[USC02] 22 USC Ch. 105: GLOBAL FRAGILITY
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22 USC Ch. 105: GLOBAL FRAGILITY
From Title 22—FOREIGN RELATIONS AND INTERCOURSE

CHAPTER 105—GLOBAL FRAGILITY

Sec.
9801.
Appropriate congressional committees defined.
9802.
Statement of policy.
9803.
Global fragility strategy.
9804.
Selection of priority countries and regions.
9805.
Priority country and regional plans.
9806.
Implementation.
9807.
Biennial reports and congressional consultation.
9808.
Authorization of appropriations.
9809.
Improving and leveraging assistance for the global fragility strategy.
9810.
Rule of construction.

        

§9801. Appropriate congressional committees defined

In this chapter:

(1) Appropriate congressional committees

The term "appropriate congressional committees" means—

(A) the Committee on Foreign Relations and the Committee on Appropriations of the Senate; and

(B) the Committee on Foreign Affairs and the Committee on Appropriations of the House of Representatives.

(2) Relevant Federal department or agency

The term "relevant Federal department or agency" means the Department of State, the United States Agency for International Development, the Department of Defense, the Department of 1 Treasury, and any other Federal department or agency the President determines is relevant to carry out the purposes of this chapter.

(Pub. L. 116–94, div. J, title V, §502, Dec. 20, 2019, 133 Stat. 3060.)

Short Title

Pub. L. 116–94, div. J, title V, §501, Dec. 20, 2019, 133 Stat. 3060, provided that: "This title [enacting this chapter] may be cited as the 'Global Fragility Act of 2019'."

1 So in original. Probably should be followed by "the".

§9802. Statement of policy

It is the policy of the United States to seek to stabilize conflict-affected areas and prevent violence and fragility globally, including by—

(1) ensuring that all relevant Federal departments and agencies coordinate to achieve coherent, long-term goals for programs designed to carry out such policy;

(2) seeking to improve global, regional, and local coordination of relevant international and multilateral development and donor organizations regarding efforts to carry out such policy; and

(3) enhancing the effectiveness of United States foreign assistance programs and activities to carry out such policy, including by improving assessment, monitoring, and evaluation conducted by the relevant Federal departments and agencies.

(Pub. L. 116–94, div. J, title V, §503, Dec. 20, 2019, 133 Stat. 3060.)

§9803. Global fragility strategy

(a) Strategy

The President, in coordination with the Secretary of State, the Administrator of the United States Agency for International Development ("USAID"), the Secretary of Defense, and the heads of other relevant Federal departments and agencies, shall establish a comprehensive, integrated, ten-year strategy, to be referred to as the "Global Fragility Strategy", to contribute to the stabilization of conflict-affected areas, address global fragility, and strengthen the capacity of the United States to be an effective leader of international efforts to prevent extremism and violent conflict. The strategy shall focus on addressing long-term causes of fragility and violence, and shall—

(1) consider the causes of fragility and violence at both the local and national levels, the external actors that reinforce and exploit such conditions, and successful prevention strategies and their key features;

(2) include specific objectives and multisectoral approaches to reduce fragility and the causes of violence, including those that strengthen state-society relations, curb extremist ideology, and make society less vulnerable to the spread of extremism and violence;

(3) encourage and empower local and national actors to address the concerns of their citizens, including those in vulnerable communities, and build community resilience against violence and extremism;

(4) address the long-term underlying causes of fragility and violence through participatory, locally led programs, empowering marginalized groups such as youth and women, inclusive dialogues and conflict resolutions processes, justice sector reform, good governance, inclusive and accountable service delivery, and community policing and civilian security, including by combatting impunity for security forces implicated in violations of internationally recognized human rights and other serious crimes;

(5) describe approaches that ensure national leadership where appropriate and participatory engagement by civil society and local partners in the design, implementation, and monitoring of programs;

(6) assign roles for relevant Federal departments and agencies to avoid duplication of efforts, while ensuring that—

(A) the Department of State is responsible for leading the drafting and execution of the strategy, establishing United States foreign policy, advancing diplomatic and political efforts, and overseeing the planning and implementation of security assistance and related civilian security efforts;

(B) USAID is responsible for overseeing prevention programs, and is the lead implementing agency for development, humanitarian, and related non-security program policy;

(C) activities undertaken or supported by the Department of Defense in relation to the Global Fragility Strategy are established through joint formulation and with the concurrence of the Secretary of State; and

(D) other relevant Federal departments and agencies support the activities of the Department of State and USAID as appropriate, with the concurrence of the Secretary of State and the Administrator of the United States Agency for International Development;


(7) describe programs that relevant Federal departments and agencies will undertake to achieve the stated objectives, including descriptions of existing programs and funding by fiscal year and account;

(8) identify mechanisms to improve coordination between the United States, foreign governments, and international organizations, including the World Bank, the United Nations, regional organizations, and private sector organizations;

(9) address efforts to expand public-private partnerships and leverage private sector resources;

(10) describe the criteria, metrics, and mechanisms for monitoring and evaluation of programs and objectives in the strategy to ensure planning, implementation, and coordination are appropriately executed and updated;

(11) describe how the strategy will ensure that programs are country-led and context-specific; and

(12) identify mechanisms or activities to reduce the risk that the programs, policies, or resources of the United States and its partners will facilitate corruption, empower or abet repressive local actors, or be exploited by extremists to gain support for their cause.

(b) Stakeholder consultation

The Global Fragility Strategy required under this section shall be developed in consultation with representatives of civil society and national and local governance entities in countries and regions described in section 9804 of this title, as well as relevant international development organizations with experience implementing programs in fragile states, multilateral organizations and donors, relevant private, academic, and philanthropic entities, and the appropriate congressional committees.

(c) Report

Not later than 270 days after December 20, 2019, the President shall submit to the appropriate congressional committees a report setting forth the strategy described in subsection (a), which shall be submitted in unclassified form, but may include a classified annex if necessary, and shall include, at a minimum, the following elements:

(1) The objectives, general and specific, of the strategy.

(2) An identification of the relevant Federal departments and agencies that will be involved and the assignment of priorities to such departments and agencies.

(3) A description of the compact-based partnerships that will be established to ensure local leadership of strategies, policy, and programs, as well as mutual accountability for results and resources needed to support such partnerships.

(4) An identification of the authorities, staffing, and other requirements, as necessary and appropriate, needed to effectively implement the Global Fragility Strategy.

(5) A description of the ways in which United States leadership will be used to enhance overall international prevention efforts, including through increasing the engagement of the member states of the Group of Seven and Group of Twenty.

(6) An identification of which officials of the Department of State, USAID, and the Department of Defense, with a rank not lower than Assistant Secretary or Assistant Administrator, will be responsible for leading and overseeing the strategy.

(7) A list of priority countries and regions selected pursuant to section 9804 of this title, including descriptions of the rationale for such selections.

(Pub. L. 116–94, div. J, title V, §504, Dec. 20, 2019, 133 Stat. 3061.)

§9804. Selection of priority countries and regions

(a) In general

The President, in coordination with the Secretary of State, the Administrator of the United States Agency for International Development, and the Secretary of Defense, and in consultation with the appropriate congressional committees specified in subsection (b), shall select certain countries as "priority countries" and certain regions as "priority regions" for the purpose of implementing the Global Fragility Strategy required under section 9803 of this title

(1) on the basis of—

(A) the national security interests of the United States;

(B) clearly defined indicators of the levels of violence or fragility in such country or region, such as the country's or region's—

(i) ranking on recognized global fragility lists, such as the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development States of Fragility report, the Fund for Peace Fragile States Index, the World Bank Harmonized List of Fragile Situations, the Institute for Economics and Peace Global Peace Index, and the Holocaust Museum Early Warning Project Risk Assessment;

(ii) ranking on select United States Government conflict and atrocity early warning watch lists;

(iii) levels of violence, including violence committed by armed groups, state actors, and violent extremist organizations, gender-based violence, and violence against children and youth; and

(iv) vulnerability to rising sea levels, flooding, drought, wildfires, desertification, deforestation, food insecurity, and human displacement; and


(C) an assessment of—

(i) the commitment and capacity of national and sub-national government entities and civil society partners in such country or region to work with relevant Federal departments and agencies on the Global Fragility Strategy, including by demonstrating commitment to—

(I) improving inclusive, transparent, and accountable power structures, including effective, legitimate, and resilient national and sub-national institutions; and

(II) ensuring strong foundations for human rights, rule of law, and equal access to justice; and


(ii) the likelihood that United States assistance under the Global Fragility Strategy would measurably help to reduce fragility, prevent the spread of extremism and violence, and stabilize conflict-affected areas in each such country or region; and


(2) in a manner that ensures that not fewer than five countries or regions are selected, including not fewer than two in which the priority will be preventing violent conflict and fragility, rather than stabilizing ongoing conflicts.

(b) Consultation with Congress

Prior to finalization of the selection of priority countries and regions under subsection (a), representatives from the Department of State, USAID, the Department of Defense, and other relevant Federal departments and agencies, as necessary and appropriate, shall brief the appropriate congressional committees on the countries and regions being considered and shall consider congressional input on such prioritization.

(Pub. L. 116–94, div. J, title V, §505, Dec. 20, 2019, 133 Stat. 3063.)

§9805. Priority country and regional plans

Not later than one year after December 20, 2019, the President, in coordination with the Secretary of State, the Administrator of the United States Agency for International Development, the Secretary of Defense, and the heads of other relevant Federal departments and agencies, shall submit to the appropriate congressional committees ten-year plans to align and integrate under the Global Fragility Strategy established pursuant to section 9803 of this title all relevant diplomatic, development, and security assistance and activities of the United States Government with respect to each of the countries and regions selected pursuant to section 9804 of this title. Each such country and regional plan shall include the following elements:

(1) Specific multi-year interagency plans for coordination and implementation under each such plan.

(2) An up-to-date baseline analysis for each such country or region, including an analysis of the conditions that contribute to violence and fragility.

(3) Prioritized descriptions of the goals and objectives for stabilizing conflict-affected areas, reducing fragility, and preventing the spread of extremism and violence in each such country.

(4) Descriptions of how and when the relevant goals, objectives, plans, and benchmarks for each such country or region will be incorporated into relevant United States country or regional plans and strategies, including the National Security Strategy of the United States, the Stabilization Assistance Review, Department of State Integrated Country Strategies, USAID Country Development Cooperation Strategies, and Department of Defense Campaign Plans, Operational Plans, and Regional Strategies, as well as any equivalent or successor plans or strategies.

(5) Interagency plans to ensure that appropriate local actors, including government and civil society entities, have an appropriate ownership stake in developing, implementing, monitoring, and evaluating relevant activities under each such plan.

(6) Interagency plans to integrate existing and planned security assistance and cooperation programs in each such country or region with the strategy, and to mitigate risks associated with such programs, including risks related to corruption, governance, and human rights.

(7) Assessment, monitoring, and evaluation frameworks for diplomatic, development, and security assistance and activities, which shall be informed by consultations with the stakeholders specified in section 9803(b) of this title, with clear metrics for each such country or region, as well as interagency plans for using such frameworks to adapt such activities on a regular basis.

(8) Descriptions of available policy tools and how such tools will be used to reduce fragility, prevent the spread of extremism and violence, and stabilize conflict-affected areas in each such country or region.

(9) A description of how planning and implementation of assistance under the Global Fragility Strategy for each such country or region will be coordinated in a manner that strengthens partnerships and leverages the unique expertise and resources of the United States Government and—

(A) governments of such countries;

(B) international development organizations;

(C) relevant international donors;

(D) multilateral organizations; and

(E) the private sector.


(10) A regional component outlining plans to address relevant transnational issues and how each such country is affected by or at risk of regional fragility or violence.

(11) When a region is selected, a component outlining plans to address factors at the individual country level that affect regional fragility or violence.

(Pub. L. 116–94, div. J, title V, §506, Dec. 20, 2019, 133 Stat. 3064.)

§9806. Implementation

The President, in coordination with the Secretary of State, the Administrator of the United States Agency for International Development, the Secretary of Defense, the heads of other relevant Federal departments and agencies, relevant United States ambassadors, USAID mission directors, geographic combatant commanders, and other relevant individuals with responsibility over activities in each priority country or region selected pursuant to section 9804 of this title, shall ensure that—

(1) the Global Fragility Strategy required under section 9803 of this title, including each of the country plans developed under section 9805 of this title, is implemented, updated, and coordinated on a regular basis; and

(2) the strategy is used to guide United States Government policy at a senior level and incorporated into relevant strategies and plans across the United States Government such that the activities of all relevant Federal departments and agencies are consistent with the strategy.

(Pub. L. 116–94, div. J, title V, §507, Dec. 20, 2019, 133 Stat. 3065.)

§9807. Biennial reports and congressional consultation

(a) Biennial reports

Not later than two years after the submission of the plans required in section 9805 of this title, and every two years thereafter until the date that is ten years after the date of submission of such plans, the President, the Secretary of State, the Administrator of the United States Agency for International Development, the Secretary of Defense, and the heads of other relevant Federal departments and agencies shall jointly submit to the appropriate congressional committees an unclassified report, which may include a classified annex, on progress made and lessons learned with respect to implementation of the Global Fragility Strategy established pursuant to section 9803 of this title. The report shall include the following elements:

(1) Descriptions of steps taken to incorporate the strategy into any relevant, existing country and regional plans or strategies.

(2) Accountings of all funding received and obligated to implement each such country and regional plan during the previous two years, and, to the extent feasible, projections of funding to be requested, planned, and implemented for the following two years.

(3) Descriptions of progress made towards achieving specific targets, metrics, and indicators for each priority country and region.

(4) Descriptions of any changes made to programs based on the results of assessment, monitoring, and evaluation for each priority country and region.

(b) Congressional consultation

The Secretary of State, the Administrator of the United States Agency for International Development, and the Secretary of Defense shall provide to any appropriate congressional committee briefings on the implementation of this chapter upon the request of any such committee.

(Pub. L. 116–94, div. J, title V, §508, Dec. 20, 2019, 133 Stat. 3065.)

§9808. Authorization of appropriations

(a) Prevention and Stabilization Fund

(1) Establishment

There is established in the Treasury of the United States a fund, which shall be known as the "Prevention and Stabilization Fund" (in this subsection referred to as "The Fund"), to be administered by the Department of State and USAID, as appropriate, to support stabilization of conflict-affected areas and to mitigate fragility, including through the Global Fragility Strategy established pursuant to section 9803 of this title, which shall replace the Relief and Recovery Fund.

(2) Authorization of appropriations

There is authorized to be appropriated to the Fund $200,000,000 for each of the fiscal years 2020 through 2024.

(3) Purposes of the Fund

(A) In general

Amounts authorized to be appropriated to the Fund shall be used—

(i) to support stabilization of conflict-affected areas and prevent global fragility, including through the Global Fragility Strategy established pursuant to section 9803 of this title; and

(ii) to provide assistance to areas liberated or at risk from, or under the control of, the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria, other terrorist organizations, or violent extremist organizations, including for stabilization assistance for vulnerable ethnic and religious minority communities affected by conflict.

(B) Amounts in addition

Amounts authorized to be appropriated to the Fund under this section are in addition to any funds otherwise made available for the purposes described in paragraph (1).

(4) Congressional notification

Funds may not be obligated under this section unless the congressional committees specified in section 634A of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 (22 U.S.C. 2394–1) are notified of the amount and nature of such proposed obligation at least 15 days in advance of such proposed obligation, in accordance with the procedures applicable to notifications regarding reprogrammings pursuant to such section.

(b) Complex Crisis Fund

(1) Establishment

There is established in the Treasury of the United States a fund, which shall be known as the "Complex Crises Fund" (in this subsection referred to as the "Fund"), to be administered by USAID, to support programs and activities to prevent or respond to emerging or unforeseen events overseas, including to support the Global Fragility Strategy established pursuant to section 9803 of this title.

(2) Authorization of appropriations

There is authorized to be appropriated to the Fund $30,000,000 for each of the fiscal years 2020 through 2024, which shall remain available until expended.

(3) Purposes of the Fund

(A) In general

Notwithstanding any other provision of law, except section 620M of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 (22 U.S.C. 2378d), amounts in the Fund may be used to carry out the provisions of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 (22 U.S.C. 2151 et seq.) to support programs and activities to prevent or respond to emerging or unforeseen foreign challenges and complex crises overseas, including through the Global Fragility Strategy established pursuant to section 9803 of this title.

(B) Amounts in addition

Amounts authorized to be appropriated to the Fund are in addition to any amounts otherwise made available for the purposes described in subparagraph (A).

(4) Limitations

(A) In general

Amounts in the Fund may not be expended for lethal assistance or to respond to natural disasters.

(B) Administrative expenses

Not more than five percent of the amounts in the Fund may be used for administrative expenses.

(5) Congressional notification

The United States Agency for International Development shall notify the appropriate congressional committees not less than five days prior to the obligation of amounts in the Fund.

(6) Waiver

The notification requirement under paragraph (5) may be waived if—

(A) notification by the deadline specified in such paragraph would pose a substantial risk to human health or welfare; and

(B) the appropriate congressional committees—

(i) are notified as early as practicable but in no event later than three days after an obligation of amounts from the Fund; and

(ii) are provided with an explanation of the emergency circumstances that necessitated such waiver.

(Pub. L. 116–94, div. J, title V, §509, Dec. 20, 2019, 133 Stat. 3066.)

References in Text

The Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, referred to in subsec. (b)(3)(A), is Pub. L. 87–195, Sept. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 424, which is classified principally to chapter 32 (§2151 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2151 of this title and Tables.

§9809. Improving and leveraging assistance for the global fragility strategy

(a) Sense of Congress

It is the sense of Congress that the President, the Secretary of State, the Administrator of the United States Agency for International Development, the Secretary of Defense, and the heads of other relevant Federal departments and agencies should—

(1) develop more adaptive and responsive policy and program planning, implementation, and scaling under the Global Fragility Strategy established pursuant to section 9803 of this title, and work with the appropriate congressional committees to identify any legislative changes that may be necessary to support such efforts;

(2) better integrate the strategy and other conflict and violence reduction objectives and activities into other policy and program areas, where appropriate; and

(3) support transparent and accountable multilateral funds, initiatives, and strategies to enhance and better coordinate private and public efforts to stabilize conflict-affected areas and prevent violence and fragility globally.

(b) Other funding and cost matching

The Global Fragility Strategy established pursuant to section 9803 of this title

(1) may, after consultation with the appropriate congressional committees, be supported with funds other than funds authorized to be appropriated pursuant to section 9808 of this title; and

(2) shall seek to leverage funds from sources other than the United States Government in order to promote coordination and cost-matching to the maximum extent practicable.

(c) Multi-donor Global Fragility Fund

(1) Authority

Pursuant to sections 2357 and 2392 of this title, and consistent with subsection (b), and after consultation with the appropriate congressional committees, the Secretary of State is authorized to establish funding mechanisms, to include the establishment of a Global Fragility Fund, to leverage, receive, coordinate, and program funds provided by other donors and private sector partners to carry out the purposes of this chapter.

(2) Purposes

A funding mechanism established pursuant to paragraph (1) should—

(A) include input from and participation by key bilateral and multilateral donors, representatives of civil society, relevant nongovernmental organizations and private sector entities, and developing countries where fragility threatens to exacerbate violent extremism and undermine development;

(B) enhance donor coordination and cooperation;

(C) advance clearly defined goals, objectives, and metrics for monitoring, evaluating, and measuring progress; and

(D) focus on strengthening national and local good governance and conflict resolution capacity in fragile and conflict-affected areas over the long-term through comprehensive, compact-based agreements that support country-led strategies.

(3) Congressional notification

Funds may not be obligated under this section except in consultation with the appropriate congressional committees and subject to the notification of such committees of the amount and proposed uses of such funds at least 15 days in advance of such proposed obligation.

(Pub. L. 116–94, div. J, title V, §510, Dec. 20, 2019, 133 Stat. 3067.)

§9810. Rule of construction

Nothing in this chapter shall be construed as a declaration of war or an authorization for the use of military force.

(Pub. L. 116–94, div. J, title V, §511, Dec. 20, 2019, 133 Stat. 3069.)