[USC02] 22 USC CHAPTER 47, SUBCHAPTER I: UNITED STATES INITIATIVES TO PROVIDE ADEQUATE NUCLEAR FUEL SUPPLY
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22 USC CHAPTER 47, SUBCHAPTER I: UNITED STATES INITIATIVES TO PROVIDE ADEQUATE NUCLEAR FUEL SUPPLY
From Title 22—FOREIGN RELATIONS AND INTERCOURSECHAPTER 47—NUCLEAR NON-PROLIFERATION

SUBCHAPTER I—UNITED STATES INITIATIVES TO PROVIDE ADEQUATE NUCLEAR FUEL SUPPLY

§3221. Congressional declaration of policy

The United States, as a matter of national policy, shall take such actions and institute such measures as may be necessary and feasible to assure other nations and groups of nations that may seek to utilize the benefits of atomic energy for peaceful purposes that it will provide a reliable supply of nuclear fuel to those nations and groups of nations which adhere to policies designed to prevent proliferation. Such nuclear fuel shall be provided under agreements entered into pursuant to section 2201 of title 42 or as otherwise authorized by law. The United States shall ensure that it will have available the capacity on a long-term basis to enter into new fuel supply commitments consistent with its non-proliferation policies and domestic energy needs. The Commission shall, on a timely basis, authorize the export of nuclear materials and equipment when all the applicable statutory requirements are met.

(Pub. L. 95–242, title I, §101, Mar. 10, 1978, 92 Stat. 121.)

Effective Date

Section effective Mar. 10, 1978, except as otherwise provided and regardless of any requirements for the promulgation of implementing regulations, see section 603(c) of Pub. L. 95–242, set out as a note under section 3201 of this title.

§3222. Uranium enrichment capacity

The Secretary of Energy is directed to initiate construction planning and design, construction, and operation activities for expansion of uranium enrichment capacity, as elsewhere provided by law. Further the Secretary as well as the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Secretary of State are directed to establish and implement procedures which will ensure to the maximum extent feasible, consistent with this chapter, orderly processing of subsequent arrangements and export licenses with minimum time delay.

(Pub. L. 95–242, title I, §102, Mar. 10, 1978, 92 Stat. 122; Pub. L. 105–277, div. G, subdiv. A, title XII, §1225(e)(2), Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–775.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in text, was in the original "this Act", meaning Pub. L. 95–242, Mar. 10, 1978, 92 Stat. 120, known as the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Act of 1978. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 3201 of this title and Tables.

Amendments

1998Pub. L. 105–277 substituted "and the Secretary of State" for ", the Secretary of State, and the Director of the Arms Control and Disarmament Agency".

Effective Date of 1998 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 105–277 effective Apr. 1, 1999, see section 1201 of Pub. L. 105–277, set out as an Effective Date note under section 6511 of this title.

Effective Date

Section effective Mar. 10, 1978, except as otherwise provided and regardless of any requirements for the promulgation of implementing regulations, see section 603(c) of Pub. L. 95–242, set out as a note under section 3201 of this title.

§3223. International undertakings

(a) Development of international approaches for meeting future worldwide nuclear fuel needs; international nuclear fuel authority

Consistent with section 3224 of this title, the President shall institute prompt discussions with other nations and groups of nations, including both supplier and recipient nations, to develop international approaches for meeting future worldwide nuclear fuel needs. In particular, the President is authorized and urged to seek to negotiate as soon as practicable with nations possessing nuclear fuel production facilities or source material, and such other nations and groups of nations, such as the IAEA, as may be deemed appropriate, with a view toward the timely establishment of binding international undertakings providing for—

(1) the establishment of an international nuclear fuel authority (INFA) with responsibility for providing agreed upon fuel services and allocating agreed upon quantities of fuel resources to ensure fuel supply on reasonable terms in accordance with agreements between INFA and supplier and recipient nations;

(2) a set of conditions consistent with subsection (d) under which international fuel assurances under INFA auspices will be provided to recipient nations, including conditions which will ensure that the transferred materials will not be used for nuclear explosive devices;

(3) devising, consistent with the policy goals set forth in section 2153b of title 42, feasible and environmentally sound approaches for the siting, development, and management under effective international auspices and inspection of facilities for the provision of nuclear fuel services, including the storage of special nuclear material;

(4) the establishment of repositories for the storage of spent nuclear reactor fuel under effective international auspices and inspection;

(5) the establishment of arrangements under which nations placing spent fuel in such repositories would receive appropriate compensation for the energy content of such spent fuel if recovery of such energy content is deemed necessary or desirable; and

(6) sanctions for violation of the provisions of or for abrogation of such binding international undertakings.

(b), (c) Omitted

(d) Adherence of nations to policies designed to prevent proliferation

The fuel assurances contemplated by this section shall be for the benefit of nations that adhere to policies designed to prevent proliferation. In negotiating the binding international undertakings called for in this section, the President shall, in particular, seek to ensure that the benefits of such undertakings are available to non-nuclear-weapon states only if such states accept IAEA safeguards on all their peaceful nuclear activities, do not manufacture or otherwise acquire any nuclear explosive device, do not establish any new enrichment or reprocessing facilities under their de facto or de jure control, and place any such existing facilities under effective international auspices and inspection.

(e) Report on progress of negotiations

The report required by section 3281 of this title shall include information on the progress made in any negotiations pursuant to this section.

(f) Congressional approval of non-treaty international undertakings; submission of proposals

(1) The President may not enter into any binding international undertaking negotiated pursuant to subsection (a) which is not a treaty until such time as such proposed undertaking has been submitted to the Congress and has been approved by concurrent resolution.

(2) The proposals prepared pursuant to subsection (b) shall be submitted to the Congress as part of an annual authorization Act for the Department of Energy.

(Pub. L. 95–242, title I, §104, Mar. 10, 1978, 92 Stat. 122.)

Codification

Subsec. (b) of this section, directed the President to submit to Congress not later than six months after Mar. 10, 1978, proposals for initial fuel assurances, including creation of an interim stockpile of uranium enriched to less than 20 percent in the uranium isotope 235 (low-enriched uranium) to be available for transfer pursuant to a sales arrangement to nations which adhere to strict policies designed to prevent proliferation when and if necessary to ensure continuity of nuclear fuel supply to such nations, which submission was to include proposals for the transfer of low-enriched uranium up to an amount sufficient to produce 100,000 MWe years of power from light water nuclear reactors, and also to include proposals for seeking contributions from other supplier nations to such an interim stockpile pending the establishment of INFA.

Subsec. (c) of this section, which directed the President, in the report required by section 103 of Pub. L. 95–242, title I, Mar. 10, 1978, 92 Stat. 122, formerly set out as a note under section 3222 of this title, to also address the desirability of and options for foreign participation, including investment, in new United States uranium enrichment facilities, the arrangements that would be required to implement such participation, and the commitments that would be required as a condition of such participation, was omitted in view of the omission of section 103 of Pub. L. 95–242.

Effective Date

Section effective Mar. 10, 1978, except as otherwise provided and regardless of any requirements for the promulgation of implementing regulations, see section 603(c) of Pub. L. 95–242, set out as a note under section 3201 of this title.

Delegation of Functions

Secretary of State responsible for performing functions vested in President under subsecs. (a) and (d), see section 2(a) of Ex. Ord. No. 12058, May 11, 1978, 43 F.R. 20947, set out as a note under section 3201 of this title.

§3224. Reevaluation of nuclear fuel cycle

The President shall take immediate initiatives to invite all nuclear supplier and recipient nations to reevaluate all aspects of the nuclear fuel cycle, with emphasis on alternatives to an economy based on the separation of pure plutonium or the presence of high enriched uranium, methods to deal with spent fuel storage, and methods to improve the safeguards for existing nuclear technology. The President shall, in the first report required by section 3281 of this title, detail the progress of such international reevaluation.

(Pub. L. 95–242, title I, §105, Mar. 10, 1978, 92 Stat. 123.)

Effective Date

Section effective Mar. 10, 1978, except as otherwise provided and regardless of any requirements for the promulgation of implementing regulations, see section 603(c) of Pub. L. 95–242, set out as a note under section 3201 of this title.

Delegation of Functions

Secretary of State responsible for performing functions vested in President under this section, see section 2(a) of Ex. Ord. No. 12058, May 11, 1978, 43 F.R. 20947, set out as a note under section 3201 of this title.

§3224a. Studies and agreements by Secretary of Energy on multinational or international basis concerning spent fuel storage facilities and transportation systems; congressional consent; authorization of appropriations; limitations on use of funds; exceptions; special nuclear material for India

Department of Energy is hereby authorized to undertake studies, in cooperation with other nations, on a multinational or international basis designed to determine the general feasibility of expanding capacity of existing spent fuel storage facilities; to enter into agreements, subject to the consent of the Congress (by joint or concurrent resolution or legislation hereafter enacted), with other nations or groups of nations, for providing appropriate support to increase international or multinational spent fuel storage capacity; to conduct studies on the feasibility of establishing regional storage sites; and to conduct studies on international transportation and storage systems. For the purpose of carrying out the provisions of this section, there is included in subsection 101(20) of this Act authorization of appropriations in the amount of $20,000,000: Provided, That, notwithstanding any other provision of law, that none of the funds made available to the Secretary of Energy under any other authorization or appropriation Act shall be used, directly or indirectly, for the repurchase, transportation or storage of any foreign spent nuclear fuel (including any nuclear fuel irradiated in any nuclear power reactor located outside of the United States and operated by any foreign legal entity, government or nongovernment, regardless of the legal ownership or control of the fuel or the reactor, and regardless of the origin or licensing of the fuel or the reactor, but not including fuel irradiated in a research reactor, and not including fuel irradiated in a power reactor if the President determines that (1) use of funds for repurchase, transportation or storage of such fuel is required by an emergency situation, (2) it is in the interest of the common defense and security of the United States to take such action, and (3) he notifies the Congress of the determination and action, with a detailed explanation and justification thereof, as soon as possible) unless the President formally notifies, with the report information specified herein, the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources of the Senate and the Committee on Science, Space, and Technology of the House of Representatives of such use of funds thirty calendar days, during such time as either House of Congress is in session, before the commitment, expenditure, or obligation of such funds: And provided further, That, notwithstanding any other provision of law, that none of the funds appropriated pursuant to this Act or any other funds made available to the Secretary of Energy under any other authorization or appropriation Act shall be used, directly or indirectly, for the repurchase, transportation, or storage of any such foreign spent nuclear fuel for storage or other disposition, interim or permanent, in the United States, unless the use of the funds for that specific purpose has been (1) previously and expressly authorized by Congress in legislation hereafter enacted, (2) previously and expressly authorized by a concurrent resolution, or (3) the President submits a plan for such use, with the report information specified herein, thirty days during which the Congress is in continuous session, as defined in the Impoundment Control Act of 1974 [2 U.S.C. 681 et seq.], prior to such use and neither House of Congress approves a resolution of disapproval of the plan prior to the expiration of the aforementioned thirty-day period. If such a resolution of disapproval has been introduced, but has not been reported by the Committee on or before the twentieth day after transmission of the Presidential message, a privileged motion shall be in order in the respective body to discharge the Committee from further consideration of the resolution and to provide for its immediate consideration, using the procedures specified for consideration of an impoundment resolution in section 1017 of the Impoundment Control Act of 1974 (31 U.S.C. 1407) [2 U.S.C. 688]. Any report or plan proposed under this proviso shall include information and any supporting documentation thereof relating to policy objectives, technical description and discussion, geographic information, cost data, justification and projections, legal and regulatory considerations, environmental impact information and any related bilateral or international agreements, arrangements or understandings: And provided further, That nothing contained in this section shall be construed in any executive branch action, administrative proceeding, regulatory proceeding, or legal proceeding as being intended to delay, modify, or reverse the Memorandum and Order of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission of June 28, 1977, for the issuance of License No. XSNM–845 to the agent-applicant for the Government of India and the subsequent export thereby licensed of the special nuclear material to be used as fuel for the Tarapur Atomic Power Station or any other order of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to issue a license for the export of special nuclear material and subsequent exports thereby licensed, or any consideration by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission of a license application for the export of special nuclear material.

(Pub. L. 95–238, title I, §107, Feb. 25, 1978, 92 Stat. 55; Pub. L. 103–437, §9(c), Nov. 2, 1994, 108 Stat. 4588.)

References in Text

Section 101(20) of this Act, referred to in text, is section 101(20) of Pub. L. 95–238, title I, Feb. 25, 1978, 92 Stat. 48, which authorized appropriations for fuel cycle research and development and which was not classified to the Code. Pub. L. 95–238 is known as the Department of Energy Act of 1978—Civilian Applications.

The Impoundment Control Act of 1974, referred to in text, is parts A and B of title X of Pub. L. 93–344, July 12, 1974, 88 Stat. 332, as amended, which is classified principally to subchapters I (§681) and II (§682 et seq.) of chapter 17B of Title 2, The Congress. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 681 of Title 2 and Tables.

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the Department of Energy Act of 1978—Civilian Applications, and not as part of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Act of 1978 which comprises this chapter.

Amendments

1994Pub. L. 103–437 substituted "Science, Space, and Technology" for "Science and Technology".