[USC02] 20 USC CHAPTER 70, SUBCHAPTER I, Part C: Education of Migratory Children
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20 USC CHAPTER 70, SUBCHAPTER I, Part C: Education of Migratory Children
From Title 20—EDUCATIONCHAPTER 70—STRENGTHENING AND IMPROVEMENT OF ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY SCHOOLSSUBCHAPTER I—IMPROVING THE ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF THE DISADVANTAGED

Part C—Education of Migratory Children

§6391. Program purposes

The purposes of this part are as follows:

(1) To assist States in supporting high-quality and comprehensive educational programs and services during the school year and, as applicable, during summer or intersession periods, that address the unique educational needs of migratory children.

(2) To ensure that migratory children who move among the States are not penalized in any manner by disparities among the States in curriculum, graduation requirements, and challenging State academic standards.

(3) To ensure that migratory children receive full and appropriate opportunities to meet the same challenging State academic standards that all children are expected to meet.

(4) To help migratory children overcome educational disruption, cultural and language barriers, social isolation, various health-related problems, and other factors that inhibit the ability of such children to succeed in school.

(5) To help migratory children benefit from State and local systemic reforms.

(Pub. L. 89–10, title I, §1301, as added Pub. L. 107–110, title I, §101, Jan. 8, 2002, 115 Stat. 1571; amended Pub. L. 114–95, title I, §1301(a), Dec. 10, 2015, 129 Stat. 1893.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 6391, Pub. L. 89–10, title I, §1301, as added Pub. L. 103–382, title I, §101, Oct. 20, 1994, 108 Stat. 3585, related to program purpose, prior to the general amendment of this subchapter by Pub. L. 107–110.

Amendments

2015Pub. L. 114–95 amended section generally. Prior to amendment, section related to purposes of this part to assist States: (1) to support high-quality and comprehensive educational programs for migratory children; (2) to ensure that migratory children who move among the States are not penalized in any manner by disparities among the States; (3) to ensure that migratory children are provided with appropriate educational services; (4) to ensure that migratory children receive full and appropriate opportunities to meet challenging State standards; (5) to design programs to help migratory children overcome educational disruption and other factors that inhibit their ability to do well in school; and (6) to ensure that migratory children benefit from State and local systemic reforms.

Effective Date of 2015 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 114–95 effective Dec. 10, 2015, except with respect to certain noncompetitive programs and competitive programs, see section 5 of Pub. L. 114–95, set out as a note under section 6301 of this title.

§6392. Program authorized

In order to carry out the purpose of this part, the Secretary shall make grants to State educational agencies, or combinations of such agencies, to establish or improve, directly or through local operating agencies, programs of education for migratory children in accordance with this part.

(Pub. L. 89–10, title I, §1302, as added Pub. L. 107–110, title I, §101, Jan. 8, 2002, 115 Stat. 1571.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 6392, Pub. L. 89–10, title I, §1302, as added Pub. L. 103–382, title I, §101, Oct. 20, 1994, 108 Stat. 3585, authorized migratory children education program, prior to the general amendment of this subchapter by Pub. L. 107–110.

§6393. State allocations

(a) State allocations

Except as provided in subsection (c), each State (other than the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico) is entitled to receive under this part an amount equal to the product of—

(1) the sum of—

(A) the average number of identified eligible migratory children aged 3 through 21 residing in the State, based on data for the preceding 3 years; and

(B) the number of identified eligible migratory children, aged 3 through 21, who received services under this part in summer or intersession programs provided by the State during the previous year; multiplied by


(2) 40 percent of the average per-pupil expenditure in the State, except that the amount determined under this paragraph shall not be less than 32 percent, nor more than 48 percent, of the average per-pupil expenditure in the United States.

(b) Hold harmless

Notwithstanding subsection (a), for each of fiscal years 2017 through 2019, no State shall receive less than 90 percent of the State's allocation under this section for the preceding fiscal year.

(c) Allocation to Puerto Rico

(1) In general

For each fiscal year, the grant that the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico shall be eligible to receive under this part shall be the amount determined by multiplying the number of children who would be counted under subsection (a)(1) if such subsection applied to the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico by the product of—

(A) the percentage that the average per-pupil expenditure in the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico is of the lowest average per-pupil expenditure of any of the 50 States, subject to paragraphs (2) and (3); and

(B) 32 percent of the average per-pupil expenditure in the United States.

(2) Minimum percentage

The percentage described in paragraph (1)(A) shall not be less than 85 percent.

(3) Limitation

If the application of paragraph (2) for any fiscal year would result in any of the 50 States or the District of Columbia receiving less under this part than it received under this part for the preceding fiscal year, then the percentage described in paragraph (1)(A) that is used for the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico for the fiscal year for which the determination is made shall be the greater of the percentage in paragraph (1)(A) for such fiscal year or the percentage used for the preceding fiscal year.

(d) Ratable reductions; reallocations

(1) In general

(A) Ratable reductions

If, after the Secretary reserves funds under section 6398(c) of this title, the amount appropriated to carry out this part for any fiscal year is insufficient to pay in full the amounts for which all States are eligible, the Secretary shall ratably reduce each such amount.

(B) Reallocation

If additional funds become available for making such payments for any fiscal year, the Secretary shall allocate such funds to States in amounts that the Secretary determines will best carry out the purposes of this part.

(2) Special rule

(A) Further reductions

The Secretary shall further reduce the amount of any grant to a State under this part for any fiscal year if the Secretary determines, based on available information on the numbers and needs of migratory children in the State and the program proposed by the State to address such needs, that such amount exceeds the amount required under section 6394 of this title.

(B) Reallocation

The Secretary shall reallocate such excess funds to other States whose grants under this part would otherwise be insufficient to provide an appropriate level of services to migratory children, in such amounts as the Secretary determines are appropriate.

(e) Consortium arrangements

(1) In general

In the case of a State that receives a grant of $1,000,000 or less under this section, the Secretary shall consult with the State educational agency to determine whether consortium arrangements with another State or other appropriate entity would result in delivery of services in a more effective and efficient manner.

(2) Proposals

Any State, regardless of the amount of such State's allocation, may submit a consortium arrangement to the Secretary for approval.

(3) Approval

The Secretary shall approve a consortium arrangement under paragraph (1) or (2) if the proposal demonstrates that the arrangement will—

(A) reduce administrative costs or program function costs for State programs; and

(B) make more funds available for direct services to add substantially to the academic achievement of children to be served under this part.

(f) Determining numbers of eligible children

In order to determine the identified number of migratory children residing in each State for purposes of this section, the Secretary shall—

(1) use the most recent information that most accurately reflects the actual number of migratory children;

(2) develop and implement a procedure for monitoring the accuracy of such information;

(3) develop and implement a procedure for more accurately reflecting cost factors for different types of summer and intersession program designs;

(4) adjust the number of migratory children who reside in each State to take into account—

(A) the unique needs of those children participating in effective special programs provided under this part that operate during the summer and intersession periods; and

(B) the additional costs of operating such programs; and


(5) conduct an analysis of the options for adjusting the formula so as to better direct services to migratory children, including the most at-risk migratory children.

(g) Nonparticipating States

In the case of a State desiring to receive an allocation under this part for a fiscal year that did not receive an allocation for the previous fiscal year or that has been participating for less than 3 consecutive years, the Secretary shall calculate the State's number of identified migratory children aged 3 through 21 for purposes of subsection (a)(1)(A) by using the most recent data available that identifies the migratory children residing in the State until data is available to calculate the 3-year average number of such children in accordance with such subsection.

(Pub. L. 89–10, title I, §1303, as added Pub. L. 107–110, title I, §101, Jan. 8, 2002, 115 Stat. 1571; amended Pub. L. 114–95, title I, §1301(b), Dec. 10, 2015, 129 Stat. 1894.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 6393, Pub. L. 89–10, title I, §1303, as added Pub. L. 103–382, title I, §101, Oct. 20, 1994, 108 Stat. 3585, related to State allocations, prior to the general amendment of this subchapter by Pub. L. 107–110.

Amendments

2015—Subsecs. (a), (b). Pub. L. 114–95, §1301(b)(2), added subsecs. (a) and (b) and struck out former subsecs. (a) and (b) which related to State allocations for fiscal year 2002 and subsequent years and allocation to Puerto Rico for each fiscal year.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 114–95, §1301(b)(2), added subsec. (c). Former subsec. (c) redesignated (d).

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 114–95, §1301(b)(1), (3), redesignated subsec. (c) as (d), in par. (1) inserted subpar. headings after subpar. (A) and (B) designations, in par. (1), subpar. (B), substituted "purposes" for "purpose", and in par. (2) inserted subpar. headings after subpar. (A) and (B) designations. Former subsec. (d) redesignated (e).

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 114–95, §1301(b)(1), (4), redesignated subsec. (d) as (e) and in par. (3)(B) substituted "the academic achievement of children" for "the welfare or educational attainment of children". Former subsec. (e) redesignated (f).

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 114–95, §1301(b)(1), (5)(A), redesignated subsec. (e) as (f) and in introductory provisions substituted "identified number" for "estimated number".

Subsec. (f)(1). Pub. L. 114–95, §1301(b)(5)(B), added par. (1) and struck out former par. (1) which read as follows: "use such information as the Secretary finds most accurately reflects the actual number of migratory children;".

Subsec. (f)(2), (3). Pub. L. 114–95, §1301(b)(5)(C), (D), added par. (2) and redesignated former par. (2) as (3). Former par. (3) redesignated (4).

Subsec. (f)(4). Pub. L. 114–95, §1301(b)(5)(C), (E), redesignated par. (3) as (4), in introductory provisions struck out "full-time equivalent" before "number", and in subpar. (A) substituted "unique needs" for "special needs" and "effective special programs provided under this part" for "special programs provided under this part". Former par. (4) redesignated (5).

Subsec. (f)(5). Pub. L. 114–95, §1301(b)(5)(C), (F), redesignated par. (4) as (5) and substituted "migratory children, including the most at-risk migratory children" for "the child whose education has been interrupted".

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 114–95, §1301(b)(6), added subsec. (g).

Effective Date of 2015 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 114–95 effective Dec. 10, 2015, except with respect to certain noncompetitive programs and competitive programs, see section 5 of Pub. L. 114–95, set out as a note under section 6301 of this title.

§6394. State applications; services

(a) Application required

Any State desiring to receive a grant under this part for any fiscal year shall submit an application to the Secretary at such time and in such manner as the Secretary may require.

(b) Program information

Each such application shall include—

(1) a description of how, in planning, implementing, and evaluating programs and projects assisted under this part, the State and its local operating agencies will ensure that the unique educational needs of migratory children, including preschool migratory children and migratory children who have dropped out of school, are identified and addressed through—

(A) the full range of services that are available for migratory children from appropriate local, State, and Federal educational programs;

(B) joint planning among local, State, and Federal educational programs serving migratory children, including language instruction educational programs under part A of subchapter III;

(C) the integration of services available under this part with services provided by those other programs; and

(D) measurable program objectives and outcomes;


(2) a description of the steps the State is taking to provide all migratory students with the opportunity to meet the same challenging State academic standards that all children are expected to meet;

(3) a description of how the State will use funds received under this part to promote interstate and intrastate coordination of services for migratory children, including how the State will provide for educational continuity through the timely transfer of pertinent school records, including information on health, when children move from one school to another, whether or not such move occurs during the regular school year;

(4) a description of the State's priorities for the use of funds received under this part, and how such priorities relate to the State's assessment of needs for services in the State;

(5) a description of how the State will determine the amount of any subgrants the State will award to local operating agencies, taking into account the numbers and needs of migratory children, the requirements of subsection (d), and the availability of funds from other Federal, State, and local programs; and

(6) a description of how the State will encourage programs and projects assisted under this part to offer family literacy services if the program or project serves a substantial number of migratory children whose parents do not have a high school diploma or its recognized equivalent or who have low levels of literacy.

(c) Assurances

Each such application shall also include assurances that—

(1) funds received under this part will be used only—

(A) for programs and projects, including the acquisition of equipment, in accordance with section 6396 of this title; and

(B) to coordinate such programs and projects with similar programs and projects within the State and in other States, as well as with other Federal programs that can benefit migratory children and their families;


(2) such programs and projects will be carried out in a manner consistent with the objectives of section 6314 of this title, subsections (b) and (d) of section 6315 of this title, subsections (b) and (c) of section 6321 of this title, and part F;

(3) in the planning and operation of programs and projects at both the State and local agency operating level, there is consultation with parents of migratory children, including parent advisory councils, for programs not less than 1 school year in duration, and that all such programs and projects are carried out—

(A) in a manner that provides for the same parental involvement as is required for programs and projects under section 6318 of this title, unless extraordinary circumstances make such provision impractical; and

(B) in a format and language understandable to the parents;


(4) in planning and carrying out such programs and projects, there has been, and will be, adequate provision for addressing the unmet education needs of preschool migratory children and migratory children who have dropped out of school;

(5) the effectiveness of such programs and projects will be determined, where feasible, using the same approaches and standards that will be used to assess the performance of students, schools, and local educational agencies under part A;

(6) such programs and projects will provide for outreach activities for migratory children and their families to inform such children and families of other education, health, nutrition, and social services to help connect them to such services;

(7) to the extent feasible, such programs and projects will provide for—

(A) advocacy and other outreach activities for migratory children and their families, including helping such children and families gain access to other education, health, nutrition, and social services;

(B) professional development programs, including mentoring, for teachers and other program personnel;

(C) family literacy programs;

(D) the integration of information technology into educational and related programs; and

(E) programs to facilitate the transition of secondary school students to postsecondary education or employment; and


(8) the State will assist the Secretary in determining the number of migratory children under section 6393(a)(1) of this title.

(d) Priority for services

In providing services with funds received under this part, each recipient of such funds shall give priority to migratory children who have made a qualifying move within the previous 1-year period and who—

(1) are failing, or most at risk of failing, to meet the challenging State academic standards; or

(2) have dropped out of school.

(e) Continuation of services

Notwithstanding any other provision of this part—

(1) a child who ceases to be a migratory child during a school term shall be eligible for services until the end of such term;

(2) a child who is no longer a migratory child may continue to receive services for 1 additional school year, but only if comparable services are not available through other programs; and

(3) students who were eligible for services in secondary school may continue to be served through credit accrual programs until graduation.

(Pub. L. 89–10, title I, §1304, as added Pub. L. 107–110, title I, §101, Jan. 8, 2002, 115 Stat. 1574; amended Pub. L. 114–95, title I, §1301(c), Dec. 10, 2015, 129 Stat. 1896.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 6394, Pub. L. 89–10, title I, §1304, as added Pub. L. 103–382, title I, §101, Oct. 20, 1994, 108 Stat. 3587; amended Pub. L. 106–554, §1(a)(4) [div. B, title XVI, §1605], Dec. 21, 2000, 114 Stat. 2763, 2763A-334, related to State applications and services, prior to the general amendment of this subchapter by Pub. L. 107–110.

Amendments

2015—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 114–95, §1301(c)(1)(A)(i), in introductory provisions substituted "unique educational needs" for "special educational needs" and inserted "and migratory children who have dropped out of school" after "preschool migratory children".

Subsec. (b)(1)(B). Pub. L. 114–95, §1301(c)(1)(A)(ii), substituted "migratory children" for "migrant children" and "part A of subchapter III" for "part A or B of subchapter III".

Subsec. (b)(1)(D). Pub. L. 114–95, §1301(c)(1)(A)(iii), added subpar. (D) and struck out former subpar. (D) which read as follows: "measurable program goals and outcomes;".

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 114–95, §1301(c)(1)(B), substituted "challenging State academic standards" for "challenging State academic content standards and challenging State student academic achievement standards".

Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 114–95, §1301(c)(1)(C), struck out ", consistent with procedures the Secretary may require," after "including how".

Subsec. (b)(5). Pub. L. 114–95, §1301(c)(1)(D), inserted "and" after semicolon at end.

Subsec. (b)(6), (7). Pub. L. 114–95, §1301(c)(1)(E)–(G), redesignated par. (7) as (6), substituted "migratory children whose parents do not have a high school diploma" for "migratory children who have parents who do not have a high school diploma", and struck out former par. (6) which read as follows: "such budgetary and other information as the Secretary may require; and".

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 114–95, §1301(c)(2)(A), struck out ", satisfactory to the Secretary," after "assurances" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 114–95, §1301(c)(2)(B), made technical amendment to reference in original act which appears in text as reference to subsections (b) and (c) of section 6321 of this title and substituted "part F" for "part I".

Subsec. (c)(3). Pub. L. 114–95, §1301(c)(2)(C)(i), in introductory provisions substituted "parents of migratory children, including parent advisory councils," for "parent advisory councils" and "not less than 1 school year in duration" for "of 1 school year in duration".

Subsec. (c)(3)(A). Pub. L. 114–95, §1301(c)(2)(C)(ii), made technical amendment to reference in original act which appears in text as reference to section 6318 of this title.

Subsec. (c)(4). Pub. L. 114–95, §1301(c)(2)(D), inserted "and migratory children who have dropped out of school" after "preschool migratory children".

Subsec. (c)(6) to (8). Pub. L. 114–95, §1301(c)(2)(E)–(G), added pars. (6) and (7), redesignated former par. (7) as (8), in par. (8) substituted "section 6393(a)(1) of this title" for "paragraphs (1)(A) and (2)(B)(i) of section 6393(a) of this title, through such procedures as the Secretary may require", and struck out former par. (6) which related to assurances that, to the extent feasible, programs would provide for advocacy and outreach activities, professional development programs, family literacy programs, the integration of information technology into programs, and programs to facilitate the transition to postsecondary education or employment.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 114–95, §1301(c)(3), added subsec. (d) and struck out former subsec. (d). Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "In providing services with funds received under this part, each recipient of such funds shall give priority to migratory children who are failing, or most at risk of failing, to meet the State's challenging State academic content standards and challenging State student academic achievement standards, and whose education has been interrupted during the regular school year."

Subsec. (e)(3). Pub. L. 114–95, §1301(c)(4), substituted "students" for "secondary school students".

Effective Date of 2015 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 114–95 effective Dec. 10, 2015, except with respect to certain noncompetitive programs and competitive programs, see section 5 of Pub. L. 114–95, set out as a note under section 6301 of this title.

§6395. Secretarial approval; peer review

The Secretary shall approve each State application that meets the requirements of this part, and may review any such application with the assistance and advice of State officials and other officials with relevant expertise.

(Pub. L. 89–10, title I, §1305, as added Pub. L. 107–110, title I, §101, Jan. 8, 2002, 115 Stat. 1576; amended Pub. L. 114–95, title I, §1301(d), Dec. 10, 2015, 129 Stat. 1897.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 6395, Pub. L. 89–10, title I, §1305, as added Pub. L. 103–382, title I, §101, Oct. 20, 1994, 108 Stat. 3588, related to Secretarial approval and peer review, prior to the general amendment of this subchapter by Pub. L. 107–110.

Amendments

2015Pub. L. 114–95 amended section generally. Prior to amendment, section consisted of subsecs. (a) and (b) relating to Secretarial approval and peer review, respectively.

Effective Date of 2015 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 114–95 effective Dec. 10, 2015, except with respect to certain noncompetitive programs and competitive programs, see section 5 of Pub. L. 114–95, set out as a note under section 6301 of this title.

§6396. Comprehensive needs assessment and service-delivery plan; authorized activities

(a) Comprehensive plan

(1) In general

Each State that receives assistance under this part shall ensure that the State and its local operating agencies identify and address the unique educational needs of migratory children in accordance with a comprehensive State plan that—

(A) is integrated with other programs under this chapter or other Acts, as appropriate;

(B) may be submitted as a part of a consolidated application under section 7842 of this title, if—

(i) the unique needs of migratory children are specifically addressed in the comprehensive State plan;

(ii) the comprehensive State plan is developed in collaboration with parents of migratory children; and

(iii) the comprehensive State plan is not used to supplant State efforts regarding, or administrative funding for, this part;


(C) provides that migratory children will have an opportunity to meet the same challenging State academic standards that all children are expected to meet;

(D) specifies measurable program goals and outcomes;

(E) encompasses the full range of services that are available for migratory children from appropriate local, State, and Federal educational programs;

(F) is the product of joint planning among such local, State, and Federal programs, including programs under part A, early childhood programs, and language instruction educational programs under part A of subchapter III; and

(G) provides for the integration of services available under this part with services provided by such other programs.

(2) Duration of the plan

Each such comprehensive State plan shall—

(A) remain in effect for the duration of the State's participation under this part; and

(B) be periodically reviewed and revised by the State, as necessary, to reflect changes in the State's strategies and programs under this part.

(b) Authorized activities

(1) Flexibility

In implementing the comprehensive plan described in subsection (a), each State educational agency, where applicable through its local educational agencies, retains the flexibility to determine the activities to be provided with funds made available under this part, except that such funds first shall be used to meet the identified needs of migratory children that result from their migratory lifestyle, and to permit these children to participate effectively in school.

(2) Unaddressed needs

Funds provided under this part shall be used to address the needs of migratory children that are not addressed by services available from other Federal or non-Federal programs, except that migratory children who are eligible to receive services under part A may receive those services through funds provided under that part, or through funds under this part that remain after the agency addresses the needs described in paragraph (1).

(3) Construction

Nothing in this part shall be construed to prohibit a local educational agency from serving migratory children simultaneously with students with similar educational needs in the same educational settings, where appropriate.

(4) Special rule

Notwithstanding section 6314 of this title, a school that receives funds under this part shall continue to address the identified needs described in paragraph (1), and shall meet the unique educational needs of migratory children before using funds under this part for schoolwide programs under section 6314 of this title.

(Pub. L. 89–10, title I, §1306, as added Pub. L. 107–110, title I, §101, Jan. 8, 2002, 115 Stat. 1576; amended Pub. L. 114–95, title I, §1301(e), Dec. 10, 2015, 129 Stat. 1897.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 6396, Pub. L. 89–10, title I, §1306, as added Pub. L. 103–382, title I, §101, Oct. 20, 1994, 108 Stat. 3589, related to comprehensive needs assessments and service-delivery plans, prior to the general amendment of this subchapter by Pub. L. 107–110.

Amendments

2015—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 114–95, §1301(e)(1)(A), substituted "unique" for "special" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (a)(1)(B). Pub. L. 114–95, §1301(e)(1)(B)(i), made technical amendment to reference in original act which appears in introductory provisions as reference to section 7842 of this title.

Subsec. (a)(1)(B)(i). Pub. L. 114–95, §1301(e)(1)(B)(ii), substituted "unique" for "special".

Subsec. (a)(1)(C). Pub. L. 114–95, §1301(e)(1)(C), substituted "challenging State academic standards" for "challenging State academic content standards and challenging State student academic achievement standards".

Subsec. (a)(1)(F). Pub. L. 114–95, §1301(e)(1)(D), substituted "part A of subchapter III" for "part A or B of subchapter III".

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 114–95, §1301(e)(2)(A), substituted "retains the flexibility to" for "shall have the flexibility to".

Subsec. (b)(4). Pub. L. 114–95, §1301(e)(2)(B), substituted "unique educational needs" for "special educational needs".

Effective Date of 2015 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 114–95 effective Dec. 10, 2015, except with respect to certain noncompetitive programs and competitive programs, see section 5 of Pub. L. 114–95, set out as a note under section 6301 of this title.

§6397. Bypass

The Secretary may use all or part of any State's allocation under this part to make arrangements with any public or private agency to carry out the purpose of this part in such State if the Secretary determines that—

(1) the State is unable or unwilling to conduct educational programs for migratory children;

(2) such arrangements would result in more efficient and economic administration of such programs; or

(3) such arrangements would add substantially to the educational achievement of such children.

(Pub. L. 89–10, title I, §1307, as added Pub. L. 107–110, title I, §101, Jan. 8, 2002, 115 Stat. 1578; amended Pub. L. 114–95, title I, §1301(f), Dec. 10, 2015, 129 Stat. 1898.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 6397, Pub. L. 89–10, title I, §1307, as added Pub. L. 103–382, title I, §101, Oct. 20, 1994, 108 Stat. 3590, related to bypass of State, prior to the general amendment of this subchapter by Pub. L. 107–110.

Amendments

2015Pub. L. 114–95, §1301(f)(1), struck out "nonprofit" before "agency" in introductory provisions.

Par. (3). Pub. L. 114–95, §1301(f)(2), substituted "educational achievement" for "welfare or educational attainment".

Effective Date of 2015 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 114–95 effective Dec. 10, 2015, except with respect to certain noncompetitive programs and competitive programs, see section 5 of Pub. L. 114–95, set out as a note under section 6301 of this title.

§6398. Coordination of migrant education activities

(a) Improvement of coordination

(1) In general

The Secretary, in consultation with the States, may make grants to, or enter into contracts with, State educational agencies, local educational agencies, institutions of higher education, and other public and private entities to improve the interstate and intrastate coordination among such agencies' educational programs, including through the establishment or improvement of programs for credit accrual and exchange, available to migratory children.

(2) Duration

Grants under this subsection may be awarded for not more than 5 years.

(b) Student records

(1) Assistance

The Secretary shall assist States in the electronic transfer of student records and in determining the number of migratory children in each State.

(2) Information system

(A) In general

The Secretary, in consultation with the States, shall ensure the linkage of migrant student record systems for the purpose of electronically exchanging, among the States, health and educational information regarding all migratory students eligible under this part. The Secretary shall ensure that such linkage occurs in a cost-effective manner, utilizing systems used by the States prior to, or developed after, December 10, 2015. Such information may include—

(i) immunization records and other health information;

(ii) elementary and secondary academic history (including partial credit), credit accrual, and results from State assessments under section 6311(b)(2) of this title;

(iii) other academic information essential to ensuring that migratory children achieve to the challenging State academic standards; and

(iv) eligibility for services under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act [20 U.S.C. 1400 et seq.].

(B) Consultation

The Secretary shall maintain ongoing consultation with the States, local educational agencies, and other migratory student service providers on—

(i) the effectiveness of the system described in subparagraph (A); and

(ii) the ongoing improvement of such system.

(C) Notice and comment

After consulting with the States under subparagraph (A), the Secretary shall publish a notice in the Federal Register seeking public comment on any new proposed data elements that each State receiving funds under this part shall be required to collect for purposes of electronic transfer of migratory student information and the requirements that States shall meet for immediate electronic access to such information.

(3) No cost for certain transfers

A State educational agency or local educational agency receiving assistance under this part shall make student records available to another State educational agency or local educational agency that requests the records at no cost to the requesting agency, if the request is made in order to meet the needs of a migratory child.

(c) Availability of funds

For the purpose of carrying out this section in any fiscal year, the Secretary shall reserve not more than $10,000,000 of the amount appropriated to carry out this part for such year.

(d) Incentive grants

From the amounts made available to carry out this section for any fiscal year, the Secretary may reserve not more than $3,000,000 to award grants of not more than $250,000 on a competitive basis to State educational agencies that propose a consortium arrangement with another State or other appropriate entity that the Secretary determines, pursuant to criteria that the Secretary shall establish, will improve the delivery of services to migratory children whose education is interrupted.

(e) Data collection

The Secretary shall direct the National Center for Education Statistics to collect data on migratory children.

(Pub. L. 89–10, title I, §1308, as added Pub. L. 107–110, title I, §101, Jan. 8, 2002, 115 Stat. 1578; amended Pub. L. 114–95, title I, §1301(g), Dec. 10, 2015, 129 Stat. 1898.)

References in Text

The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, referred to in subsec. (b)(2)(A)(iv), is title VI of Pub. L. 91–230, Apr. 13, 1970, 84 Stat. 175, as amended, which is classified generally to chapter 33 (§1400 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 1400 of this title and Tables.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 6398, Pub. L. 89–10, title I, §1308, as added Pub. L. 103–382, title I, §101, Oct. 20, 1994, 108 Stat. 3590, related to coordination of migrant education activities, prior to the general amendment of this subchapter by Pub. L. 107–110.

Amendments

2015—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 114–95, §1301(g)(1), struck out "nonprofit" before "entities", inserted "through" after "including", and substituted "children" for "students".

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 114–95, §1301(g)(2)(A), struck out "developing effective methods for" before "the electronic transfer".

Subsec. (b)(2)(A). Pub. L. 114–95, §1301(g)(2)(B)(i)(I), added introductory provisions and struck out former introductory provisions which read as follows: "The Secretary, in consultation with the States, shall ensure the linkage of migrant student record systems for the purpose of electronically exchanging, among the States, health and educational information regarding all migratory students. The Secretary shall ensure such linkage occurs in a cost-effective manner, utilizing systems used by the States prior to, or developed after, January 8, 2002, and shall determine the minimum data elements that each State receiving funds under this part shall collect and maintain. Such elements may include—".

Subsec. (b)(2)(A)(ii). Pub. L. 114–95, §1301(g)(2)(B)(i)(II), substituted "assessments under section 6311(b)(2)" for "assessments required under section 6311(b)".

Subsec. (b)(2)(A)(iii). Pub. L. 114–95, §1301(g)(2)(B)(i)(III), substituted "the challenging State academic standards" for "high standards".

Subsec. (b)(2)(B), (C). Pub. L. 114–95, §1301(g)(2)(B)(ii)–(iv), added subpar. (B), redesignated former subpar. (B) as (C), and in subpar. (C) substituted "any new proposed data elements" for "the proposed data elements" and struck out at end "Such publication shall occur not later than 120 days after January 8, 2002."

Subsec. (b)(4). Pub. L. 114–95, §1301(g)(2)(C), struck out par. (4) which related to report to Congress not later than Apr. 30, 2003, on the Secretary's findings and recommendations regarding the maintenance and transfer of health and educational information for migratory students by the States.

Effective Date of 2015 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 114–95 effective Dec. 10, 2015, except with respect to certain noncompetitive programs and competitive programs, see section 5 of Pub. L. 114–95, set out as a note under section 6301 of this title.

§6399. Definitions

As used in this part:

(1) Local operating agency

The term "local operating agency" means—

(A) a local educational agency to which a State educational agency makes a subgrant under this part;

(B) a public or private agency with which a State educational agency or the Secretary makes an arrangement to carry out a project under this part; or

(C) a State educational agency, if the State educational agency operates the State's migrant education program or projects directly.

(2) Migratory agricultural worker

The term "migratory agricultural worker" means an individual who made a qualifying move in the preceding 36 months and, after doing so, engaged in new temporary or seasonal employment or personal subsistence in agriculture, which may be dairy work or the initial processing of raw agricultural products. If an individual did not engage in such new employment soon after a qualifying move, such individual may be considered a migratory agricultural worker if the individual actively sought such new employment and has a recent history of moves for temporary or seasonal agricultural employment.

(3) Migratory child

The term "migratory child" means a child or youth who made a qualifying move in the preceding 36 months—

(A) as a migratory agricultural worker or a migratory fisher; or

(B) with, or to join, a parent or spouse who is a migratory agricultural worker or a migratory fisher.

(4) Migratory fisher

The term "migratory fisher" means an individual who made a qualifying move in the preceding 36 months and, after doing so, engaged in new temporary or seasonal employment or personal subsistence in fishing. If the individual did not engage in such new employment soon after the move, the individual may be considered a migratory fisher if the individual actively sought such new employment and has a recent history of moves for temporary or seasonal fishing employment.

(5) Qualifying move

The term "qualifying move" means a move due to economic necessity—

(A) from one residence to another residence; and

(B) from one school district to another school district, except—

(i) in the case of a State that is comprised of a single school district, wherein a qualifying move is from one administrative area to another within such district; or

(ii) in the case of a school district of more than 15,000 square miles, wherein a qualifying move is a distance of 20 miles or more to a temporary residence.

(Pub. L. 89–10, title I, §1309, as added Pub. L. 107–110, title I, §101, Jan. 8, 2002, 115 Stat. 1579; amended Pub. L. 114–95, title I, §1301(h), Dec. 10, 2015, 129 Stat. 1899.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 6399, Pub. L. 89–10, title I, §1309, as added Pub. L. 103–382, title I, §101, Oct. 20, 1994, 108 Stat. 3591, defined terms for this part, prior to the general amendment of this subchapter by Pub. L. 107–110.

Amendments

2015—Par. (1)(B). Pub. L. 114–95, §1301(h)(1), struck out "nonprofit" before "private agency".

Pars. (2) to (5). Pub. L. 114–95, §1301(h)(2), added pars. (2) to (5) and struck out former par. (2). Prior to amendment, text of par. (2) read as follows: "The term 'migratory child' means a child who is, or whose parent or spouse is, a migratory agricultural worker, including a migratory dairy worker, or a migratory fisher, and who, in the preceding 36 months, in order to obtain, or accompany such parent or spouse, in order to obtain, temporary or seasonal employment in agricultural or fishing work—

"(A) has moved from one school district to another;

"(B) in a State that is comprised of a single school district, has moved from one administrative area to another within such district; or

"(C) resides in a school district of more than 15,000 square miles, and migrates a distance of 20 miles or more to a temporary residence to engage in a fishing activity."

Effective Date of 2015 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 114–95 effective Dec. 10, 2015, except with respect to certain noncompetitive programs and competitive programs, see section 5 of Pub. L. 114–95, set out as a note under section 6301 of this title.