[USC02] 22 USC CHAPTER 52, SUBCHAPTER X: LABOR-MANAGEMENT RELATIONS
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22 USC CHAPTER 52, SUBCHAPTER X: LABOR-MANAGEMENT RELATIONS
From Title 22—FOREIGN RELATIONS AND INTERCOURSECHAPTER 52—FOREIGN SERVICE

SUBCHAPTER X—LABOR-MANAGEMENT RELATIONS

§4101. Congressional findings and policy

The Congress finds that—

(1) experience in both private and public employment indicates that the statutory protection of the right of workers to organize, bargain collectively, and participate through labor organizations of their own choosing in decisions which affect them—

(A) safeguards the public interest,

(B) contributes to the effective conduct of public business, and

(C) facilitates and encourages the amicable settlement of disputes between workers and their employers involving conditions of employment;


(2) the public interest demands the highest standards of performance by members of the Service and the continuous development and implementation of modern and progressive work practices to facilitate improved performance and efficiency; and

(3) the unique conditions of Foreign Service employment require a distinct framework for the development and implementation of modern, constructive, and cooperative relationships between management officials and organizations representing members of the Service.


Therefore, labor organizations and collective bargaining in the Service are in the public interest and are consistent with the requirement of an effective and efficient Government. The provisions of this subchapter should be interpreted in a manner consistent with the requirement of an effective and efficient Government.

(Pub. L. 96–465, title I, §1001, Oct. 17, 1980, 94 Stat. 2128.)

§4102. Definitions

As used in this subchapter, the term—

(1) "Authority" means the Federal Labor Relations Authority, described in section 7104(a) of title 5;

(2) "Board" means the Foreign Service Labor Relations Board, established by section 4106(a) of this title;

(3) "collective bargaining" means the performance of the mutual obligation of the management representative of the Department and of the exclusive representative of employees to meet at reasonable times and to consult and bargain in a good-faith effort to reach agreement with respect to the conditions of employment affecting employees, and to execute, if requested by either party, a written document incorporating any collective bargaining agreement reached, but this obligation does not compel either party to agree to a proposal or to make a concession;

(4) "collective bargaining agreement" means an agreement entered into as a result of collective bargaining under the provisions of this subchapter;

(5) "conditions of employment" means personnel policies, practices, and matters, whether established by regulation or otherwise, affecting working conditions, but does not include policies, practices, and matters—

(A) relating to political activities prohibited abroad or prohibited under subchapter III of chapter 73 of title 5;

(B) relating to the designation or classification of any position under section 3981 of this title;

(C) to the extent such matters are specifically provided for by Federal statute; or

(D) relating to Government-wide or multiagency responsibility of the Secretary affecting the rights, benefits, or obligations of individuals employed in agencies other than those which are authorized to utilize the Foreign Service personnel system;


(6) "confidential employee" means an employee who acts in a confidential capacity with respect to an individual who formulates or effectuates management policies in the field of labor-management relations;

(7) "dues" means dues, fees, and assessments;

(8) "employee" means—

(A) a member of the Service who is a citizen of the United States, wherever serving, other than a management official, a confidential employee, a consular agent, a member of the Service who is a United States citizen (other than a family member) employed under section 3951 of this title, or any individual who participates in a strike in violation of section 7311 of title 5; or

(B) a former member of the Service as described in subparagraph (A) whose employment has ceased because of an unfair labor practice under section 4115 of this title and who has not obtained any other regular and substantially equivalent employment, as determined under regulations prescribed by the Board;


(9) "exclusive representative" means any labor organization which is certified as the exclusive representative of employees under section 4111 of this title;

(10) "General Counsel" means the General Counsel of the Authority;

(11) "labor organization" means an organization composed in whole or in part of employees, in which employees participate and pay dues, and which has as a purpose dealing with the Department concerning grievances (as defined in section 4131 of this title) and conditions of employment, but does not include—

(A) an organization which, by its constitution, bylaws, tacit agreement among its members, or otherwise, denies membership because of race, color, creed, national origin, sex, age, preferential or nonpreferential civil service status, political affiliation, marital status, or handicapping condition;

(B) an organization which advocates the overthrow of the constitutional form of government of the United States;

(C) an organization sponsored by the Department; or

(D) an organization which participates in the conduct of a strike against the Government or any agency thereof or imposes a duty or obligation to conduct, assist, or participate in such a strike;


(12) "management official" means an individual who—

(A) is a chief of mission or principal officer;

(B) is serving in a position to which appointed by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, or by the President alone;

(C) occupies a position which in the sole judgment of the Secretary is of comparable importance to the offices mentioned in subparagraph (A) or (B);

(D) is serving as a deputy to any individual described by subparagraph (A), (B), or (C);

(E) is assigned to carry out functions of the Inspector General of the Department of State and the Foreign Service under section 3929 of this title; or

(F) is engaged in the administration of this subchapter or in the formulation of the personnel policies and programs of the Department;


(13) "Panel" means the Foreign Service Impasse Disputes Panel, established by section 4110(a) of this title; and

(14) "person" means an individual, a labor organization, or an agency to which this subchapter applies.

(Pub. L. 96–465, title I, §1002, Oct. 17, 1980, 94 Stat. 2129; Pub. L. 103–236, title I, §180(a)(9), Apr. 30, 1994, 108 Stat. 416.)

Amendments

1994—Par. (8)(A). Pub. L. 103–236 inserted "a member of the Service who is a United States citizen (other than a family member) employed under section 3951 of this title,".

§4103. Application

(a) Departments and agencies affected

This subchapter applies only with respect to the Department of State, the Broadcasting Board of Governors, the Agency for International Development, the Department of Agriculture, and the Department of Commerce.

(b) Exclusion of subdivisions

The President may by Executive order exclude any subdivision of the Department from coverage under this subchapter if the President determines that—

(1) the subdivision has as a primary function intelligence, counterintelligence, investigative, or national security work, and

(2) the provisions of this subchapter cannot be applied to that subdivision in a manner consistent with national security requirements and considerations.

(c) Suspension of provisions

The President may by Executive order suspend any provision of this subchapter with respect to any post, bureau, office, or activity of the Department, if the President determines in writing that the suspension is necessary in the interest of national security because of an emergency.

(Pub. L. 96–465, title I, §1003, Oct. 17, 1980, 94 Stat. 2130; Pub. L. 97–241, title III, §303(b), Aug. 24, 1982, 96 Stat. 291; Pub. L. 105–277, div. G, subdiv. A, title XIII, §1335(k)(3), title XIV, §1422(b)(4)(C), Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–789, 2681-793.)

Amendments

1998—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 105–277, §1422(b)(4)(C), substituted "Agency for International Development" for "United States International Development Cooperation Agency".

Pub. L. 105–277, §1335(k)(3), substituted "Broadcasting Board of Governors" for "United States Information Agency".

Change of Name

"United States Information Agency" substituted for "International Communication Agency" in subsec. (a), pursuant to section 303(b) of Pub. L. 97–241, set out as a note under section 1461 of this title.

Effective Date of 1998 Amendment

Amendment by section 1335(k)(3) of Pub. L. 105–277 effective Oct. 1, 1999, see section 1301 of Pub. L. 105–277, set out as an Effective Date note under section 6531 of this title.

Amendment by section 1422(b)(4)(C) of Pub. L. 105–277 effective Apr. 1, 1999, see section 1401 of Pub. L. 105–277, set out as an Effective Date note under section 6561 of this title.

§4104. Employee rights

(a) Every employee has the right to form, join, or assist any labor organization, or to refrain from any such activity, freely and without fear of penalty or reprisal. Each employee shall be protected in the exercise of such right.

(b) Except as otherwise provided under this subchapter, such right includes the right—

(1) to act for a labor organization in the capacity of a representative and, in that capacity, to present the views of the labor organization to the Secretary and other officials of the Government, including the Congress, or other appropriate authorities; and

(2) to engage in collective bargaining with respect to conditions of employment through representatives chosen by employees under this subchapter.

(Pub. L. 96–465, title I, §1004, Oct. 17, 1980, 94 Stat. 2130.)

§4105. Management rights

(a) Subject to subsection (b), nothing in this subchapter shall affect the authority of any management official of the Department, in accordance with applicable law—

(1) to determine the mission, budget, organization, and internal security practices of the Department, and the number of individuals in the Service or in the Department;

(2) to hire, assign, direct, lay off, and retain individuals in the Service or in the Department, to suspend, remove, or take other disciplinary action against such individuals, and to determine the number of members of the Service to be promoted and to remove the name of or delay the promotion of any member in accordance with regulations prescribed under section 4005(b) of this title;

(3) to conduct reductions in force, and to prescribe regulations for the separation of employees pursuant to such reductions in force conducted under section 4010a of this title;

(4) to assign work, to make determinations with respect to contracting out, and to determine the personnel by which the operations of the Department shall be conducted;

(5) to fill positions from any appropriate source;

(6) to determine the need for uniform personnel policies and procedures between or among the agencies to which this subchapter applies; and

(7) to take whatever actions may be necessary to carry out the mission of the Department during emergencies.


(b) Nothing in this section shall preclude the Department and the exclusive representative from negotiating—

(1) at the election of the Department, on the numbers, types, and classes of employees or positions assigned to any organizational subdivision, work project, or tour of duty, or on the technology, methods, and means of performing work;

(2) procedures which management officials of the Department will observe in exercising any function under this section; or

(3) appropriate arrangements for employees adversely affected by the exercise of any function under this section by such management officials.

(Pub. L. 96–465, title I, §1005, Oct. 17, 1980, 94 Stat. 2131; Pub. L. 103–236, title I, §181(b), Apr. 30, 1994, 108 Stat. 417; Pub. L. 103–415, §1(jj)(2), Oct. 25, 1994, 108 Stat. 4303.)

Amendments

1994—Subsec. (a)(3) to (7). Pub. L. 103–236, as amended by Pub. L. 103–415, added par. (3) and redesignated former pars. (3) to (6) as (4) to (7), respectively.

§4106. Foreign Service Labor Relations Board

(a) Establishment; composition

There is established within the Federal Labor Relations Authority the Foreign Service Labor Relations Board. The Board shall be composed of 3 members, 1 of whom shall be the Chairman of the Authority, who shall be the Chairperson of the Board. The remaining 2 members shall be appointed by the Chairperson of the Board from nominees approved in writing by the agencies to which this subchapter applies, and the exclusive representative (if any) of employees in each such agency. In the event of inability to obtain agreement on a nominee, the Chairperson shall appoint the remaining 2 members from among individuals the Chairperson considers knowledgeable in labor-management relations and the conduct of foreign affairs.

(b) Chairperson serving concurrently as Chairman of Authority; length of terms; designation of alternate Chairperson

The Chairperson shall serve on the Board while serving as Chairman of the Authority. Of the 2 original members of the Board other than the Chairperson, one shall be appointed for a 2-year term and one shall be appointed for a 3-year term. Thereafter, each member of the Board other than the Chairperson shall be appointed for a term of 3 years, except that an individual appointed to fill a vacancy occurring before the end of a term shall be appointed for the unexpired term of the member replaced. The Chairperson may at any time designate an alternate Chairperson from among the members of the Authority.

(c) Vacancies

A vacancy on the Board shall not impair the right of the remaining members to exercise the full powers of the Board.

(d) Holding other Government offices or positions; compensation

The members of the Board, other than the Chairperson, may not hold another office or position in the Government except as authorized by law, and shall receive compensation at the daily equivalent of the rate payable for level V of the Executive Schedule under section 5316 of title 5 for each day they are performing their duties (including traveltime).

(e) Removal of members

The Chairperson may remove any other Board member, upon written notice, for corruption, neglect of duty, malfeasance, or demonstrated incapacity to perform his or her functions, established at a hearing, except where the right to a hearing is waived in writing.

(Pub. L. 96–465, title I, §1006, Oct. 17, 1980, 94 Stat. 2131.)

§4107. Functions of Foreign Service Labor Relations Board

(a) General provisions

The Board shall—

(1) supervise or conduct elections and determine whether a labor organization has been selected as the exclusive representative by a majority of employees who cast valid ballots and otherwise administer the provisions of this subchapter relating to the according of exclusive recognition to a labor organization;

(2) resolve complaints of alleged unfair labor practices;

(3) resolve issues relating to the obligation to bargain in good faith;

(4) resolve disputes concerning the effect, the interpretation, or a claim of breach of a collective bargaining agreement, in accordance with section 4114 of this title; and

(5) take any action considered necessary to administer effectively the provisions of this subchapter.

(b) Consistency or precedence of decisions under other provisions of law

Decisions of the Board under this subchapter shall be consistent with decisions rendered by the Authority under chapter 71 of title 5, other than in cases in which the Board finds that special circumstances require otherwise. Decisions of the Board under this subchapter shall not be construed as precedent by the Authority, or any court or other authority, for any decision under chapter 71 of title 5.

(c) Implementation

In order to carry out its functions under this subchapter—

(1) the Board shall by regulation adopt procedures to apply in the administration of this subchapter; and

(2) the Board may—

(A) adopt other regulations concerning its functions under this subchapter;

(B) conduct appropriate inquiries wherever persons subject to this subchapter are located;

(C) hold hearings;

(D) administer oaths, take the testimony or deposition of any individual under oath, and issue subpenas;

(E) require the Department or a labor organization to cease and desist from violations of this subchapter and require it to take any remedial action the Board considers appropriate to carry out this subchapter; and

(F) consistent with the provisions of this subchapter, exercise the functions the Authority has under chapter 71 of title 5 to the same extent and in the same manner as is the case with respect to persons subject to chapter 71 of such title.

(Pub. L. 96–465, title I, §1007, Oct. 17, 1980, 94 Stat. 2132.)

§4108. Functions of General Counsel

The General Counsel may—

(1) investigate alleged unfair labor practices under this subchapter,

(2) file and prosecute complaints under this subchapter, and

(3) exercise such other powers of the Board as the Board may prescribe.

(Pub. L. 96–465, title I, §1008, Oct. 17, 1980, 94 Stat. 2133.)

§4109. Judicial review and enforcement

(a) Persons entitled to maintain action; time of filing; venue

Except as provided in section 4114(d) of this title, any person aggrieved by a final order of the Board may, during the 60-day period beginning on the date on which the order was issued, institute an action for judicial review of such order in the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia.

(b) Enforcement of order; temporary relief or restraining order

The Board may petition the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia for the enforcement of any order of the Board under this subchapter and for any appropriate temporary relief or restraining order.

(c) Applicability of other provisions of law

Subsection (c) of section 7123 of title 5 shall apply to judicial review and enforcement of actions by the Board in the same manner that it applies to judicial review and enforcement of actions of the Authority under chapter 71 of title 5.

(d) Unfair labor practices

The Board may, upon issuance of a complaint as provided in section 4116 of this title charging that any person has engaged in or is engaging in an unfair labor practice, petition the United States District Court for the District of Columbia, for appropriate temporary relief (including a restraining order). Upon the filing of the petition, the court shall cause notice thereof to be served upon the person, and thereupon shall have jurisdiction to grant any temporary relief (including a temporary restraining order) it considers just and proper. A court shall not grant any temporary relief under this section if it would interfere with the ability of the Department to carry out its essential functions or if the Board fails to establish probable cause that an unfair labor practice is being committed.

(Pub. L. 96–465, title I, §1009, Oct. 17, 1980, 94 Stat. 2133.)

§4110. Foreign Service Impasse Disputes Panel

(a) Establishment; composition

There is established within the Federal Labor Relations Authority the Foreign Service Impasse Disputes Panel, which shall assist in resolving negotiating impasses arising in the course of collective bargaining under this subchapter. The Chairperson shall select the Panel from among individuals the Chairperson considers knowledgeable in labor-management relations or the conduct of foreign affairs. The Panel shall be composed of 5 members, as follows:

(1) 2 members of the Service (other than a management official, a confidential employee, or a labor organization official);

(2) one individual employed by the Department of Labor;

(3) one member of the Federal Service Impasses Panel; and

(4) one public member who does not hold any other office or position in the Government.


The Chairperson of the Board shall set the terms of office for Panel members and determine who shall chair the Panel.

(b) Compensation; travel expenses

Panel members referred to in subsection (a)(3) and (4) shall receive compensation for each day they are performing their duties (including traveltime) at the daily equivalent of the maximum rate payable for grade GS–18 of the General Schedule under section 5332 of title 5, except that the member who is also a member of the Federal Service Impasses Panel shall not be entitled to pay under this subsection for any day for which he or she receives pay under section 7119(b)(4) 1 of title 5. Members of the Panel shall be entitled to travel expenses as provided under section 5703 of title 5.

(c) Impasse investigation and settlement; hearings and other actions upon failure to settle; notice; binding nature of action

(1) The Panel or its designee shall promptly investigate any impasse presented to it by a party. The Panel shall consider the impasse and shall either—

(A) recommend to the parties to the negotiation procedures for the resolution of the impasse; or

(B) assist the parties in resolving the impasse through whatever methods and procedures, including factfinding and recommendations, it may consider appropriate to accomplish the purpose of this section.


(2) If the parties do not arrive at a settlement after assistance by the Panel under paragraph (1), the Panel may—

(A) hold hearings;

(B) administer oaths, take the testimony or deposition of any individual under oath, and issue subpenas as provided in section 7132 of title 5; and

(C) take whatever action is necessary and not inconsistent with this subchapter to resolve the impasse.


(3) Notice of any final action of the Panel under this section shall be promptly served upon the parties, and the action shall be binding on such parties during the term of the collective bargaining agreement unless the parties agree otherwise.

(Pub. L. 96–465, title I, §1010, Oct. 17, 1980, 94 Stat. 2133.)

References in Text

Section 7119(b)(4) of title 5, referred to in subsec. (b), probably means section 7119(c)(4) of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

References in Other Laws to GS–16, 17, or 18 Pay Rates

References in laws to the rates of pay for GS–16, 17, or 18, or to maximum rates of pay under the General Schedule, to be considered references to rates payable under specified sections of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees, see section 529 [title I, §101(c)(1)] of Pub. L. 101–509, set out in a note under section 5376 of Title 5.

1 See References in Text note below.

§4111. Exclusive recognition

(a) Secret ballot election; majority vote

The Department shall accord exclusive recognition to a labor organization if the organization has been selected as the representative, in a secret ballot election, by a majority of the employees in a unit who cast valid ballots in the election.

(b) Investigation of petition; hearing; supervision of election; certification of results; length of time between elections

If a petition is filed with the Board—

(1) by any person alleging—

(A) in the case of a unit for which there is no exclusive representative, that 30 percent of the employees in the unit wish to be represented for the purpose of collective bargaining by an exclusive representative, or

(B) in the case of a unit for which there is an exclusive representative, that 30 percent of the employees in the unit alleged that the exclusive representative is no longer the representative of the majority of the employees in the unit; or


(2) by any person seeking clarification of, or an amendment to, a certification then in effect or a matter relating to representation;


the Board shall investigate the petition, and if it has reasonable cause to believe that a question of representation exists, it shall provide an opportunity for a hearing (for which a transcript shall be kept) after reasonable notice. If the Board finds on the record of the hearing that a question of representation exists, the Board shall supervise or conduct an election on the question by secret ballot and shall certify the results thereof. An election under this subsection shall not be conducted in any unit within which a valid election under this subsection has been held during the preceding 12 calendar months or with respect to which a labor organization has been certified as the exclusive representative during the preceding 24 calendar months.

(c) Intervention of labor organizations; placement on ballot

A labor organization which—

(1) has been designated by at least 10 percent of the employees in the unit; or

(2) is the exclusive representative of the employees involved;


may intervene with respect to a petition filed pursuant to subsection (b) and shall be placed on the ballot of any election under subsection (b) with respect to the petition.

(d) Eligibility to vote; regulations; choices on ballot; preferential voting; certification as exclusive representative

(1) The Board shall determine who is eligible to vote in any election under this section and shall establish regulations governing any such election, which shall include regulations allowing employees eligible to vote the opportunity to choose—

(A) from labor organizations on the ballot, that labor organization which the employees wish to have represent them; or

(B) not to be represented by a labor organization.


(2) In any election in which more than two choices are on the ballot, the regulations of the Board shall provide for preferential voting. If no choice receives a majority of first preferences, the Board shall distribute to the two choices having the most first preferences the preferences as between those two of the other valid ballots cast. The choice receiving a majority of preferences shall be declared the winner. A labor organization which is declared the winner of the election shall be certified by the Board as the exclusive representative.

(e) Submission of required material

A labor organization seeking exclusive recognition shall submit to the Board and to the Department a roster of its officers and representatives, a copy of its constitution and bylaws, and a statement of its objectives.

(f) Grounds for denial of exclusive recognition status

Exclusive recognition shall not be accorded to a labor organization—

(1) if the Board determines that the labor organization is subject to corrupt influence or influences opposed to democratic principles; or

(2) in the case of a petition filed under subsection (b)(1)(A), if there is not credible evidence that at least 30 percent of the employees wish to be represented for the purpose of collective bargaining by the labor organization seeking exclusive recognition.

(g) Waiver of hearings; consent elections

Nothing in this section shall be construed to prohibit the waiving of hearings by stipulation for the purpose of a consent election in conformity with regulations and rules or decisions of the Board.

(Pub. L. 96–465, title I, §1011, Oct. 17, 1980, 94 Stat. 2134.)

§4112. Employees represented

The employees of the Department shall constitute a single and separate worldwide bargaining unit, from which there shall be excluded—

(1) employees engaged in personnel work in other than a purely clerical capacity; and

(2) employees engaged in criminal or national security investigations or who audit the work of individuals to insure that their functions are discharged honestly and with integrity.

(Pub. L. 96–465, title I, §1012, Oct. 17, 1980, 94 Stat. 2135.)

§4113. Representation rights and duties

(a) Negotiation of collective bargaining agreements; nondiscriminatory representation

A labor organization which has been accorded exclusive recognition is the exclusive representative of, and is entitled to act for, and negotiate collective bargaining agreements covering, all employees in the unit described in section 4112 of this title. An exclusive representative is responsible for representing the interests of all employees in that unit without discrimination and without regard to labor organization membership.

(b) Places of representation

(1) An exclusive representative shall be given the opportunity to be represented at—

(A) any formal discussion between one or more representatives of the Department and one or more employees in the unit (or their representatives), concerning any grievance (as defined in section 4131 of this title) or any personnel policy or practice or other general condition of employment; and

(B) any examination of an employee by a Department representative in connection with an investigation if—

(i) the employee reasonably believes that the examination may result in disciplinary action against the employee, and

(ii) the employee requests such representation.


(2) The Department shall annually inform employees of their rights under paragraph (1)(B).

(c) Duty to bargain in good faith; determination of techniques assisting negotiation

The Department and the exclusive representative, through appropriate representatives, shall meet and negotiate in good faith for the purposes of arriving at a collective bargaining agreement. In addition, the Department and the exclusive representative may determine appropriate techniques, consistent with the provisions of section 4110 of this title, to assist in any negotiation.

(d) Applicability to other employee rights or remedies

The rights of an exclusive representative under this section shall not preclude an employee from—

(1) being represented by an attorney or other representative of the employee's own choosing, other than the exclusive representative, in any grievance proceeding under subchapter XI; or

(2) exercising grievance or appeal rights established by law, rule, or regulation.

(e) Obligations included in good faith bargaining

The duty of the Department and the exclusive representative to negotiate in good faith shall include the obligation—

(1) to approach the negotiations with a sincere resolve to reach a collective bargaining agreement;

(2) to be represented at the negotiations by duly authorized representatives prepared to discuss and negotiate on any condition of employment;

(3) to meet at reasonable times and convenient places as frequently as may be necessary and to avoid unnecessary delays;

(4) for the Department to furnish to the exclusive representative, or its authorized representative, upon request and to the extent not prohibited by law, data—

(A) which is normally maintained by the Department in the regular course of business;

(B) which is reasonably available and necessary for full and proper discussion, understanding, and negotiation of subjects within the scope of collective bargaining; and

(C) which does not constitute guidance, advice, counsel, or training provided for management officials or confidential employees, relating to collective bargaining;


(5) to negotiate jointly with respect to conditions of employment applicable to employees in more than one of the agencies authorized to utilize the Foreign Service personnel system, as determined by the heads of such agencies; and

(6) if agreement is reached, to execute, upon the request of any party to the negotiation, a written document embodying the agreed terms, and to take the steps necessary to implement the agreement.

(f) Approval of agreement by Secretary; effective date; binding effect

(1) An agreement between the Department and the exclusive representative shall be subject to approval by the Secretary.

(2) The Secretary shall approve the agreement within 30 days after the date of the agreement unless the Secretary finds in writing that the agreement is contrary to applicable law, rule, or regulation.

(3) Unless the Secretary disapproves the agreement by making a finding under paragraph (2), the agreement shall take effect after 30 days from its execution and shall be binding on the Department and the exclusive representative subject to all applicable laws, orders, and regulations.

(g) Consultation by Department with exclusive representative

The Department shall consult with the exclusive representative with respect to Government-wide or multiagency matters affecting the rights, benefits, or obligations of individuals employed in agencies not authorized to utilize the Foreign Service personnel system. The exclusive representative shall be informed of any change proposed by the Department with respect to such matters, and shall be permitted reasonable time to present its views and recommendations regarding such change. The Department shall consider the views and recommendations of the exclusive representative before taking final action on any such change, and shall provide the exclusive representative a written statement of the reasons for taking the final action.

(Pub. L. 96–465, title I, §1013, Oct. 17, 1980, 94 Stat. 2135.)

§4114. Resolution of implementation disputes

(a) Grievance procedure

Any dispute between the Department and the exclusive representative concerning the effect, interpretation, or a claim of breach of a collective bargaining agreement shall be resolved through procedures negotiated by the Department and the exclusive representative. Any procedures negotiated under this section shall—

(1) be fair and simple,

(2) provide for expeditious processing, and

(3) include provision for appeal to the Foreign Service Grievance Board by either party of any dispute not satisfactorily settled.

(b) Review by Foreign Service Labor Relations Board

Either party to an appeal under subsection (a)(3) may file with the Board an exception to the action of the Foreign Service Grievance Board in resolving the implementation dispute. If, upon review, the Board finds that the action is deficient—

(1) because it is contrary to any law, rule, or regulation; or

(2) on other grounds similar to those applied by Federal courts in private sector labor-management relations;


the Board may take such action and make such recommendations concerning the Foreign Service Grievance Board action as it considers necessary, consistent with applicable laws, rules, and regulations.

(c) Time of filing exceptions; finality and binding nature of action

If no exception to a Foreign Service Grievance Board action is filed under subsection (b) within 30 days after such action is communicated to the parties, such action shall become final and binding and shall be implemented by the parties.

(d) Judicial review

Resolutions of disputes under this section shall not be subject to judicial review.

(Pub. L. 96–465, title I, §1014, Oct. 17, 1980, 94 Stat. 2137.)

§4115. Unfair labor practices

(a) Department of State

It shall be an unfair labor practice for the Department—

(1) to interfere with, restrain, or coerce any employee in the exercise by the employee of any right under this subchapter;

(2) to encourage or discourage membership in any labor organization by discrimination in connection with hiring, tenure, promotion, or other conditions of employment;

(3) to sponsor, control, or otherwise assist any labor organization, other than to furnish upon request customary and routine services and facilities on an impartial basis to labor organizations having equivalent status;

(4) to discipline or otherwise discriminate against an employee because the employee has filed a complaint or petition, or has given any information, affidavit, or testimony under this subchapter;

(5) to refuse to consult or negotiate in good faith with a labor organization, as required under this subchapter;

(6) to fail or refuse to cooperate in impasse procedures and impasse decisions, as required under this subchapter;

(7) to enforce any rule or regulation (other than a rule or regulation implementing section 2302 of title 5) which is in conflict with an applicable collective bargaining agreement if the agreement was in effect before the date the rule or regulation was prescribed; or

(8) to fail or refuse otherwise to comply with any provision of this subchapter.

(b) Labor organizations

It shall be an unfair labor practice for a labor organization—

(1) to interfere with, restrain, or coerce any employee in the exercise by the employee of any right under this subchapter;

(2) to cause or attempt to cause the Department to discriminate against any employee in the exercise by the employee of any right under this subchapter;

(3) to coerce, discipline, fine, or attempt to coerce a member of the labor organization as punishment or reprisal, or for the purpose of hindering or impeding the member's work performance or productivity as an employee or the discharge of the member's functions as an employee;

(4) to discriminate against an employee with regard to the terms and conditions of membership in the labor organization on the basis of race, color, creed, national origin, sex, age preferential or nonpreferential civil service status, political affiliation, marital status, or handicapping condition;

(5) to refuse to consult or negotiate in good faith with the Department, as required under this subchapter;

(6) to fail or refuse to cooperate in impasse procedures and impasse decisions, as required under this subchapter;

(7)(A) to call, or participate in, a strike, work stoppage, or slowdown, or to picket the Department in a labor-management dispute (except that any such picketing in the United States which does not interfere with the Department's operations shall not be an unfair labor practice); or

(B) to condone any unfair labor practice described in subparagraph (A) by failing to take action to prevent or stop such activity;

(8) to deny membership to any employee in the unit represented by the labor organization except—

(A) for failure to tender dues uniformly required as a condition of acquiring and retaining membership, or

(B) in the exercise of disciplinary procedures consistent with the organization's constitution or bylaws and this subchapter; or


(9) to fail or refuse otherwise to comply with any provision of this subchapter.

(c) Personal views, arguments, opinions, or statements

The expression of any personal view, argument, or opinion, or the making of any statement, which—

(1) publicizes the fact of a representational election and encourages employees to exercise their right to vote in such an election;

(2) corrects the record with respect to any false or misleading statement made by any person; or

(3) informs employees of the Government's policy relating to labor-management relations and representation,


if the expression contains no threat of reprisal or force or promise of benefit and was not made under coercive conditions shall not—

(A) constitute an unfair labor practice under this subchapter, or

(B) constitute grounds for the setting aside of any election conducted under this subchapter.

(d) Election of remedies

Issues which can properly be raised under an appeals procedure may not be raised as unfair labor practices prohibited under this section. Except for matters wherein, under section 4139(a)(2) of this title, an employee has an option of using the grievance procedure under subchapter XI or an appeals procedure, issues which can be raised under section 4114 of this title or subchapter XI may, in the discretion of the aggrieved party, be raised either under such section or subchapter or else raised as an unfair labor practice under this section, but may not be raised both under this section and under section 4114 of this title or subchapter XI.

(Pub. L. 96–465, title I, §1015, Oct. 17, 1980, 94 Stat. 2137; Pub. L. 102–138, title I, §153(d)(2), Oct. 28, 1991, 105 Stat. 674.)

Amendments

1991—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 102–138 substituted "section 4139(a)(2)" for "section 4139(b)".

Effective Date of 1991 Amendment

Pub. L. 102–138, title I, §153(f), Oct. 28, 1991, 105 Stat. 674, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 4131, 4134, 4137, 4139, and 4140 of this title] shall not apply with respect to any grievance (within the meaning of section 1101 of the Act [22 U.S.C. 4131], as amended by this section) arising before the date of enactment of this Act [Oct. 28, 1991]."

§4116. Prevention of unfair labor practices

(a) Investigation by General Counsel; issuance of complaint; statement of reasons

If the Department or labor organization is charged by any person with having engaged in or engaging in an unfair labor practice, the General Counsel shall investigate the charge and may issue and cause to be served upon the Department or labor organization a complaint. In any case in which the General Counsel does not issue a complaint because the charge fails to state an unfair labor practice, the General Counsel shall provide the person making the charge a written statement of the reasons for not issuing a complaint.

(b) Notice in complaint

Any complaint under subsection (a) shall contain a notice—

(1) of the charge;

(2) that a hearing will be held before the Board (or any member thereof or before an individual employed by the Board and designated for such purpose); and

(3) of the time and place fixed for the hearing.

(c) Answer; personal appearance

The labor organization or Department involved shall have the right to file an answer to the original and any amended complaint and to appear in person or otherwise and give testimony at the time and place fixed in the complaint for the hearing.

(d) Time of filing of charges

(1) Except as provided in paragraph (2), no complaint shall be issued based on any alleged unfair labor practice which occurred more than 6 months before the filing of the charge with the Board.

(2) If the General Counsel determines that the person filing any charge was prevented from filing the charge during the 6-month period referred to in paragraph (1) by reason of—

(A) any failure of the Department or labor organization against which the charge is made to perform a duty owed to the person, or

(B) any concealment which prevented discovery of the alleged unfair labor practice during the 6-month period,


the General Counsel may issue a complaint based on the charge if the charge was filed during the 6-month period beginning on the day of the discovery by the person of the alleged unfair labor practice.

(e) Regulations providing for resolution through informal methods

The General Counsel may prescribe regulations providing for informal methods by which the alleged unfair labor practice may be resolved prior to the issuance of a complaint.

(f) Hearing

The Board (or any member thereof or any individual employed by the Board and designated for such purpose) shall conduct a hearing on the complaint not earlier than 5 days after the date on which the complaint is served. In the discretion of the individual or individuals conducting the hearing, any person involved may be allowed to intervene in the hearing and to present testimony. Any such hearing shall, to the extent practicable, be conducted in accordance with the provisions of subchapter II of chapter 5 of title 5, except that the parties shall not be bound by rules of evidence, whether statutory, common law, or adopted by a court. A transcript shall be kept of the hearing. After such a hearing the Board, in its discretion, may upon notice receive further evidence or hear argument.

(g) Findings of fact relative to issuance of orders; backpay

If the Board (or any member thereof or any individual employed by the Board and designated for such purpose) determines after any hearing on a complaint under subsection (f) that the preponderance of the evidence received demonstrates that the Department or labor organization named in the complaint has engaged in or is engaging in an unfair labor practice, then the individual or individuals conducting the hearing shall state in writing their findings of fact and shall issue and cause to be served on the Department or labor organization an order—

(1) to cease and desist from any such unfair labor practice in which the Department or labor organization is engaged;

(2) requiring the parties to renegotiate a collective bargaining agreement in accordance with the order of the Board and requiring that the agreement, as amended, be given retroactive effect;

(3) requiring reinstatement of an employee with backpay in accordance with section 5596 of title 5; or

(4) including any combination of the actions described in paragraphs (1) through (3) or such other action as will carry out the purpose of this subchapter.


If any such order requires reinstatement of an employee with backpay, backpay may be required of the Department (as provided in section 5596 of title 5) or of the labor organization, as the case may be, which is found to have engaged in the unfair labor practice involved.

(h) Findings of fact requiring dismissal of complaint

If the individual or individuals conducting the hearing determine that the preponderance of the evidence received fails to demonstrate that the Department or labor organization named in the complaint has engaged in or is engaging in an unfair labor practice, the individual or individuals shall state in writing their findings of fact and shall issue an order dismissing the complaint.

(Pub. L. 96–465, title I, §1016, Oct. 17, 1980, 94 Stat. 2139.)

§4117. Standards of conduct for labor organizations

(a) Freedom from corrupt influences and influences opposed to basic democratic principles

The Department shall accord recognition only to a labor organization that is free from corrupt influences and influences opposed to basic democratic principles. Except as provided in subsection (b), an organization is not required to prove that it is free from such influences if it is subject to a governing requirement adopted by the organization or by a national or international labor organization or federation of labor organizations with which it is affiliated, or in which it participates, containing explicit and detailed provisions to which it subscribes calling for—

(1) the maintenance of democratic procedures and practices, including—

(A) provisions for periodic elections to be conducted subject to recognized safeguards, and

(B) provisions defining and securing the right of individual members to participate in the affairs of the organization, to receive fair and equal treatment under the governing rules of the organization, and to receive fair process in disciplinary proceedings;


(2) the exclusion from office in the organization of persons affiliated with Communist or other totalitarian movements and persons identified with corrupt influences;

(3) the prohibition of business or financial interests on the part of organization officers and agents which conflict with their duty to the organization and its members; and

(4) the maintenance of fiscal integrity in the conduct of the affairs of the organization, including provisions for accounting and financial controls and regular financial reports or summaries to be made available to members.

(b) Furnishing of information

A labor organization may be required to furnish evidence of its freedom from corrupt influences opposed to basic democratic principles if there is reasonable cause to believe that—

(1) the organization has been suspended or expelled from, or is subject to other sanction by, a parent labor organization, or federation of organizations with which it has been affiliated, because it has demonstrated an unwillingness or inability to comply with governing requirements comparable in purpose to those required by subsection (a); or

(2) the organization is in fact subject to influences that would preclude recognition under this subchapter.

(c) Reports; bonding of officials and other employees; compliance with trusteeship and election standards

A labor organization which has or seeks recognition as a representative of employees under this subchapter shall file financial and other reports with the Assistant Secretary of Labor for Labor Management Relations, provide for bonding of officials and others employed by the organization, and comply with trusteeship and election standards.

(d) Regulations; filing of complaints; cease and desist orders

The Assistant Secretary of Labor shall prescribe such regulations as are necessary to carry out this section. Such regulations shall conform generally to the principles applied to labor organizations in the private sector. Complaints of violations of this section shall be filed with the Assistant Secretary. In any matter arising under this section, the Assistant Secretary may require a labor organization to cease and desist from violations of this section and require it to take such actions as the Assistant Secretary considers appropriate to carry out the policies of this section.

(e) Participation in labor organizations restricted

(1) Notwithstanding any other provision of this subchapter—

(A) participation in the management of a labor organization for purposes of collective bargaining or acting as a representative of a labor organization for such purposes is prohibited under this subchapter—

(i) on the part of any management official or confidential employee;

(ii) on the part of any individual who has served as a management official or confidential employee during the preceding two years; or

(iii) on the part of any other employee if the participation or activity would result in a conflict of interest or apparent conflict of interest or would otherwise be incompatible with law or with the official functions of such employee; and


(B) service as a management official or confidential employee is prohibited on the part of any individual having participated in the management of a labor organization for purposes of collective bargaining or having acted as a representative of a labor organization during the preceding two years.


(2) For the purposes of paragraph (1)(A)(ii) and paragraph (1)(B), the term "management official" does not include—

(A) any chief of mission;

(B) any principal officer or deputy principal officer;

(C) any administrative or personnel officer abroad; or

(D) any individual described in section 4102(12)(B), (C), or (D) of this title who is not involved in the administration of this subchapter or in the formulation of the personnel policies and programs of the Department.

(f) Willful and intentional violations

If the Board finds that any labor organization has willfully and intentionally violated section 4115(b)(7) of this title by omission or commission with regard to any strike, work stoppage, slowdown, the Board shall—

(1) revoke the exclusive recognition status of the labor organization, which shall then immediately cease to be legally entitled and obligated to represent employees in the unit; or

(2) take any other appropriate disciplinary action.

(Pub. L. 96–465, title I, §1017, Oct. 17, 1980, 94 Stat. 2140; Pub. L. 103–236, title I, §171, Apr. 30, 1994, 108 Stat. 411; Pub. L. 105–277, div. G, subdiv. B, title XXIII, §2315, Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–828.)

Amendments

1998—Subsec. (e)(2). Pub. L. 105–277 amended par. (2) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (2) read as follows: "For the purposes of paragraph (1)(A)(ii) and paragraph (1)(B), the term 'management official' shall not include chiefs of mission, principal officers and their deputies, and administrative and personnel officers abroad."

1994—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 103–236 amended subsec. (e) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (e) read as follows: "This subchapter does not authorize participation in the management of a labor organization or acting as a representative of a labor organization by a management official, a confidential employee, or any other employee if the participation or activity would result in a conflict or apparent conflict of interest or would otherwise be incompatible with law or with the official functions of such management official or such employee."

§4118. Administrative provisions

(a) Assignment for deduction of dues

If the Department has received from any individual a written assignment which authorizes the Department to deduct from the salary of that individual amounts for the payment of regular and periodic dues of the exclusive representative, the Department shall honor the assignment. Any such assignment shall be made at no cost to the exclusive representative or the individual. Except as provided in subsection (b), any such assignment may not be revoked for a period of one year from its execution.

(b) Termination of assignment for deduction of dues

An assignment for deduction of dues shall terminate when—

(1) the labor organization ceases to be the exclusive representative;

(2) the individual ceases to receive a salary from the Department as a member of the Service; or

(3) the individual is suspended or expelled from membership in the exclusive representative.

(c) Negotiations with uncertified labor organizations

During any period when no labor organization is certified as the exclusive representative of employees in the Department, the Department shall have the duty to negotiate with a labor organization which has filed a petition under section 4111(b)(1)(A) of this title alleging that 10 percent of the employees in the Department have membership in the organization if the Board has determined that the petition is valid. Negotiations under this subsection shall be concerned solely with the deduction of dues of the labor organization from the salary of the individuals who are members of the labor organization and who make a voluntary allotment for that purpose. Any agreement between the Department and a labor organization under this subsection shall terminate upon the certification of an exclusive representative of any employees to whom the agreement applies.

(d) Official time usage

The following provisions shall apply to the use of official time:

(1) Any employee representing an exclusive representative in the negotiation of a collective bargaining agreement under this subchapter shall be authorized official time for such purposes, including attendance at impasse proceedings, during the time the employee otherwise would be in a duty status. The number of employees for whom official time is authorized under this paragraph shall not exceed the number of individuals designated as representing the Department for such purposes.

(2) Any activities performed by any employee relating to the internal business of the labor organization, including the solicitation of membership, elections of labor organization officials, and collection of dues, shall be performed during the time the employee is in a nonduty status.

(3) Except as provided in paragraph (1), the Board shall determine whether any employee participating for, or on behalf of, a labor organization in any phase of proceedings before the Board shall be authorized official time for such purpose during the time the employee would otherwise be in a duty status.

(4) Except as provided in paragraphs (1), (2), and (3), any employee representing an exclusive representative, or engaged in any other matter covered by this subchapter, shall be granted official time in any amount the Department and the exclusive representative agree to be reasonable, necessary, and in the public interest.

(Pub. L. 96–465, title I, §1018, Oct. 17, 1980, 94 Stat. 2141.)