[USC02] 20 USC CHAPTER 3, SUBCHAPTER I: CHARTER PROVISIONS
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20 USC CHAPTER 3, SUBCHAPTER I: CHARTER PROVISIONS
From Title 20—EDUCATIONCHAPTER 3—SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, NATIONAL MUSEUMS AND ART GALLERIES

SUBCHAPTER I—CHARTER PROVISIONS

§41. Incorporation of institution

The President, the Vice President, the Chief Justice, and the heads of executive departments are constituted an establishment by the name of the Smithsonian Institution for the increase and diffusion of knowledge among men, and by that name shall be known and have perpetual succession with the powers, limitations, and restrictions hereinafter contained, and no other.

(R.S. §5579; Feb. 27, 1877, ch. 69, 19 Stat. 253; Mar. 12, 1894, ch. 36, 28 Stat. 41.)

Codification

R.S. §5579 derived from acts Aug. 10, 1846, ch. 178, §1, 9 Stat. 102; Mar. 20, 1871, ch. 1, 17 Stat. 1.

R.S. §§5579 to 5594 (codified as sections 41 to 46, 48, 50, 51 to 53, 54 to 57, and 67 of this title) constituted Title 73 of the Revised Statutes, entitled "The Smithsonian Institution." A preamble to these sections was as follows: "James Smithson, esquire, of London, in the kingdom of Great Britain, having by his last will and testament given the whole of his property to the United States of America, to found, at Washington, under the name of the 'Smithsonian Institution,' an establishment for the increase and diffusion of knowledge among men; and the United States having, by an act of Congress, received said property and accepted said trust; therefore, for the faithful execution of said trust, according to the will of the liberal and enlightened donor."

R.S. §5579, as originally enacted, constituted the President, the Vice-President, the Secretaries of State, the Treasury, War, and the Navy, the Postmaster-General, the Attorney-General, the Chief Justice, the Commissioner of the Patent Office, and the Governor of the District of Columbia, and such persons as they might elect honorary members, an establishment by the name of the "Smithsonian Institution," for the purposes and with the powers specified in the section as set forth here.

Amendments

1894—Act Mar. 12, 1894, substituted "the Chief Justice, and heads of executive departments" for "the Secretary of State, the Secretary of the Treasury, the Secretary of War, the Secretary of the Navy, the Postmaster-General, the Attorney General, the Chief Justice, the Commissioner of Patents, the governor of the District of Columbia, and other such persons as they may elect honorary members".

1877—Act Feb. 27, 1877, substituted "Patents" for "Patent Office".

Short Title of 2003 Amendment

Pub. L. 108–72, §1, Aug. 15, 2003, 117 Stat. 888, provided that: "This Act [enacting section 253l–8 of Title 41, Public Contracts, enacting provisions set out as notes under section 75b of this title and section 3521 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees, and amending provisions set out as a note under section 50 of this title] may be cited as the 'Smithsonian Facilities Authorization Act'."

Short Title of 1966 Amendment

Pub. L. 89–674, §1, Oct. 15, 1966, 80 Stat. 953, provided: "That this Act [enacting section 65a of this title and repealing section 65 of this title] may be cited as the 'National Museum Act of 1966'."

§42. Board of Regents; members

(a) The business of the Institution shall be conducted at the city of Washington by a Board of Regents, named the Regents of the Smithsonian Institution, to be composed of the Vice President, the Chief Justice of the United States, three Members of the Senate, three Members of the House of Representatives, and nine other persons, other than Members of Congress, two of whom shall be resident in the city of Washington, and seven of whom shall be inhabitants of some State, but no two of them of the same State.

(b) Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution may modify the number of members, manner of appointment of members, or tenure of members, of the boards or commissions under the jurisdiction of the Smithsonian Institution, other than—

(1) the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution; and

(2) the boards or commissions of the National Gallery of Art, the John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts, and the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars.

(R.S. §5580; Mar. 12, 1894, ch. 36, 28 Stat. 41; Pub. L. 91–551, §1(a), Dec. 15, 1970, 84 Stat. 1439; Pub. L. 105–277, div. A, §101(e) [title III, §355], Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–231, 2681-303.)

Codification

R.S. §5580 derived from acts Aug. 10, 1846, ch. 178, §3, 9 Stat. 103; Jan. 10, 1865, ch. 11, 13 Stat. 420; Mar. 20, 1871, ch. 1, 17 Stat. 1.

Amendments

1998Pub. L. 105–277 designated existing provisions as subsec. (a) and added subsec. (b).

1970Pub. L. 91–551 authorized three additional persons on the Board of Regents.

1894—Act Mar. 12, 1894, struck out "the governor of the District of Columbia" after "the Chief Justice of the United States,".

§43. Appointment of regents; terms of office; vacancies

The regents to be selected shall be appointed as follows: The Members of the Senate by the President thereof; the Members of the House by the Speaker thereof; and the nine other persons by joint resolution of the Congress. The Members of the House so appointed shall serve for the term of two years; and on every alternate fourth Wednesday of December a like number shall be appointed in the same manner to serve until the fourth Wednesday in December, in the second year succeeding their appointment. The Senators so appointed shall serve during the term for which they shall hold, without re-election, their office as Senators. Vacancies, occasioned by death, resignation, or otherwise, shall be filled as vacancies in committees are filled. The regular term of service for the other nine members shall be six years; and new elections thereof shall be made by joint resolutions of Congress. Vacancies occasioned by death, resignation, or otherwise may be filled in like manner by joint resolution of Congress.

(R.S. §5581; Pub. L. 91–551, §1(b), (c), Dec. 15, 1970, 84 Stat. 1440.)

Codification

R.S. §5581 derived from act Aug. 10, 1846, ch. 178, §3, 9 Stat. 103.

Amendments

1970Pub. L. 91–551 authorized appointment of three additional members of the board by joint resolution of Congress.

§44. Organization of board; expenses; gratuitous services

The Board of Regents shall meet in the city of Washington and elect one of their number as chancellor, who shall be the presiding officer of the Board of Regents, and called the chancellor of the Smithsonian Institution, and a suitable person as Secretary of the institution, who shall also be the secretary of the Board of Regents. The board shall also elect three of their own body as an executive committee, and shall fix the time for the regular meetings of the board; and, on application of any three of the regents to the Secretary of the institution, it shall be his duty to appoint a special meeting of the Board of Regents, of which he shall give notice, by letter, to each of the members; and, at any meeting of the board, eight shall constitute a quorum to do business. Each member of the board shall be paid his necessary traveling and other actual expenses, in attending meetings of the board, which shall be audited by the executive committee, and recorded by the Secretary of the board; but his service as regent shall be gratuitous.

(R.S. §5582; Pub. L. 91–551, §1(d), Dec. 15, 1970, 84 Stat. 1440.)

Codification

R.S. §5582 derived from act Aug. 10, 1846, ch. 178, §3, 9 Stat. 103.

Amendments

1970Pub. L. 91–551 increased number of members required to constitute a quorum from five to eight.

§45. Special meetings of members

The members of the institution may hold stated and special meetings, for the supervision of the affairs of the institution and the advice and instruction of the Board of Regents, to be called in the manner provided for in the by-laws of the institution, at which the President, and in his absence the Vice President, shall preside.

(R.S. §5585.)

Codification

R.S. §5585 derived from act Aug. 10, 1846, ch. 178, §8, 9 Stat. 103.

§46. Duties of Secretary

The Secretary of the Board of Regents shall take charge of the building and property of the institution, and shall, under their direction, make a fair and accurate record of all their proceedings, to be preserved in the institution until no longer needed in conducting current business; and shall also discharge the duties of librarian and of keeper of the museum, and may, with the consent of the Board of Regents, employ assistants.

(R.S. §5583; Oct. 25, 1951, ch. 562, §2(4), 65 Stat. 639.)

Codification

R.S. §5583 derived from act Aug. 10, 1846, ch. 178, §7, 9 Stat. 105.

Amendments

1951—Act Oct. 25, 1951, inserted "until no longer needed in conducting current business".

§46a. Employment of aliens by Secretary

The Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, subject to adequate security and other investigations as he may determine to be appropriate, and subject further to a prior determination by him that no qualified United States citizen is available for the particular position involved, is authorized to employ and compensate aliens in a scientific or technical capacity at authorized rates of compensation without regard to statutory provisions prohibiting payment of compensation to aliens.

(Pub. L. 88–549, Aug. 31, 1964, 78 Stat. 754.)

§47. Acting Secretary

The chancellor of the Smithsonian Institution may, by an instrument in writing filed in the office of the Secretary thereof, designate and appoint a suitable person to act as Secretary of the Institution when there shall be a vacancy in said office, and whenever the Secretary shall be unable from illness, absence, or other cause to perform the duties of his office; and in such case the person so appointed may perform all the duties imposed on the Secretary by law until the vacancy shall be filled or such inability shall cease. The said chancellor may change such designation and appointment from time to time as the interests of the Institution may in his judgment require.

(May 13, 1884, ch. 44, 23 Stat. 21.)

Prior Provisions

Similar prior provisions were contained in act Jan. 24, 1879, ch. 21, 20 Stat. 264.

§48. Salary and removal of Secretary and assistants

The Secretary and his assistants shall, respectively, receive for their services such sum as may be allowed by the Board of Regents; and shall be removable by the Board of Regents whenever, in their judgment, the interests of the institution require such removal.

(R.S. §5584.)

Codification

R.S. §5584 derived from act Aug. 10, 1846, ch. 178, §7, 9 Stat. 105.

Provisions which related to semi-annual payments on the first day of January and July have been omitted.

§49. Omitted

Codification

Section, act Oct. 2, 1888, ch. 1069, 25 Stat. 529, which required the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution to submit to Congress annually a detailed statement of expenditures under appropriations for "International Exchanges," "North American Ethnology," and the "National Museum,", terminated, effective May 15, 2000, pursuant to section 3003 of Pub. L. 104–66, as amended, set out as a note under section 1113 of Title 31, Money and Finance. See, also, page 192 of House Document No. 103–7.

§50. Reception and arrangement of specimens and objects of art

Whenever suitable arrangements can be made from time to time for their reception, all objects of art and of foreign and curious research, and all objects of natural history, plants, and geological and mineralogical specimens belonging to the United States, which may be in the city of Washington, in whosesoever custody they may be, shall be delivered to such persons as may be authorized by the Board of Regents to receive them, and shall be so arranged and classified in the building erected for the institution as best to facilitate the examination and study of them; and whenever new specimens in natural history, geology, or mineralogy are obtained for the museum of the institution, by exchanges of duplicate specimens, which the Regents may in their discretion make, or by donation, which they may receive, or otherwise, the Regents shall cause such new specimens to be appropriately classed and arranged. The minerals, books, manuscripts, and other property of James Smithson, which have been received by the Government of the United States, shall be preserved separate and apart from other property of the institution.

(R.S. §5586.)

Codification

R.S. §5586 derived from act Aug. 10, 1846, ch. 178, §6, 9 Stat. 105.

Laboratory Space, Gamboa, Panama

Pub. L. 111–11, title XV, §15102, Mar. 30, 2009, 123 Stat. 1456, provided that:

"(a) Authority To Construct.—The Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution is authorized to construct laboratory space to accommodate the terrestrial research program of the Smithsonian tropical research institute in Gamboa, Panama.

"(b) Authorization of Appropriations.—There is authorized to be appropriated to carry out this section a total of $14,000,000 for fiscal years 2009 and 2010. Such sums shall remain available until expended."

Veritas Astrophysical Observatory Project; Authorization of Construction and Appropriations

Pub. L. 108–331, Oct. 16, 2004, 118 Stat. 1281, as amended by Pub. L. 110–341, §1(2), Oct. 3, 2008, 122 Stat. 3738, provided that:

"SECTION 1. AUTHORIZING BOARD OF REGENTS OF SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION TO CARRY OUT CONSTRUCTION AND RELATED ACTIVITIES IN SUPPORT OF VERITAS ASTROPHYSICAL OBSERVATORY PROJECT.

"The Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution is authorized to carry out construction and related activities in support of the collaborative Very Energetic Radiation Imaging Telescope Array System (VERITAS) project at the Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory Base Camp on Mount Hopkins, Arizona, or other similar location.

"SEC. 2. AUTHORIZATION OF APPROPRIATIONS.

"There is authorized to be appropriated $1,000,000 for fiscal year 2005 to carry out section 1."

Collection and Preservation of Artifacts Relating to September 11th Attacks

Pub. L. 107–117, div. B, §701, Jan. 10, 2002, 115 Stat. 2311, provided that:

"(a) In General.—The Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution shall collect and preserve in the National Museum of American History artifacts relating to the September 11th attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon.

"(b) Types of Artifacts.—In carrying out subsection (a), the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution shall consider collecting and preserving—

"(1) pieces of the World Trade Center and the Pentagon;

"(2) still and video images made by private individuals and the media;

"(3) personal narratives of survivors, rescuers, and government officials; and

"(4) other artifacts, recordings, and testimonials that the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution determines have lasting historical significance.

"(c) Authorization of Appropriations.—There is authorized to be appropriated to the Smithsonian Institution $5,000,000 to carry out this section."

Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory Submillimeter Array; Authorization of Construction and Appropriations

Pub. L. 106–383, Oct. 27, 2000, 114 Stat. 1459, provided that:

"SECTION 1. FACILITY AUTHORIZED.

"The Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution is authorized to plan, design, construct, and equip laboratory, administrative, and support space to house base operations for the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory Submillimeter Array located on Mauna Kea at Hilo, Hawaii.

"SEC. 2. AUTHORIZATION OF APPROPRIATIONS.

"There are authorized to be appropriated to the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution to carry out this Act, $2,000,000 for fiscal year 2001, and $2,500,000 for fiscal year 2002, which shall remain available until expended."

Smithsonian Institution Transportation Program

Pub. L. 105–178, title I, §1214(b), June 9, 1998, 112 Stat. 204, provided that:

"(1) In general.—The Secretary [of Transportation] shall allocate amounts made available by this subsection for obligation at the discretion of the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, in consultation with the Secretary, to carry out projects and activities described in paragraph (2).

"(2) Eligible uses.—Amounts allocated under paragraph (1) may be obligated only—

"(A) for transportation-related exhibitions, exhibits, and educational outreach programs;

"(B) to enhance the care and protection of the Nation's collection of transportation-related artifacts;

"(C) to acquire historically significant transportation-related artifacts; and

"(D) to support research programs within the Smithsonian Institution that document the history and evolution of transportation, in cooperation with other museums in the United States.

"(3) Authorization of appropriations.—There is authorized to be appropriated out of the Highway Trust Fund (other than the Mass Transit Account) $1,000,000 for each of fiscal years 1998 through 2003 to carry out this subsection.

"(4) Applicability of title 23.—Funds authorized by this subsection shall be available for obligation in the same manner as if such funds were apportioned under chapter 1 of title 23, United States Code; except that the Federal share of the cost of any project or activity under this subsection shall be 100 percent and such funds shall remain available until expended."

National Health Museum

Pub. L. 105–78, title VII, Nov. 13, 1997, 111 Stat. 1524, known as the National Health Museum Development Act, which provided that the National Health Museum would be located on or near the Mall and established the National Health Museum Commission and its duties, was repealed, except for section 702, by Pub. L. 107–303, title III, §303, Nov. 27, 2002, 116 Stat. 2361. Section 702 of Pub. L. 105–78 amended section 1067 of Pub. L. 103–337, set out as a note under section 176 of Title 10, Armed Forces.

West Court of National Museum of Natural History Building

Pub. L. 103–151, Nov. 24, 1993, 107 Stat. 1515, provided that:

"SECTION 1. PLANNING, DESIGN, AND CONSTRUCTION OF WEST COURT OF NATIONAL MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BUILDING.

"The Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution is authorized to plan, design, and construct the West Court of the National Museum of Natural History building.

"SEC. 2. FUNDING.

"No appropriated funds may be used to pay any expense of the planning, design, and construction authorized by section 1."

East Court of National Museum of Natural History Building

Pub. L. 101–455, Oct. 24, 1990, 104 Stat. 1067, as amended by Pub. L. 103–98, §1(a), Oct. 6, 1993, 107 Stat. 1015, provided that:

"SECTION 1. ADDITIONAL SPACE IN NATIONAL MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY.

"The Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution is authorized to plan, design, construct, and equip approximately 80,000 square feet of space in the East Court of the National Museum of Natural History building.

"SEC. 2. AUTHORIZATION OF APPROPRIATIONS.

"There is authorized to be appropriated to the Smithsonian Institution for fiscal year 1991 and succeeding fiscal years not to exceed $30,000,000 to carry out this Act."

[Section 1(b) of Pub. L. 103–98 provided that: "The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending section 2 of Pub. L. 101–455, set out above] shall take effect as of October 24, 1990."]

Charles McC. Mathias, Jr. Laboratory for Environmental Research

Pub. L. 111–11, title XV, §15101, Mar. 30, 2009, 123 Stat. 1456, provided that:

"(a) Authority To Design and Construct.—The Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution is authorized to design and construct laboratory and support space to accommodate the Mathias Laboratory at the Smithsonian Environmental Research Center in Edgewater, Maryland.

"(b) Authorization of Appropriations.—There is authorized to be appropriated to carry out this section a total of $41,000,000 for fiscal years 2009 through 2011. Such sums shall remain available until expended."

Pub. L. 99–617, §1, Nov. 6, 1986, 100 Stat. 3488, provided that:

"(a) Construction Authorization.—The Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution is authorized to construct the Charles McC. Mathias, Jr. Laboratory for Environmental Research.

"(b) Location.—The Charles McC. Mathias, Jr. Laboratory for Environmental Research shall be located at the Smithsonian Environmental Research Center, a bureau of the Smithsonian Institution, located at Edgewater, Maryland.

"(c) Authorization of Appropriations.—Effective October 1, 1986, there is authorized to be appropriated to the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution $1,000,000 to carry out the purposes of this section.

"(d) Transfer of Funds.—Any portion of the sums appropriated to carry out the purposes of this section may be transferred to the General Services Administration which, in consultation with the Smithsonian Institution, is authorized to enter into contracts and take such other action, to the extent of the sums so transferred to it, as may be necessary to carry out such purposes."

Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory and Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute; Authorization of Construction and Appropriations

Pub. L. 99–423, Sept. 30, 1986, 100 Stat. 963, provided: "That the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution is authorized to plan and construct facilities for the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory and the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute.

"Sec. 2. Effective October 1, 1986, there is authorized to be appropriated to the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution:

"(a) $4,500,000 for the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory; and

"(b) $11,100,000 for the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute.

"Sec. 3. Any portion of the sums appropriated to carry out the purposes of this Act may be transferred to the General Services Administration which, in consultation with the Smithsonian Institution, is authorized to enter into contracts and take such other action, to the extent of the sums so transferred to it, as may be necessary to carry out such purposes."

Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory; Purchase of Land

Pub. L. 98–73, Aug. 11, 1983, 97 Stat. 406, provided: "That the Smithsonian Institution is authorized to purchase land in Santa Cruz County, Arizona, for the permanent headquarters of the Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory.

"Sec. 2. Effective October 1, 1984, there is authorized to be appropriated $150,000 to carry out the purposes of this Act."

Construction of National Museum of African Art, Center for Eastern Art, and Structures for Related Educational Facilities

Pub. L. 97–203, June 24, 1982, 96 Stat. 129, provided: "That the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution is authorized to construct a building for the National Museum of African Art and a center for Eastern art together with structures for related educational activities in the area south of the original Smithsonian Institution Building adjacent to Independence Avenue at Tenth Street Southwest, in the city of Washington.

"Sec. 2. Effective October 1, 1982, there is authorized to be appropriated to the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution $36,500,000 to carry out the purposes of this Act [this note]. Except for funds obligated or expended for planning, administration, and management expenses, and architectural or other consulting services, no funds appropriated pursuant to this section shall be obligated or expended until such time as there is available to such Board, from private donations or from other non-Federal sources, a sum which, when combined with the funds so appropriated, is sufficient to carry out the purposes of this Act.

"Sec. 3. Any portion of the sums appropriated to carry out the purposes of this Act [this note] may be transferred to the General Services Administration which, in consultation with the Smithsonian Institution, is authorized to enter into contracts and take such other action, to the extent of the sums so transferred to it, as may be necessary to carry out such purposes."

Smithsonian Institution; Development of Property Adjacent to Original Building

Pub. L. 96–36, July 20, 1979, 93 Stat. 94, provided: "That the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution is authorized to plan for the development of the area south of the original Smithsonian Institution Building adjacent to Independence Avenue at Tenth Street, Southwest, in the city of Washington.

"Sec. 2. Effective October 1, 1979, there is authorized to be appropriated to the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution $500,000 to carry out the purposes of this Act.

"Sec. 3. Any portion of the sums appropriated to carry out the purposes of this Act may be transferred to the General Services Administration which, in consultation with the Smithsonian Institution, is authorized to enter into contracts and take such other action, to the extent of the sums so transferred to it, as may be necessary to carry out such purposes."

Smithsonian Institution Plans for and Construction of Museum Support Facilities; Approval of Plans and Specifications; Situs; Transfer of Land; Appropriations; Contracts by General Services Administration

Pub. L. 111–11, title XV, §15103, Mar. 30, 2009, 123 Stat. 1456, provided that:

"(a) In General.—The Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution is authorized to construct a greenhouse facility at its museum support facility in Suitland, Maryland, to maintain the horticultural operations of, and preserve the orchid collection held in trust by, the Smithsonian Institution.

"(b) Authorization of Appropriations.—There is authorized to be appropriated $12,000,000 to carry out this section. Such sums shall remain available until expended."

Pub. L. 94–98, Sept. 19, 1975, 89 Stat. 480, as amended by Pub. L. 95–569, Nov. 2, 1978, 92 Stat. 2444; Pub. L. 108–72, §2, Aug. 15, 2003, 117 Stat. 888, provided that: "The Regents of the Smithsonian Institution are authorized to prepare plans for, and to construct, museum support facilities to be used for (1) the care, curation, conservation, deposit, preparation, and study of the national collections of scientific, historic, and artistic objects, specimens, and artifacts; (2) the related documentation of such collections of the Smithsonian Institution; and (3) the training of museum conservators. No appropriation shall be made to construct the facilities authorized by this Act until the Committee on Public Works and Transportation of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Rules and Administration of the Senate, by resolution approve the final plans and specifications of such facilities.

"Sec. 2. The museum support facilities referred to in section 1 shall be located on federally owned land within the metropolitan area of Washington, District of Columbia. Any Federal agency is authorized to transfer land under its jurisdiction to the Smithsonian Institution for such purposes without reimbursement.

"Sec. 3. There is authorized to be appropriated to the Smithsonian Institution $21,500,000 to carry out this Act (other than section 4). Any portion of the sums appropriated for such purposes may be transferred to the General Services Administration which, in consultation with the Smithsonian Institution, is authorized to enter into contracts and take such other action, to the extent of the sums so transferred to it, as may be necessary to carry out such purposes.

"Sec. 4. Additional space and resources for national collections held by the Smithsonian Institution.

"(a) In General.—The Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution may plan, design, construct, and equip additional special use storage and laboratory space at the museum support facility of the Smithsonian Institution in Suitland, Maryland, to accommodate the care, preservation, conservation, deposit, and study of national collections held in trust by the Institution.

"(b) Authorization of Appropriations.—There are authorized to be appropriated to carry out this section—

"(1) $2,000,000 for fiscal year 2003;

"(2) $10,000,000 for fiscal year 2004; and

"(3) such sums as are necessary for each of fiscal years 2005 through 2008."

[Amendment of section 3 by Pub. L. 95–569 effective Oct. 1, 1979.]

National Museum

The National Museum was not created by any express statutory provision for that purpose. It was first mentioned in an appropriation for postage for "the National Museum in the Smithsonian Institution," contained in act June 20, 1874, ch. 328, §1, 18 Stat. 103. An appropriation for a building for the use of the National Museum was made by act Mar. 3, 1879, ch. 182, §1, 20 Stat. 397, and annual appropriations have continuously been made for expenses of heating, etc., such building.

National Museum Exhibit

Res. Feb. 28, 1922, ch. 86, 42 Stat. 399, authorized Secretary of State to transfer to custody of Secretary of Institution for safekeeping and exhibition in National Museum the sword of George Washington and the staff of Benjamin Franklin, presented by Samuel T. Washington, and the sword of Andrew Jackson, presented by family of General Robert Armstrong.

Transportation of Property

Quartermaster-General and his officers were required to receive and transport property for National Museum by a provision of act July 5, 1884, ch. 217, 23 Stat. 107.

§50a. Gellatly art collection; estimates of sums needed for preservation and maintenance

The Smithsonian Institution is authorized to include in its estimates of appropriations such sums as may be needful for the preservation and maintenance of the John Gellatly art collection.

(June 5, 1929, ch. 9, 46 Stat. 5.)

§51. Library

The Regents shall make, from the interest of the fund, an appropriation, not exceeding an average of $25,000 annually, for the gradual formation of a library composed of valuable works pertaining to all departments of human knowledge.

(R.S. §5587.)

Codification

R.S. §5587 derived from act Aug. 10, 1846, ch. 178, §8, 9 Stat. 105.

Public Use of Research and Study Facilities of Certain Institutions

Under provisions of R.S. §94 and act Mar. 3, 1875, ch. 179, 18 Stat. 512, the Joint Committee on the Library of Congress was authorized to extend the use of the Library to the Regents of the Smithsonian Institution. These provisions were not classified to the Code, being rendered superfluous by a general declaration of public policy by Congress, by a joint resolution adopted Apr. 12, 1892, 27 Stat. 395, to the effect that facilities for study and research in the Library of Congress, the National Museum, and similar institutions shall be afforded investigators, students, etc., in the several states and territories as well as in the District of Columbia.

§52. Evidence of title to site and buildings

The site and lands selected for buildings for the Smithsonian Institution shall be deemed appropriated to the institution, and the record of the description of such site and lands, or a copy thereof, certified by the chancellor and Secretary of the Board of Regents, shall be received as evidence in all courts of the extent and boundaries of the lands appropriated to the institution.

(R.S. §5588.)

Codification

R.S. §5588 derived from act Aug. 10, 1846, ch. 178, §4, 9 Stat. 104.

§53. Protection of property

All laws for the protection of public property in the city of Washington shall apply to, and be in force for, the protection of the lands, buildings, and other property of the Smithsonian Institution. All moneys recovered by or accruing to, the institution shall be paid into the Treasury of the United States, to the credit of the Smithsonian bequest, and separately accounted for.

(R.S. §5589.)

Codification

R.S. §5589 derived from act Aug. 10, 1846, ch. 178, §5, 9 Stat. 104.

§53a. Authorization of appropriations

Appropriations are authorized for the maintenance of the Astrophysical Observatory and the making of solar observations at high altitudes; for repairs and alterations of buildings and grounds occupied by the Smithsonian Institution in the District of Columbia and elsewhere; and for preparation of manuscripts, drawings, and illustrations for publications.

(Aug. 22, 1949, ch. 494, §2, 63 Stat. 623.)

§54. Appropriation of interest

So much of the property of James Smithson as has been received in money, and paid into the Treasury of the United States, being the sum of $541,379.63, shall be lent to the United States Treasury and invested in public debt securities with maturities requested by the Smithsonian Institution bearing interest at rates determined by the Secretary of the Treasury, based upon current market yields on outstanding marketable obligations of the United States of comparable maturities, and this interest is hereby appropriated for the perpetual maintenance and support of the Smithsonian Institution; and all expenditures and appropriations to be made, from time to time, to the purposes of the Institution shall be exclusively from the accruing interest, and not from the principal of the fund. All the moneys and stocks which have been, or may hereafter be, received into the Treasury of the United States, on account of the fund bequeathed by James Smithson, are hereby pledged to refund to the Treasury of the United States the sums hereby appropriated.

(R.S. §5590; Pub. L. 97–199, §1, June 22, 1982, 96 Stat. 121.)

Codification

R.S. §5590 derived from acts Aug. 10, 1846, ch. 178, §2, 9 Stat. 102; Feb. 5, 1867, ch. 34, §2, 14 Stat. 391.

Amendments

1982Pub. L. 97–199 substituted "and invested in public debt securities with maturities requested by the Smithsonian Institution bearing interest at rates determined by the Secretary of the Treasury, based upon current market yields on outstanding marketable obligations of the United States of comparable maturities, and this interest is hereby" for ", at 6 per centum per annum interest; and 6 per centum interest on the trust-fund and residuary legacy received into the United States Treasury, payable in half-yearly payments, on the first of January and July in each year, is", substituted "purposes of the Institution" for "purposes of the institution", and substituted "are hereby pledged" for "are pledged".

Effective Date of 1982 Amendment

Pub. L. 97–199, §2, June 22, 1982, 96 Stat. 121, provided that: "The amendment made by the first section [amending this section] shall apply with respect to fiscal years beginning after September 30, 1982."

§55. Acceptance of other sums

The Secretary of the Treasury is authorized and directed to receive into the Treasury, on the same terms as the original bequest of James Smithson, such sums as the Regents may, from time to time, see fit to deposit, not exceeding, with the original bequest, the sum of $1,000,000. This shall not operate as a limitation on the power of the Smithsonian Institution to receive money or other property by gift, bequest, or devise, and to hold and dispose of the same in promotion of the purposes thereof.

(R.S. §5591; Mar. 12, 1894, ch. 36, 28 Stat. 41.)

Codification

R.S. §5591 derived from act Feb. 5, 1867, ch. 34, §1, 14 Stat. 391.

Amendments

1894—Act Mar. 12, 1894, made limitation on deposits into the Treasury inapplicable to receipt of gifts, bequests and devises and dispositions of money or other property.

§56. Disposal of unappropriated money

The Regents are authorized to make such disposal of any other moneys which have accrued, or shall hereafter accrue, as interest upon the Smithsonian fund, not herein appropriated, or not required for the purposes herein provided, as they shall deem best suited for the promotion of the purpose of the testator.

(R.S. §5592.)

Codification

R.S. §5592 derived from act Aug. 10, 1846, ch. 178, §9, 9 Stat. 105.

§57. Disbursements

Whenever money is required for the payment of the debts or performance of the contracts of the institution, incurred or entered into in conformity with the provisions of sections 41 to 46, 48, 50, 51 to 53, 54 to 57, and 67 of this title, or for making the purchases and executing the objects authorized by said sections, the Board of Regents, or the executive committee thereof, may certify to the chancellor and secretary of the board that such sum of money is required, whereupon they shall examine the same, and, if they shall approve thereof, shall certify the same to the proper officer of the Treasury for payment. The board shall submit to Congress, at each session thereof, a report of the operations, expenditures, and condition of the institution.

(R.S. §5593.)

Codification

R.S. §5593 derived from act Aug. 10, 1846, ch. 178, §3, 9 Stat. 103.

Termination of Reporting Requirements

For termination, effective May 15, 2000, of provisions in this section relating to submitting a report to Congress at each session of Congress, see section 3003 of Pub. L. 104–66, as amended, set out as a note under section 1113 of Title 31, Money and Finance, and page 192 of House Document No. 103–7.

§58. Omitted

Codification

Section, act Mar. 3, 1899, ch. 424, §1, 30 Stat. 1085, which required that the salaries of officers and employees paid from appropriations under the Smithsonian Institution be reported to Congress annually, terminated, effective May 15, 2000, pursuant to section 3003 of Pub. L. 104–66, as amended, set out as a note under section 1113 of Title 31, Money and Finance. See, also, page 192 of House Document No. 103–7.

§59. Collections of National Ocean Survey, United States Geological Survey, and others deposited in National Museum

All collections of rocks, minerals, soils, fossils, and objects of natural history, archaeology, and ethnology, made by the National Ocean Survey, the United States Geological Survey, or by any other parties for the Government of the United States, when no longer needed for investigations in progress shall be deposited in the National Museum.

(Mar. 3, 1879, ch. 182, §1, 20 Stat. 394; 1965 Reorg. Plan No. 2, eff. July 13, 1965, 30 F.R. 8819, 79 Stat. 1318; 1970 Reorg. Plan No. 4, eff. Oct. 3, 1970, 35 F.R. 15627, 84 Stat. 2090; Pub. L. 102–154, title I, Nov. 13, 1991, 105 Stat. 1000.)

Codification

Words "Coast and Interior Survey" appearing in act Mar. 3, 1879, were in prior editions of the Code changed to "Coast and Geodetic Survey." Congress never created a Coast and Interior Survey. In a communication dated Nov. 6, 1940, the Director of the Geological Survey explained that the words "Coast and Interior Survey" were inadvertently incorporated upon authority of report contained in Senate Misc. Doc. No. 9, 45th Congress, 3d Session, which recommended the "Coast and Geodetic Survey" be changed to "United States Coast and Interior Survey" and an organization be created in the Interior Department to be known as the "United States Geological Survey." Congress adopted only the latter suggestion.

Coast and Geodetic Survey consolidated with National Weather Bureau in 1965 to form Environmental Science Services Administration by Reorg. Plan No. 2 of 1965, eff. July 13, 1965, 30 F.R. 8819, 79 Stat. 1318. Environmental Science Services Administration abolished in 1970 and its personnel, property, records, etc., transferred to National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration by Reorg. Plan No. 4 of 1970, eff. Oct. 3, 1970, 35 F.R. 15627, 84 Stat. 2090. By order of Acting Associate Administrator of National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 35 F.R. 19249, Dec. 19, 1970, Coast and Geodetic Survey redesignated National Ocean Survey. See notes set out under section 311 of Title 15, Commerce and Trade.

Change of Name

"United States Geological Survey" substituted in text for "Geological Survey" pursuant to provision of title I of Pub. L. 102–154, set out as a note under section 31 of Title 43, Public Lands.

National Museum

Establishment of the National Museum, see note set out under section 50 of this title.

National Museum of American History

Pub. L. 96–441, §2, Oct. 13, 1980, 94 Stat. 1884, provided that: "The bureau of the Smithsonian Institution known as the Museum of History and Technology and so referred to in the Act entitled 'An Act to authorize the construction of a building for a Museum of History and Technology for the Smithsonian Institution, including the preparation of plans and specifications, and all other work incidental thereto', approved June 28, 1955 (20 U.S.C. 59 note), shall be known as the 'National Museum of American History'."

For provision deeming references to the Museum of History and Technology in laws and regulations to be references to the National Museum of American History, see section of 3 of Pub. L. 96–441, set out as a note under section 71 of this title.

Museum of History and Technology for the Smithsonian Institution

Act June 28, 1955, ch. 201, 69 Stat. 189, authorized construction of a building for a Museum of History and Technology, which was redesignated the National Museum of American History, for the use of the Smithsonian Institution, at a cost not to exceed $36,000,000.

§60. Army articles furnished to National Museum

The Secretary of the Army is authorized to furnish to the National Museum, for exhibition, upon request therefor by the administrative head thereof, such articles of arms, materiel, equipment, or clothing as have been issued from time to time to the United States Army, or which have been or may hereafter be produced for the United States Army, and which are objects of general interest or of foreign or curious research, provided that such articles can be spared.

(Mar. 4, 1921, ch. 166, §1, 41 Stat. 1438; July 26, 1947, ch. 343, title II, §205(a), 61 Stat. 501; Oct. 31, 1951, ch. 654, §3(4), 65 Stat. 708.)

Amendments

1951—Act Oct. 31, 1951, struck out "are surplus or" after "articles".

Change of Name

Department of War designated Department of the Army and title of Secretary of War changed to Secretary of the Army by section 205(a) of act July 26, 1947, ch. 343, title II, 61 Stat. 501. Section 205(a) of act July 26, 1947, was repealed by section 53 of act Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, 70A Stat. 641. Section 1 of act Aug. 10, 1956, enacted "Title 10, Armed Forces" which in sections 3010 to 3013 continued Department of the Army under administrative supervision of Secretary of the Army.

Secretary of Air Force

For transfer of certain personal property and personal property functions, insofar as they pertain to the Air Force, from Secretary of the Army to Secretary of the Air Force, see Secretary of Defense Transfer Order No. 39 [§2vv], eff. May 18, 1949.

§§61 to 64. Repealed. Oct. 31, 1951, ch. 654, §1(37)–(40), 65 Stat. 702

Section 61, act Mar. 3, 1879, ch. 182, §1, 20 Stat. 397, required archives, records and materials relating to Indians of North America to be turned over from Geographical and Geological Survey to Smithsonian Institution for purposes of completion of collection of information and its publication.

Section 62, act Aug. 1, 1914, ch. 223, §1, 38 Stat. 661, authorized Secretary of Commerce to transfer instruments of historical value of the Coast and Geodetic Survey [the National Ocean Survey] to Smithsonian Institution.

Section 63, act June 5, 1920, ch. 235, §1, 41 Stat. 930, related to transfer, by Secretary of Commerce, of Coast and Geodetic Survey [the National Ocean Survey] instruments of historical value, to educational institutions and museums.

Section 64, act Mar. 3, 1883, ch. 143, 22 Stat. 629, related to distribution of specimens of National Museum and Bureau of Fisheries to schools and colleges.

§65. Repealed. Pub. L. 89–674, §3, Oct. 15, 1966, 80 Stat. 953

Section, act July 7, 1884, ch. 332, 23 Stat. 214, required Director of National Museum to report annually to Congress on progress of the Museum during the year and its present condition. See section 65a of this title.

§65a. Director of the National Museum

(a) Duties; programs and studies; annual report to Congress

The Director of the National Museum under the direction of the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution shall—

(1) cooperate with museums and their professional organizations in a continuing study of museum problems and opportunities, both in the United States and abroad;

(2) prepare and carry out programs by grant, contract, or directly for training career employees in museum practices in cooperation with museums, their professional organizations, and institutions of higher education either at the Smithsonian Institution or at the cooperating museum, organization, or institutions;

(3) prepare and distribute significant museum publications;

(4) perform research on, and otherwise contribute to, the development of museum techniques, with emphasis on museum conservation and the development of a national institute for museum conservation;

(5) cooperate with departments and agencies of the Government of the United States operating, assisting, or otherwise concerned with museums; and

(6) report annually to the Congress on progress in these activities.

(b) Authorization of appropriations

There are hereby authorized to be appropriated to the Smithsonian Institution for the fiscal year 1981, the sum of $803,000, and for the fiscal year 1982, the sum of $1,000,000.

(Pub. L. 89–674, §2, Oct. 15, 1966, 80 Stat. 953; Pub. L. 91–629, §§1, 2 Dec. 31, 1970, 84 Stat. 1875; Pub. L. 93–345, §§1, 2, July 12, 1974, 88 Stat. 339; Pub. L. 94–336, July 1, 1976, 90 Stat. 795; Pub. L. 96–268, June 13, 1980, 94 Stat. 485.)

Amendments

1980—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 96–268 substituted provisions authorizing appropriations of $803,000 for fiscal year 1981 and $1,000,000 for fiscal year 1982 for provisions which had authorized appropriations of $1,000,000 each year for fiscal years 1978, 1979, and 1980.

1976—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 94–336 substituted provisions authorizing the appropriation of $1,000,000 each year for fiscal years 1978, 1979, and 1980, for provisions under which there had been authorized to be appropriated whatever sums as might be necessary to carry out the purposes of the section, with a proviso that no more than $1,000,000 could be appropriated annually through fiscal year 1977, of which no less than $200,000, was to be allocated and used to carry out subsec. (a)(4) of this section.

1974—Subsec. (a)(4). Pub. L. 93–345, §1, inserted ", with emphasis on museum conservation and the development of a national institute for museum conservation" after "museum techniques".

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 93–345, §2, substituted provisions limiting to $1,000,000 the amount which may be appropriated annually through fiscal year 1977, with no less than $200,000 annually to be allocated and used to carry out the purposes of subsection (a)(4) of this section for provisions limiting to $1,000,000 the amount which could be appropriated annually through fiscal year 1974, of which $300,000 annually had to be allocated and used according to the formula of 331/3 per centum for purposes of subsec. (a)(2), 331/3 per centum for assistance to museums under section 954(c) of this title, and 331/3 per centum for assistance to museums under section 956(c) of this title.

1970—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 91–629, §2, inserted provisions that programs be prepared and carried out by grant, contract, or directly and which authorized the training of career employees in museum practices in cooperation with institutions of higher education, and substituted provisions which authorized training programs to be conducted either at the Smithsonian Institution, or at the cooperating museum, organization, or institutions, for provisions which authorized such programs to be conducted at the best locations.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 91–629, §1, substituted provisions which authorized to be appropriated such sums as necessary to carry out the purposes of this section, with no more than $1,000,000 to be appropriated annually through fiscal year 1974, of which $300,000, annually, to be allocated in the enumerated manner, for provisions which authorized to be appropriated to carry out this section, not to exceed $200,000 for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1968, $250,000 for the fiscal years ending June 30, 1969, and June 30, 1970, and $300,000 for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1971, and in each subsequent fiscal year, only such sums as the Congress hereafter authorizes by law.

Termination of Reporting Requirements

For termination, effective May 15, 2000, of reporting provisions in subsec. (a)(6) of this section, see section 3003 of Pub. L. 104–66, as amended, set out as a note under section 1113 of Title 31, Money and Finance, and page 192 of House Document No. 103–7.

§66. Repealed. June 30, 1949, ch. 288, title VI, §602(a)(19), 63 Stat. 400, eff. July 1, 1949; renumbered Sept. 5, 1950, ch. 849, §6(a), (b), 64 Stat. 583

Section, act Mar. 3, 1915, ch. 75, §1, 38 Stat. 839, related to exchange of typewriters and adding machines.

§67. Right of repeal

Congress may alter, amend, add to, or repeal any of the provisions of sections 41 to 46, 48, 50, 51 to 53, and 54 to 57, of this title; but no contract or individual right made or acquired under such provisions shall be thereby divested or impaired.

(R.S. §5594.)

Codification

R.S. §5594 derived from act Aug. 10, 1846, ch. 178, §11, 9 Stat. 106.

§68. Repealed. Oct. 10, 1940, ch. 851, §4, 54 Stat. 1111

Section, act Feb. 11, 1927, ch. 104, §1, 44 Stat. 1081, related to advertisements for proposals for purchases and services.

§69. Anthropological researches; cooperation of Institution with States, educational institutions, or scientific organizations

The Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution is hereby authorized to cooperate with any State, educational institution, or scientific organization in the United States to continue independently or in cooperation anthropological researches among the American Indians and the natives of lands under the jurisdiction or protection of the United States and the excavation and preservation of archaeological remains.

(Apr. 10, 1928, ch. 335, §1, 45 Stat. 413; Aug. 22, 1949, ch. 494, §1, 63 Stat. 623.)

Amendments

1949—Act Aug. 22, 1949, substituted "to continue independently or in cooperation anthropological" for "for continuing ethnological" and inserted "and the natives of lands under the jurisdiction or protection of the United States".

§70. Authorization of appropriations; cooperative work

There is authorized to be appropriated, out of any money in the Treasury not otherwise appropriated, the sum of $20,000, which shall be available until expended for the purposes stated in section 69 of this title: Provided, That at such time as the Smithsonian Institution is satisfied that any State, educational institution, or scientific organization in any of the United States is prepared to contribute to such investigation and when, in its judgment such investigation shall appear meritorious, the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution may direct that an amount from this sum equal to that contributed by such State, educational institution, or scientific organization, not to exceed $2,000, to be expended from such sum in any one State during any calendar year, be made available for cooperative investigation: Provided further, That all such cooperative work and division of the result thereof shall be under the direction of the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution: Provided further, That where lands are involved which are under the jurisdiction of the Bureau of Indian Affairs or the National Park Service, cooperative work thereon shall be under such regulations and conditions as the Secretary of the Interior may provide.

(Apr. 10, 1928, ch. 335, §2, 45 Stat. 413.)