[USC02] 20 USC CHAPTER 31, SUBCHAPTER IV: ENFORCEMENT
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20 USC CHAPTER 31, SUBCHAPTER IV: ENFORCEMENT
From Title 20—EDUCATIONCHAPTER 31—GENERAL PROVISIONS CONCERNING EDUCATION

SUBCHAPTER IV—ENFORCEMENT

Codification

Pub. L. 103–382, title II, §212(b)(2), Oct. 20, 1994, 108 Stat. 3913, redesignated subchapter V of this chapter as this subchapter.

Prior Provisions

A prior subchapter IV, consisting of sections 1233 to 1233h, was repealed by Pub. L. 103–382, title II, §212(a)(2), Oct. 20, 1994, 108 Stat. 3913. See note set out under section 1232j of this title.

§1234. Office of Administrative Law Judges

(a) Establishment; duties

The Secretary shall establish in the Department of Education an Office of Administrative Law Judges (hereinafter in this subchapter referred to as the "Office") which shall conduct—

(1) recovery of funds hearings pursuant to section 1234a of this title,

(2) withholding hearings pursuant to section 1234d of this title,

(3) cease and desist hearings pursuant to section 1234e of this title, and

(4) other proceedings designated by the Secretary.

(b) Appointment

The administrative law judges (hereinafter "judges") of the Office shall be appointed by the Secretary in accordance with section 3105 of title 5.

(c) Employment requirements; chief judge

The judges shall be officers or employees of the Department. The judges shall meet the requirements imposed for administrative law judges pursuant to section 3105 of title 5. In choosing among equally qualified candidates for such positions the Secretary shall give favorable consideration to the candidates' experience in State or local educational agencies and their knowledge of the workings of Federal education programs in such agencies. The Secretary shall designate one of the judges of the Office to be the chief judge.

(d) Assignment of judges

For the purposes of conducting hearings described in subsection (a), the chief judge shall assign a judge to each case or class of cases. A judge shall be disqualified in any case in which the judge has a substantial interest, has been of counsel, is or has been a material witness, or is so related to or connected with any party or the party's attorney as to make it improper for the judge to be assigned to the case.

(e) Review and evidentiary functions

The judge shall review and may require that evidence be taken on the sufficiency of the preliminary departmental determination as set forth in section 1234a of this title.

(f) Conduct of proceedings; costs and fees of parties

(1) The proceedings of the Office shall be conducted according to such rules as the Secretary shall prescribe by regulation in conformance with the rules relating to hearings in title 5, sections 554, 556, and 557.

(2) The provisions of title 5, section 504, relating to costs and fees of parties, shall apply to the proceedings before the Department.

(g) Discovery; scope, time, etc.; issue and enforcement of subpoenas

(1) In order to secure a fair, expeditious, and economical resolution of cases and where the judge determines that the discovered information is likely to elicit relevant information with respect to an issue in the case, is not sought primarily for the purposes of delay or harassment, and would serve the ends of justice, the judge may order a party to—

(A) produce relevant documents;

(B) answer written interrogatories that inquire into relevant matters; and

(C) have depositions taken.


The judge shall set a time limit of 90 days on the discovery period. The judge may extend this period for good cause shown. At the request of any party, the judge may establish a specific schedule for the conduct of discovery.

(2) In order to carry out the provisions of subsections (f)(1) and (g)(1), the judge is authorized to issue subpoenas and apply to the appropriate court of the United States for enforcement of a subpoena. The court may enforce the subpoena as if it pertained to a proceeding before that court.

(h) Mediation of disputes

The Secretary shall establish a process for the voluntary mediation of disputes pending before the Office. The mediator shall be agreed to by all parties involved in mediation and shall be independent of the parties to the dispute. In the mediation of disputes the Secretary shall consider mitigating circumstances and proportion of harm pursuant to section 1234b of this title. In accordance with rule 408 of the Federal Rules of Evidence, evidence of conduct or statements made in compromise negotiations shall not be admissible in proceedings before the Office. Mediation shall be limited to 120 days, except that the mediator may grant extensions of such period.

(i) Professional personnel; employment, assignment, or transfer

The Secretary shall employ, assign, or transfer sufficient professional personnel, including judges of the Office, to ensure that all matters brought before the Office may be dealt with in a timely manner.

(Pub. L. 90–247, title IV, §451, as added Pub. L. 95–561, title XII, §1232, Nov. 1, 1978, 92 Stat. 2346; amended Pub. L. 100–297, title III, §3501(a), Apr. 28, 1988, 102 Stat. 349.)

References in Text

The Federal Rules of Evidence, referred to in subsec. (h), are set out in the Appendix to Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure.

Amendments

1988Pub. L. 100–297 amended section generally, substituting provisions relating to Office of Administrative Law Judges for provisions relating to Education Appeal Board.

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Pub. L. 100–297, title III, §3501(b), Apr. 28, 1988, 102 Stat. 357, provided that:

"(1) Except as provided in paragraph (2), the amendments made by this section [enacting sections 1234f to 1234i of this title and amending this section and sections 1232d and 1234a to 1234e of this title] shall be effective 180 days after the date of enactment of this Act [Apr. 28, 1988].

"(2) The amendments made by this part [part D (§3501) of title III of Pub. L. 100–297, enacting sections 1234f to 1234i of this title and amending this section and sections 1232d and 1234a to 1234e of this title] shall not apply to any case in which the recipient, prior to the effective date of this part, received a written notice that such recipient must return funds to the Department."

Effective Date

Subchapter effective 120 days after Nov. 1, 1978, see section 1261 of Pub. L. 95–561, set out as a note under section 1232c of this title.

§1234a. Recovery of funds

(a) Preliminary departmental decision; grounds of determination; notice requirements; prima facie case; amount of funds recoverable

(1) Whenever the Secretary determines that a recipient of a grant or cooperative agreement under an applicable program must return funds because the recipient has made an expenditure of funds that is not allowable under that grant or cooperative agreement, or has otherwise failed to discharge its obligation to account properly for funds under the grant or cooperative agreement, the Secretary shall give the recipient written notice of a preliminary departmental decision and notify the recipient of its right to have that decision reviewed by the Office and of its right to request mediation.

(2) In a preliminary departmental decision, the Secretary shall have the burden of establishing a prima facie case for the recovery of funds, including an analysis reflecting the value of the program services actually obtained in a determination of harm to the Federal interest. The facts to serve as the basis of the preliminary departmental decision may come from an audit report, an investigative report, a monitoring report, or other evidence. The amount of funds to be recovered shall be determined on the basis of section 1234b of this title.

(3) For the purpose of paragraph (2), failure by a recipient to maintain records required by law, or to allow the Secretary access to such records, shall constitute a prima facie case.

(b) Review of preliminary departmental decision; form and contents of application for review; inadequate preliminary decisions; duties of recipient to subrecipients after preliminary decision; burden of proof

(1) A recipient that has received written notice of a preliminary departmental decision and that desires to have such decision reviewed by the Office shall submit to the Office an application for review not later than 60 days after receipt of notice of the preliminary departmental decision. The application shall be in the form and contain the information specified by the Office. As expeditiously as possible, the Office shall return to the Secretary for such action as the Secretary considers appropriate any preliminary departmental decision which the Office determines does not meet the requirements of subsection (a)(2).

(2) In cases where the preliminary departmental decision requests a recovery of funds from a State recipient, that State recipient may not recover funds from an affected local educational agency unless that State recipient has—

(A) transmitted a copy of the preliminary departmental decision to any affected subrecipient within 10 days of the date that the State recipient in a State administered program received such written notice; and

(B) consulted with each affected subrecipient to determine whether the State recipient should submit an application for review under paragraph (1).


(3) In any proceeding before the Office under this section, the burden shall be upon the recipient to demonstrate that it should not be required to return the amount of funds for which recovery is sought in the preliminary departmental decision under subsection (a).

(c) Time for hearing

A hearing shall be set 90 days after receipt of a request for review of a preliminary departmental decision by the Office, except that such 90-day requirement may be waived at the discretion of the judge for good cause.

(d) Review of findings of fact in preliminary decision; conclusiveness; remand; new or modified findings

(1) Upon review of a decision of the Office by the Secretary, the findings of fact by the Office, if supported by substantial evidence, shall be conclusive. However, the Secretary, for good cause shown, may remand the case to the Office to take further evidence, and the Office may thereupon make new or modified findings of fact and may modify its previous action. Such new or modified findings of fact shall likewise be conclusive if supported by substantial evidence.

(2) During the conduct of such review, there shall not be any ex parte contact between the Secretary and individuals representing the Department or the recipient.

(e) Time for filing petition for review of preliminary decision

Parties to the proceeding shall have 30 days to file a petition for review of a decision of the administrative law judges with the Office of the Secretary.

(f) Stay of collection or other adverse action by Secretary against recipient

(1) If a recipient submits a timely application for review of a preliminary departmental decision, the Secretary shall take no collection action until the decision of the Office upholding the preliminary Department decision in whole or in part becomes final agency action under subsection (g).

(2) If a recipient files a timely petition for judicial review under section 1234g of this title, the Secretary shall take no collection action until judicial review is completed.

(3) The filing of an application for review under paragraph (1) or a petition for judicial review under paragraph (2) shall not affect the authority of the Secretary to take any other adverse action under this subchapter against the recipient.

(g) Preliminary decision as final agency action

A decision of the Office regarding the review of a preliminary departmental decision shall become final agency action 60 days after the recipient receives written notice of the decision unless the Secretary either—

(1) modifies or sets aside the decision, in whole or in part, in which case the decision of the Secretary shall become final agency action when the recipient receives written notice of the Secretary's action, or

(2) remands the decision to the Office.

(h) Publication of decisions as final agency actions

The Secretary shall publish decisions that have become final agency action under subsection (g) in the Federal Register or in another appropriate publication within 60 days.

(i) Collection amounts and procedures

The amount of a preliminary departmental decision under subsection (a) for which review has not been requested in accordance with subsection (b), and the amount sustained by a decision of the Office or the Secretary which becomes final agency action under subsection (g), may be collected by the Secretary in accordance with chapter 37 of title 31.

(j) Compromise of preliminary departmental decisions; preconditions; notice requirements

(1) Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the Secretary may, subject to the notice requirements of paragraph (2), compromise any preliminary departmental decision under this section which does not exceed the amount agreed to be returned by more than $200,000, if the Secretary determines that (A) the collection of any or all or the amount thereof would not be practical or in the public interest, and (B) the practice which resulted in the preliminary departmental decision has been corrected and will not recur.

(2) Not less than 45 days prior to the exercise of the authority to compromise a preliminary departmental decision pursuant to paragraph (1), the Secretary shall publish in the Federal Register a notice of intention to do so. The notice shall provide interested persons an opportunity to comment on any proposed action under this subsection through the submission of written data, views, or arguments.

(k) Limitation period respecting return of funds

No recipient under an applicable program shall be liable to return funds which were expended in a manner not authorized by law more than 5 years before the recipient received written notice of a preliminary departmental decision.

(l) Foregoing of interest during period of administrative review

No interest shall be charged arising from a claim during the administrative review of the preliminary departmental decision.

(Pub. L. 90–247, title IV, §452, as added Pub. L. 95–561, title XII, §1232, Nov. 1, 1978, 92 Stat. 2347; amended Pub. L. 100–297, title III, §3501(a), Apr. 28, 1988, 102 Stat. 350; Pub. L. 103–382, title II, §250(a), Oct. 20, 1994, 108 Stat. 3926.)

Amendments

1994—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 103–382, §250(a)(1), substituted "establishing a prima facie case for the recovery of funds, including an analysis reflecting the value of the program services actually obtained in a determination of harm to the Federal interest." for "stating a prima facie case for the recovery of funds."

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 103–382, §250(a)(2), substituted "60 days" for "30 days".

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 103–382, §250(a)(3), designated existing provisions as par. (1) and added par. (2).

1988Pub. L. 100–297 amended section generally, substituting provisions relating to recovery of funds for provisions relating to audit determinations.

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 100–297 effective 180 days after Apr. 28, 1988, but not applicable to recipients receiving written notice to return funds prior to that date, see section 3501(b) of Pub. L. 100–297, set out as a note under section 1234 of this title.

§1234b. Measure of recovery

(a) Amount returned proportionate to extent of harm violation caused to an identifiable Federal interest; reduction; determination of identifiable Federal interest

(1) A recipient determined to have made an unallowable expenditure, or to have otherwise failed to discharge its responsibility to account properly for funds, shall be required to return funds in an amount that is proportionate to the extent of the harm its violation caused to an identifiable Federal interest associated with the program under which the recipient received the award. Such amount shall be reduced in whole or in part by an amount that is proportionate to the extent the mitigating circumstances caused the violation.

(2) For the purpose of paragraph (1), an identifiable Federal interest includes, but is not limited to, serving only eligible beneficiaries; providing only authorized services or benefits; complying with expenditure requirements and conditions (such as set-aside, excess cost, maintenance of effort, comparability, supplement-not-supplant, and matching requirements); preserving the integrity of planning, application, recordkeeping, and reporting requirements; and maintaining accountability for the use of funds.

(b) Reduction or waiver of amount based on mitigating circumstances; burden of proof; determination of mitigating circumstances; weight, etc., of written request for guidance

(1) When a State or local educational agency is determined to have made an unallowable expenditure, or to have otherwise failed to discharge its responsibility to account properly for funds, and mitigating circumstances exist, as described in paragraph (2), the judge shall reduce such amount by an amount that is proportionate to the extent the mitigating circumstances caused the violation. Furthermore, the judge is authorized to determine that no recovery is justified when mitigating circumstances warrant. The burden of demonstrating the existence of mitigating circumstances shall be upon the State or local educational agency.

(2) For the purpose of paragraph (1), mitigating circumstances exist only when it would be unjust to compel the recovery of funds because the State or local educational agency—

(A) actually and reasonably relied upon erroneous written guidance provided by the Department;

(B) made an expenditure or engaged in a practice after—

(i) the State or local educational agency submitted to the Secretary, in good faith, a written request for guidance with respect to the expenditure or practice at issue, and

(ii) a Department official did not respond within 90 days of receipt by the Department of such request; or


(C) actually and reasonably relied upon a judicial decree issued to the recipient.


(3) A written request for guidance as described in paragraph (2) sent by certified mail (return receipt requested) shall be conclusive proof of receipt by the Department.

(4) If the Secretary responds to a written request for guidance described in paragraph (2)(B) more than 90 days after its receipt, the State or local educational agency that submitted the request shall comply with the guidance received at the earliest practicable time.

(5) In order to demonstrate the existence of the mitigating circumstances described in paragraph (2)(B), the State or local educational agency shall demonstrate that—

(A) the written request for guidance accurately described the proposed expenditure or practice and included the facts necessary for a determination of its legality; and

(B) the written request for guidance contained a certification by the chief legal officer of the State educational agency that such officer had examined the proposed expenditure or practice and believed the proposed expenditure or practice was permissible under then applicable State and Federal law; and

(C) the State or local educational agency reasonably believed that the proposed expenditure or practice was permissible under then applicable State and Federal law.


(6) The Secretary shall disseminate to State educational agencies responses to written requests for guidance, described in paragraph (5), that reflect significant interpretations of applicable law or policy.

(c) Review of written requests for guidance on periodic basis

The Secretary shall periodically review the written requests for guidance submitted under this section to determine the need for new or supplementary regulatory or other guidance under applicable programs.

(Pub. L. 90–247, title IV, §453, as added Pub. L. 95–561, title XII, §1232, Nov. 1, 1978, 92 Stat. 2349; amended Pub. L. 100–297, title III, §3501(a), Apr. 28, 1988, 102 Stat. 353.)

Amendments

1988Pub. L. 100–297 amended section generally, substituting provisions relating to measure of recovery for provisions relating to withholdings. See section 1234d of this title.

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 100–297 effective 180 days after Apr. 28, 1988, but not applicable to recipients receiving written notice to return funds prior to that date, see section 3501(b) of Pub. L. 100–297, set out as a note under section 1234 of this title.

§1234c. Remedies for existing violations

(a) Whenever the Secretary has reason to believe that any recipient of funds under any applicable program is failing to comply substantially with any requirement of law applicable to such funds, the Secretary may—

(1) withhold further payments under that program, as authorized by section 1234d of this title;

(2) issue a complaint to compel compliance through a cease and desist order of the Office, as authorized by section 1234e of this title;

(3) enter into a compliance agreement with a recipient to bring it into compliance, as authorized by section 1234f of this title; or

(4) take any other action authorized by law with respect to the recipient.


(b) Any action, or failure to take action, by the Secretary under this section shall not preclude the Secretary from seeking a recovery of funds under section 1234a of this title.

(Pub. L. 90–247, title IV, §454, as added Pub. L. 95–561, title XII, §1232, Nov. 1, 1978, 92 Stat. 2349; amended Pub. L. 100–297, title III, §3501(a), Apr. 28, 1988, 102 Stat. 354.)

Amendments

1988Pub. L. 100–297 amended section generally, substituting provisions relating to remedies for existing violations for provisions relating to cease and desist orders. See section 1234e of this title.

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 100–297 effective 180 days after Apr. 28, 1988, but not applicable to recipients receiving written notice to return funds prior to that date, see section 3501(b) of Pub. L. 100–297, set out as a note under section 1234 of this title.

§1234d. Withholding

(a) Discretionary authority over further payments under applicable program

In accordance with section 1234c of this title, the Secretary may withhold from a recipient, in whole or in part, further payments (including payments for administrative costs) under an applicable program.

(b) Notice requirements

Before withholding payments, the Secretary shall notify the recipient, in writing, of—

(1) the intent to withhold payments;

(2) the factual and legal basis for the Secretary's belief that the recipient has failed to comply substantially with a requirement of law; and

(3) an opportunity for a hearing to be held on a date at least 30 days after the notification has been sent to the recipient.

(c) Hearing

The hearing shall be held before the Office and shall be conducted in accordance with the rules prescribed pursuant to subsections (f) and (g) of section 1234 of this title.

(d) Suspension of payments, authorities, etc.

Pending the outcome of any hearing under this section, the Secretary may suspend payments to a recipient, suspend the authority of the recipient to obligate Federal funds, or both, after such recipient has been given reasonable notice and an opportunity to show cause why future payments or authority to obligate Federal funds should not be suspended.

(e) Findings of fact

Upon review of a decision of the Office by the Secretary, the findings of fact by the Office, if supported by substantial evidence, shall be conclusive. However, the Secretary, for good cause shown, may remand the case to the Office to take further evidence, and the Office may thereupon make new or modified findings of fact and may modify its previous action. Such new or modified findings of fact shall likewise be conclusive if supported by substantial evidence.

(f) Final agency action

The decision of the Office in any hearing under this section shall become final agency action 60 days after the recipient receives written notice of the decision unless the Secretary either—

(1) modifies or sets aside the decision, in whole or in part, in which case the decision of the Secretary shall become final agency action when the recipient receives written notice of the Secretary's action; or

(2) remands the decision of the Office.

(Pub. L. 90–247, title IV, §455, as added Pub. L. 95–561, title XII, §1232, Nov. 1, 1978, 92 Stat. 2350; amended Pub. L. 100–297, title III, §3501(a), Apr. 28, 1988, 102 Stat. 354.)

Amendments

1988Pub. L. 100–297 amended section generally, substituting provisions relating to withholding for provisions relating to judicial review. See section 1234g of this title.

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 100–297 effective 180 days after Apr. 28, 1988, but not applicable to recipients receiving written notice to return funds prior to that date, see section 3501(b) of Pub. L. 100–297, set out as a note under section 1234 of this title.

§1234e. Cease and desist orders

(a) Issuance and contents of complaint

In accordance with section 1234c of this title, the Secretary may issue to a recipient under an applicable program a complaint which—

(1) describes the factual and legal basis for the Secretary's belief that the recipient is failing to comply substantially with a requirement of law; and

(2) contains a notice of a hearing to be held before the Office on a date at least 30 days after the service of the complaint.

(b) Appearance contesting order

The recipient upon which a complaint has been served shall have the right to appear before the Office on the date specified and to show cause why an order should not be entered by the Office requiring the recipient to cease and desist from the violation of law charged in the complaint.

(c) Report; issuance of cease and desist order

The testimony in any hearing held under this section shall be reduced to writing and filed with the Office. If upon that hearing the Office is of the opinion that the recipient is in violation of any requirement of law as charged in the complaint, the Office shall—

(1) make a report in writing stating its findings of fact; and

(2) issue to the recipient an order requiring the recipient to cease and desist from the practice, policy, or procedure which resulted in the violation.

(d) Report and order as final agency action

The report and order of the Office under this section shall become the final agency action when the recipient receives the report and order.

(e) Enforcement of final order

The Secretary may enforce a final order of the Office under this section which becomes final agency action by—

(1) withholding from the recipient any portion of the amount payable to it, including the amount payable for administrative costs, under the applicable program; or

(2) certifying the facts to the Attorney General who shall cause an appropriate proceeding to be brought for the enforcement of the order.

(Pub. L. 90–247, title IV, §456, as added Pub. L. 95–561, title XII, §1232, Nov. 1, 1978, 92 Stat. 2351; amended Pub. L. 100–297, title III, §3501(a), Apr. 28, 1988, 102 Stat. 355.)

Amendments

1988Pub. L. 100–297 amended section generally, substituting provisions relating to cease and desist orders for provisions relating to use of recovered funds. See section 1234h of this title.

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 100–297 effective 180 days after Apr. 28, 1988, but not applicable to recipients receiving written notice to return funds prior to that date, see section 3501(b) of Pub. L. 100–297, set out as a note under section 1234 of this title.

§1234f. Compliance agreements

(a) Discretionary authority; purposes of agreement

In accordance with section 1234c of this title, the Secretary may enter into a compliance agreement with a recipient under an applicable program. The purpose of any compliance agreement under this section shall be to bring the recipient into full compliance with the applicable requirements of law as soon as feasible and not to excuse or remedy past violations of such requirements.

(b) Procedures applicable

(1) Before entering into a compliance agreement with a recipient, the Secretary shall hold a hearing at which the recipient, affected students and parents or their representatives, and other interested parties are invited to participate. The recipient shall have the burden of persuading the Secretary that full compliance with the applicable requirements of law is not feasible until a future date.

(2) If the Secretary determines, on the basis of all the evidence presented, that full compliance is genuinely not feasible until a future date, the Secretary shall make written findings to that effect and shall publish those findings, along with the substance of any compliance agreement, in the Federal Register.

(c) Contents

A compliance agreement under this section shall contain—

(1) an expiration date not later than 3 years from the date of the written findings under subsection (b)(2), by which the recipient shall be in full compliance with the applicable requirements of law, and

(2) those terms and conditions with which the recipient must comply until it is in full compliance.

(d) Failure of recipient to comply with terms and conditions

If a recipient fails to comply with the terms and conditions of a compliance agreement under this section, the Secretary may consider that compliance agreement to be no longer in effect, and the Secretary may take any action authorized by law with respect to the recipient.

(Pub. L. 90–247, title IV, §457, as added Pub. L. 100–297, title III, §3501(a), Apr. 28, 1988, 102 Stat. 355.)

Effective Date

Section effective 180 days after Apr. 28, 1988, but not applicable to recipients receiving written notice to return funds prior to that date, see section 3501(b) of Pub. L. 100–297, set out as an Effective Date of 1988 Amendment note under section 1234 of this title.

§1234g. Judicial review

(a) Recipients entitled to review; stay of action by Secretary

Any recipient of funds under an applicable program that would be adversely affected by a final agency action under section 1234a, 1234d, or 1234e of this title, and any State entitled to receive funds under a program described in section 1232d(a) of this title whose application has been disapproved by the Secretary, shall be entitled to judicial review of such action in accordance with the provisions of this section. The Secretary may not take any action on the basis of a final agency action until judicial review is completed.

(b) Petition for review; filing of record

A recipient that desires judicial review of an action described in subsection (a) shall, within 60 days of that action, file with the United States Court of Appeals for the circuit in which that recipient is located, a petition for review of such action. A copy of the petition shall be transmitted by the clerk of the court to the Secretary. The Secretary shall file in the court the record of the proceedings on which the action was based, as provided in section 2112 of title 28.

(c) Findings of fact

The findings of fact by the Office, if supported by substantial evidence, shall be conclusive; but the court, for good cause shown, may remand the case to the Office to take further evidence, and the Office may make new or modified findings of fact and may modify its previous action, and shall certify to the court the record of the further proceedings. Such new or modified findings of fact shall likewise be conclusive if supported by substantial evidence.

(d) Scope of review; review by Supreme Court

The court shall have jurisdiction to affirm the action of the Office or the Secretary or to set it aside, in whole or in part. The judgment of the court shall be subject to review by the Supreme Court of the United States upon certiorari or certification as provided in section 1254 of title 28.

(Pub. L. 90–247, title IV, §458, as added Pub. L. 100–297, title III, §3501(a), Apr. 28, 1988, 102 Stat. 356; amended Pub. L. 103–382, title II, §212(b)(3)(D), Oct. 20, 1994, 108 Stat. 3913.)

Amendments

1994—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 103–382 made technical amendment to reference to section 1232d(a) of this title to reflect renumbering of corresponding section of original act.

Effective Date

Section effective 180 days after Apr. 28, 1988, but not applicable to recipients receiving written notice to return funds prior to that date, see section 3501(b) of Pub. L. 100–297, set out as an Effective Date of 1988 Amendment note under section 1234 of this title.

§1234h. Use of recovered funds

(a) Repayment to recipient; factors considered

Whenever the Secretary recovers funds paid to a recipient under a grant or cooperative agreement made under an applicable program because the recipient made an expenditure of funds that was not allowable, or otherwise failed to discharge its responsibility to account properly for funds, the Secretary may consider those funds to be additional funds available for that program and may arrange to repay to the recipient affected by that action an amount not to exceed 75 percent of the recovered funds if the Secretary determines that—

(1) the practices or procedures of the recipient that resulted in the violation of law have been corrected, and that the recipient is in all other respects in compliance with the requirements of that program, provided that the recipient was notified of any noncompliance with such requirements and given a reasonable period of time to remedy such noncompliance;

(2) the recipient has submitted to the Secretary a plan for the use of those funds pursuant to the requirements of that program and, to the extent possible, for the benefit of the population that was affected by the failure to comply or by the misuse of funds that resulted in the recovery; and

(3) the use of those funds in accordance with that plan would serve to achieve the purposes of the program under which the funds were originally paid.

(b) Terms and conditions of repayment

Any payments by the Secretary under this section shall be subject to such other terms and conditions as the Secretary considers necessary to accomplish the purposes of the affected programs, including—

(1) the submission of periodic reports on the use of funds provided under this section; and

(2) consultation by the recipient with students, parents, or representatives of the population that will benefit from the payments.

(c) Availability of funds

Notwithstanding any other provisions of law, the funds made available under this section shall remain available for expenditure for a period of time deemed reasonable by the Secretary, but in no case to exceed more than three fiscal years following the later of—

(1) the fiscal year in which final agency action under section 1234a(e) of this title is taken; or

(2) if such recipient files a petition for judicial review, the fiscal year in which final judicial action under section 1234g of this title is taken.

(d) Publication in Federal Register of notice of intent to enter into repayment arrangement

At least 30 days prior to entering into an arrangement under this section, the Secretary shall publish in the Federal Register a notice of intent to enter into such an arrangement and the terms and conditions under which payments will be made. Interested persons shall have an opportunity for at least 30 days to submit comments to the Secretary regarding the proposed arrangement.

(Pub. L. 90–247, title IV, §459, as added Pub. L. 100–297, title III, §3501(a), Apr. 28, 1988, 102 Stat. 356; amended Pub. L. 103–382, title II, §250(b), Oct. 20, 1994, 108 Stat. 3927.)

Amendments

1994—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 103–382, §250(b)(1), inserted before semicolon ", provided that the recipient was notified of any noncompliance with such requirements and given a reasonable period of time to remedy such noncompliance".

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 103–382, §250(b)(2), amended subsec. (c) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (c) read as follows: "Notwithstanding any other provisions of law, the funds made available under this section shall remain available for expenditure for a period of time deemed reasonable by the Secretary, but in no case to exceed more than 3 fiscal years following the fiscal year in which final agency action under section 1234a(e) of this title is taken."

Effective Date

Section effective 180 days after Apr. 28, 1988, but not applicable to recipients receiving written notice to return funds prior to that date, see section 3501(b) of Pub. L. 100–297, set out as an Effective Date of 1988 Amendment note under section 1234 of this title.

§1234i. Definitions

For purposes of this subchapter:

(1) The term "recipient" means a recipient of a grant or cooperative agreement under an applicable program.

(2) The term "applicable program" excludes programs authorized by the Higher Education Act of 1965 [20 U.S.C. 1001 et seq.] and assistance programs provided under the Act of September 30, 1950 1 (Public Law 874, 81st Congress), and the Act of September 23, 1950 1 (Public Law 815, 81st Congress).

(Pub. L. 90–247, title IV, §460, as added Pub. L. 100–297, title III, §3501(a), Apr. 28, 1988, 102 Stat. 357.)

References in Text

The Higher Education Act of 1965, referred to in par. (2), is Pub. L. 89–329, Nov. 8, 1965, 79 Stat. 1219, which is classified generally to chapter 28 (§1001 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1001 of this title and Tables.

Act of September 30, 1950 (Public Law 874, 81st Congress), referred to in par. (2), is act Sept. 30, 1950, ch. 1124, 64 Stat. 1100, which was classified generally to chapter 13 (§236 et seq.) of this title prior to repeal by Pub. L. 103–382, title III, §331(b), Oct. 20, 1994, 108 Stat. 3965. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Tables.

Act of September 23, 1950 (Public Law 815, 81st Congress), referred to in par. (2), is act Sept. 23, 1950, ch. 995, as amended generally by act Aug. 12, 1958, Pub. L. 85–620, title I, 72 Stat. 548, which was classified generally to chapter 19 (§631 et seq.) of this title prior to repeal by Pub. L. 103–382, title III, §331(a), Oct. 20, 1994, 108 Stat. 3965. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Tables.

Effective Date

Section effective 180 days after Apr. 28, 1988, but not applicable to recipients receiving written notice to return funds prior to that date, see section 3501(b) of Pub. L. 100–297, set out as an Effective Date of 1988 Amendment note under section 1234 of this title.

1 See References in Text note below.