[USC02] 20 USC CHAPTER 31, SUBCHAPTER II, Part 2: Planning and Evaluation of Federal Education Activities
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20 USC CHAPTER 31, SUBCHAPTER II, Part 2: Planning and Evaluation of Federal Education Activities
From Title 20—EDUCATIONCHAPTER 31—GENERAL PROVISIONS CONCERNING EDUCATIONSUBCHAPTER II—APPROPRIATIONS AND EVALUATIONS

Part 2—Planning and Evaluation of Federal Education Activities

Codification

Pub. L. 93–380, title V, §506(a)(3)(C), Aug. 21, 1974, 88 Stat. 563, added part 2 heading.

§1226b. Responsibility of States to furnish information

(a) Biennial reports; contents

Each State educational agency shall submit to the Secretary a report on or before March 15 of every second year. Each such report shall include—

(1) information with respect to the uses of Federal funds in such State in the two preceding fiscal years under any applicable program under the jurisdiction of the State educational agency; and

(2) information with respect to the uses of Federal funds in such State in the two preceding fiscal years under any Federal program administered by the State that provided grants or contracts to a local educational agency in the State.

(b) Additional contents

Each report submitted under subsection (a) shall—

(1) list, with respect to each program for which information is provided, all grants made to and contracts entered into with local educational agencies and other public and private agencies and institutions within the State during each fiscal year concerned;

(2) analyze the information included in the report by local educational agency and by program;

(3) include the total amount of funds available to the State under each such program for each fiscal year concerned; and

(4) be made readily available by the State to local educational agencies and institutions within the State and to the public.

(c) Delinquent or incomplete reports

If the Secretary does not receive a report by the date required under subsection (a), or receives an incomplete report, the Secretary, not later than 30 days after such report is required to be submitted, shall take all reasonable measures to obtain the delinquent or incomplete information from the State educational agency.

(d) Availability of information

When the Secretary receives a report required under subsection (a), the Secretary shall provide such information to the National Center for Education Statistics, and shall make such information available, at a reasonable cost, to any individual who requests such information.

(e) Congressional telecommunications network

The Secretary shall consult with the Speaker and Minority Leader of the House of Representatives and the Majority and Minority Leaders of the Senate regarding the costs and feasibility of making the information described in subsection (a) available as part of a telecommunications network that is readily accessible to every member of Congress and other interested parties.

(f) Reports by Secretary

On or before August 15 of each year in which reports are submitted under subsection (a), the Secretary shall submit a report to the Committee on Education and Labor of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Labor and Human Resources of the Senate. Such report shall include—

(1) an analysis of the content and data quality of such reports;

(2) a compilation of statistical data derived from such reports; and

(3) information obtained by the Secretary with respect to—

(A) direct grants made to local educational agencies by the Federal Government; and

(B) contracts entered into between such agencies and the Federal Government.

(Pub. L. 90–247, title IV, §424, as added Pub. L. 103–382, title II, §234, Oct. 20, 1994, 108 Stat. 3915.)

Prior Provisions

Provisions similar to those in subsecs. (a), (b), and (f) of this section were contained in section 1221e–1a of this title prior to repeal by Pub. L. 103–382.

A prior section 1226b, Pub. L. 90–247, title IV, §416, as added Pub. L. 93–380, title V, §506(a)(3)(C), Aug. 21, 1974, 88 Stat. 563, related to program planning and evaluation, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 103–382, title II, §212(a)(1), Oct. 20, 1994, 108 Stat. 3913.

A prior section 424 of Pub. L. 90–247 was classified to section 1231b–1 of this title prior to repeal by Pub. L. 103–382.

Another prior section 424 of Pub. L. 90–247 was renumbered section 433, and is classified to section 1231c of this title.

Another prior section 424 of Pub. L. 90–247 was renumbered section 434, and was classified to section 1232c of this title prior to repeal by Pub. L. 95–561.

Change of Name

Committee on Labor and Human Resources of Senate changed to Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions of Senate by Senate Resolution No. 20, One Hundred Sixth Congress, Jan. 19, 1999.

§1226c. Biennial evaluation report

Not later than March 31, 1995, and every two years after such date, the Secretary shall transmit to the Committee on Education and Labor of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Labor and Human Resources of the Senate an evaluation report on the effectiveness of applicable programs in achieving such programs' legislated intent and purposes during the two preceding fiscal years. Such report shall—

(1) contain program profiles that include legislative citations, multiyear funding histories, and legislated purposes;

(2) contain recent information on the progress being made toward the achievement of program objectives, including listings of program performance indicators, data from performance measurement based on the indicators, and information on the costs and benefits of the applicable programs being evaluated;

(3) address significant program activities, such as initiatives for program improvement, regulations, and program monitoring and evaluation;

(4) list the principal analyses and studies supporting the major conclusions in such report;

(5) be prepared in concise summary form with necessary detailed data and appendixes, including available data to indicate the effectiveness of the programs and projects by the race, sex, disability and age of beneficiaries of such programs and projects; and

(6) include the results of the program evaluations conducted in accordance with section 7981 of this title.

(Pub. L. 90–247, title IV, §425, formerly §417, as added Pub. L. 93–380, title V, §506(a)(3)(C), Aug. 21, 1974, 88 Stat. 564; amended Pub. L. 95–561, title XII, §1246(a), (b), Nov. 1, 1978, 92 Stat. 2354; Pub. L. 96–46, §4(b), Aug. 6, 1979, 93 Stat. 342; Pub. L. 96–374, title XIII, §1305, Oct. 3, 1980, 94 Stat. 1497; Pub. L. 98–511, title VII, §705, Oct. 19, 1984, 98 Stat. 2406; renumbered §425 and amended Pub. L. 103–382, title II, §§212(b)(1), 235, Oct. 20, 1994, 108 Stat. 3913, 3916; Pub. L. 103–437, §7(a)(2), Nov. 2, 1994, 108 Stat. 4587; Pub. L. 107–110, title X, §1076(h), Jan. 8, 2002, 115 Stat. 2091; Pub. L. 114–95, title IX, §9215(mm)(1), Dec. 10, 2015, 129 Stat. 2176.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 425 of Pub. L. 90–247 was renumbered section 432, and is classified to section 1231b–2 of this title.

Another prior section 425 of Pub. L. 90–247 was renumbered section 434, and is classified to section 1231d of this title.

Another prior section 425 of Pub. L. 90–247 was renumbered section 423, and is classified to section 1226a–1 of this title.

Amendments

2015—Par. (6). Pub. L. 114–95 substituted "section 7981 of this title" for "section 7941 of this title".

2002—Par. (6). Pub. L. 107–110 substituted "7941" for "8941".

1994Pub. L. 103–437, which directed that section 417(a) of Pub. L. 90–247 be amended by substituting "Labor and Human Resources" for "Human Resources", could not be executed because this section, which was section 417 of Pub. L. 90–247, was renumbered section 425 and amended generally by Pub. L. 103–382.

Pub. L. 103–382, §235, amended section generally, substituting single undesignated par. relating to biennial evaluation reports for former subsecs. (a) and (b) relating to annual evaluation reports and including requirement for information on contracts and grants for evaluations of programs.

1984—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 98–511 substituted "December 31" for "November 1".

1980—Subsec. (a)(F). Pub. L. 96–374 inserted ", including tabulations of available data to indicate the effectiveness of the programs and projects by the sex, race, and age of its beneficiaries" after "detailed data and appendices".

1979—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 96–46 substituted "(a) Not later than" for "(a)(1) Not later than" and struck out par. (2) which provided that, in the case of programs and projects assisted under title I of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965, the report include a survey of how many children counted under section 103(c) of such Act do or do not participate in such programs and projects and how many disadvantaged children do or do not participate in such programs and projects.

1978—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 95–561 inserted "(including compliance with provisions of law requiring the maintenance of non-Federal expenditures for the purposes of such applicable programs)" after "effectiveness of applicable programs" and substituted "Committee on Human Resources" for "Committee on Labor and Public Welfare" in provisions preceding subpar. (A).

Change of Name

Committee on Labor and Human Resources of Senate changed to Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions of Senate by Senate Resolution No. 20, One Hundred Sixth Congress, Jan. 19, 1999.

Effective Date of 2015 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 114–95 effective Dec. 10, 2015, except with respect to certain noncompetitive programs and competitive programs, see section 5 of Pub. L. 114–95, set out as a note under section 6301 of this title.

Effective Date of 2002 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 107–110 effective Jan. 8, 2002, except with respect to certain noncompetitive programs and competitive programs, see section 5 of Pub. L. 107–110, set out as an Effective Date note under section 6301 of this title.

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Pub. L. 98–511, title VII, §711, Oct. 19, 1984, 98 Stat. 2408, provided that:

"(a) Except as provided in subsection (b), this Act and the amendments made by this Act [see Tables for classification] shall take effect on the date of enactment of this Act [Oct. 19, 1984] or October 1, 1984, whichever occurs later.

"(b) The amendments made by title I of this Act [see Tables for classification] shall take effect on July 1, 1985."

Effective Date of 1980 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 96–374 effective Oct. 1, 1980, see section 1393(a) of Pub. L. 96–374, set out as a note under section 1001 of this title.

Effective Date of 1979 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 96–46 effective Oct. 1, 1978, see section 8 of Pub. L. 96–46, set out as a note under section 930 of this title.

Effective Date of 1978 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–561 effective Oct. 1, 1978, see section 1530(a) of Pub. L. 95–561, set out as a note under section 1221e–3 of this title.

§1226c–1. Availability of education reports, etc., to Congressional committees

Any evaluation report or data or information collected in preparation of such report, which is paid for with appropriated funds, shall be made available, upon request, within 4 days to the chairman and ranking minority member of the Committee on Education and Labor of the House of Representatives and of the Committee on Labor and Human Resources of the Senate.

(Pub. L. 95–561, title XV, §1523, Nov. 1, 1978, 92 Stat. 2378; Pub. L. 103–437, §7(b), Nov. 2, 1994, 108 Stat. 4587.)

Codification

Section was enacted as part of Education Amendments of 1978, and not as part of General Education Provisions Act which comprises this chapter.

Amendments

1994Pub. L. 103–437 substituted "Labor and Human Resources" for "Human Resources".

Change of Name

Committee on Labor and Human Resources of Senate changed to Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions of Senate by Senate Resolution No. 20, One Hundred Sixth Congress, Jan. 19, 1999.

Effective Date

Section effective Oct. 1, 1978, see section 1530(a) of Pub. L. 95–561, set out as an Effective Date of 1978 Amendment note under section 1221e–3 of this title.

§1226d. Repealed. Pub. L. 96–470, title I, §106(a), Oct. 19, 1980, 94 Stat. 2238

Section, Pub. L. 90–247, title IV, §418, as added Pub. L. 93–380, title V, §506(a)(3)(C), Aug. 21, 1974, 88 Stat. 564; amended S. Res. 4, Feb. 4, 1977; Pub. L. 95–561, title XII, §1246(c), Nov. 1, 1978, 92 Stat. 2354; S. Res. 30, Mar. 7, 1979, directed Assistant Secretary to submit to Committee on Education and Labor of the House of Representatives and Committee on Labor and Human Resources of the Senate comprehensive renewal evaluation reports for applicable programs.

§1227. Repealed. Pub. L. 103–382, title II, §212(a)(1), Oct. 20, 1994, 108 Stat. 3913

Section, Pub. L. 90–247, title IV, §419, formerly §417, as added Pub. L. 92–318, title III, §304, June 23, 1972, 86 Stat. 333; renumbered §419 and amended Pub. L. 93–380, title V, §506(a)(3)(A), (B), Aug. 21, 1974, 88 Stat. 563, related to education program evaluations by Comptroller General.

§1228. Prohibition against use of appropriated funds for busing

No funds appropriated for the purpose of carrying out any applicable program may be used for the transportation of students or teachers (or for the purchase of equipment for such transportation) in order to overcome racial imbalance in any school or school system, or for the transportation of students or teachers (or for the purchase of equipment for such transportation) in order to carry out a plan of racial desegregation of any school or school system, except for funds appropriated pursuant to title VII of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 [20 U.S.C. 7701 et seq.], but not including any portion of such funds as are attributable to children counted under section 7003(d) of such Act [20 U.S.C. 7703(d)] or residing on property described in section 7013(10) of such Act [20 U.S.C. 7713(10)].

(Pub. L. 90–247, title IV, §426, formerly §420, as added Pub. L. 93–380, title II, §252, Aug. 21, 1974, 88 Stat. 519; renumbered §426 and amended Pub. L. 103–382, title II, §§212(b)(1), 261(b), Oct. 20, 1994, 108 Stat. 3913, 3927; Pub. L. 106–398, §1 [[div. A], title XVIII, §1808(b)(2)], Oct. 30, 2000, 114 Stat. 1654, 1654A-382; Pub. L. 114–95, title IX, §9215(mm)(2), Dec. 10, 2015, 129 Stat. 2176.)

References in Text

The Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965, referred to in text, is Pub. L. 89–10, Apr. 11, 1965, 79 Stat. 27. Title VII of the Act is classified generally to subchapter VII (§7701 et seq.) of chapter 70 of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 6301 of this title and Tables.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 426 of Pub. L. 90–247 was renumbered section 433, and is classified to section 1231c of this title.

Another prior section 426 of Pub. L. 90–247 was renumbered section 435, and is classified to section 1231e of this title.

Another prior section 426 of Pub. L. 90–247 was renumbered section 436, and was classified to section 1232e of this title prior to repeal by Pub. L. 95–561.

Amendments

2015Pub. L. 114–95 substituted "title VII of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965, but not including any portion of such funds as are attributable to children counted under section 7003(d) of such Act or residing on property described in section 7013(10) of such Act." for "title VIII of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965, but not including any portion of such funds as are attributable to children counted under section 8003(d) of such Act or residing on property described in section 8013(10) of such Act."

2000Pub. L. 106–398 substituted "section 8003(d) of such Act" for "subsections (d) and (g) of section 8003 of such Act".

1994Pub. L. 103–382, §261(b), substituted "title VIII of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965" for "subchapter I of chapter 13 of this title" and "subsections (d) and (g) of section 8003 of such Act or residing on property described in section 8013(10) of such Act" for "subparagraph (C) of section 238(d)(2) of this title or section 244(1)(C) of this title".

Effective Date of 2015 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 114–95 effective Dec. 10, 2015, except with respect to certain noncompetitive programs and competitive programs, see section 5 of Pub. L. 114–95, set out as a note under section 6301 of this title.

Effective Date

Section effective on and after sixtieth day after Aug. 21, 1974, see section 2(c) of Pub. L. 93–380, set out as a note under section 1221–1 of this title.

§1228a. Equity for students, teachers, and other program beneficiaries

(a) Purpose

The purpose of this section is to assist the Department in implementing the Department's mission to ensure equal access to education and to promote educational excellence throughout the Nation, by—

(1) ensuring equal opportunities to participate for all eligible students, teachers, and other program beneficiaries in any project or activity carried out under an applicable program; and

(2) promoting the ability of such students, teachers, and beneficiaries to meet high standards.

(b) Requirement to develop steps to ensure equity

The Secretary shall require each applicant for assistance under an applicable program (other than an individual) to develop and describe in such applicant's application the steps such applicant proposes to take to ensure equitable access to, and equitable participation in, the project or activity to be conducted with such assistance, by addressing the special needs of students, teachers, and other program beneficiaries in order to overcome barriers to equitable participation, including barriers based on gender, race, color, national origin, disability, and age.

(c) Establishment of criteria

The Secretary may establish criteria and provide technical assistance for meeting the requirements of this section.

(d) Effect on other laws

Nothing in this section shall be construed to alter in any way the rights or responsibilities established under the laws cited in section 1221(d) of this title.

(Pub. L. 90–247, title IV, §427, as added Pub. L. 103–382, title II, §236, Oct. 20, 1994, 108 Stat. 3917.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 427 of Pub. L. 90–247 was renumbered section 434, and is classified to section 1231d of this title.

Another prior section 427 of Pub. L. 90–247 was renumbered section 429, and was classified to section 1231f of this title prior to repeal by Pub. L. 103–382.

Effective Date

Section effective July 1, 1995, for noncompetitive programs in which funds are allocated on the basis of a formula and for programs that are conducted on a competitive basis, with respect to appropriations for use under such programs in fiscal year 1995 and in subsequent fiscal years, see section 3(a)(2) of Pub. L. 103–382, set out as an Effective Date of 1994 Amendment note under section 1221 of this title.

§1228b. Coordination

The National Assessment Governing Board, the Advisory Council on Education Statistics, the National Education Goals Panel, and any other board established to analyze, address, or approve education content or student performance standards and assessments shall coordinate and interact with one another in order to ensure that each such entity does not duplicate activities to assist the States in reforming their educational systems.

(Pub. L. 90–247, title IV, §428, as added Pub. L. 103–382, title II, §237, Oct. 20, 1994, 108 Stat. 3917; amended Pub. L. 104–134, title I, §101(d) [title VII, §703(c)], Apr. 26, 1996, 110 Stat. 1321–211, 1321-255; renumbered title I, Pub. L. 104–140, §1(a), May 2, 1996, 110 Stat. 1327.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 428 of Pub. L. 90–247 was renumbered section 435, and is classified to section 1231e of this title.

Amendments

1996Pub. L. 104–134 struck out "the National Education Standards and Improvement Council," before "and any other board".

§1228c. Disclosure requirements

(a) In general

Each educational organization, prior to enrolling a minor and prior to accepting funds for the cost of a minor's participation in an educational program operated by such organization, shall disclose the following information in written form to the minor or the minor's parent.

(1) Method of solicitation and selection

The method of solicitation and selection of participants in the educational program, including—

(A) the origin of any mailing list used for such solicitation and selection;

(B) any recruitment through a local school official, teacher, or school personnel, including any compensation or other benefit offered to such official, teacher, or personnel for the recommendation of a minor for participation in the educational program;

(C) any open enrollment activity, including the method of outreach; and

(D) any cooperation with, or sponsorship by, a membership organization, including a description of the cooperation or sponsorship and the name of each such organization.

(2) Cost and fees

Information regarding the cost of the educational program and information regarding the distribution of any enrollment fee, including—

(A) the amount paid for, and the percentage of the total educational program cost of, each feature of the educational program, including—

(i) food;

(ii) lodging;

(iii) transportation;

(iv) program staffing;

(v) textbooks, syllabi, or other scholastic educational program materials;

(vi) speaker fees; and

(vii) administrative expenses, including expenses related to—

(I) the preparation of nonscholastic educational program materials;

(II) the provision of financial assistance;

(III) mailing list rental or other recruitment activity; and

(IV) administrative salaries and consulting fees;


(B) the identity of the organization or business providing each of the features described in clauses (i) through (vii) of subparagraph (A); and

(C) the nature of any relationship of any board member, officer, or employee of the educational organization to any organization or business described in subparagraph (B), including the salary or other compensation paid by such organization or business to such board member, officer, or employee.

(b) Nondiscriminatory enrollment and service policy

(1) In general

Each educational organization shall include a verifiable statement in all enrollment or recruitment material that the educational organization does not—

(A) fail or refuse to hire, or discharge, any individual, or otherwise discriminate against any individual with respect to compensation, terms, conditions, or privileges of employment; or

(B) exclude any student from participation in an educational program, discriminate against any student in providing the benefits associated with such program (including any scholarship or financial assistance, and use of any facility), or subject the student to discrimination under such program, on the basis of race, disability, or residence in a low-income area.

(2) Construction

Nothing in this subsection shall be construed to entitle a student to—

(A) participation in an educational program or any benefit associated with such program; or

(B) a waiver of any fee charged for such participation or benefit.

(c) Enforcement

The Secretary shall—

(1)(A) widely disseminate information about the requirements of this section to State and local school officials and parents; and

(B) require educational organizations to submit appropriate information or assurances regarding such organizations' compliance with this section; and

(2) take whatever other steps the Secretary determines are appropriate to enforce this section, including—

(A) promulgating regulations;

(B) establishing a complaint process;

(C) referring complaints to the relevant Federal, State, or local authorities for appropriate action;

(D) alerting educational agencies, schools, and parents to the practices of educational organizations that violate the provisions of this section; and

(E) imposing civil fines (not to exceed $1,000 per violation) on educational organizations that knowingly violate this section.

(d) Definitions

As used in this section:

(1) Disability

The term "disability" has the same meaning given to such term by section 12102(2) of title 42.

(2) Educational organization

(A) Except as provided in subparagraphs (B) and (C), the term "educational organization" means any organization or entity that—

(i) provides an educational program for a fee; and

(ii) recruits students through means such as commercial media, direct mailings, school recruitment programs, school administrators, teachers or staff, or current or former participants in an educational program offered by such organization or entity.


(B) The definition in subparagraph (A) shall not include—

(i) a local educational agency, State educational agency, a State department of education, or an elementary or secondary school (as defined by the terms "elementary school" and "secondary school" in section 7801 of this title);

(ii) an institution of higher education as defined by section 1001 of this title; or

(iii) a local organization sponsored by an elementary or secondary school, a recreational organization, an entertainment organization, a local sports activity group, or a social club.


(C) For the purpose of subsection (a) only, such term does not include an organization or entity that provides an educational program if such organization or entity—

(i) recruits, for participation in such program, solely through a local school official; and

(ii) does not offer a local school official, teacher, or other school personnel compensation (other than compensation for actual expenses incurred in performing chaperon activities or for participating in separate, professionally-staffed teacher training and technical assistance seminars and workshops related to such program) or any other benefit for such recruitment.

(3) Educational program

(A) Except as provided in subparagraph (B), the term "educational program" means a special honors program, seminar, citizenship experience, government study program, educational vacation, student exchange program, or other educational experience or honor—

(i) that is generally directed toward minors or secondary school students;

(ii) for which a tuition or enrollment fee is charged;

(iii) that is offered away from a student's regular place of school attendance;

(iv) that includes not less than one supervised night away from home; and

(v) that is intended to enhance a student's regular course of study.


(B) Such term does not include a recreational program,1 or a social or religious activity.

(4) Local school official

The term "local school official" means the highest administrative official serving a school district, or such individual's designee.

(5) Minor

The term "minor" means an individual who has not attained the age of 18 years.

(6) Membership organization

The term "membership organization" includes any organization that maintains a membership list or collects dues or membership fees from its members.

(7) Recreational organization

The term "recreational organization" includes any organization or entity that has as its primary function pleasure, amusement, or sports activities.

(8) Recreational program

The term "recreational program" includes any activity or service that is intended as an entertainment pastime.

(Pub. L. 90–247, title IV, §429, as added Pub. L. 103–382, title II, §238, Oct. 20, 1994, 108 Stat. 3918; amended Pub. L. 105–244, title I, §102(a)(6)(C), Oct. 7, 1998, 112 Stat. 1618; Pub. L. 114–95, title IX, §9215(mm)(3), Dec. 10, 2015, 129 Stat. 2176.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 429 of Pub. L. 90–247 was classified to section 1231f of this title prior to repeal by Pub. L. 103–382.

Amendments

2015—Subsec. (d)(2)(B)(i). Pub. L. 114–95 substituted "an elementary or secondary school (as defined by the terms 'elementary school' and 'secondary school' in section 7801 of this title)" for "an elementary or secondary school as defined by the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965".

1998—Subsec. (d)(2)(B)(ii). Pub. L. 105–244 substituted "section 1001" for "section 1141(a)".

Effective Date of 2015 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 114–95 effective Dec. 10, 2015, except with respect to certain noncompetitive programs and competitive programs, see section 5 of Pub. L. 114–95, set out as a note under section 6301 of this title.

Effective Date of 1998 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 105–244 effective Oct. 1, 1998, except as otherwise provided in Pub. L. 105–244, see section 3 of Pub. L. 105–244, set out as a note under section 1001 of this title.

1 So in original. The comma probably should not appear.