiple eligible students at multiple institutions of higher education.

(F) Procedures to protect against copyright infringement with respect to the development, use, and distribution of instructional materials in specialized formats while maintaining accessibility for eligible students, which may include digital technologies such as watermarking, fingerprinting, and other emerging approaches.

(G) Awareness, outreach, and training activities for faculty, staff, and students related to the acquisition and dissemination of instructional materials in specialized formats and instructional materials utilizing universal design.


(2) Providing recommendations on how effective procedures and systems described in paragraph (1) may be disseminated and implemented on a national basis.

(g) Authorized approaches

An eligible partnership that receives a grant or contract under this section may use the grant or contract funds to support the development and implementation of the following:

(1) Approaches for the provision of instructional materials in specialized formats limited to instructional materials used in smaller categories of postsecondary courses, such as introductory, first-, and second-year courses.

(2) Approaches supporting a unified search for instructional materials in specialized formats across multiple databases or lists of available materials.

(3) Market-based approaches for making instructional materials in specialized formats directly available to eligible students at prices comparable to standard instructional materials.

(h) Report

Not later than three years after the date of the first grant or contract awarded under this section, the Secretary shall submit to the authorizing committees a report that includes—

(1) the number of grants and contracts and the amount of funds distributed under this section;

(2) a summary of the purposes for which the grants and contracts were provided and an evaluation of the progress made under such grants and contracts;

(3) a summary of the activities implemented under subsection (f) and, as applicable, subsection (g), including data on the number of postsecondary students with print disabilities served and the number of instructional material requests executed and delivered in specialized formats; and

(4) an evaluation of the effectiveness of programs funded under this section.

(i) Model expansion

The Secretary may, on the basis of the reports under subsection (h) and section 1140l(b)(2) of this title and any evaluations of the projects funded under this section, expand the program under this section to additional grant or contract recipients that use other programmatic approaches and serve different geographic regions, if the Secretary finds that the models used under this section—

(1) are effective in improving the timely delivery and quality of materials in specialized formats; and

(2) provide adequate protections against copyright infringement.

(Pub. L. 89–329, title VII, §773, as added Pub. L. 110–315, title VII, §709(2), Aug. 14, 2008, 122 Stat. 3371.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 773 of Pub. L. 89–329 was classified to section 1132h–2 of this title, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 102–325.

§1140n. Rule of construction

Nothing in this subpart shall be construed to limit or preempt any State law requiring the production or distribution of postsecondary instructional materials in accessible formats to students with disabilities.

(Pub. L. 89–329, title VII, §774, as added Pub. L. 110–315, title VII, §709(2), Aug. 14, 2008, 122 Stat. 3373.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 774 of Pub. L. 89–329 was classified to section 1132h–3 of this title, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 102–325.

§1140o. Authorization of appropriations

(a) In general

There are authorized to be appropriated to carry out this subpart such sums as may be necessary for fiscal year 2009 and each of the five succeeding fiscal years.

(b) Priority

For the first fiscal year for which funds are made available under this section, the Secretary shall give priority to allocating funding for the purposes of section 1140l of this title.

(Pub. L. 89–329, title VII, §775, as added Pub. L. 110–315, title VII, §709(2), Aug. 14, 2008, 122 Stat. 3373.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 775 of Pub. L. 89–329 was classified to section 1132h–4 of this title, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 102–325.

subpart 4—national technical assistance center; coordinating center

§1140p. Purpose

It is the purpose of this subpart to provide technical assistance and information on best and promising practices to students with disabilities, the families of students with disabilities, and entities awarded grants, contracts, or cooperative agreements under subpart 1, 2, or 3 to improve the postsecondary recruitment, transition, retention, and completion rates of students with disabilities.

(Pub. L. 89–329, title VII, §776, as added Pub. L. 110–315, title VII, §709(2), Aug. 14, 2008, 122 Stat. 3373.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 776 of Pub. L. 89–329 was classified to section 1132h–5 of this title, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 102–325.

§1140q. National technical assistance center; coordinating center

(a) National Center

(1) In general

From amounts appropriated under section 1140r of this title, the Secretary shall award a grant to, or enter into a contract or cooperative agreement with, an eligible entity to provide for the establishment and support of a National Center for Information and Technical Support for Postsecondary Students with Disabilities (in this subsection referred to as the "National Center"). The National Center shall carry out the duties set forth in paragraph (4).

(2) Administration

The program under this section shall be administered by the office in the Department that administers other postsecondary education programs.

(3) Eligible entity

In this subpart, the term "eligible entity" means an institution of higher education, a nonprofit organization, or partnership of two or more such institutions or organizations, with demonstrated expertise in—

(A) supporting students with disabilities in postsecondary education;

(B) technical knowledge necessary for the dissemination of information in accessible formats;

(C) working with diverse types of institutions of higher education, including community colleges; and

(D) the subjects supported by the grants, contracts, or cooperative agreements authorized in subparts 1, 2, and 3.

(4) Duties

The duties of the National Center shall include the following:

(A) Assistance to students and families

The National Center shall provide information and technical assistance to students with disabilities and the families of students with disabilities to support students across the broad spectrum of disabilities, including—

(i) information to assist individuals with disabilities who are prospective students of an institution of higher education in planning for postsecondary education while the students are in secondary school;

(ii) information and technical assistance provided to individualized education program teams (as defined in section 1414(d)(1) of this title) for secondary school students with disabilities, and to early outreach and student services programs, including programs authorized under subparts 2, 4, and 5 of part A of subchapter IV, to support students across a broad spectrum of disabilities with the successful transition to postsecondary education;

(iii) research-based supports, services, and accommodations which are available in postsecondary settings, including services provided by other agencies such as vocational rehabilitation;

(iv) information on student mentoring and networking opportunities for students with disabilities; and

(v) effective recruitment and transition programs at postsecondary educational institutions.

(B) Assistance to institutions of higher education

The National Center shall provide information and technical assistance to faculty, staff, and administrators of institutions of higher education to improve the services provided to, the accommodations for, the retention rates of, and the completion rates of, students with disabilities in higher education settings, which may include—

(i) collection and dissemination of best and promising practices and materials for accommodating and supporting students with disabilities, including practices and materials supported by the grants, contracts, or cooperative agreements authorized under subparts 1, 2, and 3;

(ii) development and provision of training modules for higher education faculty on exemplary practices for accommodating and supporting postsecondary students with disabilities across a range of academic fields, which may include universal design for learning and practices supported by the grants, contracts, or cooperative agreements authorized under subparts 1, 2, and 3; and

(iii) development of technology-based tutorials for higher education faculty and staff, including new faculty and graduate students, on best and promising practices related to support and retention of students with disabilities in postsecondary education.

(C) Information collection and dissemination

The National Center shall be responsible for building, maintaining, and updating a database of disability support services information with respect to institutions of higher education, or for expanding and updating an existing database of disabilities support services information with respect to institutions of higher education. Such database shall be available to the general public through a website built to high technical standards of accessibility practicable for the broad spectrum of individuals with disabilities. Such database and website shall include available information on—

(i) disability documentation requirements;

(ii) support services available;

(iii) links to financial aid;

(iv) accommodations policies;

(v) accessible instructional materials;

(vi) other topics relevant to students with disabilities; and

(vii) the information in the report described in subparagraph (E).

(D) Disability support services

The National Center shall work with organizations and individuals with proven expertise related to disability support services for postsecondary students with disabilities to evaluate, improve, and disseminate information related to the delivery of high quality disability support services at institutions of higher education.

(E) Review and report

Not later than three years after the establishment of the National Center, and every two years thereafter, the National Center shall prepare and disseminate a report to the Secretary and the authorizing committees analyzing the condition of postsecondary success for students with disabilities. Such report shall include—

(i) a review of the activities and the effectiveness of the programs authorized under this part;

(ii) annual enrollment and graduation rates of students with disabilities in institutions of higher education from publicly reported data;

(iii) recommendations for effective postsecondary supports and services for students with disabilities, and how such supports and services may be widely implemented at institutions of higher education;

(iv) recommendations on reducing barriers to full participation for students with disabilities in higher education; and

(v) a description of strategies with a demonstrated record of effectiveness in improving the success of such students in postsecondary education.

(F) Staffing of the Center

In hiring employees of the National Center, the National Center shall consider the expertise and experience of prospective employees in providing training and technical assistance to practitioners.

(b) Coordinating center

(1) Definition of eligible entity

In this subsection, the term "eligible entity" means an entity, or a partnership of entities, that has demonstrated expertise in the fields of—

(A) higher education;

(B) the education of students with intellectual disabilities;

(C) the development of comprehensive transition and postsecondary programs for students with intellectual disabilities; and

(D) evaluation and technical assistance.

(2) In general

From amounts appropriated under section 1140r of this title, the Secretary shall enter into a cooperative agreement, on a competitive basis, with an eligible entity for the purpose of establishing a coordinating center for institutions of higher education that offer inclusive comprehensive transition and postsecondary programs for students with intellectual disabilities, including institutions participating in grants authorized under subpart 2, to provide—

(A) recommendations related to the development of standards for such programs;

(B) technical assistance for such programs; and

(C) evaluations for such programs.

(3) Administration

The program under this subsection shall be administered by the office in the Department that administers other postsecondary education programs.

(4) Duration

The Secretary shall enter into a cooperative agreement under this subsection for a period of five years.

(5) Requirements of cooperative agreement

The eligible entity entering into a cooperative agreement under this subsection shall establish and maintain a coordinating center that shall—

(A) serve as the technical assistance entity for all comprehensive transition and postsecondary programs for students with intellectual disabilities;

(B) provide technical assistance regarding the development, evaluation, and continuous improvement of such programs;

(C) develop an evaluation protocol for such programs that includes qualitative and quantitative methodologies for measuring student outcomes and program strengths in the areas of academic enrichment, socialization, independent living, and competitive or supported employment;

(D) assist recipients of grants under subpart 2 in efforts to award a meaningful credential to students with intellectual disabilities upon the completion of such programs, which credential shall take into consideration unique State factors;

(E) develop recommendations for the necessary components of such programs, such as—

(i) academic, vocational, social, and independent living skills;

(ii) evaluation of student progress;

(iii) program administration and evaluation;

(iv) student eligibility; and

(v) issues regarding the equivalency of a student's participation in such programs to semester, trimester, quarter, credit, or clock hours at an institution of higher education, as the case may be;


(F) analyze possible funding streams for such programs and provide recommendations regarding the funding streams;

(G) develop model memoranda of agreement for use between or among institutions of higher education and State and local agencies providing funding for such programs;

(H) develop mechanisms for regular communication, outreach and dissemination of information about comprehensive transition and postsecondary programs for students with intellectual disabilities under subpart 2 between or among such programs and to families and prospective students;

(I) host a meeting of all recipients of grants under subpart 2 not less often than once each year; and

(J) convene a workgroup to develop and recommend model criteria, standards, and components of such programs as described in subparagraph (E), that are appropriate for the development of accreditation standards, which workgroup shall include—

(i) an expert in higher education;

(ii) an expert in special education;

(iii) a disability organization that represents students with intellectual disabilities;

(iv) a representative from the National Advisory Committee on Institutional Quality and Integrity; and

(v) a representative of a regional or national accreditation agency or association.

(6) Report

Not later than five years after the date of the establishment of the coordinating center under this subsection, the coordinating center shall report to the Secretary, the authorizing committees, and the National Advisory Committee on Institutional Quality and Integrity on the recommendations of the workgroup described in paragraph (5)(J).

(Pub. L. 89–329, title VII, §777, as added Pub. L. 110–315, title VII, §709(2), Aug. 14, 2008, 122 Stat. 3373.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 777 of Pub. L. 89–329 was classified to section 1132h–6 of this title, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 102–325.

§1140r. Authorization of appropriations

There are authorized to be appropriated to carry out this subpart such sums as may be necessary for fiscal year 2009 and each of the five succeeding fiscal years.

(Pub. L. 89–329, title VII, §778, as added Pub. L. 110–315, title VII, §709(2), Aug. 14, 2008, 122 Stat. 3377.)