[USC02] 22 USC CHAPTER 21, SUBCHAPTER III: CLAIMS AGAINST BULGARIA, HUNGARY, RUMANIA, ITALY, AND THE SOVIET UNION
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22 USC CHAPTER 21, SUBCHAPTER III: CLAIMS AGAINST BULGARIA, HUNGARY, RUMANIA, ITALY, AND THE SOVIET UNION
From Title 22—FOREIGN RELATIONS AND INTERCOURSECHAPTER 21—SETTLEMENT OF INTERNATIONAL CLAIMS

SUBCHAPTER III—CLAIMS AGAINST BULGARIA, HUNGARY, RUMANIA, ITALY, AND THE SOVIET UNION

§1641. Definitions

As used in this subchapter the term—

(1) "Person" means a natural person, partnership, association, other unincorporated body, corporation, or body politic.

(2) "National of the United States" means (A) a natural person who is a citizen of the United States, or who owes permanent allegiance to the United States, and (B) a corporation or other legal entity which is organized under the laws of the United States, any State or Territory thereof, or the District of Columbia, if natural persons who are nationals of the United States own, directly or indirectly, more than 50 per centum of the outstanding capital stock or other beneficial interest in such legal entity. It does not include aliens.

(3) "Treaty of peace", with respect to a country, means the treaty of peace with that country signed at Paris, France, February 10, 1947, which came into force between that country and the United States on September 15, 1947.

(4) "Memorandum of Understanding" means the Memorandum of Understanding between the United States and Italy regarding Italian assets in the United States and certain claims of nationals of the United States, signed at Washington, District of Columbia, August 14, 1947 (61 Stat. 3962).

(5) "Soviet Government" means the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, including any of its present or former constituent republics, other political subdivisions, and any territories thereof, as constituted on or prior to November 16, 1933.

(6) "Litvinov Assignment" means (A) the communication dated November 16, 1933, from Maxim Litvinov to President Franklin D. Roosevelt, wherein the Soviet Government assigned to the Government of the United States amounts admitted or found to be due it as the successor of prior governments of Russia, or otherwise, preparatory to a final settlement of the claims outstanding between the two Governments and the claims of their nationals; (B) the communication dated November 16, 1933, from President Franklin D. Roosevelt to Maxim Litvinov, accepting such assignment; and (C) the assignments executed by Serge Ughet on August 25, 1933, and November 15, 1933, assigning certain assets to the Government of the United States.

(7) "Russian national" includes any corporation or business association organized under the laws, decrees, ordinances, or acts of the former Empire of Russia or of any government successor thereto, and subsequently nationalized or dissolved or whose assets were taken over by the Soviet Government or which was merged with any other corporation or organization by the Soviet Government.

(8) "Commission" means the Foreign Claims Settlement Commission of the United States, established pursuant to Reorganization Plan Numbered 1 of 1954 (68 Stat. 1279).

(9) "Property" means any property, right, or interest.

(Mar. 10, 1950, ch. 54, title III, §301, as added Aug. 9, 1955, ch. 645, §3, 69 Stat. 570.)

References in Text

Reorganization Plan Numbered 1 of 1954, referred to in par. (8), is Reorg. Plan No. 1 of 1954, eff. July 1, 1954, 19 F.R. 3985, 68 Stat. 1279, which is set out as a note under section 1622 of this title.

Transfer of Foreign Claims Settlement Commission of the United States as Separate Agency Within Department of Justice

For provisions transferring Foreign Claims Settlement Commission of the United States as a separate agency within the Department of Justice, see section 1622a et seq. of this title.

§1641a. Claims funds

(a) Establishment; coverage into Treasury; deduction

There are created in the Treasury of the United States five funds to be known as the Bulgarian Claims Fund, the Hungarian Claims Fund, the Rumanian Claims Fund, the Italian Claims Fund, and the Soviet Claims Fund. The Secretary of the Treasury shall cover into each of the Hungarian, Rumanian, and Bulgarian Claims Funds, the funds attributable to the respective country or its nationals covered into the Treasury pursuant to subsections (a) and (b) of section 1631a of this title. The Secretary of the Treasury shall cover into the Italian Claims Fund the sum of $5,000,000 paid to the United States by the Government of Italy pursuant to article II of the Memorandum of Understanding. The Secretary shall cover into the Treasury the funds collected by the United States pursuant to the Litvinov Assignment (including postal funds due prior to November 16, 1933, to the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics because of money orders certified to that country for payment) and shall cover into the Soviet Claims Fund the funds so covered into the Treasury. The Secretary shall deduct from each claims fund 5 per centum thereof as reimbursement to the Government of the United States for the expenses incurred by the Commission and by the Treasury Department in the administration of this subchapter. Such deduction shall be made before any payment is made out of such fund under section 1641i of this title. All amounts so deducted shall be covered into the Treasury to the credit of miscellaneous receipts.

(b) Bulgarian and Rumanian fund

The Secretary of the Treasury shall cover into each of the Bulgarian and Rumanian Claims Funds such sums as may be paid by the Government of the respective country pursuant to the terms of any claims settlement agreement between the Government of the United States and the Government of such country.

(c) Hungarian fund

The Secretary of the Treasury shall cover into the Hungarian Claims Fund, such sums as may be paid to the United States by the Government of Hungary pursuant to the terms of the United States Hungarian Claims Agreement of March 6, 1973.

(Mar. 10, 1950, ch. 54, title III, §302, as added Aug. 9, 1955, ch. 645, §3, 69 Stat. 571; amended Pub. L. 90–421, §1(8), July 24, 1968, 82 Stat. 422; Pub. L. 93–460, §1(1), Oct. 20, 1974, 88 Stat. 1386.)

Amendments

1974—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 93–460 added subsec. (c).

1968Pub. L. 90–421 designated existing provisions as subsec. (a) and added subsec. (b).

§1641b. Claims of nationals of the United States against Bulgaria, Hungary, and Rumania

The Commission shall receive and determine in accordance with applicable substantive law, including international law, the validity and amounts of claims of nationals of the United States against the Governments of Bulgaria, Hungary, and Rumania, or any of them, arising out of the failure to—

(1) restore or pay compensation for property of nationals of the United States as required by article 23 of the treaty of peace with Bulgaria, articles 26 and 27 of the treaty of peace with Hungary, and articles 24 and 25 of the treaty of peace with Rumania. Awards under this paragraph shall be in amounts not to exceed two-thirds of the loss or damage actually sustained;

(2) pay effective compensation for the nationalization, compulsory liquidation, or other taking, prior to August 9, 1955, of property of nationals of the United States in Bulgaria, Hungary, and Rumania;

(3) meet obligations expressed in currency of the United States arising out of contractual or other rights acquired by nationals of the United States prior to April 24, 1941, in the case of Bulgaria, and prior to September 1, 1939, in the case of Hungary and Rumania, and which became payable prior to September 15, 1947;

(4) pay effective compensation for the nationalization, compulsory liquidation, or other taking of property of nationals of the United States in Bulgaria and Rumania, between August 9, 1955, and the effective date of the claims agreement between the respective country and the United States; and

(5) pay effective compensation for the nationalization, compulsory liquidation, or other taking of property of nationals of the United States in Hungary, between August 9, 1955, and the date the United States-Hungarian Claims Agreement of March 6, 1973, enters into force.

(Mar. 10, 1950, ch. 54, title III, §303, as added Aug. 9, 1955, ch. 645, §3, 69 Stat. 571; amended Pub. L. 90–421, §1(9), (10), July 24, 1968, 82 Stat. 422; Pub. L. 93–460, §1(2), (3), Oct. 20, 1974, 88 Stat. 1386.)

Amendments

1974—Par. (5). Pub. L. 93–460, §1(3), added par. (5).

1968—Par. (4). Pub. L. 90–421, §1(10), added par. (4).

§1641c. Claims of nationals of the United States against Italy

(a) Claims not provided for in peace treaty

The Commission shall receive and determine, in accordance with the Memorandum of Understanding and applicable substantive law, including international law, the validity and amount of claims of nationals of the United States against the government of Italy arising out of the war in which Italy was engaged from June 10, 1940, to September 15, 1947, and with respect to which provision was not made in the treaty of peace with Italy. Upon payment of the principal amounts (without interest) of all awards from the Italian Claims Fund created pursuant to section 1641a of this title, the Commission shall determine the validity and amount of any claim under this section by any natural person who was a citizen of the United States on August 9, 1955 and shall, in the event an award is issued pursuant to such claim, certify the same to the Secretary of the Treasury for payment out of remaining balances in the Italian Claims Fund in accordance with the provisions of section 1641i of this title, notwithstanding that the period of time prescribed in section 1641o of this title for the settlement of all claims under this section may have expired.

(b) Individuals who fail to file claims

The Commission shall receive and determine, or redetermine, as the case may be, in accordance with applicable substantive law, including international law, the validity and amounts of claims owned by person who were eligible to file claims under the first sentence of subsection (a) of this section on August 9, 1955, but failed to file such claims or, if they filed such claims, failed to file such claims within the limit of time required therefor: Provided, That no awards shall be made to persons who have received compensation in any amount pursuant to the treaty of peace with Italy, subsection (a) of this section, or section 4132 of title 50.

(c) Territory ceded by Italy

The Commission shall receive and determine, or redetermine as the case may be, in accordance with applicable substantive law, including international law, the validity and amounts of claims owned by persons who were nationals of the United States on September 3, 1943, and July 24, 1968, against the Government of Italy which arose out of the war in which Italy was engaged from June 10, 1940, to September 15, 1947, in territory ceded by Italy pursuant to the treaty of peace with Italy: Provided, That no awards shall be made to persons who have received compensation in any amount pursuant to the treaty of peace with Italy or subsection (a) of this section.

(d) Time within which to file; publication in Federal Register

Within thirty days after July 24, 1968, or within thirty days after the date of enactment of legislation making appropriations to the Commission for payment of administrative expenses incurred in carrying out its functions under subsections (b) and (c) of this section, whichever date is later, the Commission shall publish in the Federal Register the time when and the limit of time within which claims may be filed with the Commission, which limit shall not be more than six months after such publication.

(e) Certification of awards

The Commission shall certify awards on claims determined pursuant to subsections (b) and (c) of this section to the Secretary of the Treasury for payment out of remaining balances in the Italian Claims Fund in accordance with the provisions of section 1641i of this title, after payment in full of all awards certified pursuant to subsection (a) of this section.

(f) Transfers from Italian Claims Fund to War Claims Fund

After payment in full of all awards certified to the Secretary of the Treasury pursuant to subsections (a) and (e) of this section, the Secretary of the Treasury is authorized and directed to transfer the unobligated balance in the Italian Claims Fund into the War Claims Fund created by section 4110 of title 50.

(Mar. 10, 1950, ch. 54, title III, §304, as added Aug. 9, 1955, ch. 645, §3, 69 Stat. 572; amended Pub. L. 85–604, §2, Aug. 8, 1958, 72 Stat. 531; Pub. L. 90–421, §1(11), July 24, 1968, 82 Stat. 422.)

Amendments

1968Pub. L. 90–421 designated existing provisions as subsec. (a) and added subsecs. (b) to (f).

1958Pub. L. 85–604 authorized the Commission to determine the validity and amount of claims by natural persons who were citizens of the United States on Aug. 9, 1955.

§1641d. Claims of nationals of the United States against the Soviet Union

(a) Claims prior to November 16, 1933

The Commission shall receive and determine in accordance with applicable substantive law, including international law, the validity and amounts of—

(1) claims of nationals of the United States against a Russian national originally accruing in favor of a national of the United States with respect to which a judgment was entered in, or a warrant of attachment issued from, any court of the United States or of a State of the United States in favor of a national of the United States, with which judgment or warrant of attachment a lien was obtained by a national of the United States, prior to November 16, 1933, upon any property in the United States which has been taken, collected, recovered, or liquidated by the Government of the United States pursuant to the Litvinov Assignment. Awards under this paragraph shall not exceed the proceeds of such property as may have been subject to the lien of the judgment or attachment; nor, in the event that such proceeds are less than the aggregate amount of all valid claims so related to the same property, exceed an amount equal to the proportion which each such claim bears to the total amount of such proceeds; and

(2) claims, arising prior to November 16, 1933, of nationals of the United States against the Soviet Government.

(b) Federal and State court judgments

Any judgment entered in any court of the United States or of a State of the United States shall be binding upon the Commission in its determination, under paragraph (1) of subsection (a) of this section, of any issue which was determined by the court in which the judgment was entered.

(c) Preferences

The Commission shall give preference to the disposition of the claims referred to in paragraph (1) of subsection (a) of this section, over all other claims presented to it under this subchapter.

(Mar. 10, 1950, ch. 54, title III, §305, as added Aug. 9, 1955, ch. 645, §3, 69 Stat. 572.)

§1641e. Filing of claims; notice in Federal Register

(a) Time period

Within sixty days after August 9, 1955, or within sixty days after the date of enactment of legislation making appropriations to the Commission for payment of administrative expenses incurred in carrying out its functions under paragraph (1), (2), or (3) of section 1641b of this title, whichever date is later, the Commission shall publish in the Federal Register the time when and the limit of time within which claims may be filed under paragraph (1), (2), or (3) of section 1641b of this title, which limit shall not be more than one year after such publication, except that with respect to claims under section 1641d of this title this limit shall not exceed six months.

(b) Property taken in Bulgaria and Rumania

Within thirty days after July 24, 1968, or the enactment of legislation making appropriations to the Commission for payment of administrative expenses incurred in carrying out its functions under paragraph (4) of section 1641b of this title, whichever is later, the Commission shall publish in the Federal Register the time when and the limit of time within which claims may be filed under paragraph (4) of section 1641b of this title, which limit shall not be more than six months after such publication.

(c) Property taken in Hungary

Within thirty days after October 20, 1974, or thirty days after enactment of legislation making appropriations to the Commission for payment of administrative expenses incurred in carrying out its functions under paragraph (5) of section 1641b of this title, whichever date is later, the Commission shall publish in the Federal Register the time when, and the limit of time within which, claims may be filed with the Commission under paragraph (5) of section 1641b of this title, which limit shall not be more than six months after such publication.

(d) Failure to receive notice on Hungarian claims

Notwithstanding any other provision of this section, any national of the United States who was mailed notice by any department or agency of the Government of the United States with respect to filing a claim against the Government of Hungary arising out of any of the failures referred to in paragraph (1), (2), or (3) of section 1641b of this title, and who did not receive the notice as the result of administrative error in placing a nonexistent address on the notice, may file with the Commission a claim under any such paragraph. The Commission shall publish in the Federal Register, within thirty days after October 20, 1974, when the limit of time within which any such claim may be filed with the Commission, which limit shall not be more than six months after such publication.

(Mar. 10, 1950, ch. 54, title III, §306, as added Aug. 9, 1955, ch. 645, §3, 69 Stat. 572; amended Pub. L. 90–421, §1(12), July 24, 1968, 82 Stat. 423; Pub. L. 93–460, §1(4), Oct. 20, 1974, 88 Stat. 1386.)

Amendments

1974—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 93–460, §1(4)(A), substituted "paragraph (1), (2), or (3) of section 1641b of this title" for "this subchapter".

Subsecs. (c), (d). Pub. L. 93–460, §1(4)(B), added subsecs. (c) and (d).

1968Pub. L. 90–421 designated existing provisions as subsec. (a) and added subsec. (b).

§1641f. Amount of award

The amount of any award made pursuant to this subchapter based on a claim of a national of the United States other than the national of the United States to whom the claim originally accrued shall not exceed the amount of the actual consideration last paid therefor either prior to January 1, 1953, or between that date and the filing of the claim, whichever is less.

(Mar. 10, 1950, ch. 54, title III, §307, as added Aug. 9, 1955, ch. 645, §3, 69 Stat. 573.)

§1641g. Certification of awards

The Commission shall as soon as possible, and in the order of the making of such awards, certify to the Secretary of the Treasury, in terms of United States currency, each award made pursuant to this subchapter.

(Mar. 10, 1950, ch. 54, title III, §308, as added Aug. 9, 1955, ch. 645, §3, 69 Stat. 573.)

§1641h. Funds for payment of claims

All payments authorized under this subchapter shall be disbursed exclusively from the claims fund attributable to the country with respect to which the claims are allowed pursuant to this subchapter. All amounts covered into the Treasury to the credit of the claims funds created by section 1641a of this title are hereby permanently appropriated for the making of the payments authorized under this subchapter.

(Mar. 10, 1950, ch. 54, title III, §309, as added Aug. 9, 1955, ch. 645, §3, 69 Stat. 573.)

§1641i. Payment of awards

(a) Manner of payment

The Secretary of the Treasury shall make payments on account of awards certified by the Commission pursuant to this subchapter as follows:

(1) Payment in full of the principal amount of each award made pursuant to section 1641d(a)(1) of this title and each award of $1,000 or less made pursuant to section 1641b or 1641c of this title;

(2) Payment in full of the principal amount of each award of $1,000 or less made pursuant to section 1641d(a)(2) of this title;

(3) Payment in the amount of $1,000 on account of the principal of each award of more than $1,000 in amount made pursuant to section 1641b, 1641c, or 1641d(a)(2) of this title;

(4) After completing the payments under the preceding paragraphs of this subsection from any one fund, payments from time to time, in ratable proportions, on account of the then unpaid principal of all awards in the principal amount of more than $1,000, according to the proportions which the unpaid principal of such awards bear to the total amount in the fund available for distribution on account of such awards at the time such payments are made;

(5) After payment has been made in full of the principal amounts of all awards from any one fund, pro rata payments from the remainder of such fund then available for distribution on account of accrued interest on such awards as bear interest;

(6) Whenever the Commission is authorized to settle claims by the enactment of paragraph (4) of section 1641b of this title with respect to Rumania and Bulgaria, no further payments shall be authorized by the Secretary of the Treasury on account of awards certified by the Commission pursuant to paragraph (1), (2), or (3) of section 1641b of this title of the Bulgarian or Rumanian Claims Funds, as the case may be, until payments on account of awards certified pursuant to paragraph (4) of section 1641b of this title with respect to such fund have been authorized in equal proportion to payments previously authorized on existing awards certified pursuant to paragraphs (1), (2), and (3) of section 1641b of this title.

(7)(A) Except as otherwise provided in subparagraph (D), whenever the Commission is authorized to settle claims by enactment of paragraph (5) of section 1641b of this title with respect to Hungary, no further payments shall be authorized by the Secretary of the Treasury on account of awards certified by the Commission under paragraphs (2) and (3) of section 1641b of this title out of the Hungarian Claims Fund until payments on account of awards certified under paragraph (5) of section 1641b of this title with respect to such fund have been authorized in equal proportions to payments previously authorized on existing awards certified under paragraphs (2) and (3) of section 1641b of this title.

(B) Except as otherwise provided in subparagraph (D), with respect to awards previously certified under paragraph (1) of section 1641b of this title, the Secretary of the Treasury shall not authorize any further payments until payments on account of awards certified under paragraphs (2), (3), and (5) of section 1641b of this title have been authorized in equal proportions to payments previously authorized on existing awards certified under paragraph (1) of section 1641b of this title.

(C) Except as otherwise provided in subparagraph (D), the Secretary of the Treasury shall not authorize any further payments on account of awards certified under paragraph (3) of section 1641b of this title based on Kingdom of Hungary bonds expressed in United States dollars or upon awards to Standstill creditors of Hungary that were the subject matter of the agreement of December 5, 1969, between the Government of Hungary and the American Committee for Standstill creditors of Hungary.

(D) No payments shall be authorized by the Secretary of the Treasury on account of awards certified by the Commission under paragraph (5) of section 1641b of this title, and no further payments shall be so authorized under paragraphs (1), (2), or (3) of section 1641b of this title (except payments certified as the result of claims filed under subsection (d) of section 1641e of this title), until payments on account of awards certified under such paragraphs (1), (2), and (3) as the result of a claims 1 filed under subsection (d) of section 1641e of this title have been authorized in equal proportions to payments previously authorized on existing awards certified under such paragraphs and arising out of claims filed other than under such subsection (d).

(E) The Secretary of the Treasury is authorized and directed to deduct the sum of $125,000 from the Hungarian Claims Fund and cover such amount into the Treasury to the credit of miscellaneous receipts in satisfaction of the claim of the United States referred to in article 2, paragraph 4 of the United States-Hungarian Claims Agreement of March 6, 1973. Such amount shall be deducted in annual installments over the period during which the Government of Hungary makes payments to the Government of the United States as provided in article 4 of the agreement.

(b) Regulations

Such payments, and applications for such payments, shall be made in accordance with such regulations as the Secretary of the Treasury shall prescribe.

(c) "Award" defined

For the purposes of making any such payments, an "award" shall be deemed to mean the aggregate of all awards certified in favor of the same claimant and payable from the same fund.

(d) Consolidated award

With respect to any claim which, at the time of the award, is vested in persons other than the person to whom the claim originally accrued, the Commission may issue a consolidated award in favor of all claimants then entitled thereto, which award shall indicate the respective interests of such claimants therein; and all such claimants shall participate, in proportion to their indicated interests, in the payments provided by this section in all respects as if the award had been in favor of a single person.

(Mar. 10, 1950, ch. 54, title III, §310, as added Aug. 9, 1955, ch. 645, §3, 69 Stat. 573; amended Pub. L. 90–421, §1(13), July 24, 1968, 82 Stat. 423; Pub. L. 93–460, §1(5), Oct. 20, 1974, 88 Stat. 1386.)

Amendments

1974—Subsec. (a)(7). Pub. L. 93–460 added par. (7).

1968—Subsec. (a)(6). Pub. L. 90–421 added par. (6).

1 So in original. Probably should be "claim".

§1641j. Claims by corporations or other legal entities

(a) If a corporation or other legal entity has a claim on which an award may be made under this subchapter, no award may be made to any other person under this subchapter with respect to such claim.

(b) A claim based upon an interest, direct or indirect, in a corporation or other legal entity which directly suffered the loss with respect to which the claim is asserted, but which was not a national of the United States at the time of the loss, shall be acted upon without regard to the nationality of such legal entity if at the time of the loss at least 25 per centum of the outstanding capital stock or other beneficial interest in such entity was owned, directly or indirectly, by natural persons who were nationals of the United States. This subsection shall not be construed so as to exclude from eligibility a claim based upon a direct ownership interest in a corporation, association, or other entity, or the property thereof, for loss by reason of the nationalization, compulsory liquidation, or other taking of such corporation, association, or other entity by the Governments of Bulgaria, Hungary, Italy, Rumania, or the Soviet Government. Any such claim may be allowed without regard to the per centum of ownership vested in the claimant.

(Mar. 10, 1950, ch. 54, title III, §311, as added Aug. 9, 1955, ch. 645, §3, 69 Stat. 573; amended Pub. L. 85–604, §3(a), Aug. 8, 1958, 72 Stat. 531.)

Amendments

1958—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 85–604 provided that it shall not be construed so as to exclude from eligibility a claim based upon a direct ownership interest in a corporation, association, or other entity, or the property thereof, for loss by reason of the nationalization, compulsory liquidation, or other taking, and permitted allowance of such claim without regard to the per centum of ownership vested in the claimant.

Reconsideration of Claims

Pub. L. 85–604, §3(b), Aug. 8, 1958, 72 Stat. 531, provided that: "Any claim heretofore denied under subsection (b) of section 311 of the International Claims Settlement Act of 1949, as amended [subsec. (b) of this section], prior to the date of enactment of this section [Aug. 8, 1958], shall be reconsidered by the Foreign Claims Settlement Commission solely to redetermine its validity and amount by reason of the amendments made by this section [amending subsec. (b) of this section]."

§1641k. Prohibition against payment of award to collaborators or disloyal persons

No award shall be made under this subchapter to or for the benefit of any person who voluntarily, knowingly, and without duress, gave aid to or collaborated with or in any manner served any government hostile to the United States during World War II, or who has been convicted of a violation of any provision of chapter 115, of title 18, or of any other crime involving disloyalty to the United States.

(Mar. 10, 1950, ch. 54, title III, §312, as added Aug. 9, 1955, ch. 645, §3, 69 Stat. 574.)

§1641l. Unpaid balance of claim; claims of United States unaffected

Payment of any award made pursuant to section 1641b or 1641d of this title shall not, unless such payment is for the full amount of the claim, as determined by the Commission to be valid, with respect to which the award is made, extinguish such claim, or be construed to have divested any claimant, or the United States on his behalf, of any rights against the appropriate foreign government or national for the unpaid balance of his claim or for restitution of his property. All awards or payments made pursuant to this subchapter shall be without prejudice to the claims of the United States against any foreign government.

(Mar. 10, 1950, ch. 54, title III, §313, as added Aug. 9, 1955, ch. 645, §3, 69 Stat. 574.)

§1641m. Finality of action of Commission

The action of the Commission in allowing or denying any claim under this subchapter shall be final and conclusive on all questions of law and fact and not subject to review by any other official of the United States or by any court by mandamus or otherwise, and the Comptroller General shall allow credit in the accounts of any certifying or disbursing officer for payments in accordance with such action.

(Mar. 10, 1950, ch. 54, title III, §314, as added Aug. 9, 1955, ch. 645, §3, 69 Stat. 574.)

§1641n. Appropriations

There are authorized to be appropriated such sums as may be necessary to enable the Commission and the Treasury Department to pay their administrative expenses incurred in carrying out their functions under this subchapter.

(Mar. 10, 1950, ch. 54, title III, §315, as added Aug. 9, 1955, ch. 645, §3, 69 Stat. 574.)

§1641o. Time limitation on completion of affairs of Commission

(a) Claims against Russian nationals

The Commission shall complete its affairs in connection with the settlement of claims pursuant to section 1641d(a)(1) of this title not later than two years, and all other claims pursuant to this subchapter not later than four years, following August 9, 1955, or following the date of enactment of legislation making appropriations to the Commission for the payment of administrative expenses incurred in carrying out its functions under this subchapter, whichever date is later.

(b) Property taken in Bulgaria and Rumania; claims against Italy

The Commission shall complete its affairs in connection with the settlement of claims pursuant to paragraph (4) of section 1641b of this title and subsections (b) and (c) of section 1641c of this title not later than two years following July 24, 1968, or following the enactment of legislation making appropriations to the Commission for payment of administrative expenses incurred in carrying out its functions under paragraph (4) of section 1641b of this title and subsections (b) and (c) of section 1641c of this title, whichever is later.

(c) Property taken in Hungary

The Commission shall complete its affairs in connection with the settlement of claims pursuant to paragraph (5) of section 1641b of this title not later than two years following the deadline established under subsection (c) of section 1641e of this title.

(Mar. 10, 1950, ch. 54, title III, §316, as added Aug. 9, 1955, ch. 645, §3, 69 Stat. 574; amended Pub. L. 90–421, §1(14), July 24, 1968, 82 Stat. 423; Pub. L. 93–460, §1(6), Oct. 20, 1974, 88 Stat. 1387.)

Amendments

1974—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 93–460 added subsec. (c).

1968Pub. L. 90–421 designated existing provisions as subsec. (a) and added subsec. (b).

§1641p. Fees of agents, attorneys, or representatives

(a) Maximum remuneration; penalty for violation

The total remuneration paid to all agents, attorneys-at-law or in fact, or representatives, for services rendered on behalf of any claimant in connection with any claim filed with the Commission shall not exceed 10 per centum of the total amount paid under this subchapter on account of such claim, or such greater amount as may be determined pursuant to subsection (b) of this section. Any agreement to the contrary shall be unlawful and void. Whoever, in the United States or elsewhere, demands or receives, on account of services so rendered, any remuneration which, together with all remuneration paid to other persons on account of such services and of which he has notice, is in excess of the maximum permitted by this section, shall be fined not more than $5,000 or imprisoned not more than twelve months, or both.

(b) Petition for payment in excess of maximum; determination by Commission not subject to review

Not later than three months after the Commission has completed its affairs in connection with the settlement of all claims payable from the fund from which an award is payable, any agent, attorney-at-law or in fact, or representative who believes that the total remuneration for services rendered in connection with the claim upon which such award is made should exceed the maximum otherwise permitted by this section may, pursuant to such procedure as the Commission shall prescribe by regulation, petition the Commission for an order authorizing the payment of remuneration in excess of such maximum. The Commission shall issue such an order only upon a finding that there exist special circumstances of unusual hardship which require the payment of such excess; and such order shall state the amount of the excess which may so be paid. The determination of the Commission in ruling upon such petition shall be within the sole discretion of the Commission and shall not be subject to review by any court.

(Mar. 10, 1950, ch. 54, title III, §317, as added Aug. 9, 1955, ch. 645, §3, 69 Stat. 574.)

§1641q. Applicability of administrative provisions of subchapter I

The following provisions of subchapter I shall be applicable to this subchapter: Subsections (b), (c), (d), (e), (h), and (j) of section 1623 of this title; and subsections (c), (d), (e), and (f) of section 1626 of this title.

(Mar. 10, 1950, ch. 54, title III, §318, as added Aug. 9, 1955, ch. 645, §3, 69 Stat. 575.)