[USC02] 22 USC CHAPTER 39, SUBCHAPTER III: MILITARY EXPORT CONTROLS
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22 USC CHAPTER 39, SUBCHAPTER III: MILITARY EXPORT CONTROLS
From Title 22—FOREIGN RELATIONS AND INTERCOURSECHAPTER 39—ARMS EXPORT CONTROL

SUBCHAPTER III—MILITARY EXPORT CONTROLS

§2771. Military sales authorizations and ceilings

(a) Authorization for foreign military sales credit and guarantee program

There are authorized to be appropriated to the President to carry out this chapter $5,371,000,000 for fiscal year 1986 and $5,371,000,000 for fiscal year 1987. Credits may not be extended under section 2763 of this title in an amount, and loans may not be guaranteed under section 2764(a) of this title in a principal amount, which exceeds any maximum amount which may be established with respect to such credits or such loan guarantees in legislation appropriating funds to carry out this chapter. Unobligated balances of funds made available pursuant to this section are hereby authorized to be continued available by appropriations legislation to carry out this chapter.

(b) Aggregate ceilings on credit sales; availability at concessional rates of interest

(1) The total amount of credits extended under section 2763 of this title shall not exceed $5,371,000,000 for fiscal year 1986 and $5,371,000,000 for fiscal year 1987.

(2) Of the aggregate amount of financing provided under this section, not more than $553,900,000 for fiscal year 1986 and not more than $553,900,000 for fiscal year 1987 may be made available at concessional rates of interest. If a country is released from its contractual liability to repay the United States Government with respect to financing provided under this section, such financing shall not be considered to be financing provided at concessional rates of interest for purposes of the limitation established by this paragraph.

(c) Interest rates

Loans available under section 2763 of this title shall be provided at rates of interest that are not less than the current average market yield on outstanding marketable obligations of the United States of comparable maturities.

(Pub. L. 90–629, ch. 3, §31, Oct. 22, 1968, 82 Stat. 1324; Pub. L. 91–672, §2, Jan. 12, 1971, 84 Stat. 2053; Pub. L. 92–226, pt. IV, §401(a), (b), Feb. 7, 1972, 86 Stat. 32; Pub. L. 93–189, §25(5), (6), Dec. 17, 1973, 87 Stat. 730; Pub. L. 93–559, §45(a)(6), (7), Dec. 30, 1974, 88 Stat. 1815; Pub. L. 94–329, title II, §210(a)–(c)(1), June 30, 1976, 90 Stat. 740; Pub. L. 95–92, §19, Aug. 4, 1977, 91 Stat. 623; Pub. L. 95–384, §20, Sept. 26, 1978, 92 Stat. 741; Pub. L. 96–92, §17(a), Oct. 29, 1979, 93 Stat. 708; Pub. L. 96–533, title I, §§104(d), 105(b)(3), 106(a)–(c), Dec. 16, 1980, 94 Stat. 3133–3136; Pub. L. 97–113, title I, §105, Dec. 29, 1981, 95 Stat. 1521; Pub. L. 98–151, §101(b)(2), Nov. 14, 1983, 97 Stat. 969, 970; Pub. L. 99–83, title I, §101(a), (b), Aug. 8, 1985, 99 Stat. 193; Pub. L. 101–513, title V, §596(c), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 2062; Pub. L. 104–164, title I, §§101, 104(b)(2)(C), July 21, 1996, 110 Stat. 1422, 1427.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in subsec. (a), was in the original "this Act", meaning Pub. L. 90–629, Oct. 22, 1968, 82 Stat. 1321, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2751 of this title and Tables.

Amendments

1996—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 104–164, §101, amended subsec. (c) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (c) read as follows: "For fiscal year 1986 and fiscal year 1987, the principal amount of credits provided under section 2763 of this title at market rates of interest with respect to Greece, the Republic of Korea, the Philippines, Portugal, Spain, Thailand, and Turkey shall (if and to the extent each country so desires) be repaid in not more than twenty years, following a grace period of ten years on repayment of principal."

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 104–164, §104(b)(2)(C), struck out subsec. (d) which read as follows: "The aggregate acquisition cost to the United States of excess defense articles ordered by the President in any fiscal year after fiscal year 1976 for delivery to foreign countries or international organizations under the authority of chapter 2 of part II of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 or pursuant to sales under this chapter may not exceed $250,000,000 (exclusive of ships and their onboard stores and supplies transferred in accordance with law, and of any defense articles with respect to which the President submits a certification under section 2776(b) of this title.)."

1990—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 101–513 inserted ", and of any defense articles with respect to which the President submits a certification under section 2776(b) of this title." after "law".

1985—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 99–83, §101(a), substituted provisions authorizing appropriations of $5,371,000,000 for fiscal years 1986 and 1987, for provisions authorizing appropriations of $800,000,000 for fiscal years 1982 and 1983.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 99–83, §101(b), amended subsec. (b) generally, substituting provisions relating to maximum amount of credits authorized for fiscal years 1986 and 1987 and maximum amounts of such credits available at concessional rates of interest for such years, for provisions relating to maximum amounts of credits (or participations in credits) and loans guaranteed for fiscal years 1982 and 1983, and credit, etc., programs with respect to specific countries.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 99–83, §101(b), amended subsec. (c) generally, substituting provisions relating to extended repayment terms for credits provided for fiscal years 1986 and 1987, for provisions relating to funds made available for fiscal year 1984 to finance procurement of defense articles, etc., by Israel.

1983—Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 98–151 amended par. (3) generally, substituting provisions authorizing not less than $1,700,000,000 for fiscal year 1984 as available to Israel, of which not less than $850,000,000 shall be available as credits under section 2763 of this title, and provisions relating to availability of funds part of the total aggregate credit ceiling made available to Israel, for provisions authorizing not less than $1,400,000,000 for the fiscal years 1982 and 1983 as available to Israel, of which not less than $550,000,000 for each year shall be available as credits.

Subsec. (b)(5). Pub. L. 98–151 substituted "1984" for "1982 and for the fiscal year 1983".

Subsec. (b)(6). Pub. L. 98–151 amended par. (6) generally, inserting provisions relating to availability to Egypt for fiscal year 1984 of not less than $900,000,000 of the total principal amount of loans guaranteed, and substituting provisions authorizing not less than $465,000,000 for fiscal year 1984, for provisions authorizing not less than $200,000,000 for fiscal years 1982 and 1983.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 98–151 substituted provisions relating to applicability to fiscal year 1984, for provisions relating to applicability to fiscal years 1982 and 1983, and substituted "$850,000,000" for "$550,000,000".

1981—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 97–113, §105(a), substituted "$800,000,000 for the fiscal year 1982 and $800,000,000 for the fiscal year 1983" for "$500,000,000 for the fiscal year 1981".

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 97–113, §105(b), prescribed in par. (1) $800,000,000 limit on credits for fiscal years 1982 and 1983, striking out $500,000,000 limit for fiscal year 1981, in par. (2) $3,269,525,000 limit on total principal amount of guaranteed loans for fiscal years 1982 and 1983, striking out $2,616,000,000 limit for fiscal year 1981, and in par. (3) $1,400,000,000 minimum for Israel in fiscal years 1982 and 1983, the same sum made available for fiscal year 1981, including requirement of $550,000,000 minimum of such funds for such fiscal years as credits under section 2763 of this title, striking out requirement for Israeli use of $200,000,000 of available funds only for relocation costs from the Sinai, and added pars. (4) to (7).

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 97–113, §105(c)(1)–(3), substituted "fiscal year 1982 and for the fiscal year 1983" for "fiscal year 1981", "$550,000,000" for "$500,000,000", and "each such year" for "such year".

1980—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 96–533, §§104(d), 106(a), placed a limit on extension of credits and loan guaranties not to exceed amount established in appropriation of funds to carry out this chapter and substituted "$500,000,000 for the fiscal year 1981" for "$673,500,000 for the fiscal year 1980".

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 96–533, §106(b), in revising subsec. (b), substituted par. (1) and (2) limits on amount of credits or participations in credits and loan guaranties for fiscal year 1981 in amounts of $500,000,000 and $2,616,000,000 for prior combined sum limited to $2,235,000,000 for fiscal year 1980 and substituted par. (3) earmarking minimum of $1,400,000,000 only for Israel for fiscal year 1981, including availability of $200,000,000 for costs associated with relocation of Israeli forces from the Sinai for prior prescription of minimum sum of $1,000,000,000 as available only for Israel.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 96–533, §§105(b)(3), 106(c), substituted "defense articles, defense services, and design and construction services" for "defense articles and defense services" in two places, "1981" for "1980" in two places, and "$500,000,000" for "one-half".

1979—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 96–92, §17(a)(1), substituted "$673,500,000 for the fiscal year 1980" for "$682,000,000 for the fiscal year 1978 and $674,300,000 for the fiscal year 1979".

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 96–92, §17(a)(2), substituted "$2,235,000,000 for the fiscal year 1980, of which" for "$2,152,350,000 for the fiscal year 1978 and $2,085,500,000 for the fiscal year 1979, of which amount for each such year".

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 96–92, §17(a)(3), substituted "fiscal year 1980" for "fiscal year 1979".

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 96–92, §17(a)(4), substituted "$250,000,000" for "$150,000,000".

1978—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 95–384, §20(a), substituted "$682,000,000 for the fiscal year 1978 and $674,300,000 for the fiscal year 1979" for "$677,000,000 for the fiscal year 1978".

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 95–384, §20(b), substituted "$2,152,350,000 for the fiscal year 1978 and $2,085,500,000 for the fiscal year 1979, of which amount for each such year" for "$2,102,350,000 for the fiscal year 1978, of which".

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 95–384, §20(c), substituted "fiscal year 1979" for "fiscal year 1978".

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 95–384, §20(d), substituted "$150,000,000" for "$100,000,000".

1977—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 95–92, §19(1), substituted "$677,000,000 for the fiscal year 1978" for "$1,039,000,000 for the fiscal year 1976 and not to exceed $740,000,000 for the fiscal year 1977".

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 95–92, §19(2), substituted "$2,102,350,000 for the fiscal year 1978" for "$2,374,700,000 for the fiscal year 1976, of which not less than $1,500,000,000 shall be available only for Israel, and shall not exceed $2,022,100,000 for the fiscal year 1977".

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 95–92, §19(3), substituted "year 1978" for "years 1976 and 1977" and struck out "each" before "such year".

1976—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 94–329, §210(a), substituted provisions authorizing appropriations not to exceed $1,039,000,000 for the fiscal year 1976 and not to exceed $740,000,000 for the fiscal year 1977, for provisions authorizing appropriations not to exceed $405,000,000 for the fiscal year 1975.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 94–329, §210(b), substituted provisions setting out the foreign military sales credit ceiling of $2,374,700,000 for the fiscal year 1976, of which not less than $1,500,000,000 shall be available only for Israel, and $2,022,100,000 for the fiscal year 1977, of which not less than $1,000,000,000 shall be available only for Israel, for provisions setting out such ceiling of $872,500,000 for the fiscal year 1975, of which amount not less than $300,000,000 shall be available to Israel only, and struck out provisions relating to obligation of $100,000,000 for financing procurement of defense articles and services by Israel and for release of Israel from contractual liability to repay United States Government for the defense article and services so financed.

Subsecs. (c), (d). Pub. L. 94–329, §210(c)(1), added subsecs. (c) and (d).

1974—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 93–559, §45(a)(6), substituted "$405,000,000 for the fiscal year 1975" for "$325,000,000 for the fiscal year 1974".

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 93–559, §45(a)(7), substituted "$872,500,000 for the fiscal year 1975" for "$730,000,000 for the fiscal year 1974" and provided for obligation of $100,000,000 for financing procurement of defense articles and defense services by Israel and for release of Israel from contractual liability to repay the United States Government for the defense articles and defense services so financed.

1973—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 93–189, §25(5), substituted provision authorizing appropriation of not more than $325,000,000 for the fiscal year 1974, for provision authorizing appropriation of not more than $400,000,000 for the fiscal year 1972.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 93–189, §25(6), substituted provisions setting out the foreign military sales credit ceiling of $730,000,000 for the fiscal year 1974, of which amount not less than $300,000,000 shall be made available to Israel, for provisions setting out such ceiling of $550,000,000 for the fiscal year 1972, of which amount not less than $300,000,000 shall be made available to Israel, and such amount to exclude credits covered by guaranties issued under section 2764(b) of this title.

1972—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 92–226, §401(a), substituted provision authorizing appropriation of not more than $400,000,000 for the fiscal year 1972, for provisions authorizing appropriation of not more than $250,000,000 for each of the fiscal years 1970 and 1971.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 92–226, §401(b), substituted provisions setting out the foreign military sales credit ceiling of $550,000,000 for the fiscal year 1972, of which amount not less than $300,000,000 shall be made available to Israel, for provisions setting out such ceiling of $340,000,000 for the fiscal years 1970 and 1971.

1971—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 91–672, §2(1), substituted provisions authorizing appropriation of not more than $250,000,000 for each of the fiscal years 1970 and 1971 for provisions authorizing appropriation of not more than $296,000,000 for the fiscal year 1969.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 91–672, §2(2), substituted provisions setting out the foreign military sales credit ceiling of $340,000,000 for the fiscal years 1970 and 1971 for provisions setting out such ceiling of $296,000,000 for the fiscal year 1969.

Effective Date of 1985 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 99–83 effective Oct. 1, 1985, see section 1301 of Pub. L. 99–83, set out as a note under section 2151–1 of this title.

Effective Date

Section effective July 1, 1968, see section 41 of Pub. L. 90–629, set out as a note under section 2751 of this title.

Ceilings on Loans for Greece, Sudan, and Turkey, Fiscal Year 1980; Repayment Period; Grace Period for Repayment of Principal

Pub. L. 96–92, §17(b), Oct. 29, 1979, 93 Stat. 709, provided that: "Of the principal amount of loans guaranteed for the fiscal year 1980 under section 24 of the Arms Export Control Act [section 2764 of this title]—

"(1) with respect to Turkey, not to exceed $50,000,000,

"(2) with respect to Greece, not to exceed $42,000,000, and

"(3) with respect to Sudan, not to exceed $25,000,000,

shall be repaid in not less than 20 years, following a grace period of 10 years on repayment of principal."

§2772. Repealed. Pub. L. 102–429, title I, §112(e), Oct. 21, 1992, 106 Stat. 2195

Section, Pub. L. 90–629, ch. 3, §32, Oct. 22, 1968, 82 Stat. 1325, prohibited certain military export financing by Export-Import Bank.

§2773. Restraint in arms sales to Sub-Saharan Africa

It is the sense of the Congress that the problems of Sub-Saharan Africa are primarily those of economic development and that United States policy should assist in limiting the development of costly military conflict in that region. Therefore, the President shall exercise restraint in selling defense articles and defense services, and in providing financing for sales of defense articles and defense services, to countries in Sub-Saharan Africa.

(Pub. L. 90–629, ch. 3, §33, Oct. 22, 1968, 82 Stat. 1325; Pub. L. 91–672, §3, Jan. 12, 1971, 84 Stat. 2053; Pub. L. 92–226, pt. IV, §401(c), (d), Feb. 7, 1972, 86 Stat. 32; Pub. L. 93–189, §25(7)–(9), Dec. 17, 1973, 87 Stat. 731; Pub. L. 93–559, §45(a)(8), Dec. 30, 1974, 88 Stat. 1815; Pub. L. 96–92, §18, Oct. 29, 1979, 93 Stat. 709.)

Amendments

1979Pub. L. 96–92 substituted provisions respecting restraint in arms sales to Sub-Saharan Africa for provisions imposing regional ceilings on foreign military sales to African countries and Presidential waiver and report thereof to Congress.

1974—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 93–559, §45(a)(8)(A), (B), repealed subsec. (a) which prescribed a ceiling of $150,000,000 in each fiscal year on the total amount of military assistance, credits, participations in credits, guaranteed loans, and loans and sales under section 7307 of Title 10, for Latin American countries, and redesignated subsec. (b) as (a).

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 93–559, §45(a)(8)(B), (C), added subsec. (b) and redesignated former subsec. (b) as (a).

1973—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 93–189, §25(7), struck out reference to cash sales pursuant to sections 2761 and 2762 of this title reference to exclusion of credits covered by guaranties issued under section 2764(b) of this title, and reference to the face amount of contracts of guaranty issued under section 2764(a) and (b) of this title, inserted reference to the principal amount of loans guaranteed under section 2764(a) of this title, and substituted "$150,000,000" for "$100,000,000".

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 93–189, §25(8), struck out reference to cash sales pursuant to sections 2761 and 2762 of this title, reference to exclusion of credits covered by guaranties issued under section 2764(b) of this title, and reference to the face amount of contracts of guaranty issued under section 2764(a) and (b) of this title, and inserted reference to the principal amount of loans guaranteed under section 2764(a) of this title.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 93–189, §25(9), struck out subsec. (c) which provided for Presidential waiver of limitations on amounts authorized under this section and set forth geographical limitations on the aggregate amounts of military assistance to be made available and percentage deviations from such ceiling amounts.

1972—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 92–226, §401(c), substituted "$100,000,000" for "$75,000,000".

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 92–226, §401(d), substituted provisions for waiver of limitations when overriding requirements of the national security of the United States justify waiver for prior provisions for such a waiver when important to the security of the United States, required a written report with reasons for findings and statement in detail of expenditures when in excess of applicable geographical limitations, and prescribed percentage limitation for exceeding aggregate of geographical ceiling limitation.

1971—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 91–672, §3(1), made fiscal year 1969 ceiling of $75,000,000 for Latin American countries a continuing ceiling applicable in each fiscal year.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 91–672, §3(2), made fiscal year 1969 ceiling of $40,000,000 for African countries a continuing ceiling applicable in each fiscal year.

Effective Date

Section effective July 1, 1968, see section 41 of Pub. L. 90–629, set out as a note under section 2751 of this title.

§2774. Foreign military sales credit standards

The President shall establish standards and criteria for credit and guaranty transactions under sections 2763 and 2764 of this title in accordance with the foreign, national security, and financial policies of the United States.

(Pub. L. 90–629, ch. 3, §34, Oct. 22, 1968, 82 Stat. 1325.)

Effective Date

Section effective July 1, 1968, see section 41 of Pub. L. 90–629, set out as a note under section 2751 of this title.

Delegation of Functions

For delegation of functions of the President under this section, with certain conditions, see section 1(h) of Ex. Ord. No. 13637, Mar. 8, 2013, 78 F.R. 16129, set out as a note under section 2751 of this title. Functions were previously delegated by Ex. Ord. No. 11958, which was formerly set out as a note under section 2751 of this title and was revoked, subject to a savings provision, by section 4 of Ex. Ord. No. 13637.

§2775. Foreign military sales to less developed countries

(a) When the President finds that any economically less developed country is diverting development assistance furnished pursuant to the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as amended [22 U.S.C. 2151 et seq.], or sales under the Food for Peace Act, as amended [7 U.S.C. 1691 et seq.], to military expenditures, or is diverting its own resources to unnecessary military expenditures, to a degree which materially interferes with its development, such country shall be immediately ineligible for further sales and guarantees under sections 2761, 2762, 2763, and 2764 of this title, until the President is assured that such diversion will no longer take place.

(b) Repealed. Pub. L. 93–559, §45(a)(5), Dec. 30, 1974, 88 Stat. 1814.

(Pub. L. 90–629, ch. 3, §35, Oct. 22, 1968, 82 Stat. 1325; Pub. L. 93–559, §45(a)(5), Dec. 30, 1974, 88 Stat. 1814; Pub. L. 110–246, title III, §3001(b)(1)(A), (2)(T), June 18, 2008, 122 Stat. 1820, 1821.)

References in Text

The Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as amended, referred to in subsec. (a), is Pub. L. 87–195, Sept. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 424, as amended, which is classified principally to chapter 32 (§2151 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2151 of this title and Tables.

The Food for Peace Act, as amended, referred to in subsec. (a), is act July 10, 1954, ch. 469, 68 Stat. 454, which is classified principally to chapter 41 (§1691 et seq.) of Title 7, Agriculture. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1691 of Title 7 and Tables.

Amendments

2008—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 110–246 substituted "Food for Peace Act" for "Agricultural Trade Development and Assistance Act of 1954".

1974—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 93–559 repealed subsec. (b) which provided for Presidential reports to Congress respecting sales and guaranties to less developed countries.

Effective Date of 2008 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 110–246 effective May 22, 2008, see section 4(b) of Pub. L. 110–246, set out as an Effective Date note under section 8701 of Title 7, Agriculture.

Effective Date

Section effective July 1, 1968, see section 41 of Pub. L. 90–629, set out as a note under section 2751 of this title.

Delegation of Functions

For delegation of functions of the President under subsec. (a) of this section, see section 1(i) of Ex. Ord. No. 13637, Mar. 8, 2013, 78 F.R. 16130, set out as a note under section 2751 of this title. Functions were previously delegated by Ex. Ord. No. 11958, which was formerly set out as a note under section 2751 of this title and was revoked, subject to a savings provision, by section 4 of Ex. Ord. No. 13637.

§2776. Reports and certifications to Congress on military exports

(a) Report by President; contents

The President shall transmit to the Speaker of the House of Representatives, the Committee on Foreign Affairs of the House of Representatives, and to the chairman of the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate not more than sixty days after the end of each quarter an unclassified report (except that any material which was transmitted in classified form under subsection (b)(1) or (c)(1) of this section may be contained in a classified addendum to such report, and any letter of offer referred to in paragraph (1) of this subsection may be listed in such addendum unless such letter of offer has been the subject of an unclassified certification pursuant to subsection (b)(1) of this section, and any information provided under paragraph (11) of this subsection may also be provided in a classified addendum) containing—

(1) a listing of all letters of offer to sell any major defense equipment for $1,000,000 or more under this chapter to each foreign country and international organization, by category, if such letters of offer have not been accepted or canceled;

(2) a listing of all such letters of offer that have been accepted during the fiscal year in which such report is submitted, together with the total value of all defense articles and defense services sold to each foreign country and international organization during such fiscal year;

(3) the cumulative dollar amounts, by foreign country and international organization, of sales credit agreements under section 2763 of this title and guaranty agreements under section 2764 of this title made during the fiscal year in which such report is submitted;

(4) a numbered listing of all licenses and approvals for the export to each foreign country and international organization during such fiscal year of commercially sold major defense equipment, by category, sold for $1,000,000 or more, together with the total value of all defense articles and defense services so licensed for each foreign country and international organization, setting forth with respect to the listed major defense equipment—

(A) the items to be exported under the license,

(B) the quantity and contract price of each such item to be furnished, and

(C) the name and address of the ultimate user of each such item;


(5) projections of the dollar amounts, by foreign country and international organization, of sales expected to be made under sections 2761 and 2762 of this title in the quarter of the fiscal year immediately following the quarter for which such report is submitted;

(6) a projection with respect to all sales expected to be made to each country and organization for the remainder of the fiscal year in which such report is transmitted;

(7) a description of each payment, contribution, gift, commission, or fee reported to the Secretary of State under section 2779 of this title, including (A) the name of the person who made such payment, contribution, gift, commission, or fee; (B) the name of any sales agent or other person to whom such payment, contribution, gift, commission, or fee was paid; (C) the date and amount of such payment, contribution, gift, commission, or fee; (D) a description of the sale in connection with which such payment, contribution, gift, commission, or fee was paid; and (E) the identification of any business information considered confidential by the person submitting it which is included in the report;

(8) a listing of each sale under section 2769 of this title during the quarter for which such report is made, specifying (A) the purchaser, (B) the United States Government department or agency responsible for implementing the sale, (C) an estimate of the dollar amount of the sale, and (D) a general description of the real property facilities to be constructed pursuant to such sale;

(9) a listing of the consents to third-party transfers of defense articles or defense services which were granted, during the quarter for which such report is submitted, for purposes of section 2753(a)(2) of this title, the regulations issued under section 2778 of this title, or section 2314(a)(1)(B) of this title, if the value (in terms of original acquisition cost) of the defense articles or defense services to be transferred is $1,000,000 or more;

(10) a listing of all munitions items (as defined in section 2780(l)(1) of this title) which were sold, leased, or otherwise transferred by the Department of Defense to any other department, agency, or other entity of the United States Government during the quarter for which such report is submitted (including the name of the recipient Government entity and a discussion of what that entity will do with those munitions items) if—

(A) the value of the munitions items was $250,000 or more; or

(B) the value of all munitions items transferred to that Government department, agency, or other entity during that quarter was $250,000 or more;


excluding munitions items transferred (i) for disposition or use solely within the United States, or (ii) for use in connection with intelligence activities subject to reporting requirements under title V of the National Security Act of 1947 ([50 U.S.C. 3091 et seq.]; relating to congressional oversight of intelligence activities);

(11) a report on all concluded government-to-government agreements regarding foreign coproduction of defense articles of United States origin and all other concluded agreements involving coproduction or licensed production outside of the United States of defense articles of United States origin (including coproduction memoranda of understanding or agreement) that have not been previously reported under this subsection, which shall include—

(A) the identity of the foreign countries, international organizations, or foreign firms involved;

(B) a description and the estimated value of the articles authorized to be produced, and an estimate of the quantity of the articles authorized to be produced;

(C) a description of any restrictions on third-party transfers of the foreign-manufactured articles; and

(D) if any such agreement does not provide for United States access to and verification of quantities of articles produced overseas and their disposition in the foreign country, a description of alternative measures and controls incorporated in the coproduction or licensing program to ensure compliance with restrictions in the agreement on production quantities and third-party transfers; and


(12) a report on all exports of significant military equipment for which information has been provided pursuant to section 2778(i) of this title.


For each letter of offer to sell under paragraphs (1) and (2), the report shall specify (i) the foreign country or international organization to which the defense article or service is offered or was sold, as the case may be; (ii) the dollar amount of the offer to sell or the sale and the number of defense articles offered or sold, as the case may be; (iii) a description of the defense article or service offered or sold, as the case may be; and (iv) the United States Armed Force or other agency of the United States which is making the offer to sell or the sale, as the case may be.

(b) Letter of offer to sell defense articles, services, design and construction services, or major equipment; submission of numbered Presidential certification and additional statement; contents; emergency justification statement; enhancements or upgrades in sensitivity of technology or capability of major defense articles, equipment, or services

(1) Subject to paragraph (6), in the case of any letter of offer to sell any defense articles or services under this chapter for $50,000,000 or more, any design and construction services for $200,000,000 or more, or any major defense equipment for $14,000,000 or more, before such letter of offer is issued, the President shall submit to the Speaker of the House of Representatives, the Committee on Foreign Affairs of the House of Representatives, and to the chairman of the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate a numbered certification with respect to such offer to sell containing the information specified in clauses (i) through (iv) of subsection (a), or (in the case of a sale of design and construction services) the information specified in clauses (A) through (D) of paragraph (9) 1 of subsection (a), and a description, containing the information specified in paragraph (8) 1 of subsection (a), of any contribution, gift, commission, or fee paid or offered or agreed to be paid in order to solicit, promote, or otherwise to secure such letter of offer. Such numbered certifications shall also contain an item, classified if necessary, identifying the sensitivity of technology contained in the defense articles, defense services, or design and construction services, proposed to be sold, and a detailed justification of the reasons necessitating the sale of such articles or services in view of the sensitivity of such technology. In a case in which such articles or services listed on the Missile Technology Control Regime Annex are intended to support the design, development, or production of a Category I space launch vehicle system (as defined in section 2797c of this title), such report shall include a description of the proposed export and rationale for approving such export, including the consistency of such export with United States missile nonproliferation policy. Each such numbered certification shall contain an item indicating whether any offset agreement is proposed to be entered into in connection with such letter of offer to sell (if known on the date of transmittal of such certification). In addition, the President shall, upon the request of such committee or the Committee on Foreign Affairs of the House of Representatives, transmit promptly to both such committees a statement setting forth, to the extent specified in such request—

(A) a detailed description of the defense articles, defense services, or design and construction services to be offered, including a brief description of the capabilities of any defense article to be offered;

(B) an estimate of the number of officers and employees of the United States Government and of United States civilian contract personnel expected to be needed in such country to carry out the proposed sale;

(C) the name of each contractor expected to provide the defense article, defense service, or design and construction service proposed to be sold and a description of any offset agreement with respect to such sale;

(D) an evaluation, prepared by the Secretary of State in consultation with the Secretary of Defense and the Director of Central Intelligence, of the manner, if any, in which the proposed sale would—

(i) contribute to an arms race;

(ii) support international terrorism;

(iii) increase the possibility of an outbreak or escalation of conflict;

(iv) prejudice the negotiation of any arms controls; or

(v) adversely affect the arms control policy of the United States;


(E) the reasons why the foreign country or international organization to which the sale is proposed to be made needs the defense articles, defense services, or design and construction services which are the subject of such sale and a description of how such country or organization intends to use such defense articles, defense services, or design and construction services;

(F) an analysis by the President of the impact of the proposed sale on the military stocks and the military preparedness of the United States;

(G) the reasons why the proposed sale is in the national interest of the United States;

(H) an analysis by the President of the impact of the proposed sale on the military capabilities of the foreign country or international organization to which such sale would be made;

(I) an analysis by the President of how the proposed sale would affect the relative military strengths of countries in the region to which the defense articles, defense services, or design and construction services which are the subject of such sale would be delivered and whether other countries in the region have comparable kinds and amounts of defense articles, defense services, or design and construction services;

(J) an estimate of the levels of trained personnel and maintenance facilities of the foreign country or international organization to which the sale would be made which are needed and available to utilize effectively the defense articles, defense services, or design and construction services proposed to be sold;

(K) an analysis of the extent to which comparable kinds and amounts of defense articles, defense services, or design and construction services are available from other countries;

(L) an analysis of the impact of the proposed sale on United States relations with the countries in the region to which the defense articles, defense services, or design and construction services which are the subject of such sale would be delivered;

(M) a detailed description of any agreement proposed to be entered into by the United States for the purchase or acquisition by the United States of defense articles, defense services, design and construction services, or defense equipment, or other articles, services, or equipment of the foreign country or international organization in connection with, or as consideration for, such letter of offer, including an analysis of the impact of such proposed agreement upon United States business concerns which might otherwise have provided such articles, services, or equipment to the United States, an estimate of the costs to be incurred by the United States in connection with such agreement compared with costs which would otherwise have been incurred, an estimate of the economic impact and unemployment which would result from entering into such proposed agreement, and an analysis of whether such costs and such domestic economic impact justify entering into such proposed agreement;

(N) the projected delivery dates of the defense articles, defense services, or design and construction services to be offered;

(O) a detailed description of weapons and levels of munitions that may be required as support for the proposed sale; and

(P) an analysis of the relationship of the proposed sale to projected procurements of the same item.


A certification transmitted pursuant to this subsection shall be unclassified, except that the information specified in clause (ii) and the details of the description specified in clause (iii) of subsection (a) may be classified if the public disclosure thereof would be clearly detrimental to the security of the United States, in which case the information shall be accompanied by a description of the damage to the national security that could be expected to result from public disclosure of the information. The letter of offer shall not be issued, with respect to a proposed sale to the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, any member country of such Organization, Japan, Australia, the Republic of Korea, Israel, or New Zealand, if the Congress, within fifteen calendar days after receiving such certification, or with respect to a proposed sale to any other country or organization, if the Congress within thirty calendar days after receiving such certification, enacts a joint resolution prohibiting the proposed sale, unless the President states in his certification that an emergency exists which requires such sale in the national security interests of the United States. If the President states in his certification that an emergency exists which requires the proposed sale in the national security interest of the United States, thus waiving the congressional review requirements of this subsection, he shall set forth in the certification a detailed justification for his determination, including a description of the emergency circumstances which necessitate the immediate issuance of the letter of offer and a discussion of the national security interests involved.

(2) Any such joint resolution shall be considered in the Senate in accordance with the provisions of section 601(b) of the International Security Assistance and Arms Export Control Act of 1976, except that for purposes of consideration of any joint resolution with respect to the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, any member country of such Organization, Japan, Australia, the Republic of Korea, Israel, or New Zealand, it shall be in order in the Senate to move to discharge a committee to which such joint resolution was referred if such committee has not reported such joint resolution at the end of five calendar days after its introduction.

(3) For the purpose of expediting the consideration and enactment of joint resolutions under this subsection, a motion to proceed to the consideration of any such joint resolution after it has been reported by the appropriate committee shall be treated as highly privileged in the House of Representatives.

(4) In addition to the other information required to be contained in a certification submitted to the Congress under this subsection, each such certification shall cite any quarterly report submitted pursuant to section 2768 1 of this title which listed a price and availability estimate, or a request for the issuance of a letter of offer, which was a basis for the proposed sale which is the subject of such certification.

(5)(A) If, before the delivery of any major defense article or major defense equipment, or the furnishing of any defense service or design and construction service, sold pursuant to a letter of offer described in paragraph (1), the sensitivity of technology or the capability of the article, equipment, or service is enhanced or upgraded from the level of sensitivity or capability described in the numbered certification with respect to an offer to sell such article, equipment, or service, then, at least 45 days before the delivery of such article or equipment or the furnishing of such service, the President shall prepare and transmit to the chairman of the Committee on Foreign Affairs of the House of Representatives and the chairman of the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate a report—

(i) describing the manner in which the technology or capability has been enhanced or upgraded and describing the significance of such enhancement or upgrade; and

(ii) setting forth a detailed justification for such enhancement or upgrade.


(B) The provisions of subparagraph (A) apply to an article or equipment delivered, or a service furnished, within ten years after the transmittal to the Congress of a numbered certification with respect to the sale of such article, equipment, or service.

(C) Subject to paragraph (6), if the enhancement or upgrade in the sensitivity of technology or the capability of major defense equipment, defense articles, defense services, or design and construction services described in a numbered certification submitted under this subsection costs $14,000,000 or more in the case of any major defense equipment, $50,000,000 or more in the case of defense articles or defense services, or $200,000,000 or more in the case of design or construction services, then the President shall submit to the Speaker of the House of Representatives, the Committee on Foreign Affairs of the House of Representatives, and the chairman of the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate a new numbered certification which relates to such enhancement or upgrade and which shall be considered for purposes of this subsection as if it were a separate letter of offer to sell defense equipment, articles, or services, subject to all of the requirements, restrictions, and conditions set forth in this subsection. For purposes of this subparagraph, references in this subsection to sales shall be deemed to be references to enhancements or upgrades in the sensitivity of technology or the capability of major defense equipment, articles, or services, as the case may be.

(D) For the purposes of subparagraph (A), the term "major defense article" shall be construed to include electronic devices, which if upgraded, would enhance the mission capability of a weapons system.

(6) The limitation in paragraph (1) and the requirement in paragraph (5)(C) shall apply in the case of a letter of offer to sell to a member country of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) or Australia, Japan, the Republic of Korea, Israel, or New Zealand that does not authorize a new sales territory that includes any country other than such countries only if the letter of offer involves—

(A) the sale of major defense equipment under this chapter for, or the enhancement or upgrade of major defense equipment at a cost of, $25,000,000 or more, as the case may be; and

(B) the sale of defense articles or services for, or the enhancement or upgrade of defense articles or services at a cost of, $100,000,000 or more, as the case may be; or

(C) the sale of design and construction services for, or the enhancement or upgrade of design and construction services at a cost of, $300,000,000 or more, as the case may be.

(c) Application for export license; submission of numbered Presidential certification and statement to Congress; contents; emergency circumstances; joint resolution; exception; notification of upgrades

(1) Subject to paragraph (5), in the case of an application by a person (other than with regard to a sale under section 2761 or section 2762 of this title) for a license for the export of any major defense equipment sold under a contract in the amount of $14,000,000 or more or of defense articles or defense services sold under a contract in the amount of $50,000,000 or more (or, in the case of a defense article that is a firearm controlled under category I of the United States Munitions List, $1,000,000 or more), before issuing such license the President shall transmit to the Speaker of the House of Representatives, the Committee on Foreign Affairs of the House of Representatives, and to the chairman of the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate an unclassified numbered certification with respect to such application specifying (A) the foreign country or international organization to which such export will be made, (B) the dollar amount of the items to be exported, and (C) a description of the items to be exported. Each such numbered certification shall also contain an item indicating whether any offset agreement is proposed to be entered into in connection with such export and a description of any such offset agreement. In addition, the President shall, upon the request of such committee or the Committee on Foreign Affairs of the House of Representatives, transmit promptly to both such committees a statement setting forth, to the extent specified in such request, a description of the capabilities of the items to be exported, an estimate of the total number of United States personnel expected to be needed in the foreign country concerned in connection with the items to be exported and an analysis of the arms control impact pertinent to such application, prepared in consultation with the Secretary of Defense and a description from the person who has submitted the license application of any offset agreement proposed to be entered into in connection with such export (if known on the date of transmittal of such statement). In a case in which such articles or services are listed on the Missile Technology Control Regime Annex and are intended to support the design, development, or production of a Category I space launch vehicle system (as defined in section 2797c of this title), such report shall include a description of the proposed export and rationale for approving such export, including the consistency of such export with United States missile nonproliferation policy. A certification transmitted pursuant to this subsection shall be unclassified, except that the information specified in clause (B) and the details of the description specified in clause (C) may be classified if the public disclosure thereof would be clearly detrimental to the security of the United States, in which case the information shall be accompanied by a description of the damage to the national security that could be expected to result from public disclosure of the information.

(2) Unless the President states in his certification that an emergency exists which requires the proposed export in the national security interests of the United States, a license for export described in paragraph (1)—

(A) in the case of a license for an export to the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, any member country of that Organization or Australia, Japan, the Republic of Korea, Israel, or New Zealand, shall not be issued until at least 15 calendar days after the Congress receives such certification, and shall not be issued then if the Congress, within that 15-day period, enacts a joint resolution prohibiting the proposed export;

(B) in the case of a license for an export of a commercial communications satellite for launch from, and by nationals of, the Russian Federation, Ukraine, or Kazakhstan, shall not be issued until at least 15 calendar days after the Congress receives such certification, and shall not be issued then if the Congress, within that 15-day period, enacts a joint resolution prohibiting the proposed export; and

(C) in the case of any other license, shall not be issued until at least 30 calendar days after the Congress receives such certification, and shall not be issued then if the Congress, within that 30-day period, enacts a joint resolution prohibiting the proposed export.


If the President states in his certification that an emergency exists which requires the proposed export in the national security interests of the United States, thus waiving the requirements of subparagraphs (A) and (B) of this paragraph, he shall set forth in the certification a detailed justification for his determination, including a description of the emergency circumstances which necessitate the immediate issuance of the export license and a discussion of the national security interests involved.

(3)(A) Any joint resolution under this subsection shall be considered in the Senate in accordance with the provisions of section 601(b) of the International Security Assistance and Arms Export Control Act of 1976.

(B) For the purpose of expediting the consideration and enactment of joint resolutions under this subsection, a motion to proceed to the consideration of any such joint resolution after it has been reported by the appropriate committee shall be treated as highly privileged in the House of Representatives.

(4) The provisions of subsection (b)(5) shall apply to any equipment, article, or service for which a numbered certification has been transmitted to Congress pursuant to paragraph (1) in the same manner and to the same extent as that subsection applies to any equipment, article, or service for which a numbered certification has been transmitted to Congress pursuant to subsection (b)(1). For purposes of such application, any reference in subsection (b)(5) to "a letter of offer" or "an offer" shall be deemed to be a reference to "a contract".

(5) In the case of an application by a person (other than with regard to a sale under section 2761 or 2762 of this title) for a license for the export to a member country of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) or Australia, Japan, the Republic of Korea, Israel, or New Zealand that does not authorize a new sales territory that includes any country other than such countries, the limitations on the issuance of the license set forth in paragraph (1) shall apply only if the license is for export of—

(A) major defense equipment sold under a contract in the amount of $25,000,000 or more; or

(B) defense articles or defense services sold under a contract in the amount of $100,000,000 or more.


(6) The President shall notify the Speaker of the House of Representatives and the Chairman of the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate at least 15 days prior to an export pursuant to a treaty referred to in section 2778(j)(1)(C)(i) of this title to which the provisions of paragraph (1) of this subsection would apply absent an exemption granted under section 2778(j)(1) of this title, for which purpose such notification shall contain information comparable to that specified in paragraph (1) of this subsection.

(d) Commercial technical assistance or manufacturing licensing agreements with non-North Atlantic Treaty Organization member countries; submission of Presidential certification; contents

(1) In the case of an approval under section 2778 of this title of a United States commercial technical assistance or manufacturing licensing agreement which involves the manufacture abroad of any item of significant combat equipment on the United States Munitions List, before such approval is given, the President shall submit a certification with respect to such proposed commercial agreement in a manner similar to the certification required under subsection (c)(1) containing comparable information, except that the last sentence of such subsection shall not apply to certifications submitted pursuant to this subsection.

(2) A certification under this subsection shall be submitted—

(A) at least 15 days before approval is given in the case of an agreement for or in a country which is a member of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization or Australia, Japan, the Republic of Korea, Israel, or New Zealand; and

(B) at least 30 days before approval is given in the case of an agreement for or in any other country;


unless the President states in his certification that an emergency exists which requires the immediate approval of the agreement in the national security interests of the United States.

(3) If the President states in his certification that an emergency exists which requires the immediate approval of the agreement in the national security interests of the United States, thus waiving the requirements of paragraph (4), he shall set forth in the certification a detailed justification for his determination, including a description of the emergency circumstances which necessitate the immediate approval of the agreement and a discussion of the national security interests involved.

(4) Approval for an agreement subject to paragraph (1) may not be given under section 2778 of this title if the Congress, within the 15-day or 30-day period specified in paragraph (2)(A) or (B), as the case may be, enacts a joint resolution prohibiting such approval.

(5)(A) Any joint resolution under paragraph (4) shall be considered in the Senate in accordance with the provisions of section 601(b) of the International Security Assistance and Arms Export Control Act of 1976.

(B) For the purpose of expediting the consideration and enactment of joint resolutions under paragraph (4), a motion to proceed to the consideration of any such joint resolution after it has been reported by the appropriate committee shall be treated as highly privileged in the House of Representatives.

(6) The President shall notify the Speaker of the House of Representatives and the Chairman of the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate at least 15 days prior to an export pursuant to a treaty referred to in section 2778(j)(1)(C)(i) of this title to which the provisions of paragraph (1) of this subsection would apply absent an exemption granted under section 2778(j)(1) of this title, for which purpose such notification shall contain information comparable to that specified in paragraph (1) of this subsection.

(e) Definitions

For purposes of this section—

(1) the term "offset agreement" means an agreement, arrangement, or understanding between a United States supplier of defense articles or defense services and a foreign country under which the supplier agrees to purchase or acquire, or to promote the purchase or acquisition by other United States persons of, goods or services produced, manufactured, grown, or extracted, in whole or in part, in that foreign country in consideration for the purchase by the foreign country of defense articles or defense service from the supplier; and

(2) the term "United States person" means—

(A) an individual who is a national or permanent resident alien of the United States; and

(B) any corporation, business association, partnership, trust, or other juridical entity—

(i) organized under the laws of the United States or any State, district, territory, or possession thereof; or

(ii) owned or controlled in fact by individuals described in subparagraph (A).

(f) Publication of arms sales certifications

The President shall cause to be published in a timely manner in the Federal Register, upon transmittal to the Speaker of the House of Representatives, the Committee on Foreign Affairs of the House of Representatives, and to the chairman of the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate, the full unclassified text of—

(1) each numbered certification submitted pursuant to subsection (b);

(2) each notification of a proposed commercial sale submitted under subsection (c); and

(3) each notification of a proposed commercial technical assistance or manufacturing licensing agreement submitted under subsection (d).

(g) Confidentiality

Information relating to offset agreements provided pursuant to subparagraph (C) of the fifth sentence of subsection (b)(1) and the second sentence of subsection (c)(1) shall be treated as confidential information in accordance with section 4614(c) 1 of title 50.

(h) Certification requirement relating to Israel's qualitative military edge

(1) In general

Any certification relating to a proposed sale or export of defense articles or defense services under this section to any country in the Middle East other than Israel shall include a determination that the sale or export of the defense articles or defense services will not adversely affect Israel's qualitative military edge over military threats to Israel.

(2) Requirements with respect to determination for major defense equipment

A determination under paragraph (1) relating to the sale or export of major defense equipment shall include—

(A) a detailed explanation of Israel's capacity to address the improved capabilities provided by such sale or export;

(B) a detailed evaluation of—

(i) how such sale or export alters the strategic and tactical balance in the region, including relative capabilities; and

(ii) Israel's capacity to respond to the improved regional capabilities provided by such sale or export;


(C) an identification of any specific new capacity, capabilities, or training that Israel may require to address the regional or country-specific capabilities provided by such sale or export; and

(D) a description of any additional United States security assurances to Israel made, or requested to be made, in connection with, or as a result of, such sale or export.

(3) Qualitative military edge defined

In this subsection, the term "qualitative military edge" means the ability to counter and defeat any credible conventional military threat from any individual state or possible coalition of states or from non-state actors, while sustaining minimal damages and casualties, through the use of superior military means, possessed in sufficient quantity, including weapons, command, control, communication, intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance capabilities that in their technical characteristics are superior in capability to those of such other individual or possible coalition of states or non-state actors.

(i) Prior notification of shipment of arms

At least 30 days prior to a shipment of defense articles subject to the requirements of subsection (b) at the joint request of the Chairman and Ranking Member of the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate or the Committee on Foreign Affairs of the House of Representatives, the President shall provide notification of such pending shipment, in unclassified form, with a classified annex as necessary, to the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate and the Committee on Foreign Affairs of the House of Representatives.

(Pub. L. 90–629, ch. 3, §36, Oct. 22, 1968, 82 Stat. 1326; Pub. L. 93–189, §25(10), Dec. 17, 1973, 87 Stat. 731; Pub. L. 93–559, §45(a)(5), Dec. 30, 1974, 88 Stat. 1814; Pub. L. 94–329, title II, §211(a), title VI, §604(a), June 30, 1976, 90 Stat. 740, 766; Pub. L. 95–384, §21, Sept. 26, 1978, 92 Stat. 741; Pub. L. 96–92, §§16(b), 19(a), (c), 20(b), Oct. 29, 1979, 93 Stat. 708–710; Pub. L. 96–533, title I, §§105(c), (d), 107(b), 109(f), Dec. 16, 1980, 94 Stat. 3134, 3136, 3138; Pub. L. 97–113, title I, §§101(c)–(e), 102(b), 109(d)(2), Dec. 29, 1981, 95 Stat. 1520, 1526; Pub. L. 99–83, title I, §§117, 118, title XII, §1209(c), Aug. 8, 1985, 99 Stat. 202, 203, 279; Pub. L. 99–247, §1(b), (c), Feb. 12, 1986, 100 Stat. 9; Pub. L. 101–222, §§3(b), 7, Dec. 12, 1989, 103 Stat. 1896, 1899; Pub. L. 103–236, title VII, §§732, 735(a), (b), Apr. 30, 1994, 108 Stat. 503, 505, 506; Pub. L. 103–437, §9(a)(7), Nov. 2, 1994, 108 Stat. 4588; Pub. L. 104–164, title I, §§141(c), (d), 155, July 21, 1996, 110 Stat. 1431, 1432, 1440; Pub. L. 104–201, div. A, title X, §1045(a), Sept. 23, 1996, 110 Stat. 2644; Pub. L. 105–277, div. G, subdiv. A, title XII, §1225(a)(1), Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–773; Pub. L. 106–113, div. B, §1000(a)(7) [div. B, title XII, §§1224, 1245, title XIII, §§1301, 1302(b)], Nov. 29, 1999, 113 Stat. 1536, 1501A-498, 1501A-502, 1501A-510, 1501A-511; Pub. L. 106–280, title I, §102(c)(1), Oct. 6, 2000, 114 Stat. 849; Pub. L. 107–228, div. B, title XII, §§1205(a), 1262(c), title XIV, §1405(a)(2), Sept. 30, 2002, 116 Stat. 1427, 1434, 1457; Pub. L. 110–429, title II, §§201(d), 203(b)(1), Oct. 15, 2008, 122 Stat. 4843, 4845; Pub. L. 111–266, title I, §104(d), title III, §301(1), Oct. 8, 2010, 124 Stat. 2799, 2804; Pub. L. 113–276, title II, §§201, 208(a)(1), Dec. 18, 2014, 128 Stat. 2990, 2992; Pub. L. 113–296, §11(b), Dec. 19, 2014, 128 Stat. 4078.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in subsecs. (a)(1) and (b)(1), (6)(A), was in the original "this Act", meaning Pub. L. 90–629, Oct. 22, 1968, 82 Stat. 1321, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2751 of this title and Tables.

The National Security Act of 1947, referred to in subsec. (a)(10), is act July 26, 1947, ch. 343, 61 Stat. 495, which was formerly classified principally to chapter 15 (§401 et seq.) of Title 50, War and National Defense, prior to editorial reclassification in chapter 44 (§3001 et seq.) of Title 50. Title V of the National Security Act of 1947 is now classified generally to subchapter III (§3091 et seq.) of chapter 44 of Title 50. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Tables.

Paragraphs (8) and (9) of subsection (a), referred to in subsec. (b)(1), were redesignated as paragraphs (7) and (8), respectively, of subsection (a) by Pub. L. 107–228, div. B, title XII, §1262(c)(2), Sept. 30, 2002, 116 Stat. 1434.

Section 601(b) of the International Security Assistance and Arms Export Control Act of 1976, referred to in subsecs. (b)(2), (c)(3)(A), and (d)(5)(A), is section 601(b) of Pub. L. 94–329, June 30, 1976, 90 Stat. 729, which made provision for expedited procedures in the Senate, and was not classified to the Code.

Section 2768 of this title, referred to in subsec. (b)(4), was repealed by Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title X, §1064(a), Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 445.

Section 4614(c) of title 50, referred to in subsec. (g), was repealed by Pub. L. 115–232, div. A, title XVII, §1766(a), Aug. 13, 2018, 132 Stat. 2232.

Amendments

2014—Subsecs. (a), (b)(1), (5)(C), (c)(1), (f). Pub. L. 113–276, §208(a)(1), substituted "the Speaker of the House of Representatives, the Committee on Foreign Affairs of the House of Representatives, and" for "the Speaker of the House of Representatives and".

Subsec. (h)(2), (3). Pub. L. 113–296 added par. (2) and redesignated former par. (2) as (3).

Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 113–276, §201, added subsec. (i).

2010—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 111–266, §301(1), inserted "Israel," before "or New Zealand" in concluding provisions of par (1), in par. (2), and in introductory provisions of par. (6).

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 111–266, §301(1), inserted "Israel," before "or New Zealand" in par. (2)(A) and in introductory provisions of par. (5).

Subsec. (c)(6). Pub. L. 111–266, §104(d)(1), added par. (6).

Subsec. (d)(2)(A). Pub. L. 111–266, §301(1), inserted "Israel," before "or New Zealand".

Subsec. (d)(6). Pub. L. 111–266, §104(d)(2), added par. (6).

2008—Subsecs. (b), (c), (d)(2)(A). Pub. L. 110–429, §203(b)(1), inserted "the Republic of Korea," before "or New Zealand" wherever appearing.

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 110–429, §201(d), added subsec. (h).

2002—Subsec. (a)(7) to (13). Pub. L. 107–228, §1262(c), redesignated pars. (8) to (13) as (7) to (12), respectively, and struck out former par. (7) which read as follows: "an estimate of—

"(A) the number of United States military personnel, the number of United States Government civilian personnel, and the number of United States civilian contract personnel, who were in each foreign country at the end of that quarter, and

"(B) the number of members of each such category of personnel who were in each foreign country at any time during that quarter,

in implementation of sales and commercial exports under this chapter or of assistance under chapter 2, 5, 6, or 8 of part II of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, including both personnel assigned to the country and personnel temporarily in the country by detail or otherwise;".

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 107–228, §1405(a)(2)(A)(i), substituted "(1) Subject to paragraph (6), in the case of" for "(1) In the case of" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (b)(5)(C). Pub. L. 107–228, §1405(a)(2)(A)(ii), substituted "Subject to paragraph (6), if" for "If".

Subsec. (b)(6). Pub. L. 107–228, §1405(a)(2)(A)(iii), added par. (6).

Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 107–228, §1405(a)(2)(B)(i), substituted "(1) Subject to paragraph (5), in the case of" for "(1) In the case of".

Pub. L. 107–228, §1205(a), inserted "(or, in the case of a defense article that is a firearm controlled under category I of the United States Munitions List, $1,000,000 or more)" after "$50,000,000 or more".

Subsec. (c)(5). Pub. L. 107–228, §1405(a)(2)(B)(ii), added par. (5).

2000—Subsec. (c)(2)(B), (C). Pub. L. 106–280 added subpar. (B) and redesignated former subpar. (B) as (C).

1999—Subsec. (a)(13). Pub. L. 106–113, §1000(a)(7) [title XIII, §1302(b)], added par. (13).

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 106–113, §1000(a)(7) [title XIII, §1301(b)(1)], in sixth sentence, inserted before period at end ", in which case the information shall be accompanied by a description of the damage to the national security that could be expected to result from public disclosure of the information".

Subsec. (b)(1)(C). Pub. L. 106–113, §1000(a)(7) [title XII, §1245(a)(1)], substituted "and a description of any offset agreement with respect to such sale;" for "and a description from such contractor of any offset agreements proposed to be entered into in connection with such sale (if known on the date of transmittal of such statement);".

Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 106–113, §1000(a)(7) [title XIII, §1301(b)(2)], in last sentence, inserted before period at end ", in which case the information shall be accompanied by a description of the damage to the national security that could be expected to result from public disclosure of the information".

Pub. L. 106–113, §1000(a)(7) [title XII, §1245(a)(2)], in second sentence, substituted "and a description of any such offset agreement" for "(if known on the date of transmittal of such certification)".

Subsec. (c)(4). Pub. L. 106–113, §1000(a)(7) [title XII, §1224], added par. (4).

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 106–113, §1000(a)(7) [title XII, §1245(b)(1)], redesignated subsec. (e), relating to publication of arms sales certifications, as (f).

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 106–113, §1000(a)(7) [title XIII, §1301(a)], which directed amendment of subsec. (e), relating to publication of arms sales certifications, by inserting "in a timely manner" after "to be published" and by substituting "the full unclassified text of—

"(1) each numbered certification submitted pursuant to subsection (b);

"(2) each notification of a proposed commercial sale submitted under subsection (c); and

"(3) each notification of a proposed commercial technical assistance or manufacturing licensing agreement submitted under subsection (d)." for "the full unclassified text of each numbered certification submitted pursuant to subsection (b) of this section and each notification of a proposed commercial sale submitted under subsection (c) of this section.", was executed by making the amendment in subsec. (f) to reflect the probable intent of Congress and the redesignation of that subsec. (e) as (f). See 1999 Amendment note below.

Pub. L. 106–113, §1000(a)(7) [title XII, §1245(b)(1)], redesignated subsec. (e), relating to publication of arms sales certifications, as (f).

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 106–113, §1000(a)(7) [title XII, §1245(b)(2)], added subsec. (g).

1998—Subsec. (b)(1)(D). Pub. L. 105–277, in introductory provisions, substituted "Secretary of State in consultation with the Secretary of Defense and the Director of Central Intelligence" for "Director of the Arms Control and Disarmament Agency in consultation with the Secretary of State and the Secretary of Defense".

1996—Subsec. (a)(12). Pub. L. 104–201 added par. (12).

Subsec. (c)(2)(A), (B). Pub. L. 104–164, §141(c), amended subpars. (A) and (B) generally. Prior to amendment, subpars. (A) and (B) read as follows:

"(A) shall not be issued until at least 30 calendar days after the Congress receives such certification; and

"(B) shall not be issued then if the Congress, within such 30-day period, enacts a joint resolution prohibiting the proposed export, except that this subparagraph does not apply with respect to a license issued for an export to the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, any member country of that Organization, Japan, Australia, or New Zealand."

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 104–164, §141(d), designated existing provisions as par. (1), struck out "for or in a country not a member of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization" after "manufacturing licensing agreement", and added pars. (2) to (5).

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 104–164, §155, added subsec. (e) relating to publication of arms sales certifications.

1994—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 103–437 substituted "Foreign Affairs" for "International Relations".

Pub. L. 103–236, §§732(a)(1), 735(a), inserted after second sentence "In a case in which such articles or services listed on the Missile Technology Control Regime Annex are intended to support the design, development, or production of a Category I space launch vehicle system (as defined in section 2797c of this title), such report shall include a description of the proposed export and rationale for approving such export, including the consistency of such export with United States missile nonproliferation policy. Each such numbered certification shall contain an item indicating whether any offset agreement is proposed to be entered into in connection with such letter of offer to sell (if known on the date of transmittal of such certification)."

Subsec. (b)(1)(C). Pub. L. 103–236, §732(a)(2), inserted "and a description from such contractor of any offset agreements proposed to be entered into in connection with such sale" after "sold".

Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 103–437 substituted "Foreign Affairs" for "International Relations".

Pub. L. 103–236, §735(b), which directed amendment of par. (1) by inserting after "in consultation with the Secretary of Defense." the following new sentence: "In a case in which such articles or services are listed on the Missile Technology Control Regime Annex and are intended to support the design, development, or production of a Category I space launch vehicle system (as defined in section 2797c of this title), such report shall include a description of the proposed export and rationale for approving such export, including the consistency of such export with United States missile nonproliferation policy.", was executed by making the insertion after "in consultation with the Secretary of Defense and a description from the person who has submitted the license application of any offset agreement proposed to be entered into in connection with such export (if known on the date of transmittal of such statement)." to reflect the probable intent of Congress and the intervening amendment by Pub. L. 103–236, §732(b)(2). See below.

Pub. L. 103–236, §732(b)(2), inserted "and a description from the person who has submitted the license application of any offset agreement proposed to be entered into in connection with such export (if known on the date of transmittal of such statement)" after "Secretary of Defense".

Pub. L. 103–236, §732(b)(1), inserted after first sentence "Each such numbered certification shall also contain an item indicating whether any offset agreement is proposed to be entered into in connection with such export (if known on the date of transmittal of such certification)."

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 103–236, §732(c), added subsec. (e).

1989—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 101–222, §7(b), inserted ", and any information provided under paragraph (11) of this subsection may also be provided in a classified addendum" after "(b)(1) of this section" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (a)(10), (11). Pub. L. 101–222, §7(a), added pars. (10) and (11).

Subsec. (b)(1)(D)(ii) to (v). Pub. L. 101–222, §3(b), added cl. (ii) and redesignated former cls. (ii) through (iv) as (iii) through (v), respectively.

1986—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 99–247, §1(b)(1), substituted "enacts a joint resolution prohibiting" for "adopts a concurrent resolution stating that it objects to" in concluding provisions.

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 99–247, §1(b)(2), inserted "joint" before "resolution" in four places.

Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 99–247, §1(b)(3), substituted "enactment of joint resolutions" for "adoption of concurrent resolutions" and "such joint resolution" for "such resolution".

Subsec. (c)(2)(B). Pub. L. 99–247, §1(c)(1), substituted "enacts a joint resolution prohibiting" for "adopts a concurrent resolution stating that it objects to".

Subsec. (c)(3)(A). Pub. L. 99–247, §1(c)(2), inserted "joint" before "resolution".

Subsec. (c)(3)(B). Pub. L. 99–247, §1(c)(3), substituted "enactment of joint resolutions" for "adoption of concurrent resolutions" and "such joint resolution" for "such resolution".

1985—Subsec. (a)(5). Pub. L. 99–83, §1209(c)(1), substituted "sales" for "cash sales" and struck out provisions relating to credits under section 2763 of this title and guaranty agreements under section 2764 of this title.

Subsec. (a)(6). Pub. L. 99–83, §1209(c)(2), substituted "sales expected to be made to" for "cash sales expected to be made and credits expected to be extended to".

Subsec. (a)(7). Pub. L. 99–83, §117, amended par. (7) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (7) read as follows: "an estimate of the number of officers and employees of the United States Government and of United States civilian contract personnel present in each such country at the end of that quarter for assignments in implementation of sales and commercial exports under this chapter;".

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 99–83, §118(1), inserted requirement respecting detailed justification of reasons for sale of sensitive articles or services.

Subsec. (b)(5). Pub. L. 99–83, §118(2), added par. (5).

1981—Subsec. (a)(10). Pub. L. 97–113, §109(d)(2), struck out par. (10) which required that Presidential report to Congress contain a listing (classified if necessary) of property valued at $1,000,000 or more which was leased, during the quarter for which a report was required, to a foreign government for a period of more than six months under section 2667 of title 10. See section 2796 et seq. of this title.

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 97–113, §§101(c), 102(b)(1), increased the certification requirement limits to $50,000,000 and $14,000,000 from $25,000,000 and $7,000,000 respecting offers to sell defense articles or services, and major defense equipment; and prescribed a fifteen-calendar-day period after receiving a certification for a concurrent resolution objecting to a proposed sale to the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, any member country of such Organization, Japan, Australia, or New Zealand, and made the existing thirty-calendar-day period applicable only with respect to a proposed sale to any other country or organization.

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 97–113, §102(b)(2), authorized a motion in the Senate for the discharge of the committee to which a resolution respecting the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, any member country of such Organization, Japan, Australia, or New Zealand was referred for failure to report the resolution at end of five calendar days after its introduction.

Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 97–113, §101(d), increased sales contract limits to $14,000,000 and $50,000,000 from $7,000,000 and $25,000,000 respecting sales of major defense equipment and defense articles or services.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 97–113, §101(e), substituted "subsection (c)(1)" for "subsection (c)".

1980—Subsec. (a)(9), (10). Pub. L. 96–533, §§105(c), 109(f), added pars. (9) and (10).

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 96–533, §105(d), required certification respecting offer to sell any design and construction services for $200,000,000 or more, required such certification to contain the information specified in subsec. (a)(9)(A)–(D) of this section, required such certification to contain an item identifying the sensitivity of technology contained in the design and construction services, and made subpar. (A), (C), (E), (I)–(N) provisions applicable to design and construction services.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 96–533, §107(b), designated existing provisions as par. (1), struck out "not less than 30 days" before "before issuing such license", redesignated as cls. (A) to (C) former pars. (1) to (3), and substituted "clause (B)" and "clause (C)" for "paragraph (1)" and "paragraph (2)", respectively, and added pars. (2) and (3).

1979—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 96–92, §19(a), increased to sixty from thirty days the period for submission of the President's report at end of each quarter and struck out par. (9) which required that the report contain an analysis and description of the services of Federal personnel under provisions relating to sales from stock, including numbers employed.

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 96–92, §§19(c), 20(b), required executive emergency justification statement and the numbered certifications to contain an item, classified if necessary, identifying the sensitivity of technology contained in the defense articles or defense services proposed to be sold.

Subsec. (b)(4). Pub. L. 96–92, §16(b), added par. (4).

1978—Subsec. (b)(1)(D), (N) to (P). Pub. L. 95–384 in subpar. (D) substituted provisions requiring an evaluation relating to the proposed sale to be prepared by the Director of the Arms Control and Disarmament Agency in consultation with the Secretary of State and the Secretary of Defense for provisions requiring an analysis of the arms control impact pertinent to the offer to sell prepared in consultation with the Secretary of Defense and added subpars. (N) to (P).

1976—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 94–329, §§211(a), 604(a)(1), expanded existing provisions to provide for increased comprehensiveness of the quarterly reports on sales of defense articles or defense services, whether through governmental channels or commercial channels.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 94–329, §§211(a), 604(a)(2), increased from 20 days to 30 days the period allowed Congress to reject a proposed offer to sell defense articles or defense services and inserted provisions covering any major defense equipment for $7,000,000 or more, requiring additional information with respect to any letter of offer to sell defense articles or defense services if requested by Congress and requiring that a certification be transmitted pursuant to this subsection in unclassified form unless public disclosure would be detrimental to the United States.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 94–329, §211(a), substituted provisions relating to application by person for license for export of any major defense equipment sold and contracted for $7,000,000 or more or defense articles or defense services for $25,000,000 or more, requiring the President to transmit to Congress an unclassified numbered certification with respect to such application, for provisions construing this section as not modifying in any way section 1934 of this title.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 94–329, §211(a), added subsec. (d).

1974—Subsecs. (a), (b). Pub. L. 93–559 added subsecs. (a) and (b).

1973Pub. L. 93–189 struck out subsec. (a) which required the Secretary of State to transmit to the Speaker of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate semiannual reports of all exports of significant defense articles on the United States munitions list to foreign governments, etc., and subsec. (b) which provided for the inclusion in the presentation material submitted to the Congress during consideration of amendments to this chapter or Acts appropriating funds under authority of this chapter annual tables showing the dollar value of cash and credit foreign military sales orders, commitments to order, etc.

Change of Name

Reference to the Director of Central Intelligence or the Director of the Central Intelligence Agency in the Director's capacity as the head of the intelligence community deemed to be a reference to the Director of National Intelligence. Reference to the Director of Central Intelligence or the Director of the Central Intelligence Agency in the Director's capacity as the head of the Central Intelligence Agency deemed to be a reference to the Director of the Central Intelligence Agency. See section 1081(a), (b) of Pub. L. 108–458, set out as a note under section 3001 of Title 50, War and National Defense.

Effective Date of 1998 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 105–277 effective Apr. 1, 1999, see section 1201 of Pub. L. 105–277, set out as an Effective Date note under section 6511 of this title.

Effective Date of 1996 Amendments

Pub. L. 104–201, title X, §1045(b), Sept. 23, 1996, 110 Stat. 2645, provided that: "Paragraph (12) of section 36(a) of the Arms Export Control Act [now 22 U.S.C. 2776(a)(11)], as added by subsection (a)(3), does not apply with respect to an agreement described in such paragraph entered into before the date of the enactment of this Act [Sept. 23, 1996]."

Amendment by section 141(c), (d) of Pub. L. 104–164 applicable with respect to certifications required to be submitted on or after July 21, 1996, see section 141(f) of Pub. L. 104–164, set out as a note under section 2753 of this title.

Effective Date of 1985 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 99–83 effective Oct. 1, 1985, see section 1301 of Pub. L. 99–83, set out as a note under section 2151–1 of this title.

Effective Date of 1976 Amendment

Pub. L. 94–329, title II, §211(b), June 30, 1976, 90 Stat. 744, provided that: "The amendment made by subsection (a) of this section [amending this section] shall apply with respect to letters of offer for which a certification is transmitted pursuant to section 36(b) of the Arms Export Control Act [subsec. (b) of this section] on or after the date of enactment of this Act [June 30, 1976] and to export licenses for which an application is filed under section 38 of such Act [section 2778 of this title] on or after such date."

Pub. L. 94–329, title VI, §604(c), June 30, 1976, 90 Stat. 768, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section and enacting section 2779 of this title] shall take effect sixty days after the date of enactment of this Act [June 30, 1976]."

Effective Date

Section effective July 1, 1968, see section 41 of Pub. L. 90–629, set out as a note under section 2751 of this title.

Delegation of Functions

For delegation of certain functions of the President under this section, with certain conditions, see section 1(j)–(m) of Ex. Ord. No. 13637, Mar. 8, 2013, 78 F.R. 16130, set out as a note under section 2751 of this title. Functions were previously delegated by Ex. Ord. No. 11958, which was formerly set out as a note under section 2751 of this title and was revoked, subject to a savings provision, by section 4 of Ex. Ord. No. 13637.

Assessment of Israel's Qualitative Military Edge Over Military Threats

Pub. L. 110–429, title II, §201, Oct. 15, 2008, 122 Stat. 4843, as amended by Pub. L. 113–296, §11(a), Dec. 19, 2014, 128 Stat. 4078, provided that:

"(a) Assessment Required.—The President shall carry out an empirical and qualitative assessment on an ongoing basis of the extent to which Israel possesses a qualitative military edge over military threats to Israel. The assessment required under this subsection shall be sufficiently robust so as to facilitate comparability of data over concurrent years.

"(b) Use of Assessment.—The President shall ensure that the assessment required under subsection (a) is used to inform the review by the United States of applications to sell defense articles and defense services under the Arms Export Control Act (22 U.S.C. 2751 et seq.) to countries in the Middle East.

"(c) Reports.—

"(1) Initial report.—Not later than June 30, 2009, the President shall transmit to the appropriate congressional committees a report on the initial assessment required under subsection (a).

"(2) Quadrennial report.—Not later than four years after the date on which the President transmits the initial report under paragraph (1), and every four years thereafter, the President shall transmit to the appropriate congressional committees a report on the most recent assessment required under subsection (a).

"(3) Biennial updates.—Two years after the date on which each quadrennial report is transmitted to Congress, the President shall—

"(A) reevaluate the assessment required under subsection (a); and

"(B) inform and consult with the appropriate congressional committees on the results of the reevaluation conducted pursuant to subparagraph (A).

"(d) Certification.—[Amended this section.]

"(e) Definitions.—In this section:

"(1) Appropriate congressional committees.—The term 'appropriate congressional committees' means the Committee on Foreign Affairs of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate.

"(2) Qualitative military edge.—The term 'qualitative military edge' has the meaning given the term in section 36(h) of the Arms Export Control Act, as added by subsection (d) of this section [22 U.S.C. 2776(h)]."

[Memorandum of President of the United States, June 8, 2009, 74 F.R. 28863, provided that the functions of the President in section 201(a) to (c) of Pub. L. 110–429, set out above, are delegated to the Secretary of State, in coordination with the Secretary of Defense.]

National Disclosure Policy for Sensitive Weapons Technology; Report to Congress

Pub. L. 96–92, §20(a), Oct. 29, 1979, 93 Stat. 710, directed President to undertake a thorough review of interagency procedures and disclosure criteria used by United States in determining whether sensitive weapons technology will be transferred to other countries, and not later than Feb. 15, 1980 to transmit a report to Congress setting forth the results of such review, together with such recommendations as are necessary to improve the current disclosure system, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 97–113, title VII, §734(a)(11), Dec. 29, 1981, 95 Stat. 1560.

1 See References in Text note below.

§2776a. Repealed. Pub. L. 112–81, div. A, title X, §1062(d)(4), Dec. 31, 2011, 125 Stat. 1585

Section, Pub. L. 109–364, div. A, title XII, §1231, Oct. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 2430; Pub. L. 110–181, div. A, title X, §1063(c)(11), Jan. 28, 2008, 122 Stat. 323, required annual report on foreign sales of significant military equipment manufactured in the United States.

§2777. Fiscal provisions relating to foreign military sales credits

(a) Permissible uses of cash payments under sections 2761, 2762, 2763, and 2769

Cash payments received under sections 2761, 2762, and 2769 of this title and advances received under section 2763 of this title shall be available solely for payments to suppliers (including the military departments) and refunds to purchasers and shall not be available for financing credits and guaranties.

(b) Transfer of funds to miscellaneous receipts of Treasury

Amounts received from foreign governments and international organizations as repayments for credits extended pursuant to section 2763 of this title, amounts received from the disposition of instruments evidencing indebtedness under section 2764(b) of this title (excluding such portion of the sales proceeds as may be required at the time of disposition to be obligated as a reserve for payment of claims under guaranties issued pursuant to section 2764(b) of this title, which sums are made available for such obligations), and other collections (including fees and interest) shall be transferred to the miscellaneous receipts of the Treasury.

(c) Credit of funds to reserve under section 2764(c)

Notwithstanding the provisions of subsection (b), to the extent that any of the funds constituting the reserve under section 2764(c) of this title are paid out for a claim arising out of a loan guaranteed under section 2764 of this title, amounts received from a foreign government or international organization after the date of such payment, with respect to such claim, shall be credited to such reserve, shall be merged with the funds in such reserve, and shall be available for any purpose for which funds in such reserve are available.

(Pub. L. 90–629, ch. 3, §37, Oct. 22, 1968, 82 Stat. 1326; Pub. L. 93–189, §25(11), Dec. 17, 1973, 87 Stat. 731; Pub. L. 96–533, title I, §§104(b), 105(e)(1), Dec. 16, 1980, 94 Stat. 3133, 3135.)

Amendments

1980—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 96–533, §105(e)(1), inserted reference to section 2769 of this title.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 96–533, §104(b), added subsec. (c).

1973—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 93–189 inserted provisions relating to indebtedness under section 2764(b) of this title and exclusions of portions of the sales proceeds required at the time of disposition as a reserve for payment of claims under guaranties issued under section 2764(b) of this title.

Effective Date

Section effective July 1, 1968, see section 41 of Pub. L. 90–629, set out as a note under section 2751 of this title.

§2778. Control of arms exports and imports

(a) Presidential control of exports and imports of defense articles and services, guidance of policy, etc.; designation of United States Munitions List; issuance of export licenses; negotiations information

(1) In furtherance of world peace and the security and foreign policy of the United States, the President is authorized to control the import and the export of defense articles and defense services and to provide foreign policy guidance to persons of the United States involved in the export and import of such articles and services. The President is authorized to designate those items which shall be considered as defense articles and defense services for the purposes of this section and to promulgate regulations for the import and export of such articles and services. The items so designated shall constitute the United States Munitions List.

(2) Decisions on issuing export licenses under this section shall take into account whether the export of an article would contribute to an arms race, aid in the development of weapons of mass destruction, support international terrorism, increase the possibility of outbreak or escalation of conflict, or prejudice the development of bilateral or multilateral arms control or nonproliferation agreements or other arrangements.

(3) In exercising the authorities conferred by this section, the President may require that any defense article or defense service be sold under this chapter as a condition of its eligibility for export, and may require that persons engaged in the negotiation for the export of defense articles and services keep the President fully and currently informed of the progress and future prospects of such negotiations.

(b) Registration and licensing requirements for manufacturers, exporters, or importers of designated defense articles and defense services

(1)(A)(i) As prescribed in regulations issued under this section, every person (other than an officer or employee of the United States Government acting in an official capacity) who engages in the business of manufacturing, exporting, or importing any defense articles or defense services designated by the President under subsection (a)(1) shall register with the United States Government agency charged with the administration of this section, and shall pay a registration fee which shall be prescribed by such regulations. Such regulations shall prohibit the return to the United States for sale in the United States (other than for the Armed Forces of the United States and its allies or for any State or local law enforcement agency) of any military firearms or ammunition of United States manufacture furnished to foreign governments by the United States under this chapter or any other foreign assistance or sales program of the United States, whether or not enhanced in value or improved in condition in a foreign country. This prohibition shall not extend to similar firearms that have been so substantially transformed as to become, in effect, articles of foreign manufacture.

(ii)(I) As prescribed in regulations issued under this section, every person (other than an officer or employee of the United States Government acting in official capacity) who engages in the business of brokering activities with respect to the manufacture, export, import, or transfer of any defense article or defense service designated by the President under subsection (a)(1), or in the business of brokering activities with respect to the manufacture, export, import, or transfer of any foreign defense article or defense service (as defined in subclause (IV)), shall register with the United States Government agency charged with the administration of this section, and shall pay a registration fee which shall be prescribed by such regulations.

(II) Such brokering activities shall include the financing, transportation, freight forwarding, or taking of any other action that facilitates the manufacture, export, or import of a defense article or defense service.

(III) No person may engage in the business of brokering activities described in subclause (I) without a license, issued in accordance with this chapter, except that no license shall be required for such activities undertaken by or for an agency of the United States Government—

(aa) for use by an agency of the United States Government; or

(bb) for carrying out any foreign assistance or sales program authorized by law and subject to the control of the President by other means.


(IV) For purposes of this clause, the term "foreign defense article or defense service" includes any non-United States defense article or defense service of a nature described on the United States Munitions List regardless of whether such article or service is of United States origin or whether such article or service contains United States origin components.

(B) The prohibition under such regulations required by the second sentence of subparagraph (A) shall not extend to any military firearms (or ammunition, components, parts, accessories, and attachments for such firearms) of United States manufacture furnished to any foreign government by the United States under this chapter or any other foreign assistance or sales program of the United States if—

(i) such firearms are among those firearms that the Secretary of the Treasury is, or was at any time, required to authorize the importation of by reason of the provisions of section 925(e) of title 18 (including the requirement for the listing of such firearms as curios or relics under section 921(a)(13) of that title); and

(ii) such foreign government certifies to the United States Government that such firearms are owned by such foreign government.


(C) A copy of each registration made under this paragraph shall be transmitted to the Secretary of the Treasury for review regarding law enforcement concerns. The Secretary shall report to the President regarding such concerns as necessary.

(2) Except as otherwise specifically provided in regulations issued under subsection (a)(1), no defense articles or defense services designated by the President under subsection (a)(1) may be exported or imported without a license for such export or import, issued in accordance with this chapter and regulations issued under this chapter, except that no license shall be required for exports or imports made by or for an agency of the United States Government (A) for official use by a department or agency of the United States Government, or (B) for carrying out any foreign assistance or sales program authorized by law and subject to the control of the President by other means.

(3)(A) For each of the fiscal years 1988 and 1989, $250,000 of registration fees collected pursuant to paragraph (1) shall be credited to a Department of State account, to be available without fiscal year limitation. Fees credited to that account shall be available only for the payment of expenses incurred for—

(i) contract personnel to assist in the evaluation of munitions control license applications, reduce processing time for license applications, and improve monitoring of compliance with the terms of licenses; and

(ii) the automation of munitions control functions and the processing of munitions control license applications, including the development, procurement, and utilization of computer equipment and related software.


(B) The authority of this paragraph may be exercised only to such extent or in such amounts as are provided in advance in appropriation Acts.

(c) Criminal violations; punishment

Any person who willfully violates any provision of this section, section 2779 of this title, a treaty referred to in subsection (j)(1)(C)(i), or any rule or regulation issued under this section or section 2779 of this title, including any rule or regulation issued to implement or enforce a treaty referred to in subsection (j)(1)(C)(i) or an implementing arrangement pursuant to such treaty, or who willfully, in a registration or license application or required report, makes any untrue statement of a material fact or omits to state a material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein not misleading, shall upon conviction be fined for each violation not more than $1,000,000 or imprisoned not more than 20 years, or both.

(d) Repealed. Pub. L. 96–70, title III, §3303(a)(4), Sept. 27, 1979, 93 Stat. 499

(e) Enforcement powers of President

In carrying out functions under this section with respect to the export of defense articles and defense services, including defense articles and defense services exported or imported pursuant to a treaty referred to in subsection (j)(1)(C)(i), the President is authorized to exercise the same powers concerning violations and enforcement which are conferred upon departments, agencies and officials by subsections (c), (d), (e), and (g) of section 11 1 of the Export Administration Act of 1979, and by subsections (a) and (c) of section 12 1 of such Act, subject to the same terms and conditions as are applicable to such powers under such Act, except that section 11(c)(2)(B) of such Act shall not apply, and instead, as prescribed in regulations issued under this section, the Secretary of State may assess civil penalties for violations of this chapter and regulations prescribed thereunder and further may commence a civil action to recover such civil penalties, and except further that the names of the countries and the types and quantities of defense articles for which licenses are issued under this section shall not be withheld from public disclosure unless the President determines that the release of such information would be contrary to the national interest. Nothing in this subsection shall be construed as authorizing the withholding of information from the Congress. Notwithstanding section 11(c) of the Export Administration Act of 1979, the civil penalty for each violation involving controls imposed on the export of defense articles and defense services under this section may not exceed $500,000.

(f) Periodic review of items on Munitions List; exemptions

(1) The President shall periodically review the items on the United States Munitions List to determine what items, if any, no longer warrant export controls under this section. The results of such reviews shall be reported to the Speaker of the House of Representatives, the Committee on Foreign Affairs of the House of Representatives, and to the Committee on Foreign Relations and the Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs of the Senate. The President may not remove any item from the Munitions List until 30 days after the date on which the President has provided notice of the proposed removal to the Committee on International Relations of the House of Representatives and to the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate in accordance with the procedures applicable to reprogramming notifications under section 2394–1(a) of this title. Such notice shall describe the nature of any controls to be imposed on that item under any other provision of law.

(2) The President may not authorize an exemption for a foreign country from the licensing requirements of this chapter for the export of defense items under subsection (j) or any other provision of this chapter until 30 days after the date on which the President has transmitted to the Committee on Foreign Affairs of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate a notification that includes—

(A) a description of the scope of the exemption, including a detailed summary of the defense articles, defense services, and related technical data covered by the exemption; and

(B) a determination by the Attorney General that the bilateral agreement concluded under subsection (j) requires the compilation and maintenance of sufficient documentation relating to the export of United States defense articles, defense services, and related technical data to facilitate law enforcement efforts to detect, prevent, and prosecute criminal violations of any provision of this chapter, including the efforts on the part of countries and factions engaged in international terrorism to illicitly acquire sophisticated United States defense items.


(3) Paragraph (2) shall not apply with respect to an exemption for Canada from the licensing requirements of this chapter for the export of defense items.

(4) Paragraph (2) shall not apply with respect to an exemption under subsection (j)(1) to give effect to a treaty referred to in subsection (j)(1)(C)(i) (and any implementing arrangements to such treaty), provided that the President promulgates regulations to implement and enforce such treaty under this section and section 2779 of this title.

(5)(A) Except as provided in subparagraph (B), the President shall take such actions as may be necessary to require that, at the time of export or reexport of any major defense equipment listed on the 600 series of the Commerce Control List contained in Supplement No. 1 to part 774 of subtitle B of title 15, Code of Federal Regulations, the major defense equipment will not be subsequently modified so as to transform such major defense equipment into a defense article.

(B) The President may authorize the transformation of any major defense equipment described in subparagraph (A) into a defense article if the President—

(i) determines that such transformation is appropriate and in the national interests of the United States; and

(ii) provides notice of such transformation to the chairman of the Committee on Foreign Affairs of the House of Representatives and the chairman of the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate consistent with the notification requirements of section 2776(b)(5)(A) of this title.


(C) In this paragraph, the term "defense article" means an item designated by the President pursuant to subsection (a)(1).

(6) The President shall ensure that any major defense equipment that is listed on the 600 series of the Commerce Control List contained in Supplement No. 1 to part 774 of subtitle B of title 15, Code of Federal Regulations, shall continue to be subject to the notification and reporting requirements of the following provisions of law:

(A) Section 2321j(f) of this title.

(B) Section 2415 of this title.

(C) Section 2753(d)(3)(A) of this title.

(D) Section 2765 of this title.

(E) Section 2776(b), (c), and (d) of this title.

(g) Identification of persons convicted or subject to indictment for violations of certain provisions

(1) The President shall develop appropriate mechanisms to identify, in connection with the export licensing process under this section—

(A) persons who are the subject of an indictment for, or have been convicted of, a violation under—

(i) this section,

(ii) section 11 of the Export Administration Act of 1979 (50 U.S.C. App. 2410),1

(iii) section 793, 794, or 798 of title 18 (relating to espionage involving defense or classified information) or section 2339A of such title (relating to providing material support to terrorists),

(iv) section 16 of the Trading with the Enemy Act (50 U.S.C. App. 16) [50 U.S.C. 4315],

(v) section 206 of the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (relating to foreign assets controls; 50 U.S.C. App. 1705) [50 U.S.C. 1705],

(vi) section 30A of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (15 U.S.C. 78dd–1) or section 104 of the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (15 U.S.C. 78dd–2),

(vii) chapter 105 of title 18 (relating to sabotage),

(viii) section 4(b) of the Internal Security Act of 1950 (relating to communication of classified information; 50 U.S.C. 783(b)),

(ix) section 57, 92, 101, 104, 222, 224, 225, or 226 of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 (42 U.S.C. 2077, 2122, 2131, 2134, 2272, 2274, 2275, and 2276),

(x) section 601 of the National Security Act of 1947 (relating to intelligence identities protection; [50 U.S.C. 3121]),

(xi) section 603(b) or (c) of the Comprehensive Anti-Apartheid Act of 1986 (22 U.S.C. 5113(b) and (c)), or

(xii) sections 3, 4, 5, and 6 of the Prevention of Terrorist Access to Destructive Weapons Act of 2004, relating to missile systems designed to destroy aircraft (18 U.S.C. 2332g), prohibitions governing atomic weapons (42 U.S.C. 2122), radiological dispersal devices (18 U.S.C. 2332h), and variola virus (18 U.S.C. 175c);


(B) persons who are the subject of an indictment or have been convicted under section 371 of title 18 for conspiracy to violate any of the statutes cited in subparagraph (A); and

(C) persons who are ineligible—

(i) to contract with,

(ii) to receive a license or other form of authorization to export from, or

(iii) to receive a license or other form of authorization to import defense articles or defense services from,


any agency of the United States Government.


(2) The President shall require that each applicant for a license to export an item on the United States Munitions List identify in the application all consignees and freight forwarders involved in the proposed export.

(3) If the President determines—

(A) that an applicant for a license to export under this section is the subject of an indictment for a violation of any of the statutes cited in paragraph (1),

(B) that there is reasonable cause to believe that an applicant for a license to export under this section has violated any of the statutes cited in paragraph (1), or

(C) that an applicant for a license to export under this section is ineligible to contract with, or to receive a license or other form of authorization to import defense articles or defense services from, any agency of the United States Government,


the President may disapprove the application. The President shall consider requests by the Secretary of the Treasury to disapprove any export license application based on these criteria.

(4) A license to export an item on the United States Munitions List may not be issued to a person—

(A) if that person, or any party to the export, has been convicted of violating a statute cited in paragraph (1), or

(B) if that person, or any party to the export, is at the time of the license review ineligible to receive export licenses (or other forms of authorization to export) from any agency of the United States Government,


except as may be determined on a case-by-case basis by the President, after consultation with the Secretary of the Treasury, after a thorough review of the circumstances surrounding the conviction or ineligibility to export and a finding by the President that appropriate steps have been taken to mitigate any law enforcement concerns.

(5) A license to export an item on the United States Munitions List may not be issued to a foreign person (other than a foreign government).

(6) The President may require a license (or other form of authorization) before any item on the United States Munitions List is sold or otherwise transferred to the control or possession of a foreign person or a person acting on behalf of a foreign person.

(7) The President shall, in coordination with law enforcement and national security agencies, develop standards for identifying high-risk exports for regular end-use verification. These standards shall be published in the Federal Register and the initial standards shall be published not later than October 1, 1988.

(8) Upon request of the Secretary of State, the Secretary of Defense and the Secretary of the Treasury shall detail to the office primarily responsible for export licensing functions under this section, on a nonreimbursable basis, personnel with appropriate expertise to assist in the initial screening of applications for export licenses under this section in order to determine the need for further review of those applications for foreign policy, national security, and law enforcement concerns.

(9) For purposes of this subsection—

(A) the term "foreign corporation" means a corporation that is not incorporated in the United States;

(B) the term "foreign government" includes any agency or subdivision of a foreign government, including an official mission of a foreign government;

(C) the term "foreign person" means any person who is not a citizen or national of the United States or lawfully admitted to the United States for permanent residence under the Immigration and Nationality Act [8 U.S.C. 1101 et seq.], and includes foreign corporations, international organizations, and foreign governments;

(D) the term "party to the export" means—

(i) the president, the chief executive officer, and other senior officers of the license applicant;

(ii) the freight forwarders or designated exporting agent of the license application; and

(iii) any consignee or end user of any item to be exported; and


(E) the term "person" means a natural person as well as a corporation, business association, partnership, society, trust, or any other entity, organization, or group, including governmental entities.

(h) Judicial review of designation of items as defense articles or services

The designation by the President (or by an official to whom the President's functions under subsection (a) have been duly delegated), in regulations issued under this section, of items as defense articles or defense services for purposes of this section shall not be subject to judicial review.

(i) Report to Department of State

As prescribed in regulations issued under this section, a United States person to whom a license has been granted to export an item on the United States Munitions List shall, not later than 15 days after the item is exported, submit to the Department of State a report containing all shipment information, including a description of the item and the quantity, value, port of exit, and end-user and country of destination of the item.

(j) Requirements relating to country exemptions for licensing of defense items for export to foreign countries

(1) Requirement for bilateral agreement

(A) In general

The President may utilize the regulatory or other authority pursuant to this chapter to exempt a foreign country from the licensing requirements of this chapter with respect to exports of defense items only if the United States Government has concluded a binding bilateral agreement with the foreign country. Such agreement shall—

(i) meet the requirements set forth in paragraph (2); and

(ii) be implemented by the United States and the foreign country in a manner that is legally-binding under their domestic laws.

(B) Exception for Canada

The requirement to conclude a bilateral agreement in accordance with subparagraph (A) shall not apply with respect to an exemption for Canada from the licensing requirements of this chapter for the export of defense items.

(C) Exception for defense trade cooperation treaties

(i) In general

The requirement to conclude a bilateral agreement in accordance with subparagraph (A) shall not apply with respect to an exemption from the licensing requirements of this chapter for the export of defense items to give effect to any of the following defense trade cooperation treaties, provided that the treaty has entered into force pursuant to article II, section 2, clause 2 of the Constitution of the United States:

(I) The Treaty Between the Government of the United States of America and the Government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland Concerning Defense Trade Cooperation, done at Washington and London on June 21 and 26, 2007 (and any implementing arrangement thereto).

(II) The Treaty Between the Government of the United States of America and the Government of Australia Concerning Defense Trade Cooperation, done at Sydney September 5, 2007 (and any implementing arrangement thereto).

(ii) Limitation of scope

The United States shall exempt from the scope of a treaty referred to in clause (i)—

(I) complete rocket systems (including ballistic missile systems, space launch vehicles, and sounding rockets) or complete unmanned aerial vehicle systems (including cruise missile systems, target drones, and reconnaissance drones) capable of delivering at least a 500 kilogram payload to a range of 300 kilometers, and associated production facilities, software, or technology for these systems, as defined in the Missile Technology Control Regime Annex Category I, Item 1;

(II) individual rocket stages, re-entry vehicles and equipment, solid or liquid propellant motors or engines, guidance sets, thrust vector control systems, and associated production facilities, software, and technology, as defined in the Missile Technology Control Regime Annex Category I, Item 2;

(III) defense articles and defense services listed in the Missile Technology Control Regime Annex Category II that are for use in rocket systems, as that term is used in such Annex, including associated production facilities, software, or technology;

(IV) toxicological agents, biological agents, and associated equipment, as listed in the United States Munitions List (part 121.1 of chapter I of title 22, Code of Federal Regulations), Category XIV, subcategories (a), (b), (f)(1), (i), (j) as it pertains to (f)(1), (l) as it pertains to (f)(1), and (m) as it pertains to all of the subcategories cited in this paragraph;

(V) defense articles and defense services specific to the design and testing of nuclear weapons which are controlled under United States Munitions List Category XVI(a) and (b), along with associated defense articles in Category XVI(d) and technology in Category XVI(e);

(VI) with regard to the treaty cited in clause (i)(I), defense articles and defense services that the United States controls under the United States Munitions List that are not controlled by the United Kingdom, as defined in the United Kingdom Military List or Annex 4 to the United Kingdom Dual Use List, or any successor lists thereto; and

(VII) with regard to the treaty cited in clause (i)(II), defense articles for which Australian laws, regulations, or other commitments would prevent Australia from enforcing the control measures specified in such treaty.

(2) Requirements of bilateral agreement

A bilateral agreement referred to in paragraph (1)—

(A) shall, at a minimum, require the foreign country, as necessary, to revise its policies and practices, and promulgate or enact necessary modifications to its laws and regulations to establish an export control regime that is at least comparable to United States law, regulation, and policy requiring—

(i) conditions on the handling of all United States-origin defense items exported to the foreign country, including prior written United States Government approval for any reexports to third countries;

(ii) end-use and retransfer control commitments, including securing binding end-use and retransfer control commitments from all end-users, including such documentation as is needed in order to ensure compliance and enforcement, with respect to such United States-origin defense items;

(iii) establishment of a procedure comparable to a "watchlist" (if such a watchlist does not exist) and full cooperation with United States Government law enforcement agencies to allow for sharing of export and import documentation and background information on foreign businesses and individuals employed by or otherwise connected to those businesses; and

(iv) establishment of a list of controlled defense items to ensure coverage of those items to be exported under the exemption; and


(B) should, at a minimum, require the foreign country, as necessary, to revise its policies and practices, and promulgate or enact necessary modifications to its laws and regulations to establish an export control regime that is at least comparable to United States law, regulation, and policy regarding—

(i) controls on the export of tangible or intangible technology, including via fax, phone, and electronic media;

(ii) appropriate controls on unclassified information relating to defense items exported to foreign nationals;

(iii) controls on international arms trafficking and brokering;

(iv) cooperation with United States Government agencies, including intelligence agencies, to combat efforts by third countries to acquire defense items, the export of which to such countries would not be authorized pursuant to the export control regimes of the foreign country and the United States; and

(v) violations of export control laws, and penalties for such violations.

(3) Advance certification

Not less than 30 days before authorizing an exemption for a foreign country from the licensing requirements of this chapter for the export of defense items, the President shall transmit to the Committee on Foreign Affairs of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate a certification that—

(A) the United States has entered into a bilateral agreement with that foreign country satisfying all requirements set forth in paragraph (2);

(B) the foreign country has promulgated or enacted all necessary modifications to its laws and regulations to comply with its obligations under the bilateral agreement with the United States; and

(C) the appropriate congressional committees will continue to receive notifications pursuant to the authorities, procedures, and practices of section 2776 of this title for defense exports to a foreign country to which that section would apply and without regard to any form of defense export licensing exemption otherwise available for that country.

(4) Definitions

In this section:

(A) Defense items

The term "defense items" means defense articles, defense services, and related technical data.

(B) Appropriate congressional committees

The term "appropriate congressional committees" means—

(i) the Committee on Foreign Affairs and the Committee on Appropriations of the House of Representatives; and

(ii) the Committee on Foreign Relations and the Committee on Appropriations of the Senate.

(k) Licensing of certain commerce-controlled items

(1) In general

A license or other approval from the Department of State granted in accordance with this section may also authorize the export of items subject to the Export Administration Regulations if such items are to be used in or with defense articles controlled on the United States Munitions List.

(2) Other requirements

The following requirements shall apply with respect to a license or other approval to authorize the export of items subject to the Export Administration Regulations under paragraph (1):

(A) Separate approval from the Department of Commerce shall not be required for such items if such items are approved for export under a Department of State license or other approval.

(B) Such items subject to the Export Administration Regulations that are exported pursuant to a Department of State license or other approval would remain under the jurisdiction of the Department of Commerce with respect to any subsequent transactions.

(C) The inclusion of the term "subject to the EAR" or any similar term on a Department of State license or approval shall not affect the jurisdiction with respect to such items.

(3) Definition

In this subsection, the term "Export Administration Regulations" means—

(A) the Export Administration Regulations as maintained and amended under the authority of the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701 et seq.); or

(B) any successor regulations.

(Pub. L. 90–629, ch. 3, §38, as added Pub. L. 94–329, title II, §212(a)(1), June 30, 1976, 90 Stat. 744; amended Pub. L. 95–92, §20, Aug. 4, 1977, 91 Stat. 623; Pub. L. 96–70, title III, §3303(a)(4), Sept. 27, 1979, 93 Stat. 499; Pub. L. 96–72, §22(a), Sept. 29, 1979, 93 Stat. 535; Pub. L. 96–92, §21, Oct. 29, 1979, 93 Stat. 710; Pub. L. 96–533, title I, §107(a), (c), Dec. 16, 1980, 94 Stat. 3136; Pub. L. 97–113, title I, §§106, 107, Dec. 29, 1981, 95 Stat. 1522; Pub. L. 99–64, title I, §123(a), July 12, 1985, 99 Stat. 156; Pub. L. 99–83, title I, §119(a), (b), Aug. 8, 1985, 99 Stat. 203, 204; Pub. L. 100–202, §101(b) [title VIII, §8142(a)], Dec. 22, 1987, 101 Stat. 1329–43, 1329-88; Pub. L. 100–204, title XII, §1255, Dec. 22, 1987, 101 Stat. 1429; Pub. L. 101–222, §§3(a), 6, Dec. 12, 1989, 103 Stat. 1896, 1899; Pub. L. 103–236, title VII, §714(a)(1), Apr. 30, 1994, 108 Stat. 497; Pub. L. 104–164, title I, §§151(a), 156, July 21, 1996, 110 Stat. 1437, 1440; Pub. L. 105–277, div. G, subdiv. A, title XII, §1225(a)(2), Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–773; Pub. L. 106–113, div. B, §1000(a)(7) [div. B, title XIII, §§1302(a), 1303, 1304], Nov. 29, 1999, 113 Stat. 1536, 1501A-510, 1501A-511; Pub. L. 106–280, title I, §102(a), (b), Oct. 6, 2000, 114 Stat. 846, 848; Pub. L. 107–228, div. B, title XIV, §1406, Sept. 30, 2002, 116 Stat. 1458; Pub. L. 108–458, title VI, §6910, Dec. 17, 2004, 118 Stat. 3774; Pub. L. 111–195, title I, §107(a)(2), July 1, 2010, 124 Stat. 1337; Pub. L. 111–266, title I, §§102(b)–103(c), Oct. 8, 2010, 124 Stat. 2797, 2799; Pub. L. 113–276, title II, §§204, 205, 208(a)(1), (3), (b)(1)(A), Dec. 18, 2014, 128 Stat. 2990–2993.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in text, was in the original "this Act", meaning Pub. L. 90–629, Oct. 22, 1968, 82 Stat. 1321, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2751 of this title and Tables.

The Export Administration Act of 1979, referred to in subsecs. (e) and (g)(1)(A)(ii), is Pub. L. 96–72, Sept. 29, 1979, 93 Stat. 503, which was classified principally to section 2401 et seq. of the former Appendix to Title 50, War and National Defense, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as chapter 56 (§4601 et seq.) of Title 50, and was repealed by Pub. L. 115–232, div. A, title XVII, §1766(a), Aug. 13, 2018, 132 Stat. 2232, except for sections 11A, 11B, and 11C thereof (50 U.S.C. 4611, 4612, 4613). Sections 11 and 12 of the Act were classified to sections 4610 and 4614, respectively, of Title 50 prior to repeal.

Section 104 of the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (15 U.S.C. 78dd–2), referred to in subsec. (g)(1)(A)(vi), probably means section 104 of the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977, which is classified to section 78dd–2 of Title 15, Commerce and Trade.

Sections 3, 4, 5, and 6 of the Prevention of Terrorist Access to Destructive Weapons Act of 2004, referred to in subsec. (g)(1)(A)(xii), probably means sections 6903, 6904, 6905, and 6906, respectively, of Pub. L. 108–458, which enacted section 2332g of Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure, amended sections 2122 and 2272 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, and enacted sections 2332h and 175c of Title 18.

The Immigration and Nationality Act, referred to in subsec. (g)(9)(C), is act June 27, 1952, ch. 477, 66 Stat. 163, as amended, which is classified principally to chapter 12 (§1101 et seq.) of Title 8, Aliens and Nationality. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1101 of Title 8 and Tables.

The International Emergency Economic Powers Act, referred to in subsec. (k)(3)(A), is title II of Pub. L. 95–223, Dec. 28, 1977, 91 Stat. 1626, which is classified generally to chapter 35 (§1701 et seq.) of Title 50, War and National Defense. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1701 of Title 50 and Tables.

Reference to Section 1934 of This Title Deemed Reference to This Section

Pub. L. 94–329, title II, §212(b)(1), June 30, 1976, 90 Stat. 745, provided in part that: "Any reference to such section [section 1934 of this title] shall be deemed to be a reference to section 38 of the Arms Export Control Act [this section] and any reference to licenses issued under section 38 of the Arms Export Control Act [this section] shall be deemed to include a reference to licenses issued under section 414 of the Mutual Security Act of 1954."

Amendments

2014—Subsec. (b)(1)(B), (C). Pub. L. 113–276, §208(b)(1)(A)(i), redesignated subpar. (B) relating to review by Secretary of the Treasury of munitions control registrations as (C).

Subsec. (f)(1). Pub. L. 113–276, §208(a)(1), substituted "the Speaker of the House of Representatives, the Committee on Foreign Affairs of the House of Representatives, and" for "the Speaker of the House of Representatives and".

Subsec. (f)(2). Pub. L. 113–276, §208(a)(3), substituted "Foreign Affairs" for "International Relations" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (f)(5). Pub. L. 113–276, §205(a), added par. (5).

Subsec. (f)(6). Pub. L. 113–276, §205(b), added par. (6).

Subsec. (g)(1)(A)(xi). Pub. L. 113–276, §208(b)(1)(A)(ii)(I), substituted ", or" for "; or".

Subsec. (g)(1)(A)(xii). Pub. L. 113–276, §208(b)(1)(A)(ii)(II), substituted "sections" for "section" and "(18 U.S.C. 175c)" for "(18 U.S.C. 175b)".

Subsec. (j)(2). Pub. L. 113–276, §208(b)(1)(A)(iii), inserted "in" before "paragraph (1)" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (j)(3), (4)(B)(i). Pub. L. 113–276, §208(a)(3), substituted "Foreign Affairs" for "International Relations".

Subsec. (k). Pub. L. 113–276, §204, added subsec. (k).

2010—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 111–266, §103(a), substituted "this section, section 2779 of this title, a treaty referred to in subsection (j)(1)(C)(i), or any rule or regulation issued under this section or section 2779 of this title, including any rule or regulation issued to implement or enforce a treaty referred to in subsection (j)(1)(C)(i) or an implementing arrangement pursuant to such treaty" for "this section or section 2779 of this title, or any rule or regulation issued under either section".

Pub. L. 111–195 substituted "20 years" for "ten years".

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 111–266, §103(b), substituted "defense services, including defense articles and defense services exported or imported pursuant to a treaty referred to in subsection (j)(1)(C)(i)," for "defense services,".

Subsec. (f)(4). Pub. L. 111–266, §103(c), added par. (4).

Subsec. (j)(1)(B). Pub. L. 111–266, §102(b)(1), inserted "for Canada" after "Exception" in heading.

Subsec. (j)(1)(C). Pub. L. 111–266, §102(b)(2), added subpar. (C).

2004—Subsec. (g)(1)(A)(xii). Pub. L. 108–458 added cl. (xii).

2002—Subsec. (f)(1). Pub. L. 107–228 substituted "The President may not remove any item from the Munitions List until 30 days after the date on which the President has provided notice of the proposed removal to the Committee on International Relations of the House of Representatives and to the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate in accordance with the procedures applicable to reprogramming notifications under section 2394–1(a) of this title. Such notice shall describe the nature of any controls to be imposed on that item under any other provision of law." for "Such a report shall be submitted at least 30 days before any item is removed from the Munitions List and shall describe the nature of any controls to be imposed on that item under the Export Administration Act of 1979."

2000—Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 106–280, §102(b), designated existing provisions as par. (1) and added pars. (2) and (3).

Subsec. (j). Pub. L. 106–280, §102(a), added subsec. (j).

1999—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 106–113, §1000(a)(7) [title XIII, §1303], in first sentence, inserted "section 11(c)(2)(B) of such Act shall not apply, and instead, as prescribed in regulations issued under this section, the Secretary of State may assess civil penalties for violations of this chapter and regulations prescribed thereunder and further may commence a civil action to recover such civil penalties, and except further that" after "except that".

Subsec. (g)(1)(A)(iii). Pub. L. 106–113, §1000(a)(7) [title XIII, §1304], inserted "or section 2339A of such title (relating to providing material support to terrorists)" before comma at end.

Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 106–113, §1000(a)(7) [title XIII, §1302(a)], added subsec. (i).

1998—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 105–277 substituted "take into account" for "be made in coordination with the Director of the United States Arms Control and Disarmament Agency, taking into account the Director's assessment as to" and struck out at end "The Director of the Arms Control and Disarmament Agency is authorized, whenever the Director determines that the issuance of an export license under this section would be detrimental to the national security of the United States, to recommend to the President that such export license be disapproved."

1996—Subsec. (b)(1)(A). Pub. L. 104–164, §151(a), designated existing provisions of subpar. (A) as cl. (i) and added cl. (ii).

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 104–164, §156, inserted before period at end of first sentence ", except that the names of the countries and the types and quantities of defense articles for which licenses are issued under this section shall not be withheld from public disclosure unless the President determines that the release of such information would be contrary to the national interest".

1994—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 103–236 amended par. (2) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (2) read as follows: "Decisions on issuing export licenses under this section shall be made in coordination with the Director of the United States Arms Control and Disarmament Agency and shall take into account the Director's opinion as to whether the export of an article will contribute to an arms race, support international terrorism, increase the possibility of outbreak or escalation of conflict, or prejudice the development of bilateral or multilateral arms control arrangements."

1989—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 101–222, §3(a), inserted "support international terrorism," after "arms race,".

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 101–222, §6, added subsec. (h).

1987—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 100–204, §1255(b), designated existing provisions as subpar. (A) and added subpar. (B) relating to review by Secretary of the Treasury of munitions control registrations.

Pub. L. 100–202 designated existing provisions as subpar. (A) and added subpar. (B) relating to allowance of return to United States of certain military firearms, etc., under certain circumstances.

Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 100–204, §1255(c), added par. (3).

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 100–204, §1255(a), added subsec. (g).

1985—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 99–83, §119(a), inserted "for each violation" before "not more" and substituted "$1,000,000" for "$100,000" and "ten" for "two".

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 99–83, §119(b), inserted provisions relating to civil penalty for each violation.

Pub. L. 99–64 substituted "(g)" for "(f)".

1981—Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 97–113, §106, struck out par. (3) which placed a $100,000,000 ceiling on commercial arms exports of major defense equipment to all countries other than NATO countries, Japan, Australia, and New Zealand.

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 97–113, §107, added subsec. (f).

1980—Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 96–533, §107(c), added par. (3).

Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 96–533, §107(a), increased the limitation in the sale of major defense equipment exports to $100,000,000 from $35,000,000.

1979—Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 96–92 increased the limitation in the sale of major defense equipment exports to $35,000,000 from $25,000,000.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 96–70 struck out subsec. (d) which provided that this section applies to and within the Canal Zone.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 96–72 substituted "subsections (c), (d), (e), and (f) of section 11 of the Export Administration Act of 1979, and by subsections (a) and (c) of section 12 of such Act" for "sections 6(c), (d), (e), and (f) and 7(a) and (c) of the Export Administration Act of 1969".

1977—Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 95–92 inserted provisions relating to exceptions to prohibitions against issuance of licenses under this section and procedures applicable for implementation of such exceptions.

Change of Name

Committee on International Relations of House of Representatives changed to Committee on Foreign Affairs of House of Representatives by House Resolution No. 6, One Hundred Tenth Congress, Jan. 5, 2007.

Effective Date of 1998 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 105–277 effective Apr. 1, 1999, see section 1201 of Pub. L. 105–277, set out as an Effective Date note under section 6511 of this title.

Effective Date of 1996 Amendment

Pub. L. 104–164, title I, §151(b), July 21, 1996, 110 Stat. 1438, provided that: "Section 38(b)(1)(A)(ii) of the Arms Export Control Act, as added by subsection (a) [22 U.S.C. 2778(b)(1)(A)(ii)], shall apply with respect to brokering activities engaged in beginning on or after 120 days after the enactment of this Act [July 21, 1996]."

Effective Date of 1987 Amendment

Pub. L. 100–202, §101(b) [title VIII, §8142(b)], Dec. 22, 1987, 101 Stat. 1329–43, 1329-88, provided that:

"(1) Except as provided in paragraphs (2) and (3), subparagraph (B) of section 38(b)(1) of the Arms Export Control Act [subsec. (b)(1)(B) of this section], as added by subsection (a), shall take effect at the end of the ninety-day period beginning on the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 22, 1987].

"(2)(A) Such subparagraph shall take effect on the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 22, 1987] with respect to any military firearms or ammunition (or components, parts, accessories and attachments for such firearms) with respect to which an import permit was issued by the Secretary of the Treasury on or after July 1, 1986, irrespective of whether such import permit was subsequently suspended, revoked, or withdrawn by the Secretary of the Treasury based on the application of section 38(b)(1) of the Arms Export Control Act [subsec. (b)(1) of this section] as in effect on the day before the date of the enactment of this Act.

"(B) In the case of an import permit described in subparagraph (A) which was suspended, revoked, or withdrawn by the Secretary of the Treasury during the period beginning on July 1, 1986, and ending on the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 22, 1987] under the conditions described in such subparagraph, such import permit shall be reinstated and reissued immediately upon the enactment of this Act, and in any event not later than ten days after the date of the enactment of this Act.

"(3) During the period preceding the revision of regulations issued under section 38(b)(1) of the Arms Export Control Act [subsec. (b)(1) of this section] to reflect the provisions of subparagraph (B) of such section, as added by subsection (a), such regulations may not be applied with respect to matters covered by paragraph (2) of this subsection so as to prohibit or otherwise restrict the importation of firearms described in that paragraph or in any other manner inconsistent with that paragraph, notwithstanding that such regulations have not yet been so revised: Provided, That this section shall not take effect if during the twenty day period beginning on the date of enactment of this section [Dec. 22, 1987] the Secretary of State, the Secretary of Defense, or the Secretary of the Treasury notifies Congress that he has an objection to the intent of this section: Provided further, That the Attorney General shall, within the period of time stated in the first proviso, submit a certification to Congress indicating whether the enactment of this section will interfere with any ongoing criminal investigation with respect to this section. If a certification of criminal investigative interference or an objection to the intent of this section is made, as herein provided, no permit shall be issued to anyone."

Effective Date of 1985 Amendment

Pub. L. 99–83, title I, §119(c), Aug. 8, 1985, 99 Stat. 204, provided that: "This section [amending this section] shall take effect upon the date of enactment of this Act [Aug. 8, 1985] or October 1, 1985, whichever is later. The amendments made by this section apply with respect to violations occurring after the effective date of this section."

Effective Date of 1979 Amendments

Amendment by Pub. L. 96–72 effective upon the expiration of the Export Administration Act of 1969, which terminated on Sept. 30, 1979, or upon any prior date which the Congress by concurrent resolution or the President by proclamation designated, see Pub. L. 96–72, §19(a), Sept. 29, 1979, 93 Stat. 535, which was classified to section 4621 of Title 50, War and National Defense, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 115–232, div. A, title XVII, §1766(a), Aug. 13, 2018, 132 Stat. 2232.

Amendment by Pub. L. 96–70 effective Oct. 1, 1979, see section 3304 of Pub. L. 96–70, set out as an Effective Date note under section 3601 of this title.

Regulations

Pub. L. 111–266, title I, §106, Oct. 8, 2010, 124 Stat. 2802, provided that: "The President is authorized to issue regulations pursuant to the Arms Export Control Act (22 U.S.C. 2751 et seq.) to implement and enforce the Treaty Between the Government of the United States of America and the Government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland Concerning Defense Trade Cooperation, done at Washington and London on June 21 and 26, 2007 (and any implementing arrangement thereto) and the Treaty Between the Government of the United States of America and the Government of Australia Concerning Defense Trade Cooperation, done at Sydney, September 5, 2007 (and any implementing arrangement thereto), consistent with other applicable provisions of the Arms Export Control Act, as amended by this Act [see Short Title of 2010 Amendment notes set out under section 2751 of this title], and with the terms of any resolution of advice and consent adopted by the Senate with respect to either treaty."

Rule of Construction

Pub. L. 111–266, title I, §107, Oct. 8, 2010, 124 Stat. 2802, provided that: "Nothing in this title [see section 101 of Pub. L. 111–266, set out as a Short Title of 2010 Amendment note under section 2751 of this title], the Treaty Between the Government of the United States of America and the Government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland Concerning Defense Trade Cooperation, done at Washington and London on June 21 and 26, 2007 (and any implementing arrangement thereto), the Treaty Between the Government of the United States of America and the Government of Australia Concerning Defense Trade Cooperation, done at Sydney, September 5, 2007 (and any implementing arrangement thereto), or in any regulation issued to implement either treaty, shall be construed to modify or supersede any provision of law or regulation other than the Arms Export Control Act (22 U.S.C. 2751 et seq.), as amended by this Act [see Short Title of 2010 Amendment notes set out under section 2751 of this title], and the International Traffic in Arms Regulations (subchapter M of chapter I of title 22, Code of Federal Regulations)."

Delegation of Functions

For delegation of functions of the President under this section, with certain conditions, see section 1(n) of Ex. Ord. No. 13637, Mar. 8, 2013, 78 F.R. 16130, set out as a note under section 2751 of this title. Functions were previously delegated by Ex. Ord. No. 11958, which was formerly set out as a note under section 2751 of this title and was revoked, subject to a savings provision, by section 4 of Ex. Ord. No. 13637.

Satellites and Related Items

Pub. L. 112–239, div. A, title XII, subtitle E, Jan. 2, 2013, 126 Stat. 2018, provided that:

"SEC. 1261. REMOVAL OF SATELLITES AND RELATED ITEMS FROM THE UNITED STATES MUNITIONS LIST.

"(a) Repeal.—[Amended section 1513 of Pub. L. 105–261, set out in a note below.]

"(b) Additional Determination and Report.—Accompanying but separate from the submission to Congress of the first notification after the date of the enactment of this Act [Jan. 2, 2013] under section 38(f) of the Arms Export Control Act (22 U.S.C. 2778(f)) relating to the removal of satellites and related items from the United States Munitions List, the President shall also submit to Congress—

"(1) a determination by the President that the removal of such satellites and items from the United States Munitions List is in the national security interests of the United States; and

"(2) a report identifying and analyzing any differences between—

"(A) the recommendations and draft regulations for controlling the export, re-export, and transfer of such satellites and related items that were submitted in the report to Congress required by section 1248 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2010 (Public Law 111–84; 123 Stat. 2546); and

"(B) the final regulations under which the export, re-export, and transfer of such satellites and related items would continue to be controlled.

"(c) Prohibition.—

"(1) In general.—Subject to paragraph (3), no satellites or related items that are made subject to the Export Administration Regulations (15 CFR part 730 et seq.) as a result of the enactment of subsection (a) of this section, whether or not enumerated on the Commerce Control List—

"(A) may be exported, re-exported, or transferred, directly or indirectly, to—

"(i) any government of a country described in paragraph (2); or

"(ii) any entity or person in or acting for or on behalf of such government, entity, or person; or

"(B) may be launched in a country described in paragraph (2) or as part of a launch vehicle owned, operated, or manufactured by the government of such country or any entity or person in or acting for or on behalf of such government, entity, or person.

"(2) Countries described.—The countries referred to in paragraph (1) are the following:

"(A) The People's Republic of China.

"(B) North Korea.

"(C) Any country that is a state sponsor of terrorism.

"(3) Waiver.—The President may waive the prohibition in paragraph (1) on a case-by-case basis if not later than 30 days before doing so the President—

"(A) determines that it is in the national interest of the United States to do so; and

"(B) notifies the appropriate congressional committees of such determination.

"(d) Presumption of Denial.—Any license or other authorization to export satellites and related items to a country with respect to which the United States maintains a comprehensive arms embargo shall be subject to a presumption of denial.

"(e) Report.—

"(1) In general.—Not later than one year after the date of the enactment of this Act, and annually thereafter, the Director of National Intelligence, in consultation with the Secretary of State, shall submit to the appropriate congressional committees a report on efforts of state sponsors of terrorism, other foreign countries, or entities to illicitly acquire satellites and related items.

"(2) Form.—The report required by paragraph (1) shall be submitted in unclassified form, but may contain a classified annex.

"SEC. 1262. REPORT ON LICENSES AND OTHER AUTHORIZATIONS TO EXPORT CERTAIN SATELLITES AND RELATED ITEMS.

"(a) In General.—Not later than 60 days after the end of each calendar year through 2020, the President shall submit to the committees of Congress specified in subsection (b) a report summarizing all licenses and other authorizations to export satellites and related items that are subject to the Export Administration Regulations (15 CFR part 730 et seq.) as a result of the enactment of section 1261(a).

"(b) Committees of Congress Specified.—The committees of Congress specified in this subsection are—

"(1) the Committee on Foreign Relations, the Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs, and the Select Committee on Intelligence of the Senate; and

"(2) the Committee on Foreign Affairs and the Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence of the House of Representatives.

"SEC. 1263. REPORT ON COUNTRY EXEMPTIONS FOR LICENSING OF EXPORTS OF CERTAIN SATELLITES AND RELATED ITEMS.

"(a) In General.—Not later than 120 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Jan. 2, 2013], the Secretary of Commerce, in consultation with the Attorney General, the Secretary of Homeland Security, and the heads of other Federal departments and agencies as appropriate, shall submit to the appropriate congressional committees a report that contains an assessment of the extent to which the terms and conditions of exemptions for foreign countries to the licensing requirements and other authorizations to export satellites and related items that are subject to the Export Administration Regulations (15 CFR part 730 et seq.) as a result of the enactment of section 1261(a) contain strong safeguards.

"(b) Matters to Be Included.—The report required by subsection (a) shall include a description of the extent to which the terms and conditions of exemptions described in subsection (a), including other relevant laws, regulations, and practices, support law enforcement efforts to detect, prevent, and prosecute criminal, administrative, and other violations of any provision of the Export Administration Regulations (15 CFR part 730 et seq.), including efforts on the part of state sponsors of terrorism, organizations determined by the Secretary of State to have provided support for international terrorism, or other foreign countries, to acquire illicitly satellites and related items from the United States.

"SEC. 1264. END-USE MONITORING OF CERTAIN SATELLITES AND RELATED ITEMS.

"(a) In General.—In order to ensure accountability with respect to the export of satellites and related items that become subject to the Export Administration Regulations (15 CFR part 730 et seq.) as a result of the enactment of section 1261(a), the President shall provide for the end-use monitoring of such satellites and related items.

"(b) Report.—Not later than 120 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Jan. 2, 2013], the Secretary of Commerce, in consultation with the heads of other Federal departments and agencies as appropriate, shall submit to Congress a report describing the actions taken to implement this section, including identification of resource shortfalls or other constraints on effective end-use monitoring of satellites and related items described in subsection (a).

"SEC. 1265. INTERAGENCY REVIEW OF MODIFICATIONS TO CATEGORY XV OF THE UNITED STATES MUNITIONS LIST.

"(a) In General.—Subject to section 38(f) of the Arms Export Control Act (22 U.S.C. 2778(f)), the President shall ensure that the Secretary of State, the Secretary of Defense, the Secretary of Commerce and, as appropriate, the Director of National Intelligence and the heads of other appropriate Federal departments and agencies, will review any removal or addition of an item to Category XV of the United States Munitions List (relating to spacecraft systems and associated equipment).

"(b) Effective Date.—The requirement of subsection (a) shall apply with respect to any item described in subsection (a) that is proposed to be removed or added to Category XV of the United States Munitions List on or after the date of the enactment of this Act [Jan. 2, 2013].

"SEC. 1266. RULES OF CONSTRUCTION.

"(a) In General.—Subtitle B of title XV of the Strom Thurmond National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1999 (Public Law 105–261; 112 Stat. 2173; 22 U.S.C. 2778 note) shall continue to apply to satellites and related items that are subject to the Export Administration Regulations (15 CFR part 730 et seq.) as a result of the enactment of section 1261(a).

"(b) Additional Rule.—Nothing in this subtitle or any amendment made by this subtitle shall be construed as removing or limiting the authorities of the President under subsection (a) or (b) of section 1514 of the Strom Thurmond National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1999 (Public Law 105–261; 112 Stat. 2175; 22 U.S.C. 2778 note) with respect to defense articles and defense services that remain subject to the jurisdiction of the International Traffic in Arms Regulations.

"SEC. 1267. DEFINITIONS.

"In this subtitle:

"(1) Appropriate congressional committees.—The term 'appropriate congressional committees' means—

"(A) the Committee on Foreign Relations, the Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs, the Committee on Armed Services, and the Select Committee on Intelligence of the Senate; and

"(B) the Committee on Foreign Affairs, the Committee on Armed Services, and the Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence of the House of Representatives.

"(2) State sponsor of terrorism.—The term 'state sponsor of terrorism' means any country the government of which the Secretary of State has determined has repeatedly provided support for international terrorism pursuant to—

"(A) [former] section 6(j) of the Export Administration Act of 1979 (50 U.S.C. App. 2405) [former 50 U.S.C. 4605(j)] (as continued in effect under the International Emergency Economic Powers Act [50 U.S.C. 1701 et seq.]);

"(B) section 620A of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 (22 U.S.C. 2371);

"(C) section 40 of the Arms Export Control Act (22 U.S.C. 2780); or

"(D) any other provision of law.

"(3) United states munitions list.—The term 'United States Munitions List' means the list referred to in section 38(a)(1) of the Arms Export Control Act (22 U.S.C. 2778(a)(1))."

[Memorandum of President of the United States, Oct. 28, 2013, 78 F.R. 71985, delegated to the Secretary of State, in consultation with the heads of other executive departments and agencies, the functions of the President under section 1261(b) of Pub. L. 112–239, set out above, and to the Secretary of Commerce the functions of the President under section 1262(a) of Pub. L. 112–239, set out above.]

Limitation on Implementing Arrangements

Pub. L. 111–266, title I, §105, Oct. 8, 2010, 124 Stat. 2800, provided that:

"(a) In General.—No amendment to an implementing arrangement concluded pursuant to a treaty referred to in section 38(j)(1)(C)(i) of the Arms Export Control Act, as added by this Act [22 U.S.C. 2778(j)(1)(C)(i)], shall enter into effect for the United States unless the Congress adopts, and there is enacted, legislation approving the entry into effect of that amendment for the United States.

"(b) Covered Amendments.—

"(1) In general.—The requirements specified in subsection (a) shall apply to any amendment other than an amendment that addresses an administrative or technical matter. The requirements in subsection (a) shall not apply to any amendment that solely addresses an administrative or technical matter.

"(2) U.S.-UK implementing arrangement.—In the case of the Implementing Arrangement Pursuant to the Treaty Between the Government of the United States of America and the Government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland Concerning Defense Trade Cooperation, signed at Washington February 14, 2008, amendments to which the requirements specified in subsection (a) apply shall include—

"(A) any amendment to section 2, paragraphs (1), (2), or (3) that modifies the criteria governing operations, programs, and projects to which the treaty applies;

"(B) any amendment to section 3, paragraphs (1) or (2) that modifies the criteria governing end-use requirements and the requirements for approved community members responding to United States Government solicitations;

"(C) any amendment to section 4, paragraph (4) that modifies the criteria for including items on the list of defense articles exempt from the treaty;

"(D) any amendment to section 4, paragraph (7) that modifies licensing and other applicable requirements relating to items added to the list of defense articles exempt from the scope of the treaty;

"(E) any amendment to section 7, paragraph (4) that modifies the criteria for eligibility in the approved community under the treaty for nongovernmental United Kingdom entities and facilities;

"(F) any amendment to section 7, paragraph (9) that modifies the conditions for suspending or removing a United Kingdom entity from the approved community under the treaty;

"(G) any amendment to section 7, paragraphs (11) or (12) that modifies the conditions under which individuals may be granted access to defense articles exported under the treaty;

"(H) any amendment to section 9, paragraphs (1), (3), (7), (8), (9), (12), or (13) that modifies the circumstances under which United States Government approval is required for the re-transfer or re-export of a defense article, or to exceptions to such requirement; and

"(I) any amendment to section 11, paragraph (4)(b) that modifies conditions of entry to the United Kingdom community under the treaty.

"(3) U.S.-Australia implementing arrangement.—In the case of the Implementing Arrangement Pursuant to the Treaty Between the Government of the United States of America and the Government of the [sic] Australia Concerning Defense Trade Cooperation, signed at Washington March 14, 2008, amendments to which the requirements specified in subsection (a) apply shall include—

"(A) any amendment to section 2, paragraphs (1), (2), or (3) that modifies the criteria governing operations, programs, and projects to which the treaty applies;

"(B) any amendment to section 3, paragraphs (1) or (2) that modifies the criteria governing end-use requirements and the requirements for approved community members responding to United States Government solicitations;

"(C) any amendment to section 4, paragraph (4) that modifies criteria for including items on the list of defense articles exempt from the scope of the treaty;

"(D) any amendment to section 4, paragraph (7) that modifies licensing and other applicable requirements relating to items added to the list of defense articles exempt from the scope of the treaty;

"(E) any amendment to section 6, paragraph (4) that modifies the criteria for eligibility in the approved community under the treaty for nongovernmental Australian entities and facilities;

"(F) any amendment to section 6, paragraph (9) that modifies the conditions for suspending or removing an Australian entity from the Australia community under the treaty;

"(G) any amendment to section 6, paragraphs (11), (12), (13), or (14) that modifies the conditions under which individuals may be granted access to defense articles exported under the treaty;

"(H) any amendment to section 9, paragraphs (1), (2), (4), (7), or (8) that modifies the circumstances under which United States Government approval is required for the re-transfer or re-export of a defense article, or to exceptions to such requirement; and

"(I) any amendment to section 11, paragraph (6) that modifies conditions of entry to the Australian community under the treaty.

"(c) Congressional Notification for Other Amendments To Implementing Arrangements.—Not later than 15 days before any amendment to an implementing arrangement to which subsection (a) does not apply shall take effect, the President shall provide to the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate and the Committee on Foreign Affairs of the House of Representatives a report containing—

"(1) the text of the amendment; and

"(2) an analysis of the amendment's effect, including an analysis regarding why subsection (a) does not apply."

[Memorandum of President of the United States, Feb. 20, 2013, 78 F.R. 13997, delegated to the Secretary of State (1) the function of the President to make all certifications, reports, and notifications to Congress prior to entry into force of the Treaty Between the Government of the United States of America and the Government of Australia Concerning Defense Trade Cooperation, as well as to provide annual reports thereafter, consistent with section 2 of the Senate Resolution of Advice and Consent to Ratification of the Treaty, dated Sept. 29, 2010, and (2) the responsibility of the President, under Pub. L. 111–266, to provide congressional notification of amendments to the implementing arrangements that are made pursuant to section 105(c) of Pub. L. 111–266, set out above.]

[Memorandum of President of the United States, Mar. 6, 2012, 77 F.R. 15231, delegated to the Secretary of State, in consultation with the heads of other executive departments and agencies, (1) the function of the President to make all certifications, reports, and notifications to Congress prior to entry into force of the Treaty Between the Government of the United States of America and the Government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland Concerning Defense Trade Cooperation, as well as to provide annual reports thereafter, consistent with section 2 of the Senate Resolution of Advice and Consent to Ratification of the Treaty, dated Sept. 29, 2010, and (2) the responsibility of the President under Pub. L. 111–266, to provide congressional notification of amendments to the Implementing Arrangements that are made pursuant to section 105(c) of Pub. L. 111–266, set out above.]

Information Management Priorities

Pub. L. 107–228, div. B, title XIV, §1403, Sept. 30, 2002, 116 Stat. 1453, provided that:

"(a) Objective.—The Secretary shall establish a secure, Internet-based system for the filing and review of applications for export of Munitions List items.

"(b) Establishment of an Electronic System.—Of the amount made available pursuant to section 1402 of this Act [116 Stat. 1453], $3,000,000 is authorized to be available to fully automate the Defense Trade Application System, and to ensure that the system—

"(1) is a secure, electronic system for the filing and review of Munitions List license applications;

"(2) is accessible by United States companies through the Internet for the purpose of filing and tracking their Munitions List license applications; and

"(3) is capable of exchanging data with—

"(A) the Export Control Automated Support System of the Department of Commerce;

"(B) the Foreign Disclosure and Technology Information System and the USXPORTS systems of the Department of Defense;

"(C) the Export Control System of the Central Intelligence Agency; and

"(D) the Proliferation Information Network System of the Department of Energy.

"(c) Munitions List Defined.—In this section, the term 'Munitions List' means the United States Munitions List of defense articles and defense services controlled under section 38 of the Arms Export Control Act (22 U.S.C. 2778)."

[For definition of "Secretary" as used in section 1403 of Pub. L. 107–228, set out above, see section 3 of Pub. L. 107–228, set out as a note under section 2651 of this title.]

Effective Regulation of Satellite Export Activities

Pub. L. 106–113, div. B, §1000(a)(7) [div. B, title XIII, §1309], Nov. 29, 1999, 113 Stat. 1536, 1501A-513, provided that:

"(a) Licensing regime.—

"(1) Establishment.—The Secretary of State shall establish a regulatory regime for the licensing for export of commercial satellites, satellite technologies, their components, and systems which shall include expedited approval, as appropriate, of the licensing for export by United States companies of commercial satellites, satellite technologies, their components, and systems, to NATO allies and major non-NATO allies (as used within the meaning of section 644(q) of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 [22 U.S.C. 2403(q)]).

"(2) Requirements.—For proposed exports to those nations which meet the requirements of paragraph (1), the regime should include expedited processing of requests for export authorizations that—

"(A) are time-critical, including a transfer or exchange of information relating to a satellite failure or anomaly in-flight or on-orbit;

"(B) are required to submit bids to procurements offered by foreign persons;

"(C) relate to the re-export of unimproved materials, products, or data; or

"(D) are required to obtain launch and on-orbit insurance.

"(3) Additional requirements.—In establishing the regulatory regime under paragraph (1), the Secretary of State shall ensure that—

"(A) United States national security considerations and United States obligations under the Missile Technology Control Regime are given priority in the evaluation of any license; and

"(B) such time is afforded as is necessary for the Department of Defense, the Department of State, and the United States intelligence community to conduct a review of any license.

"(b) Financial and Personnel Resources.—Of the funds authorized to be appropriated in section 101(1)(A) [113 Stat. 1501A–410], $9,000,000 is authorized to be appropriated for the Office of Defense Trade Controls of the Department of State for each of the fiscal years 2000 and 2001, to enable that office to carry out its responsibilities.

"(c) Improvement and Assessment.—The Secretary of State should, not later than 6 months after the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 29, 1999], submit to the Congress a plan for—

"(1) continuously gathering industry and public suggestions for potential improvements in the Department of State's export control regime for commercial satellites; and

"(2) arranging for the conduct and submission to Congress, not later than 15 months after the date of the enactment of this Act, of an independent review of the export control regime for commercial satellites as to its effectiveness at promoting national security and economic competitiveness."

Proliferation and Export Controls

Pub. L. 106–65, div. A, title XIV, §§1402–1405, 1408–1412, Oct. 5, 1999, 113 Stat. 798–804, as amended by Pub. L. 106–398, §1 [[div. A], title XII, §1204], Oct. 30, 2000, 114 Stat. 1654, 1654A-325; Pub. L. 107–107, div. A, title X, §1048(g)(8), Dec. 28, 2001, 115 Stat. 1228, provided that:

"SEC. 1402. ANNUAL REPORT ON TRANSFERS OF MILITARILY SENSITIVE TECHNOLOGY TO COUNTRIES AND ENTITIES OF CONCERN

"(a) Annual Report.—Not later than March 30 of each year beginning in the year 2000 and ending in the year 2007, the President shall transmit to Congress a report on transfers to countries and entities of concern during the preceding calendar year of the most significant categories of United States technologies and technical information with potential military applications.

"(b) Contents of Report.—The report required by subsection (a) shall include, at a minimum, the following:

"(1) An assessment by the Director of Central Intelligence of efforts by countries and entities of concern to acquire technologies and technical information referred to in subsection (a) during the preceding calendar year.

"(2) An assessment by the Secretary of Defense, in consultation with the Joint Chiefs of Staff and the Director of Central Intelligence, of the cumulative impact of licenses granted by the United States for exports of technologies and technical information referred to in subsection (a) to countries and entities of concern during the preceding 5-calendar year period on—

"(A) the military capabilities of such countries and entities; and

"(B) countermeasures that may be necessary to overcome the use of such technologies and technical information.

"(3) An audit by the Inspectors General of the Departments of Defense, State, Commerce, and Energy, in consultation with the Director of Central Intelligence and the Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation, of the policies and procedures of the United States Government with respect to the export of technologies and technical information referred to in subsection (a) to countries and entities of concern.

"(4) The status of the implementation or other disposition of recommendations included in reports of audits by Inspectors General that have been set forth in a previous annual report under this section pursuant to paragraph (3).

"(c) Additional Requirement for First Report.—The first annual report required by subsection (a) shall include an assessment by the Inspectors General of the Departments of State, Defense, Commerce, and the Treasury and the Inspector General of the Central Intelligence Agency of the adequacy of current export controls and counterintelligence measures to protect against the acquisition by countries and entities of concern of United States technology and technical information referred to in subsection (a).

"(d) Support of Other Agencies.—Upon the request of the officials responsible for preparing the assessments required by subsection (b), the heads of other departments and agencies shall make available to those officials all information necessary to carry out the requirements of this section.

"(e) Classified and Unclassified Reports.—Each report required by this section shall be submitted in classified form and unclassified form.

"(f) Definition.—As used in this section, the term 'countries and entities of concern' means—

"(1) any country the government of which the Secretary of State has determined, for purposes of [former] section 6(j) of the Export Administration Act of 1979 [former 50 U.S.C. 4605(j)] or other applicable law, to have repeatedly provided support for acts of international terrorism;

"(2) any country that—

"(A) has detonated a nuclear explosive device (as defined in section 830(4) of the Nuclear Proliferation Prevention Act of 1994 (22 U.S.C. 6305(4))); and

"(B) is not a member of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization; and

"(3) any entity that—

"(A) is engaged in international terrorism or activities in preparation thereof; or

"(B) is directed or controlled by the government of a country described in paragraph (1) or (2).

"SEC. 1403. RESOURCES FOR EXPORT LICENSE FUNCTIONS

"(a) Office of Defense Trade Controls.—

"(1) In general.—The Secretary of State shall take the necessary steps to ensure that, in any fiscal year, adequate resources are allocated to the functions of the Office of Defense Trade Controls of the Department of State relating to the review and processing of export license applications so as to ensure that those functions are performed in a thorough and timely manner.

"(2) Availability of existing appropriations.—The Secretary of State shall take the necessary steps to ensure that those funds made available under the heading 'Administration of Foreign Affairs, Diplomatic and Consular Programs' in title IV of the Departments of Commerce, Justice, and State, the Judiciary, and Related Agencies Appropriations Act, 1999, as contained in the Omnibus Consolidated and Emergency Supplemental Appropriations Act, 1999 (Public Law 105–277) [112 Stat. 2681–92] are made available, upon the enactment of this Act, to the Office of Defense Trade Controls of the Department of State to carry out the purposes of the Office.

"(b) Defense Threat Reduction Agency.—The Secretary of Defense shall take the necessary steps to ensure that, in any fiscal year, adequate resources are allocated to the functions of the Defense Threat Reduction Agency of the Department of Defense relating to the review of export license applications so as to ensure that those functions are performed in a thorough and timely manner.

"(c) Updating of State Department Report.—Not later than March 1, 2000, the Secretary of State, in consultation with the Secretary of Defense and the Secretary of Commerce, shall transmit to Congress a report updating the information reported to Congress under section 1513(d)(3) of the Strom Thurmond National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1999 [Pub. L. 105–261] (22 U.S.C. 2778 note).

"SEC. 1404. SECURITY IN CONNECTION WITH SATELLITE EXPORT LICENSING

"As a condition of the export license for any satellite to be launched in a country subject to section 1514 of the Strom Thurmond National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1999 [Pub. L. 105–261] (22 U.S.C. 2778 note), the Secretary of State shall require the following:

"(1) That the technology transfer control plan required by section 1514(a)(1) of the Strom Thurmond National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1999 (22 U.S.C. 2778 note) be prepared by the Department of Defense and the licensee, and that the plan set forth enhanced security arrangements for the launch of the satellite, both before and during launch operations.

"(2) That each person providing security for the launch of that satellite—

"(A) report directly to the launch monitor with regard to issues relevant to the technology transfer control plan;

"(B) have received appropriate training in the International Trafficking in Arms Regulations (hereafter in this title [enacting this note and amending provisions set out as a note under section 4604 of Title 50, War and National Defense] referred to as 'ITAR').

"(C) have significant experience and expertise with satellite launches; and

"(D) have been investigated in a manner at least as comprehensive as the investigation required for the issuance of a security clearance at the level designated as 'Secret'.

"(3) That the number of such persons providing security for the launch of the satellite shall be sufficient to maintain 24-hour security of the satellite and related launch vehicle and other sensitive technology.

"(4) That the licensee agree to reimburse the Department of Defense for all costs associated with the provision of security for the launch of the satellite.

"SEC. 1405. REPORTING OF TECHNOLOGY TRANSMITTED TO PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA AND OF FOREIGN LAUNCH SECURITY VIOLATIONS

"(a) Monitoring of Information.—The Secretary of Defense shall require that space launch monitors of the Department of Defense assigned to monitor launches in the People's Republic of China maintain records of all information authorized to be transmitted to the People's Republic of China with regard to each space launch that the monitors are responsible for monitoring, including copies of any documents authorized for such transmission, and reports on launch-related activities.

"(b) Transmission to Other Agencies.—The Secretary of Defense shall ensure that records under subsection (a) are transmitted on a current basis to appropriate elements of the Department of Defense and to the Department of State, the Department of Commerce, and the Central Intelligence Agency.

"(c) Retention of Records.—Records described in subsection (a) shall be retained for at least the period of the statute of limitations for violations of the Arms Export Control Act [22 U.S.C. 2751 et seq.].

"(d) Guidelines.—The Secretary of Defense shall prescribe guidelines providing space launch monitors of the Department of Defense with the responsibility and the ability to report serious security violations, problems, or other issues at an overseas launch site directly to the headquarters office of the responsible Department of Defense component.

"SEC. 1408. ENHANCED MULTILATERAL EXPORT CONTROLS

"(a) New International Controls.—The President shall seek to establish new enhanced international controls on technology transfers that threaten international peace and United States national security.

"(b) Improved Sharing of Information.—The President shall take appropriate actions to improve the sharing of information by nations that are major exporters of technology so that the United States can track movements of technology covered by the Wassenaar Arrangement and enforce technology controls and re-export requirements for such technology.

"(c) Definition.—As used in this section, the term 'Wassenaar Arrangement' means the multilateral export control regime covering conventional armaments and sensitive dual-use goods and technologies that was agreed to by 33 co-founding countries in July 1996 and began operation in September 1996.

"SEC. 1409. ENHANCEMENT OF ACTIVITIES OF DEFENSE THREAT REDUCTION AGENCY

"(a) In General.—Not later than 180 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 5, 1999], the Secretary of Defense shall prescribe regulations to—

"(1) authorize the personnel of the Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA) who monitor satellite launch campaigns overseas to suspend such campaigns at any time if the suspension is required for purposes of the national security of the United States;

"(2) ensure that persons assigned as space launch campaign monitors are provided sufficient training and have adequate experience in the regulations prescribed by the Secretary of State known as the ITAR and have significant experience and expertise with satellite technology, launch vehicle technology, and launch operations technology;

"(3) ensure that adequate numbers of such monitors are assigned to space launch campaigns so that 24-hour, 7-day per week coverage is provided;

"(4) take steps to ensure, to the maximum extent possible, the continuity of service by monitors for the entire space launch campaign period (from satellite marketing to launch and, if necessary, completion of a launch failure analysis);

"(5) adopt measures designed to make service as a space launch campaign monitor an attractive career opportunity;

"(6) allocate funds and other resources to the Agency at levels sufficient to prevent any shortfalls in the number of such personnel;

"(7) establish mechanisms in accordance with the provisions of section 1514(a)(2)(A) of the Strom Thurmond National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1999 (Public Law 105–261; 112 Stat. 2175; 22 U.S.C. 2778 note) that provide for—

"(A) the payment to the Department of Defense by the person or entity receiving the launch monitoring services concerned, before the beginning of a fiscal year, of an amount equal to the amount estimated to be required by the Department to monitor the launch campaigns during that fiscal year;

"(B) the reimbursement of the Department of Defense, at the end of each fiscal year, for amounts expended by the Department in monitoring the launch campaigns in excess of the amount provided under subparagraph (A); and

"(C) the reimbursement of the person or entity receiving the launch monitoring services if the amount provided under subparagraph (A) exceeds the amount actually expended by the Department of Defense in monitoring the launch campaigns;

"(8) review and improve guidelines on the scope of permissible discussions with foreign persons regarding technology and technical information, including the technology and technical information that should not be included in such discussions;

"(9) provide, in conjunction with other Federal agencies, on at least an annual basis, briefings to the officers and employees of United States commercial satellite entities on United States export license standards, guidelines, and restrictions, and encourage such officers and employees to participate in such briefings;

"(10) establish a system for—

"(A) the preparation and filing by personnel of the Agency who monitor satellite launch campaigns overseas of detailed reports of all relevant activities observed by such personnel in the course of monitoring such campaigns;

"(B) the systematic archiving of reports filed under subparagraph (A); and

"(C) the preservation of such reports in accordance with applicable laws; and

"(11) establish a counterintelligence program within the Agency as part of its satellite launch monitoring program.

"(b) Annual Report on Implementation of Satellite Technology Safeguards.—(1) The Secretary of Defense and the Secretary of State shall each submit to Congress each year, as part of the annual report for that year under section 1514(a)(8) of the Strom Thurmond National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1999 [Pub. L. 105–261, 22 U.S.C. 2778 note], the following:

"(A) A summary of the satellite launch campaigns and related activities monitored by the Defense Threat Reduction Agency during the preceding fiscal year.

"(B) A description of any license infractions or violations that may have occurred during such campaigns and activities.

"(C) A description of the personnel, funds, and other resources dedicated to the satellite launch monitoring program of the Agency during that fiscal year.

"(D) An assessment of the record of United States satellite makers in cooperating with Agency monitors, and in complying with United States export control laws, during that fiscal year.

"(2) Each report under paragraph (1) shall be submitted in classified form and unclassified form.

"SEC. 1410. TIMELY NOTIFICATION OF LICENSING DECISIONS BY THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE

"Not later than 180 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 5, 1999], the Secretary of State shall prescribe regulations to provide timely notice to the manufacturer of a commercial satellite of United States origin of the final determination of the decision on the application for a license involving the overseas launch of such satellite.

"SEC. 1411. ENHANCED INTELLIGENCE CONSULTATION ON SATELLITE LICENSE APPLICATIONS

"(a) Consultation During Review of Applications.—The Secretary of State and Secretary of Defense, as appropriate, shall consult with the Director of Central Intelligence during the review of any application for a license involving the overseas launch of a commercial satellite of United States origin. The purpose of the consultation is to assure that the launch of the satellite, if the license is approved, will meet the requirements necessary to protect the national security interests of the United States.

"(b) Advisory Group.—(1) The Director of Central Intelligence shall establish within the intelligence community an advisory group to provide information and analysis to Congress, and to appropriate departments and agencies of the Federal Government, on the national security implications of granting licenses involving the overseas launch of commercial satellites of United States origin.

"(2) The advisory group shall include technically-qualified representatives of the Central Intelligence Agency, the Defense Intelligence Agency, the National Security Agency, the National Air Intelligence Center, and the Department of State Bureau of Intelligence and Research and representatives of other elements of the intelligence community with appropriate expertise.

"(3) In addition to the duties under paragraph (1), the advisory group shall—

"(A) review, on a continuing basis, information relating to transfers of satellite, launch vehicle, or other technology or knowledge with respect to the course of the overseas launch of commercial satellites of United States origin; and

"(B) analyze the potential impact of such transfers on the space and military systems, programs, or activities of foreign countries.

"(4) The Director of the Nonproliferation Center of the Central Intelligence Agency shall serve as chairman of the advisory group.

"(5)(A) The advisory group shall, upon request (but not less often than annually), submit reports on the matters referred to in paragraphs (1) and (3) to the appropriate committees of Congress and to appropriate departments and agencies of the Federal Government.

"(B) The first annual report under subparagraph (A) shall be submitted not later than one year after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 5, 1999].

"(c) Intelligence Community Defined.—In this section, the term 'intelligence community' has the meaning given that term in section 3(4) of the National Security Act of 1947 (50 U.S.C. 401a(4)) [now 50 U.S.C. 3003(4)].

"SEC. 1412. INVESTIGATIONS OF VIOLATIONS OF EXPORT CONTROLS BY UNITED STATES SATELLITE MANUFACTURERS

"(a) Notice to Congress of Investigations.—The President shall promptly notify the appropriate committees of Congress whenever an investigation is undertaken by the Department of Justice of—

"(1) an alleged violation of United States export control laws in connection with a commercial satellite of United States origin; or

"(2) an alleged violation of United States export control laws in connection with an item controlled under section 38 of the Arms Export Control Act (22 U.S.C. 2778) that is likely to cause significant harm or damage to the national security interests of the United States.

"(b) Notice to Congress of Certain Export Waivers.—The President shall promptly notify the appropriate committees of Congress whenever an export waiver pursuant to section 902 of the Foreign Relations Authorization Act, Fiscal Years 1990 and 1991 [Pub. L. 101–246] (22 U.S.C. 2151 note) is granted on behalf of any United States person that is the subject of an investigation described in subsection (a). The notice shall include a justification for the waiver.

"(c) Exception.—The requirements in subsections (a) and (b) shall not apply if the President determines that notification of the appropriate committees of Congress under such subsections would jeopardize an on-going criminal investigation. If the President makes such a determination, the President shall provide written notification of such determination to the Speaker of the House of Representatives, the majority leader of the Senate, the minority leader of the House of Representatives, and the minority leader of the Senate. The notification shall include a justification for the determination.

"(d) Identification of Persons Subject to Investigation.—The Secretary of State and the Attorney General shall develop appropriate mechanisms to identify, for the purposes of processing export licenses for commercial satellites, persons who are the subject of an investigation described in subsection (a).

"(e) Protection of Classified and Other Sensitive Information.—The appropriate committees of Congress shall ensure that appropriate procedures are in place to protect from unauthorized disclosure classified information, information relating to intelligence sources and methods, and sensitive law enforcement information that is furnished to those committees pursuant to this section.

"(f) Statutory Construction.—Nothing in this section shall be construed to modify or supersede any other requirement to report information on intelligence activities to Congress, including the requirement under section 501 of the National Security Act of 1947 (50 U.S.C. 413) [now 50 U.S.C. 3091].

"(g) Definitions.—As used in this section:

"(1) The term 'appropriate committees of Congress' means the following:

"(A) The Committee on Armed Services, the Committee on Foreign Relations, and the Select Committee on Intelligence of the Senate.

"(B) The Committee on Armed Services, the Committee on International Relations [now Committee on Foreign Affairs], and the Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence of the House of Representatives.

"(2) The term 'United States person' means any United States resident or national (other than an individual resident outside the United States and employed by other than a United States person), any domestic concern (including any permanent domestic establishment of any foreign concern), and any foreign subsidiary or affiliate (including any permanent foreign establishment) of any domestic concern which is controlled in fact by such domestic concern, as determined under regulations of the President."

[Memorandum of President of the United States, Jan. 5, 2000, 65 F.R. 2279, delegated to Secretary of Defense the duties and responsibilities of the President under section 1402 of Public Law 106–65 and directed Department of Defense to prepare the report required by section 1402 with the assistance of Department of State, Department of Commerce, Department of Energy, Department of the Treasury, Director of Central Intelligence, and Federal Bureau of Investigation and to obtain concurrence on the report from Department of State, Department of Commerce, Director of Central Intelligence on behalf of Intelligence Community, Department of the Treasury, and Federal Bureau of Investigation prior to submission to Congress.]

[Reference to the Director of Central Intelligence or the Director of the Central Intelligence Agency in the Director's capacity as the head of the intelligence community deemed to be a reference to the Director of National Intelligence. Reference to the Director of Central Intelligence or the Director of the Central Intelligence Agency in the Director's capacity as the head of the Central Intelligence Agency deemed to be a reference to the Director of the Central Intelligence Agency. See section 1081(a), (b) of Pub. L. 108–458, set out as a note under section 3001 of Title 50, War and National Defense.]

Satellite Export Controls

Pub. L. 105–261, div. A, title XV, subtitle B, Oct. 17, 1998, 112 Stat. 2173, as amended by Pub. L. 105–277, div. C, title I, §146(a), Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–610; Pub. L. 112–239, div. A, title XII, §1261(a), Jan. 2, 2013, 126 Stat. 2018, provided that:

"SEC. 1511. SENSE OF CONGRESS.

"It is the sense of Congress that—

"(1) United States business interests must not be placed above United States national security interests;

"(2) United States foreign policy and the policies of the United States regarding commercial relations with other countries should affirm the importance of observing and adhering to the Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR);

"(3) the United States should encourage universal observance of the Guidelines to the Missile Technology Control Regime;

"(4) the exportation or transfer of advanced communication satellites and related technologies from United States sources to foreign recipients should not increase the risks to the national security of the United States;

"(5) due to the military sensitivity of the technologies involved, it is in the national security interests of the United States that United States satellites and related items be subject to the same export controls that apply under United States law and practices to munitions;

"(6) the United States should not issue any blanket waiver of the suspensions contained in section 902 of the Foreign Relations Authorization Act, Fiscal Years 1990 and 1991 (Public Law 101–246) [22 U.S.C. 2151 note], regarding the export of satellites of United States origin intended for launch from a launch vehicle owned by the People's Republic of China;

"(7) the United States should pursue policies that protect and enhance the United States space launch industry; and

"(8) the United States should not export to the People's Republic of China missile equipment or technology that would improve the missile or space launch capabilities of the People's Republic of China.

"SEC. 1512. CERTIFICATION OF EXPORTS OF MISSILE EQUIPMENT OR TECHNOLOGY TO CHINA.

"(a) Certification.—The President shall certify to the Congress at least 15 days in advance of any export to the People's Republic of China of missile equipment or technology (as defined in section 74 of the Arms Export Control Act (22 U.S.C. 2797c)) that—

"(1) such export is not detrimental to the United States space launch industry; and

"(2) the missile equipment or technology, including any indirect technical benefit that could be derived from such export, will not measurably improve the missile or space launch capabilities of the People's Republic of China.

"(b) Exception.—The certification requirement contained in subsection (a) shall not apply to the export of inertial reference units and components in manned civilian aircraft or supplied as spare or replacement parts for such aircraft.

"SEC. 1513. SATELLITE CONTROLS UNDER THE UNITED STATES MUNITIONS LIST.

"[(a) Repealed. Pub. L. 112–239, div. A, title XII, §1261(a)(1), Jan. 2, 2013, 126 Stat. 2018.]

"(b) Defense Trade Controls Registration Fees.—[Amended section 2717 of this title.]

"(c) Effective Date.—The amendments made by subsection (b) [amending section 2717 of this title] shall be effective as of October 1, 1998.

"(d) Report.—Not later than January 1, 1999, the Secretary of State, in consultation with the Secretary of Defense and the Secretary of Commerce, shall submit to Congress a report containing—

"(1) a detailed description of the plans of the Department of State to implement the requirements of this section, including any organizational changes that are required and any Executive orders or regulations that may be required;

"(2) an identification and explanation of any steps that should be taken to improve the license review process for exports of the satellites and related items described in subsection (a), including measures to shorten the timelines for license application reviews, and any measures relating to the transparency of the license review process and dispute resolution procedures;

"(3) an evaluation of the adequacy of resources available to the Department of State, including fiscal and personnel resources, to carry out the additional activities required by this section; and

"(4) any recommendations for additional actions, including possible legislation, to improve the export licensing process under the Arms Export Control Act [22 U.S.C. 2751 et seq.] for the satellites and related items described in subsection (a).

"SEC. 1514. NATIONAL SECURITY CONTROLS ON SATELLITE EXPORT LICENSING.

"(a) Actions by the President.—Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the President shall take such actions as are necessary to implement the following requirements for improving national security controls in the export licensing of satellites and related items:

"(1) Mandatory technology control plans.—All export licenses shall require a technology transfer control plan approved by the Secretary of Defense and an encryption technology transfer control plan approved by the Director of the National Security Agency.

"(2) Mandatory monitors and reimbursement.—

"(A) Monitoring of proposed foreign launch of satellites.—In any case in which a license is approved for the export of a satellite or related items for launch in a foreign country, the Secretary of Defense shall monitor all aspects of the launch in order to ensure that no unauthorized transfer of technology occurs, including technical assistance and technical data. The costs of such monitoring services shall be fully reimbursed to the Department of Defense by the person or entity receiving such services. All reimbursements received under this subparagraph shall be credited to current appropriations available for the payment of the costs incurred in providing such services.

"(B) Contents of monitoring.—The monitoring under subparagraph (A) shall cover, but not be limited to—

"(i) technical discussions and activities, including the design, development, operation, maintenance, modification, and repair of satellites, satellite components, missiles, other equipment, launch facilities, and launch vehicles;

"(ii) satellite processing and launch activities, including launch preparation, satellite transportation, integration of the satellite with the launch vehicle, testing and checkout prior to launch, satellite launch, and return of equipment to the United States;

"(iii) activities relating to launch failure, delay, or cancellation, including post-launch failure investigations; and

"(iv) all other aspects of the launch.

"(3) Mandatory licenses for crash-investigations.—In the event of the failure of a launch from a foreign country of a satellite of United States origin—

"(A) the activities of United States persons or entities in connection with any subsequent investigation of the failure are subject to the controls established under section 38 of the Arms Export Control Act [22 U.S.C. 2778], including requirements for licenses issued by the Secretary of State for participation in that investigation;

"(B) officials of the Department of Defense shall monitor all activities associated with the investigation to insure against unauthorized transfer of technical data or services; and

"(C) the Secretary of Defense shall establish and implement a technology transfer control plan for the conduct of the investigation to prevent the transfer of information that could be used by the foreign country to improve its missile or space launch capabilities.

"(4) Mandatory notification and certification.—All technology transfer control plans for satellites or related items shall require any United States person or entity involved in the export of a satellite of United States origin or related items to notify the Department of Defense in advance of all meetings and interactions with any foreign person or entity providing launch services and require the United States person or entity to certify after the launch that it has complied with this notification requirement.

"(5) Mandatory intelligence community review.—The Secretary of Commerce and the Secretary of State shall provide to the Secretary of Defense and the Director of Central Intelligence copies of all export license applications and technical assistance agreements submitted for approval in connection with launches in foreign countries of satellites to verify the legitimacy of the stated end-user or end-users.

"(6) Mandatory sharing of approved licenses and agreements.—The Secretary of State shall provide copies of all approved export licenses and technical assistance agreements associated with launches in foreign countries of satellites to the Secretaries of Defense and Energy, the Director of Central Intelligence, and the Director of the Arms Control and Disarmament Agency.

"(7) Mandatory notification to congress on licenses.—Upon issuing a license for the export of a satellite or related items for launch in a foreign country, the head of the department or agency issuing the license shall so notify Congress.

"(8) Mandatory reporting on monitoring activities.—The Secretary of Defense shall provide to Congress an annual report on the monitoring of all launches in foreign countries of satellites of United States origin.

"(9) Establishing safeguards program.—The Secretary of Defense shall establish a program for recruiting, training, and maintaining a staff dedicated to monitoring launches in foreign countries of satellites and related items of United States origin.

"(b) Exception.—This section shall not apply to the export of a satellite or related items for launch in, or by nationals of, a country that is a member of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization or that is a major non-NATO ally of the United States.

"(c) Effective Date.—The President shall take the actions required by subsection (a) not later than 45 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 17, 1998].

"SEC. 1515. REPORT ON EXPORT OF SATELLITES FOR LAUNCH BY PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA.

"(a) Requirement for Report.—Each report to Congress submitted pursuant to subsection (b) of section 902 of the Foreign Relations Authorization Act, Fiscal Years 1990 and 1991 (22 U.S.C. 2151 note; Public Law 101–246) to waive the restrictions contained in subsection (a) of that section on the export to the People's Republic of China of any satellite of United States origin or related items shall be accompanied by a detailed justification setting forth the following:

"(1) A detailed description of all militarily sensitive characteristics integrated within, or associated with, the satellite.

"(2) An estimate of the number of United States civilian contract personnel expected to be needed in country to carry out the proposed satellite launch.

"(3)(A) A detailed description of the United States Government's plan to monitor the proposed satellite launch to ensure that no unauthorized transfer of technology occurs, together with an estimate of the number of officers and employees of the United States that are expected to be needed in country to carry out monitoring of the proposed satellite launch; and

"(B) the estimated cost to the Department of Defense of monitoring the proposed satellite launch and the amount of such cost that is to be reimbursed to the department.

"(4) The reasons why the proposed satellite launch is in the national security interest of the United States.

"(5) The impact of the proposed export on employment in the United States, including the number of new jobs created in the United States, on a State-by-State basis, as a direct result of the proposed export.

"(6) The number of existing jobs in the United States that would be lost, on a State-by-State basis, as a direct result of the proposed export not being licensed.

"(7) The impact of the proposed export on the balance of trade between the United States and the People's Republic of China and on reducing the current United States trade deficit with the People's Republic of China.

"(8) The impact of the proposed export on the transition of the People's Republic of China from a nonmarket economy to a market economy and the long-term economic benefit to the United States.

"(9) The impact of the proposed export on opening new markets to United States-made products through the purchase by the People's Republic of China of United States-made goods and services not directly related to the proposed export.

"(10) The impact of the proposed export on reducing acts, policies, and practices that constitute significant trade barriers to United States exports or foreign direct investment in the People's Republic of China by United States nationals.

"(11) The increase that will result from the proposed export in the overall market share of the United States for goods and services in comparison to Japan, France, Germany, the United Kingdom, and Russia.

"(12) The impact of the proposed export on the willingness of the People's Republic of China to modify its commercial and trade laws, practices, and regulations to make United States-made goods and services more accessible to that market.

"(13) The impact of the proposed export on the willingness of the People's Republic of China to reduce formal and informal trade barriers and tariffs, duties, and other fees on United States-made goods and services entering that country.

"(b) Militarily Sensitive Characteristics Defined.—In this section, the term 'militarily sensitive characteristics' includes antijamming capability, antennas, crosslinks, baseband processing, encryption devices, radiation-hardened devices, propulsion systems, pointing accuracy, kick motors, and other such characteristics as are specified by the Secretary of Defense.

"SEC. 1516. RELATED ITEMS DEFINED.

"In this subtitle, the term 'related items' means the satellite fuel, ground support equipment, test equipment, payload adapter or interface hardware, replacement parts, and non-embedded solid propellant orbit transfer engines described in the report submitted to Congress by the Department of State on February 6, 1998, pursuant to section 38(f) of the Arms Export Control Act (22 U.S.C. 2778(f))."

[Pub. L. 105–277, div. C, title I, §146(b), Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–610, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending Pub. L. 105–261, §1512, set out above] shall take effect on the later of—

["(1) the enactment of this Act [Oct. 21, 1998]; or

["(2) the enactment of the Strom Thurmond National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1999 [Pub. L. 105–261; Oct. 17, 1998]."]

[Reference to the Director of Central Intelligence or the Director of the Central Intelligence Agency in the Director's capacity as the head of the intelligence community deemed to be a reference to the Director of National Intelligence. Reference to the Director of Central Intelligence or the Director of the Central Intelligence Agency in the Director's capacity as the head of the Central Intelligence Agency deemed to be a reference to the Director of the Central Intelligence Agency. See section 1081(a), (b) of Pub. L. 108–458, set out as a note under section 3001 of Title 50, War and National Defense.]

[For abolition, transfer of functions, and treatment of references to United States Arms Control and Disarmament Agency, see section 6511 et seq. of this title.]

Delegation of Certifications Under Section 1512 of Public Law 105–261

Determination of President of the United States, No. 2009–31, Sept. 29, 2009, 74 F.R. 50913, provided:

Memorandum for the Secretary of Commerce

By virtue of the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including section 301 of Title 3, United States Code, I hereby delegate to you the functions of the President under section 1512 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1999 (NDAA).

In the performance of your responsibility under this memorandum, you shall consult, as appropriate, the heads of other executive departments and agencies.

You are authorized and directed to publish this determination in the Federal Register.

Barack Obama.      

Landmine Export Moratorium

Pub. L. 102–484, div. A, title XIII, §1365, Oct. 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 2561, as amended by Pub. L. 103–160, div. A, title XI, §1182(c)(3), title XIV, §1423(c), Nov. 30, 1993, 107 Stat. 1772, 1832; Pub. L. 104–107, title V, §558, Feb. 12, 1996, 110 Stat. 743; Pub. L. 104–208, div. A, title I, §101(c) [title V, §556], Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 3009–121, 3009-161; Pub. L. 106–113, div. B, §1000(a)(2) [title V, §553], Nov. 29, 1999, 113 Stat. 1535, 1501A-99; Pub. L. 107–115, title V, §548, Jan. 10, 2002, 115 Stat. 2156; Pub. L. 110–161, div. J, title VI, §634(j), Dec. 26, 2007, 121 Stat. 2329, provided that:

"(a) Findings.—The Congress makes the following findings:

"(1) Anti-personnel landmines, which are specifically designed to maim and kill people, have been used indiscriminately in dramatically increasing numbers, primarily in insurgencies in poor developing countries. Noncombatant civilians, including tens of thousands of children, have been the primary victims.

"(2) Unlike other military weapons, landmines often remain implanted and undiscovered after conflict has ended, causing untold suffering to civilian populations. In Afghanistan, Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam, and Angola, tens of millions of unexploded landmines have rendered whole areas uninhabitable. In Afghanistan, an estimated hundreds of thousands of people have been maimed and killed by landmines during the 14-year civil war. In Cambodia, more than 20,000 civilians have lost limbs and another 60 are being maimed each month from landmines.

"(3) Over 35 countries are known to manufacture landmines, including the United States. However, the United States is not a major exporter of landmines. During the past ten years the Department of State has approved ten licenses for the commercial export of anti-personnel landmines valued at $980,000, and during the past five years the Department of Defense has approved the sale of 13,156 anti-personnel landmines valued at $841,145.

"(4) The United States signed, but has not ratified, the 1981 Convention on Prohibitions or Restrictions on the Use of Certain Conventional Weapons Which May Be Deemed To Be Excessively Injurious or To Have Indiscriminate Effects. The Convention prohibits the indiscriminate use of landmines.

"(5) When it signed the Convention, the United States stated: 'We believe that the Convention represents a positive step forward in efforts to minimize injury or damage to the civilian population in time of armed conflict. Our signature of the Convention reflects the general willingness of the United States to adopt practical and reasonable provisions concerning the conduct of military operations, for the purpose of protecting noncombatants.'.

"(6) The President should submit the Convention to the Senate for its advice and consent to ratification, and the President should actively negotiate under United Nations auspices or other auspices an international agreement, or a modification of the Convention, to prohibit the sale, transfer or export of anti-personnel landmines. Such an agreement or modification would be an appropriate response to the end of the Cold War and the promotion of arms control agreements to reduce the indiscriminate killing and maiming of civilians.

"(7) The United States should set an example for other countries in such negotiations, by implementing a one-year moratorium on the sale, transfer or export of anti-personnel landmines.

"(b) Statement of Policy.—(1) It shall be the policy of the United States to seek verifiable international agreements prohibiting the sale, transfer, or export, and further limiting the use, production, possession, and deployment of anti-personnel landmines.

"(2) It is the sense of the Congress that the President should actively seek to negotiate under United Nations auspices or other auspices an international agreement, or a modification of the Convention, to prohibit the sale, transfer, or export of anti-personnel landmines.

"(c) Moratorium on Transfers of Anti-Personnel Landmines Abroad.—During the 22 year period beginning on October 23, 1992—

"(1) no sale may be made or financed, no transfer may be made, and no license for export may be issued, under the Arms Export Control Act [22 U.S.C. 2751 et seq.], with respect to any anti-personnel landmine; and

"(2) no assistance may be provided under the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 [22 U.S.C. 2151 et seq.], with respect to the provision of any anti-personnel landmine.

"(d) Definition.—For purposes of this section, the term 'anti-personnel landmine' means—

"(1) any munition placed under, on, or near the ground or other surface area, or delivered by artillery, rocket, mortar, or similar means or dropped from an aircraft and which is designed to be detonated or exploded by the presence, proximity, or contact of a person;

"(2) any device or material which is designed, constructed, or adapted to kill or injure and which functions unexpectedly when a person disturbs or approaches an apparently harmless object or performs an apparently safe act;

"(3) any manually-emplaced munition or device designed to kill, injure, or damage and which is actuated by remote control or automatically after a lapse of time."

[Section 634(j) of title VI of div. J of Pub. L. 110–161, which directed the amendment of section 1365(c) of Pub. L. 102–484, set out above, by substituting "During the 22 year period beginning on October 23, 1992" for "During the 16 year period beginning on October 23, 1992" before the period at the end, was executed by making the substitution in the introductory provisions, to reflect the probable intent of Congress.]

[Section 1000(a)(2) [title V, §553] of div. B of Pub. L. 106–113, which directed the amendment of section 1365(c) of Pub. L. 102–484, set out above, by substituting "During the 11-year" for "During the five-year", was executed by making the substitution for "During the eight-year".]

Arms Transfers Restraint Policy for Middle East and Persian Gulf Region

Pub. L. 102–138, title IV, Oct. 28, 1991, 105 Stat. 718, as amended by Pub. L. 114–323, title VII, §715(a)(2), Dec. 16, 2016, 130 Stat. 1946, provided that:

"SEC. 401. FINDINGS.

"The Congress finds that—

"(1) nations in the Middle East and Persian Gulf region, which accounted for over 40 percent of the international trade in weapons and related equipment and services during the decade of the 1980's, are the principal market for the worldwide arms trade;

"(2) regional instability, large financial resources, and the desire of arms-supplying governments to gain influence in the Middle East and Persian Gulf region, contribute to a regional arms race;

"(3) the continued proliferation of weapons and related equipment and services contribute further to a regional arms race in the Middle East and Persian Gulf region that is politically, economically, and militarily destabilizing;

"(4) the continued proliferation of unconventional weapons, including nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons, as well as delivery systems associated with those weapons, poses an urgent threat to security and stability in the Middle East and Persian Gulf region;

"(5) the continued proliferation of ballistic missile technologies and ballistic missile systems that are capable of delivering conventional, nuclear, biological, or chemical warheads undermines security and stability in the Middle East and Persian Gulf region;

"(6) future security and stability in the Middle East and Persian Gulf region would be enhanced by establishing a stable military balance among regional powers by restraining and reducing both conventional and unconventional weapons;

"(7) security, stability, peace, and prosperity in the Middle East and Persian Gulf region are important to the welfare of the international economy and to the national security interests of the United States;

"(8) future security and stability in the Middle East and Persian Gulf region would be enhanced through the development of a multilateral arms transfer and control regime similar to those of the Nuclear Suppliers' Group, the Missile Technology Control Regime, and the Australia Chemical Weapons Suppliers Group;

"(9) such a regime should be developed, implemented, and agreed to through multilateral negotiations, including under the auspices of the 5 permanent members of the United Nations Security Council;

"(10) confidence-building arms control measures such as the establishment of a centralized arms trade registry at the United Nations, greater multinational transparency on the transfer of defense articles and services prior to agreement or transfer, cooperative verification measures, advanced notification of military exercises, information exchanges, on-site inspections, and creation of a Middle East and Persian Gulf Conflict Prevention Center, are important to implement an effective multilateral arms transfer and control regime;

"(11) as an interim step, the United States should consider introducing, during the ongoing negotiations on confidence security-building measures at the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe (CSCE) [now the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe], a proposal regarding the international exchange of information, on an annual basis, on the sale and transfer of major military equipment, particularly to the Middle East and Persian Gulf region; and

"(12) such a regime should be applied to other regions with the ultimate objective of achieving an effective global arms transfer and control regime, implemented and enforced through the United Nations Security Council, that—

"(A) includes a linkage of humanitarian and developmental objectives with security objectives in Third World countries, particularly the poorest of the poor countries; and

"(B) encourages countries selling military equipment and services to consider the following factors before making conventional arms sales: the security needs of the purchasing countries, the level of defense expenditures by the purchasing countries, and the level of indigenous production of the purchasing countries.

"SEC. 402. MULTILATERAL ARMS TRANSFER AND CONTROL REGIME.

"(a) Implementation of the Regime.—

"(1) Continuing negotiations.—The President shall continue negotiations among the 5 permanent members of the United Nations Security Council and commit the United States to a multilateral arms transfer and control regime for the Middle East and Persian Gulf region.

"(2) Proposing a temporary moratorium during negotiations.—In the context of these negotiations, the President should propose to the 5 permanent members of the United Nations Security Council a temporary moratorium on the sale and transfer of major military equipment to nations in the Middle East and Persian Gulf region until such time as the 5 permanent members agree to a multilateral arms transfer and control regime.

"(b) Purpose of the Regime.—The purpose of the multilateral arms transfer and control regime should be—

"(1) to slow and limit the proliferation of conventional weapons in the Middle East and Persian Gulf region with the aim of preventing destabilizing transfers by—

"(A) controlling the transfer of conventional major military equipment;

"(B) achieving transparency among arms suppliers nations through advanced notification of agreement to, or transfer of, conventional major military equipment; and

"(C) developing and adopting common and comprehensive control guidelines on the sale and transfer of conventional major military equipment to the region;

"(2) to halt the proliferation of unconventional weapons, including nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons, as well as delivery systems associated with those weapons and the technologies necessary to produce or assemble such weapons;

"(3) to limit and halt the proliferation of ballistic missile technologies and ballistic missile systems that are capable of delivering conventional, nuclear, biological, or chemical warheads;

"(4) to maintain the military balance in the Middle East and Persian Gulf region through reductions of conventional weapons and the elimination of unconventional weapons; and

"(5) to promote regional arms control in the Middle East and Persian Gulf region.

"(c) Achieving the Purposes of the Regime.—

"(1) Controlling proliferation of conventional weapons.—In order to achieve the purposes described in subsection (b)(1), the United States should pursue the development of a multilateral arms transfer and control regime which includes—

"(A) greater information-sharing practices among supplier nations regarding potential arms sales to all nations of the Middle East and Persian Gulf region;

"(B) applying, for the control of conventional major military equipment, procedures already developed by the International Atomic Energy Agency, the Multilateral Coordinating Committee on Export Controls (COCOM), and the Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR); and

"(C) other strict controls on the proliferation of conventional major military equipment to the Middle East and Persian Gulf region.

"(2) Halting proliferation of unconventional weapons.—In order to achieve the purposes described in subsections (b)(2) and (3), the United States should build on existing and future agreements among supplier nations by pursuing the development of a multilateral arms transfer and control regime which includes—

"(A) limitations and controls contained in the Enhanced Proliferation Control Initiative;

"(B) limitations and controls contained in the Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR);

"(C) guidelines followed by the Australia Group on chemical and biological arms proliferation;

"(D) guidelines adopted by the Nuclear Suppliers Group (the London Group); and

"(E) other appropriate controls that serve to halt the flow of unconditional [unconventional] weapons to the Middle East and Persian Gulf region.

"(3) Promotion of regional arms control agreements.—In order to achieve the purposes described in subsections (b)(4) and (5), the United States should pursue with nations in the Middle East and Persian Gulf region—

"(A) the maintenance of the military balance within the region, while eliminating nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons and associated delivery systems, and ballistic missiles;

"(B) the implementation of confidence-building and security-building measures, including advance notification of certain ground and aerial military exercises in the Middle East and the Persian Gulf; and

"(C) other useful arms control measures.

"(d) Major Military Equipment.—As used in this title, the term 'major military equipment' means—

"(1) air-to-air, air-to-surface, and surface-to-surface missiles and rockets;

"(2) turbine-powered military aircraft;

"(3) attack helicopters;

"(4) main battle tanks;

"(5) submarines and major naval surface combatants;

"(6) nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons; and

"(7) such other defense articles and defense services as the President may determine.

"SEC. 403. LIMITATION ON UNITED STATES ARMS SALES TO THE REGION.

"Beginning 60 days after the date of enactment of the International Cooperation Act of 1991 [probably means H.R. 2508, which had not been enacted into law by the end of the first session of the 102d Congress] or the Foreign Relations Authorization Act, Fiscal Years 1992 and 1993 [Oct. 28, 1991], whichever is enacted first, no sale of any defense article or defense service may be made to any nation in the Middle East and Persian Gulf region, and no license may be issued for the export of any defense article or defense service to any nation in the Middle East and Persian Gulf region, unless the President—

"(1) certifies in writing to the relevant congressional committees that the President has undertaken good faith efforts to convene a conference for the establishment of an arms suppliers regime having elements described in section 402; and

"(2) submits to the relevant congressional committees a report setting forth a United States plan for leading the world community in establishing such a multilateral regime to restrict transfers of advanced conventional and unconventional arms to the Middle East and Persian Gulf region.

"[SEC. 404. Repealed. Pub. L. 114–323, title VII, §715(a)(2), Dec. 16, 2016, 130 Stat. 1946.]

"SEC. 405. RELEVANT CONGRESSIONAL COMMITTEES DEFINED.

"As used in this title, the term 'relevant congressional committees' means the Committee on Foreign Affairs of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate."

[Ex. Ord. No. 12851, §3, June 11, 1993, 58 F.R. 33181, set out as a note under section 2797 of this title, delegated to Secretary of State, in consultation with Secretary of Defense and other agencies, certification and reporting functions of the President under section 403 and former section 404 of the Foreign Relations Authorization Act, Fiscal Years 1992 and 1993, Public Law 102–138, set out above.]

[Memorandum of President of the United States, Dec. 27, 1991, 56 F.R. 1069, delegated to Secretary of State, in consultation with heads of other executive agencies and departments, certification and reporting obligations of the President under section 403 and former section 404 of the Foreign Relations Authorization Act, Fiscal Years 1992 and 1993, Public Law 102–138, set out above.]

Continuation of Export Control Regulations

Section 3 of Ex. Ord. No. 13222, Aug. 17, 2001, 66 F.R. 44025, listed in a table under section 1701 of Title 50, War and National Defense, provided that: "Provisions for administration of section 38(e) of the Arms Export Control Act (22 U.S.C. 2778(e)) may be made and shall continue in full force and effect until amended or revoked under the authority of section 203 of the Act (50 U.S.C. 1702). To the extent permitted by law, this order also shall constitute authority for the issuance and continuation in full force and effect of all rules and regulations by the President or his delegate, and all orders, licenses, and other forms of administrative actions issued, taken, or continued in effect pursuant thereto, relating to the administration of section 38(e)."

Prior provisions relating to issuance and continued effect of rules, regulations, orders, licenses, and other forms of administrative action relating to administration of subsec. (e) of this section were contained in the following:

Ex. Ord. No. 12924, §3, Aug. 19, 1994, 59 F.R. 43437, listed in a table under section 1701 of Title 50, prior to revocation by Ex. Ord. No. 13206, §1, Apr. 4, 2001, 66 F.R. 18397.

Ex. Ord. No. 12923, §3, June 30, 1994, 59 F.R. 34551, listed in a table under section 1701 of Title 50, prior to revocation by Ex. Ord. No. 12924, §4, Aug. 19, 1994, 59 F.R. 43438.

Ex. Ord. No. 12867, §3, Sept. 30, 1993, 58 F.R. 51747, listed in a table under section 1701 of Title 50.

Ex. Ord. No. 12730, §3, Sept. 30, 1990, 55 F.R. 40373, listed in a table under section 1701 of Title 50, prior to revocation by Ex. Ord. No. 12867, Sept. 30, 1993, 58 F.R. 51747.

Ex. Ord. No. 12525, §3, July 12, 1985, 50 F.R. 28757, listed in a table under section 1701 of Title 50.

Ex. Ord. No. 12470, §3, Mar. 30, 1984, 49 F.R. 13099, listed in a table under section 1701 of Title 50, prior to revocation by Ex. Ord. No. 12525, July 12, 1985, 50 F.R. 28757.

Ex. Ord. No. 12451, §3, Dec. 20, 1983, 48 F.R. 56563, listed in a table under section 1701 of Title 50.

Ex. Ord. No. 12444, §3, Oct. 14, 1983, 48 F.R. 48215, listed in a table under section 1701 of Title 50, prior to revocation by Ex. Ord. No. 12451, Dec. 20, 1983, 48 F.R. 56563.

1 See References in Text note below.

§2778a. Exportation of uranium depleted in the isotope 235

Upon a finding that an export of uranium depleted in the isotope 235 is incorporated in defense articles or commodities solely to take advantage of high density or pyrophoric characteristics unrelated to its radioactivity, such exports shall be exempt from the provisions of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 [42 U.S.C. 2011 et seq.] and of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Act of 1978 [22 U.S.C. 3201 et seq.] when such exports are subject to the controls established under the Arms Export Control Act [22 U.S.C. 2751 et seq.] or the Export Administration Act of 1979.

(Pub. L. 96–533, title I, §110, Dec. 16, 1980, 94 Stat. 3138.)

References in Text

The Atomic Energy Act of 1954, referred to in text, is act Aug. 1, 1946, ch. 724, as added by act Aug. 30, 1954, ch. 1073, §1, 68 Stat. 919, which is classified principally to chapter 23 (§2011 et seq.) of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2011 of Title 42 and Tables.

The Nuclear Non-Proliferation Act of 1978, referred to in text, is Pub. L. 95–242, Mar. 10, 1978, 92 Stat. 120, as amended, which is classified principally to chapter 47 (§3201 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 3201 of this title and Tables.

The Arms Export Control Act, referred to in text, is Pub. L. 90–629, Oct. 22, 1968, 82 Stat. 1320, as amended, which is classified principally to this chapter (§2751 et seq.). For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2751 of this title and Tables.

The Export Administration Act of 1979, referred to in text, is Pub. L. 96–72, Sept. 29, 1979, 93 Stat. 503, which was classified principally to chapter 56 (§4601 et seq.) of Title 50, War and National Defense, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 115–232, div. A, title XVII, §1766(a), Aug. 13, 2018, 132 Stat. 2232, except for sections 11A, 11B, and 11C thereof (50 U.S.C. 4611, 4612, 4613).

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the International Security and Development Cooperation Act of 1980, and not as part of the Arms Export Control Act which comprises this chapter.

§2779. Fees of military sales agents

(a) Adequate and timely reports to Secretary of State; maintenance of records

In accordance with such regulations as he may prescribe, the Secretary of State shall require adequate and timely reporting on political contributions, gifts, commissions and fees paid, or offered or agreed to be paid, by any person in connection with—

(1) sales of defense articles or defense services under section 2762 of this title, or of design and construction services under section 2769 of this title;

(2) commercial sales of defense articles or defense services licensed or approved under section 2778 of this title; or

(3) exports of defense articles or defense services pursuant to a treaty referenced in section 2778(j)(1)(C)(i) of this title;


to or for the armed forces of a foreign country or international organization in order to solicit, promote, or otherwise to secure the conclusion of such sales. Such regulations shall specify the amounts and the kinds of payments, offers, and agreements to be reported, and the form and timing of reports, and shall require reports on the names of sales agents and other persons receiving such payments. The Secretary of State shall by regulation require such recordkeeping as he determines is necessary.

(b) Presidential regulation

The President may, by regulation, prohibit, limit, or prescribe conditions with respect to such contributions, gifts, commissions, and fees as he determines will be in furtherance of the purposes of this chapter.

(c) Allocation to contract; improper influence

No such contribution, gift, commission, or fee may be included, in whole or in part, in the amount paid under any procurement contract entered into under section 2762 or section 2769 of this title, unless the amount thereof is reasonable, allocable to such contract, and not made to a person who has solicited, promoted, or otherwise secured such sale, or has held himself out as being able to do so, through improper influence. For the purposes of this section, "improper influence" means influence, direct or indirect, which induces or attempts to induce consideration or action by any employee or officer of a purchasing foreign government or international organization with respect to such purchase on any basis other than such consideration of merit as are involved in comparable United States procurements.

(d) Availability of records to Congress and Federal agencies

(1) All information reported to the Secretary of State and all records maintained by any person pursuant to regulations prescribed under this section shall be available, upon request, to any standing committee of the Congress or any subcommittee thereof and to any agency of the United States Government authorized by law to have access to the books and records of the person required to submit reports or to maintain records under this section.

(2) Access by an agency of the United States Government to records maintained under this section shall be on the same terms and conditions which govern the access by such agency to the books and records of the person concerned.

(Pub. L. 90–629, ch. 3, §39, as added Pub. L. 94–329, title VI, §604(b), June 30, 1976, 90 Stat. 767; amended Pub. L. 96–533, title I, §105(e)(2), Dec. 16, 1980, 94 Stat. 3135; Pub. L. 111–266, title I, §104(e), Oct. 8, 2010, 124 Stat. 2800.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in subsec. (b), was in the original "this Act", meaning Pub. L. 90–629, Oct. 22, 1968, 82 Stat. 1321, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2751 of this title and Tables.

Amendments

2010—Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 111–266, which directed amendment of subsec. (a) by adding par. (3) at the end, was executed by adding par. (3) after par. (2) to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

1980—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 96–533, §105(e)(2)(A), inserted reference to sales of design and construction services under section 2769 of this title.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 96–533, §105(e)(2)(B), inserted reference to section 2769 of this title.

Effective Date

Section effective 60 days after June 30, 1976, see section 604(c) of Pub. L. 94–329, set out as note under section 2776 of this title.

Delegation of Functions

For delegation of functions of the President under subsec. (b) of this section, with certain conditions, see section 1(o) of Ex. Ord. No. 13637, Mar. 8, 2013, 78 F.R. 16130, set out as a note under section 2751 of this title. Functions were previously delegated by Ex. Ord. No. 11958, which was formerly set out as a note under section 2751 of this title and was revoked, subject to a savings provision, by section 4 of Ex. Ord. No. 13637.

§2779a. Prohibition on incentive payments

(a) In general

No United States supplier of defense articles or services sold or licensed under this chapter or exported pursuant to a treaty referred to in section 2778(j)(1)(C)(i) of this title, nor any employee, agent, or subcontractor thereof, shall, with respect to the sale or export of any such defense article or defense service to a foreign country, make any incentive payments for the purpose of satisfying, in whole or in part, any offset agreement with that country.

(b) Civil penalties

Any person who violates the provisions of this section shall be subject to the imposition of civil penalties as provided for in this section.

(c) Presidential authority

In the enforcement of this section, the President is authorized to exercise the same powers concerning violations and enforcement and imposition of civil penalties which are conferred upon departments, agencies and officials by subsections (c), (d), (e), and (f) of section 11 1 of the Export Administration Act of 1979, and section 12(a) 1 of such Act, subject to the same terms and conditions as are applicable to such powers under that Act, except that section 11(c)(2)(B) of such Act shall not apply, and instead, as prescribed in regulations issued under this section, the Secretary of State may assess civil penalties for violations of this chapter and regulations prescribed thereunder and further may commence a civil action to recover such civil penalties, and except further that notwithstanding section 11(c) of that Act, the civil penalty for each violation of this section may not exceed $500,000 or five times the amount of the prohibited incentive payment, whichever is greater.

(d) Definitions

For purposes of this section—

(1) the term "offset agreement" means an agreement, arrangement, or understanding between a United States supplier of defense articles or defense services and a foreign country under which the supplier agrees to purchase or acquire, or to promote the purchase or acquisition by other United States persons of, goods or services produced, manufactured, grown, or extracted, in whole or in part, in that foreign country in consideration for the purchase by the foreign country of defense articles or defense services from the supplier;

(2) the term "incentive payments" means direct monetary compensation made by a United States supplier of defense articles or defense services or by any employee, agent or subcontractor thereof to any other United States person to induce or persuade that United States person to purchase or acquire goods or services produced, manufactured, grown, or extracted, in whole or in part, in the foreign country which is purchasing those defense articles or services from the United States supplier; and

(3) the term "United States person" means—

(A) an individual who is a national or permanent resident alien of the United States; and

(B) any corporation, business association, partnership, trust, or other juridical entity—

(i) organized under the laws of the United States or any State, the District of Columbia, or any territory or possession of the United States; or

(ii) owned or controlled in fact by individuals described in subparagraph (A) or by an entity described in clause (i).

(Pub. L. 90–629, ch. 3, §39A, as added Pub. L. 103–236, title VII, §733, Apr. 30, 1994, 108 Stat. 504; amended Pub. L. 106–113, div. B, §1000(a)(7) [div. B, title XII, §1246, title XIII, §1303], Nov. 29, 1999, 113 Stat. 1536, 1501A-502, 1501A-511; Pub. L. 111–266, title I, §103(d), Oct. 8, 2010, 124 Stat. 2799.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in subsecs. (a) and (c), was in the original "this Act", meaning Pub. L. 90–629, Oct. 22, 1968, 82 Stat. 1321, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2751 of this title and Tables.

The Export Administration Act of 1979, referred to in subsec. (c), is Pub. L. 96–72, Sept. 29, 1979, 93 Stat. 503, which was classified principally to chapter 56 (§4601 et seq.) of Title 50, War and National Defense, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 115–232, div. A, title XVII, §1766(a), Aug. 13, 2018, 132 Stat. 2232, except for sections 11A, 11B, and 11C thereof (50 U.S.C. 4611, 4612, 4613). Sections 11 and 12 of the Act were classified to sections 4610 and 4614, respectively, of Title 50 prior to repeal.

Amendments

2010—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 111–266 inserted "or exported pursuant to a treaty referred to in section 2778(j)(1)(C)(i) of this title" after "under this chapter".

1999—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 106–113, §1000(a)(7) [title XII, §1246(a)], inserted "or licensed" after "sold" and "or export" after "sale".

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 106–113, §1000(a)(7) [title XIII, §1303], inserted "section 11(c)(2)(B) of such Act shall not apply, and instead, as prescribed in regulations issued under this section, the Secretary of State may assess civil penalties for violations of this chapter and regulations prescribed thereunder and further may commence a civil action to recover such civil penalties, and except further that" after "except that".

Subsec. (d)(3)(B)(ii). Pub. L. 106–113, §1000(a)(7) [title XII, §1246(b)], inserted "or by an entity described in clause (i)" after "subparagraph (A)".

Delegation of Functions

Functions of President under this section delegated to Secretary of State by Memorandum of President of the United States, July 26, 1994, 59 F.R. 40205, set out as a note under section 2370a of this title.

§2780. Transactions with countries supporting acts of international terrorism

(a) Prohibited transactions by United States Government

The following transactions by the United States Government are prohibited:

(1) Exporting or otherwise providing (by sale, lease or loan, grant, or other means), directly or indirectly, any munitions item to a country described in subsection (d) under the authority of this chapter, the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 [22 U.S.C. 2151 et seq.], or any other law (except as provided in subsection (h)). In implementing this paragraph, the United States Government—

(A) shall suspend delivery to such country of any such item pursuant to any such transaction which has not been completed at the time the Secretary of State makes the determination described in subsection (d), and

(B) shall terminate any lease or loan to such country of any such item which is in effect at the time the Secretary of State makes that determination.


(2) Providing credits, guarantees, or other financial assistance under the authority of this chapter, the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 [22 U.S.C. 2151 et seq.], or any other law (except as provided in subsection (h)), with respect to the acquisition of any munitions item by a country described in subsection (d). In implementing this paragraph, the United States Government shall suspend expenditures pursuant to any such assistance obligated before the Secretary of State makes the determination described in subsection (d). The President may authorize expenditures otherwise required to be suspended pursuant to the preceding sentence if the President has determined, and reported to the Congress, that suspension of those expenditures causes undue financial hardship to a supplier, shipper, or similar person and allowing the expenditure will not result in any munitions item being made available for use by such country.

(3) Consenting under section 2753(a) of this title, under section 505(a) of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 [22 U.S.C. 2314(a)], under the regulations issued to carry out section 2778 of this title, or under any other law (except as provided in subsection (h)), to any transfer of any munitions item to a country described in subsection (d). In implementing this paragraph, the United States Government shall withdraw any such consent which is in effect at the time the Secretary of State makes the determination described in subsection (d), except that this sentence does not apply with respect to any item that has already been transferred to such country.

(4) Providing any license or other approval under section 2778 of this title for any export or other transfer (including by means of a technical assistance agreement, manufacturing licensing agreement, or coproduction agreement) of any munitions item to a country described in subsection (d). In implementing this paragraph, the United States Government shall suspend any such license or other approval which is in effect at the time the Secretary of State makes the determination described in subsection (d), except that this sentence does not apply with respect to any item that has already been exported or otherwise transferred to such country.

(5) Otherwise facilitating the acquisition of any munitions item by a country described in subsection (d). This paragraph applies with respect to activities undertaken—

(A) by any department, agency, or other instrumentality of the Government,

(B) by any officer or employee of the Government (including members of the United States Armed Forces), or

(C) by any other person at the request or on behalf of the Government.


The Secretary of State may waive the requirements of the second sentence of paragraph (1), the second sentence of paragraph (3), and the second sentence of paragraph (4) to the extent that the Secretary determines, after consultation with the Congress, that unusual and compelling circumstances require that the United States Government not take the actions specified in that sentence.

(b) Prohibited transactions by United States persons

(1) In general

A United States person may not take any of the following actions:

(A) Exporting any munitions item to any country described in subsection (d).

(B) Selling, leasing, loaning, granting, or otherwise providing any munitions item to any country described in subsection (d).

(C) Selling, leasing, loaning, granting, or otherwise providing any munitions item to any recipient which is not the government of or a person in a country described in subsection (d) if the United States person has reason to know that the munitions item will be made available to any country described in subsection (d).

(D) Taking any other action which would facilitate the acquisition, directly or indirectly, of any munitions item by the government of any country described in subsection (d), or any person acting on behalf of that government, if the United States person has reason to know that that action will facilitate the acquisition of that item by such a government or person.

(2) Liability for actions of foreign subsidiaries, etc.

A United States person violates this subsection if a corporation or other person that is controlled in fact by that United States person (as determined under regulations, which the President shall issue) takes an action described in paragraph (1) outside the United States.

(3) Applicability to actions outside the United States

Paragraph (1) applies with respect to actions described in that paragraph which are taken either within or outside the United States by a United States person described in subsection (l)(3)(A) or (B). To the extent provided in regulations issued under subsection (l)(3)(D), paragraph (1) applies with respect to actions described in that paragraph which are taken outside the United States by a person designated as a United States person in those regulations.

(c) Transfers to governments and persons covered

This section applies with respect to—

(1) the acquisition of munitions items by the government of a country described in subsection (d); and

(2) the acquisition of munitions items by any individual, group, or other person within a country described in subsection (d), except to the extent that subparagraph (D) of subsection (b)(1) provides otherwise.

(d) Countries covered by prohibition

The prohibitions contained in this section apply with respect to a country if the Secretary of State determines that the government of that country has repeatedly provided support for acts of international terrorism. For purposes of this subsection, such acts shall include all activities that the Secretary determines willfully aid or abet the international proliferation of nuclear explosive devices to individuals or groups, willfully aid or abet an individual or groups in acquiring unsafeguarded special nuclear material, or willfully aid or abet the efforts of an individual or group to use, develop, produce, stockpile, or otherwise acquire chemical, biological, or radiological weapons.

(e) Publication of determinations

Each determination of the Secretary of State under subsection (d) shall be published in the Federal Register.

(f) Rescission

(1) A determination made by the Secretary of State under subsection (d) may not be rescinded unless the President submits to the Speaker of the House of Representatives, the Committee on Foreign Affairs of the House of Representatives, and the chairman of the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate—

(A) before the proposed rescission would take effect, a report certifying that—

(i) there has been a fundamental change in the leadership and policies of the government of the country concerned;

(ii) that government is not supporting acts of international terrorism; and

(iii) that government has provided assurances that it will not support acts of international terrorism in the future; or


(B) at least 45 days before the proposed rescission would take effect, a report justifying the rescission and certifying that—

(i) the government concerned has not provided any support for international terrorism during the preceding 6-month period; and

(ii) the government concerned has provided assurances that it will not support acts of international terrorism in the future.


(2)(A) No rescission under paragraph (1)(B) of a determination under subsection (d) may be made if the Congress, within 45 days after receipt of a report under paragraph (1)(B), enacts a joint resolution the matter after the resolving clause of which is as follows: "That the proposed rescission of the determination under section 40(d) of the Arms Export Control Act pursuant to the report submitted to the Congress on __________________ is hereby prohibited.", the blank to be completed with the appropriate date.

(B) A joint resolution described in subparagraph (A) and introduced within the appropriate 45-day period shall be considered in the Senate and the House of Representatives in accordance with paragraphs (3) through (7) of section 8066(c) of the Department of Defense Appropriations Act (as contained in Public Law 98–473), except that references in such paragraphs to the Committees on Appropriations of the House of Representatives and the Senate shall be deemed to be references to the Committee on Foreign Affairs of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate, respectively.

(g) Waiver

The President may waive the prohibitions contained in this section with respect to a specific transaction if—

(1) the President determines that the transaction is essential to the national security interests of the United States; and

(2) not less than 15 days prior to the proposed transaction, the President—

(A) consults with the Committee on Foreign Affairs of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate; and

(B) submits to the Speaker of the House of Representatives, the Committee on Foreign Affairs of the House of Representatives, and the chairman of the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate a report containing—

(i) the name of any country involved in the proposed transaction, the identity of any recipient of the items to be provided pursuant to the proposed transaction, and the anticipated use of those items;

(ii) a description of the munitions items involved in the proposed transaction (including their market value) and the actual sale price at each step in the transaction (or if the items are transferred by other than sale, the manner in which they will be provided);

(iii) the reasons why the proposed transaction is essential to the national security interests of the United States and the justification for such proposed transaction;

(iv) the date on which the proposed transaction is expected to occur; and

(v) the name of every United States Government department, agency, or other entity involved in the proposed transaction, every foreign government involved in the proposed transaction, and every private party with significant participation in the proposed transaction.


To the extent possible, the information specified in subparagraph (B) of paragraph (2) shall be provided in unclassified form, with any classified information provided in an addendum to the report.

(h) Exemption for transactions subject to National Security Act reporting requirements

The prohibitions contained in this section do not apply with respect to any transaction subject to reporting requirements under title V of the National Security Act of 1947 ([50 U.S.C. 3091 et seq.]; relating to congressional oversight of intelligence activities).

(i) Relation to other laws

(1) In general

With regard to munitions items controlled pursuant to this chapter, the provisions of this section shall apply notwithstanding any other provision of law, other than section 614(a) of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 (22 U.S.C. 2364(a)).

(2) Section 614(a) waiver authority

If the authority of section 614(a) of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 [22 U.S.C. 2364(a)] is used to permit a transaction under that Act [22 U.S.C. 2151 et seq.] or this chapter which is otherwise prohibited by this section, the written policy justification required by that section shall include the information specified in subsection (g)(2)(B) of this section.

(j) Criminal penalty

Any person who willfully violates this section shall be fined for each violation not more than $1,000,000, imprisoned not more than 20 years, or both.

(k) Civil penalties; enforcement

In the enforcement of this section, the President is authorized to exercise the same powers concerning violations and enforcement which are conferred upon departments, agencies, and officials by sections 11(c), 11(e), 11(g), and 12(a) 1 of the Export Administration Act of 1979 (subject to the same terms and conditions as are applicable to such powers under that Act), except that section 11(c)(2)(B) of such Act shall not apply, and instead, as prescribed in regulations issued under this section, the Secretary of State may assess civil penalties for violations of this chapter and regulations prescribed thereunder and further may commence a civil action to recover such civil penalties, and except further that, notwithstanding section 11(c) of that Act, the civil penalty for each violation of this section may not exceed $500,000.

(l) Definitions

As used in this section—

(1) the term "munitions item" means any item enumerated on the United States Munitions list 2 (without regard to whether the item is imported into or exported from the United States);

(2) the term "United States", when used geographically, means the several States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, and any territory or possession of the United States;

(3) the term "United States person" means—

(A) any citizen or permanent resident alien of the United States;

(B) any sole proprietorship, partnership, company, association, or corporation having its principal place of business within the United States or organized under the laws of the United States, any State, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, or any territory or possession of the United States;

(C) any other person with respect to that person's actions while in the United States; and

(D) to the extent provided in regulations issued by the Secretary of State, any person that is not described in subparagraph (A), (B), or (C) but—

(i) is a foreign subsidiary or affiliate of a United States person described in subparagraph (B) and is controlled in fact by that United States person (as determined in accordance with those regulations), or

(ii) is otherwise subject to the jurisdiction of the United States,


with respect to that person's actions while outside the United States;


(4) the term "nuclear explosive device" has the meaning given that term in section 6305(4) of this title; and

(5) the term "unsafeguarded special nuclear material" has the meaning given that term in section 6305(8) of this title.

(Pub. L. 90–629, ch. 3, §40, as added Pub. L. 99–399, title V, §509(a), Aug. 27, 1986, 100 Stat. 874; amended Pub. L. 101–222, §2(a), Dec. 12, 1989, 103 Stat. 1892; Pub. L. 102–138, title III, §321, Oct. 28, 1991, 105 Stat. 710; Pub. L. 103–236, title VIII, §822(a)(2), Apr. 30, 1994, 108 Stat. 511; Pub. L. 106–113, div. B, §1000(a)(7) [div. B, title XIII, §1303], Nov. 29, 1999, 113 Stat. 1536, 1501A-511; Pub. L. 107–228, div. B, title XII, §1204, Sept. 30, 2002, 116 Stat. 1427; Pub. L. 111–195, title I, §107(a)(3), July 1, 2010, 124 Stat. 1337; Pub. L. 113–276, title II, §208(a)(1), Dec. 18, 2014, 128 Stat. 2992.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in subsecs. (a)(1), (2), (i)(1), and (k), was in the original "this Act", and this chapter, referred to in subsec. (i)(2), was in the original "the Arms Export Control Act", both of which mean Pub. L. 90–629, Oct. 22, 1968, 82 Stat. 1321, as amended, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2751 of this title and Tables.

The Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, referred to in subsecs. (a)(1), (2) and (i)(2), is Pub. L. 87–195, Sept. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 424, as amended, which is classified principally to chapter 32 (§2151 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2151 of this title and Tables.

Section 40(d) of the Arms Export Control Act, referred to in subsec. (f)(2)(A), is classified to subsec. (d) of this section.

Paragraphs (3) through (7) of section 8066(c) of the Department of Defense Appropriations Act (as contained in Public Law 98–473), referred to in subsec. (f)(2)(B), is Pub. L. 98–473, title I, §101(h) [title VIII, §8066(c)(3)–(7)], Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 1904, 1936, 1937, which is not classified to the Code.

The National Security Act of 1947, referred to in subsec. (h), is act July 26, 1947, ch. 343, 61 Stat. 495, which was formerly classified principally to chapter 15 (§401 et seq.) of Title 50, War and National Defense, prior to editorial reclassification in chapter 44 (§3001 et seq.) of Title 50. Title V of the Act is now classified generally to subchapter III (§3091 et seq.) of chapter 44 of Title 50. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Tables.

The Export Administration Act of 1979, referred to in subsec. (k), is Pub. L. 96–72, Sept. 29, 1979, 93 Stat. 503, which was classified principally to chapter 56 (§4601 et seq.) of Title 50, War and National Defense, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 115–232, div. A, title XVII, §1766(a), Aug. 13, 2018, 132 Stat. 2232, except for sections 11A, 11B, and 11C thereof (50 U.S.C. 4611, 4612, 4613). Sections 11 and 12 of the Act were classified to sections 4610 and 4614, respectively, of Title 50 prior to repeal.

Amendments

2014—Subsecs. (f)(1), (g)(2)(B). Pub. L. 113–276 substituted "the Speaker of the House of Representatives, the Committee on Foreign Affairs of the House of Representatives, and" for "the Speaker of the House of Representatives and" in introductory provisions.

2010—Subsec. (j). Pub. L. 111–195 substituted "20 years" for "10 years".

2002—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 107–228 substituted "groups," for "groups or" in second sentence and inserted before period at end ", or willfully aid or abet the efforts of an individual or group to use, develop, produce, stockpile, or otherwise acquire chemical, biological, or radiological weapons".

1999—Subsec. (k). Pub. L. 106–113 inserted "section 11(c)(2)(B) of such Act shall not apply, and instead, as prescribed in regulations issued under this section, the Secretary of State may assess civil penalties for violations of this chapter and regulations prescribed thereunder and further may commence a civil action to recover such civil penalties, and except further that" after "except that".

1994—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 103–236, §822(a)(2)(A), inserted at end "For purposes of this subsection, such acts shall include all activities that the Secretary determines willfully aid or abet the international proliferation of nuclear explosive devices to individuals or groups or willfully aid or abet an individual or groups in acquiring unsafeguarded special nuclear material."

Subsec. (l). Pub. L. 103–236, §822(a)(2)(B), amended subsec. (l) by striking "and" after the semicolon in par. (2), substituting a semicolon for the period at the end of par. (3), and adding pars. (4) and (5).

1991—Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 102–138, §321, designated existing provisions as par. (1), redesignated former par. (1) as subpar. (A) and former subpars. (A) to (C) as cls. (i) to (iii), respectively, redesignated former par. (2) as subpar. (B) and former subpars. (A) and (B) as cls. (i) and (ii), respectively, and added par. (2). So much of Pub. L. 102–138, §321(1), as directed that subpar. (C) of former par. (2) be redesignated cl. (iii) of par. (1)(B), could not be executed because no such subpar. (C) had been enacted.

1989Pub. L. 101–222 substituted "Transactions with" for "Exports to" in section catchline and amended text generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows:

"(a) Prohibition.—Except as provided in subsection (b) of this section, items on the United States Munitions List may not be exported to any country which the Secretary of State has determined, for purposes of section 6(j)(1)(A) of the Export Administration Act of 1979 (50 U.S.C. App. 2405(j)(1)(A)), has repeatedly provided support for acts of international terrorism.

"(b) Waiver.—The President may waive the prohibition contained in subsection (a) of this section in the case of a particular export if the President determines that the export is important to the national interests of the United States and submits to the Congress a report justifying that determination and describing the proposed export. Any such waiver shall expire at the end of 90 days after it is granted unless the Congress enacts a law extending the waiver."

Effective Date of 1994 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 103–236 effective 60 days after Apr. 30, 1994, see section 831 of Pub. L. 103–236, set out as an Effective Date note under section 6301 of this title.

1 See References in Text note below.

2 So in original. Probably should be capitalized.

§2781. Transactions with countries not fully cooperating with United States antiterrorism efforts

(a) Prohibited transactions

No defense article or defense service may be sold or licensed for export under this chapter in a fiscal year to a foreign country that the President determines and certifies to Congress, by May 15 of the calendar year in which that fiscal year begins, is not cooperating fully with United States antiterrorism efforts.

(b) Waiver

The President may waive the prohibition set forth in subsection (a) with respect to a specific transaction if the President determines that the transaction is important to the national interests of the United States.

(Pub. L. 90–629, ch. 3, §40A, as added Pub. L. 104–132, title III, §330, Apr. 24, 1996, 110 Stat. 1258.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in subsec. (a), was in the original "this Act", meaning Pub. L. 90–629, Oct. 22, 1968, 82 Stat. 1321, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2751 of this title and Tables.

Codification

Another section 40A of Pub. L. 90–629 is classified to section 2785 of this title.

Delegation of Functions

For delegation of functions of the President under this section, see section 1(q) of Ex. Ord. No. 13637, Mar. 8, 2013, 78 F.R. 16130, set out as a note under section 2751 of this title. Functions were previously delegated by Ex. Ord. No. 11958, which was formerly set out as a note under section 2751 of this title and was revoked, subject to a savings provision, by section 4 of Ex. Ord. No. 13637.