[USC02] 20 USC CHAPTER 70, SUBCHAPTER VI, Part C: Alaska Native Education
Result 1 of 1
   
 
20 USC CHAPTER 70, SUBCHAPTER VI, Part C: Alaska Native Education
From Title 20—EDUCATIONCHAPTER 70—STRENGTHENING AND IMPROVEMENT OF ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY SCHOOLSSUBCHAPTER VI—INDIAN, NATIVE HAWAIIAN, AND ALASKA NATIVE EDUCATION

Part C—Alaska Native Education

§7541. Short title

This part may be cited as the "Alaska Native Educational Equity, Support, and Assistance Act".

(Pub. L. 89–10, title VI, §6301, formerly title VII, §7301, as added Pub. L. 107–110, title VII, §701, Jan. 8, 2002, 115 Stat. 1942; renumbered title VI, §6301, Pub. L. 114–95, title VI, §6001(a), (b)(1), Dec. 10, 2015, 129 Stat. 2046.)

Prior Provisions

Provisions naming former part C (§7931 et seq.) of subchapter IX of this chapter as the "Alaska Native Educational Equity, Support and Assistance Act" were contained in section 7931 of this title, prior to the general amendment of former subchapter IX of this chapter by Pub. L. 107–110.

A prior section 7541, Pub. L. 89–10, title VII, §7301, as added Pub. L. 103–382, title I, §101, Oct. 20, 1994, 108 Stat. 3739, set forth findings and purpose of emergency immigrant education program, prior to the general amendment of former subchapter VII of this chapter by Pub. L. 107–110.

A prior section 6301 of Pub. L. 89–10 was classified to section 7371 of this title prior to the general amendment of part C of subchapter V of this chapter by Pub. L. 114–95.

Another prior section 6301 of Pub. L. 89–10 was classified to section 7351 of this title, prior to the general amendment of former subchapter VI of this chapter by Pub. L. 107–110.

§7542. Findings

Congress finds and declares the following:

(1) It is the policy of the Federal Government to maximize the leadership of and participation by Alaska Natives in the planning and the management of Alaska Native education programs and to support efforts developed by and undertaken within the Alaska Native community to improve educational opportunity for all students.

(2) Many Alaska Native children enter and exit school with serious educational disadvantages.

(3) Overcoming the magnitude of the geographic challenges, historical inequities, and other barriers to successfully improving educational outcomes for Alaska Native students in rural, village, and urban settings is challenging. Significant disparities between academic achievement of Alaska Native students and non-Native students continue, including lower graduation rates, increased school dropout rates, and lower achievement scores on standardized tests.

(4) The preservation of Alaska Native cultures and languages and the integration of Alaska Native cultures and languages into education, positive identity development for Alaska Native students, and local, place-based, and culture-based programming are critical to the attainment of educational success and the long-term well-being of Alaska Native students.

(5) Improving educational outcomes for Alaska Native students increases access to employment opportunities.

(6) The Federal Government should lend support to efforts developed by and undertaken within the Alaska Native community to improve educational opportunity for Alaska Native students. In 1983, pursuant to Public Law 98–63, Alaska ceased to receive educational funding from the Bureau of Indian Affairs. The Bureau of Indian Education does not operate any schools in Alaska, nor operate or fund Alaska Native education programs. The program under this part supports the Federal trust responsibility of the United States to Alaska Natives.

(Pub. L. 89–10, title VI, §6302, formerly title VII, §7302, as added Pub. L. 107–110, title VII, §701, Jan. 8, 2002, 115 Stat. 1942; renumbered title VI, §6302, and amended Pub. L. 114–95, title VI, §§6001(a), (b)(1), 6004(a), Dec. 10, 2015, 129 Stat. 2046, 2067.)

References in Text

Public Law 98–63, referred to in par. (6), is Pub. L. 98–63, July 30, 1983, 97 Stat. 301, known as the Supplemental Appropriations Act, 1983. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Tables. For provisions related to cessation of funding from the Bureau of Indian Affairs for schools in Alaska, see 97 Stat. 326.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 7542, Pub. L. 89–10, title VII, §7302, as added Pub. L. 103–382, title I, §101, Oct. 20, 1994, 108 Stat. 3739, related to State administrative costs, prior to the general amendment of former subchapter VII of this chapter by Pub. L. 107–110.

A prior section 6302 of Pub. L. 89–10 was classified to section 7372 of this title prior to the general amendment of part C of subchapter V of this chapter by Pub. L. 114–95.

Another prior section 6302 of Pub. L. 89–10 was classified to section 7352 of this title, prior to the general amendment of former subchapter VI of this chapter by Pub. L. 107–110.

Amendments

2015Pub. L. 114–95, §6004(a), added pars. (1) to (6) and struck out former pars. (1) to (7) which related to findings concerning Alaska Native educational equity, support, and assistance.

Effective Date of 2015 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 114–95 effective Dec. 10, 2015, except with respect to certain noncompetitive programs and competitive programs, see section 5 of Pub. L. 114–95, set out as a note under section 6301 of this title.

§7543. Purposes

The purposes of this part are as follows:

(1) To recognize and address the unique educational needs of Alaska Natives.

(2) To recognize the role of Alaska Native languages and cultures in the educational success and long-term well-being of Alaska Native students.

(3) To integrate Alaska Native cultures and languages into education, develop Alaska Native students' positive identity, and support local place-based and culture-based curriculum and programming.

(4) To authorize the development, management, and expansion of effective supplemental educational programs to benefit Alaska Natives.

(5) To provide direction and guidance to appropriate Federal, State and local agencies to focus resources, including resources made available under this part, on meeting the educational needs of Alaska Natives.

(6) To ensure the maximum participation by Alaska Native educators and leaders in the planning, development, implementation, management, and evaluation of programs designed to serve Alaska Native students.

(Pub. L. 89–10, title VI, §6303, formerly title VII, §7303, as added Pub. L. 107–110, title VII, §701, Jan. 8, 2002, 115 Stat. 1943; renumbered title VI, §6303, and amended Pub. L. 114–95, title VI, §§6001(a), (b)(1), 6004(b), Dec. 10, 2015, 129 Stat. 2046, 2068.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 7543, Pub. L. 89–10, title VII, §7303, as added Pub. L. 103–382, title I, §101, Oct. 20, 1994, 108 Stat. 3739, related to withholding, prior to the general amendment of former subchapter VII of this chapter by Pub. L. 107–110.

A prior section 6303 of Pub. L. 89–10 was classified to section 7353 of this title, prior to the general amendment of former subchapter VI of this chapter by Pub. L. 107–110.

Amendments

2015—Par. (1). Pub. L. 114–95, §6004(b)(1), inserted "and address" after "To recognize".

Pars. (2) to (5). Pub. L. 114–95, §6004(b)(2)–(5), added pars. (2) and (3), redesignated former pars. (2) and (4) as (4) and (5), respectively, substituted ", management, and expansion of effective supplemental educational programs to benefit Alaska Natives." for "of supplemental educational programs to benefit Alaska Natives." in par. (4), and struck out former par. (3) which read as follows: "To supplement existing programs and authorities in the area of education to further the purposes of this part."

Par. (6). Pub. L. 114–95, §6004(b)(6), added par. (6).

Effective Date of 2015 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 114–95 effective Dec. 10, 2015, except with respect to certain noncompetitive programs and competitive programs, see section 5 of Pub. L. 114–95, set out as a note under section 6301 of this title.

§7544. Program authorized

(a) General authority

(1) Grants and contracts

The Secretary is authorized to make grants to, or enter into contracts with—

(A) Alaska Native organizations with experience operating programs that fulfill the purposes of this part;

(B) Alaska Native organizations that do not have the experience described in subparagraph (A) but are in partnership with—

(i) a State educational agency or a local educational agency; or

(ii) an Alaska Native organization that operates a program that fulfills the purposes of this part;


(C) an entity located in Alaska, and predominately governed by Alaska Natives, that does not meet the definition of an Alaska Native organization under this part but—

(i) has experience operating programs that fulfill the purposes of this part; and

(ii) is granted an official charter or sanction, as described in the definition of a tribal organization under section 5304 of title 25, from at least one Alaska Native tribe or Alaska Native organization to carry out programs that meet the purposes of this part.

(2) Mandatory activities

Activities provided through the programs carried out under this part shall include the following:

(A) The development and implementation of plans, methods, strategies, and activities to improve the educational outcomes of Alaska Natives.

(B) The collection of data to assist in the evaluation of the programs carried out under this part.

(3) Permissible activities

Activities provided through programs carried out under this part may include the following:

(A) The development of curricula and programs that address the educational needs of Alaska Native students, including the following:

(i) Curriculum materials that are culturally informed and reflect the cultural diversity, languages, history, or the contributions of Alaska Native people, including curricula intended to preserve and promote Alaska Native culture.

(ii) Instructional programs that make use of Alaska Native languages and cultures.

(iii) Networks that develop, test, and disseminate best practices and introduce successful programs, materials, and techniques to meet the educational needs of Alaska Native students in urban and rural schools.


(B) Training and professional development activities for educators, including the following:

(i) Pre-service and in-service training and professional development programs to prepare teachers to develop appreciation for, and understanding of, Alaska Native history, cultures, values, and ways of knowing and learning in order to effectively address the cultural diversity and unique needs of Alaska Native students and improve the teaching methods of educators.

(ii) Recruitment and preparation of Alaska Native teachers.

(iii) Programs that will lead to the certification and licensing of Alaska Native teachers, principals, other school leaders, and superintendents.


(C) Early childhood and parenting education activities designed to improve the school readiness of Alaska Native children, including—

(i) the development and operation of home visiting programs for Alaska Native preschool children, to ensure the active involvement of parents in their children's education from the earliest ages;

(ii) training, education, and support, including in-home visitation, for parents and caregivers of Alaska Native children to improve parenting and caregiving skills (including skills relating to discipline and cognitive development, reading readiness, observation, storytelling, and critical thinking);

(iii) family literacy services;

(iv) activities carried out under the Head Start Act (42 U.S.C. 9831 et seq.);

(v) programs for parents and their infants, from the prenatal period of the infant through age 3;

(vi) early childhood education programs; and

(vii) native language immersion within early childhood education programs, Head Start, or preschool programs.


(D) The development and operation of student enrichment programs, including programs in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics that—

(i) are designed to prepare Alaska Native students to excel in such subjects;

(ii) provide appropriate support services to enable such students to benefit from the programs; and

(iii) include activities that recognize and support the unique cultural and educational needs of Alaska Native children and incorporate appropriately qualified Alaska Native elders and other tradition bearers.


(E) Research and data collection activities to determine the educational status and needs of Alaska Native children and adults and other such research and evaluation activities related to programs funded under this part.

(F) Activities designed to enable Alaska Native students served under this part to meet the challenging State academic standards or increase the graduation rates of Alaska Native students, such as—

(i) remedial and enrichment programs;

(ii) culturally based education programs, such as—

(I) programs of study and other instruction in Alaska Native history and ways of living to share the rich and diverse cultures of Alaska Natives among Alaska Native youth and elders, non-Native students and teachers, and the larger community;

(II) instructing Alaska Native youth in leadership, communication, and Alaska Native culture, arts, history, and languages;

(III) intergenerational learning and internship opportunities to Alaska Native youth and young adults;

(IV) providing cultural immersion activities aimed at Alaska Native cultural preservation;

(V) native language instruction and immersion activities, including native language immersion nests or schools;

(VI) school-within-a-school model programs; and

(VII) preparation for postsecondary education and career planning; and


(iii) comprehensive school or community-based support services, including services that—

(I) address family instability and trauma; and

(II) improve conditions for learning at home, in the community, and at school.


(G) Student and teacher exchange programs, cross-cultural immersion programs, and culture camps designed to build mutual respect and understanding among participants.

(H) Education programs for at-risk urban Alaska Native students that are designed to improve academic proficiency and graduation rates, use strategies otherwise permissible under this part, and incorporate a strong data collection and continuous evaluation component.

(I) Strategies designed to increase the involvement of parents in their children's education.

(J) Programs and strategies that increase connections between and among schools, families, and communities, including positive youth-adult relationships, to—

(i) promote the academic progress and positive development of Alaska Native children and youth; and

(ii) improve conditions for learning at home, in the community, and at school.


(K) Career preparation activities to enable Alaska Native children and adults to prepare for meaningful employment, including programs providing mentoring, training, and apprenticeship activities.

(L) Support for the development and operational activities of regional vocational schools in rural areas of Alaska to provide students with necessary resources to prepare for skilled employment opportunities.

(M) Regional leadership academies that demonstrate effectiveness in building respect and understanding, and fostering a sense of Alaska Native identity in Alaska Native students to promote their pursuit of and success in completing higher education or career training.

(N) Other activities, consistent with the purposes of this part, to meet the educational needs of Alaska Native children and adults.

(b) Authorization of appropriations

There are authorized to be appropriated to carry out this section $31,453,000 for each of fiscal years 2017 through 2020.

(Pub. L. 89–10, title VI, §6304, formerly title VII, §7304, as added Pub. L. 107–110, title VII, §701, Jan. 8, 2002, 115 Stat. 1943; amended Pub. L. 108–11, title II, §2504, Apr. 16, 2003, 117 Stat. 599; renumbered title VI, §6304, and amended Pub. L. 114–95, title VI, §§6001(a), (b)(1), 6004(c), Dec. 10, 2015, 129 Stat. 2046, 2068; Pub. L. 115–224, title III, §302(3), July 31, 2018, 132 Stat. 1623.)

References in Text

The Head Start Act, referred to in subsec. (a)(3)(C)(iv), is subchapter B (§635 et seq.) of chapter 8 of subtitle A of title VI of Pub. L. 97–35, Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 499, which is classified generally to subchapter II (§9831 et seq.) of chapter 105 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 9801 of Title 42 and Tables.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 7544, Pub. L. 89–10, title VII, §7304, as added Pub. L. 103–382, title I, §101, Oct. 20, 1994, 108 Stat. 3740, related to State allocations, prior to the general amendment of former subchapter VII of this chapter by Pub. L. 107–110.

Amendments

2018—Subsec. (a)(3)(K). Pub. L. 115–224 struck out "tech-prep," before "mentoring,".

2015Pub. L. 114–95, §6004(c), amended section generally. Prior to amendment, section related to program authorized, consisting of subsecs. (a) to (d).

2003—Subsec. (a)(2)(P). Pub. L. 108–11 substituted "operated by" for "such as".

Effective Date of 2018 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 115–224 effective July 1, 2019, see section 4 of Pub. L. 115–224, set out as a note under section 2301 of this title.

Effective Date of 2015 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 114–95 effective Dec. 10, 2015, except with respect to certain noncompetitive programs and competitive programs, see section 5 of Pub. L. 114–95, set out as a note under section 6301 of this title.

§7545. Administrative provisions

Not more than 5 percent of funds provided to an award recipient under this part for any fiscal year may be used for administrative purposes.

(Pub. L. 89–10, title VI, §6305, formerly title VII, §7305, as added Pub. L. 107–110, title VII, §701, Jan. 8, 2002, 115 Stat. 1946; renumbered title VI, §6305, and amended Pub. L. 114–95, title VI, §§6001(a), (b)(1), 6004(d), Dec. 10, 2015, 129 Stat. 2046, 2071.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 7545, Pub. L. 89–10, title VII, §7305, as added Pub. L. 103–382, title I, §101, Oct. 20, 1994, 108 Stat. 3741, related to State applications, prior to the general amendment of former subchapter VII of this chapter by Pub. L. 107–110.

Amendments

2015Pub. L. 114–95, §6004(d), amended section generally. Prior to amendment, section set out various administrative provisions relating to applications for grants and awards under this part, consisting of subsecs. (a) to (d).

Effective Date of 2015 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 114–95 effective Dec. 10, 2015, except with respect to certain noncompetitive programs and competitive programs, see section 5 of Pub. L. 114–95, set out as a note under section 6301 of this title.

§7546. Definitions

In this part:

(1) Alaska Native

The term "Alaska Native" has the same meaning as the term "Native" has in section 1602(b) of title 43 and includes the descendants of individuals so defined.

(2) Alaska Native organization

The term "Alaska Native organization" means an organization that has or commits to acquire expertise in the education of Alaska Natives and is—

(A) an Indian tribe, as defined in section 5304 of title 25, that is an Indian tribe located in Alaska;

(B) a "tribal organization", as defined in section 5304 of title 25, that is a tribal organization located in Alaska; or

(C) an organization listed in clauses (i) through (xii) of section 619(4)(B) of title 42, or the successor of an entity so listed.

(Pub. L. 89–10, title VI, §6306, formerly title VII, §7306, as added Pub. L. 107–110, title VII, §701, Jan. 8, 2002, 115 Stat. 1946; renumbered title VI, §6306, and amended Pub. L. 114–95, title VI, §§6001(a), (b)(1), 6004(e), Dec. 10, 2015, 129 Stat. 2046, 2071.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 7546, Pub. L. 89–10, title VII, §7306, as added Pub. L. 103–382, title I, §101, Oct. 20, 1994, 108 Stat. 3743, related to administrative provisions, prior to the general amendment of former subchapter VII of this chapter by Pub. L. 107–110.

Prior sections 7547 to 7602 were omitted in the general amendment of former subchapter VII of this chapter by Pub. L. 107–110.

Section 7547, Pub. L. 89–10, title VII, §7307, as added Pub. L. 103–382, title I, §101, Oct. 20, 1994, 108 Stat. 3743, related to uses of funds.

Section 7548, Pub. L. 89–10, title VII, §7308, as added Pub. L. 103–382, title I, §101, Oct. 20, 1994, 108 Stat. 3744, related to reports.

Section 7549, Pub. L. 89–10, title VII, §7309, as added Pub. L. 103–382, title I, §101, Oct. 20, 1994, 108 Stat. 3744, authorized appropriations.

Section 7571, Pub. L. 89–10, title VII, §7401, as added Pub. L. 103–382, title I, §101, Oct. 20, 1994, 108 Stat. 3744, related to release time.

Section 7572, Pub. L. 89–10, title VII, §7402, as added Pub. L. 103–382, title I, §101, Oct. 20, 1994, 108 Stat. 3744, related to acquisition or development of education technology.

Section 7573, Pub. L. 89–10, title VII, §7403, as added Pub. L. 103–382, title I, §101, Oct. 20, 1994, 108 Stat. 3744, related to notification of awards.

Section 7574, Pub. L. 89–10, title VII, §7404, as added Pub. L. 103–382, title I, §101, Oct. 20, 1994, 108 Stat. 3744, related to continued eligibility for grants.

Section 7575, Pub. L. 89–10, title VII, §7405, as added Pub. L. 103–382, title I, §101, Oct. 20, 1994, 108 Stat. 3744, related to coordination and reporting requirements.

Section 7601, Pub. L. 89–10, title VII, §7501, as added Pub. L. 103–382, title I, §101, Oct. 20, 1994, 108 Stat. 3745; amended Pub. L. 105–244, title I, §102(a)(6)(J), title IX, §901(d), Oct. 7, 1998, 112 Stat. 1619, 1828, defined terms.

Section 7602, Pub. L. 89–10, title VII, §7502, as added Pub. L. 103–382, title I, §101, Oct. 20, 1994, 108 Stat. 3748, related to regulations and parental notification.

Amendments

2015—Par. (1). Pub. L. 114–95, §6004(e)(1), inserted "and includes the descendants of individuals so defined" before period at end.

Par. (2). Pub. L. 114–95, §6004(e)(2), added par. (2) and struck out former par. (2). Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "The term 'Alaska Native organization' means a federally recognized tribe, consortium of tribes, regional nonprofit Native association, and another organization that—

"(A) has or commits to acquire expertise in the education of Alaska Natives; and

"(B) has Alaska Natives in substantive and policymaking positions within the organization."

Effective Date of 2015 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 114–95 effective Dec. 10, 2015, except with respect to certain noncompetitive programs and competitive programs, see section 5 of Pub. L. 114–95, set out as a note under section 6301 of this title.