[USC02] 22 USC CHAPTER 9, SUBCHAPTER II: NEUTRALITY
Result 1 of 1
   
 
22 USC CHAPTER 9, SUBCHAPTER II: NEUTRALITY
From Title 22—FOREIGN RELATIONS AND INTERCOURSECHAPTER 9—FOREIGN WARS, WAR MATERIALS, AND NEUTRALITY

SUBCHAPTER II—NEUTRALITY

§441. Proclamation of state of war between foreign states

(a) Issuance of proclamation

Whenever the President, or the Congress by concurrent resolution, shall find that there exists a state of war between foreign states, and that it is necessary to promote the security or preserve the peace of the United States or to protect the lives of citizens of the United States, the President shall issue a proclamation naming the states involved; and he shall, from time to time, by proclamation, name other states as and when they may become involved in the war.

(b) Revocation of proclamation

Whenever the state of war which shall have caused the President to issue any proclamation under the authority of this section shall have ceased to exist with respect to any state named in such proclamation, he shall revoke such proclamation with respect to such state.

(Nov. 4, 1939, ch. 2, §1, 54 Stat. 4.)

Short Title

Joint Res. Nov. 4, 1939, ch. 2, §20, 54 Stat. 12, provided that: "This joint resolution [enacting this subchapter] may be cited as the 'Neutrality Act of 1939'."

Repeals

Joint Res. Nov. 4, 1939, ch. 2, §19, 54 Stat. 12, provided that: "The joint resolution of August 31, 1935, as amended [sections 245a to 245i of this title], and the joint resolution of January 8, 1937 [ch. 1, 50 Stat. 3], are hereby repealed; but offenses committed and penalties, forfeitures, or liabilities incurred under either of such joint resolutions prior to the date of enactment of this joint resolution [this subchapter] may be prosecuted and punished, and suits and proceedings for violations of either of such joint resolutions or of any rule or regulation issued pursuant thereto may be commenced and prosecuted, in the same manner and with the same effect as if such joint resolutions had not been repealed."

Neutrality Act of 1939 not to be deemed repealed or modified in any manner by Joint Res. May 7, 1940, ch. 185, 54 Stat. 179, according to section 3 thereof, which resolution amended section 5(b) of the Trading With the Enemy Act, see section 4305(b) of Title 50, War and National Defense, which resolution approved and confirmed Ex. Ord. No. 8389, amending Ex. Ord. No. 6560, formerly set out as a note under section 95a of Title 12, Banks and Banking, and regulations and general rulings issued by Secretary of Treasury under Ex. Ord. No. 8389.

Separability

Joint Res. Nov. 4, 1939, ch. 2, §17, 54 Stat. 12, provided that: "If any of the provisions of this joint resolution [this subchapter], or the application thereof to any person or circumstance, is held invalid, the remainder of the joint resolution, and the application of such provision to other persons or circumstances, shall not be affected thereby."

Purpose of and Rights Reserved Under Subchapter

Joint Res. Nov. 4, 1939, ch. 2, 54 Stat. 4, provided in part as follows:

"Whereas the United States, desiring to preserve its neutrality in wars between foreign states and desiring also to avoid involvement therein, voluntarily imposes upon its nationals by domestic legislation the restrictions set out in this joint resolution [this subchapter]; and

"Whereas by so doing the United States waives none of its own rights or privileges, or those of any of its nationals, under international law, and expressly reserves all the rights and privileges to which it and its nationals are entitled under the law of nations; and

"Whereas the United States hereby expressly reserves the right to repeal, change or modify this [this subchapter] or any other domestic legislation in the interests of the peace, security or welfare of the United States and its people."

§§442, 443. Repealed. Nov. 17, 1941, ch. 473, §1, 55 Stat. 764

Section 442, Joint Res. Nov. 4, 1939, ch. 2, §2, 54 Stat. 4, related to commerce with states engaged in armed conflict.

Section 443, Joint Res. Nov. 4, 1939, ch. 2, §3, 54 Stat. 7, related to combat areas.

Definition of Combat Areas

Proc. No. 2376, Nov. 4, 1939, 3 p.m., 4 F.R. 4495, 54 Stat. 2673; Proc. No. 2394, Apr. 10, 1940, 5 F.R. 1400, 54 Stat. 2693; Proc. No. 2410, June 11, 1940, 5:20 p.m. E.S.T., 5 F.R. 2209, 54 Stat. 2708, as modified by Proc. No. 2474, Apr. 10, 1941, 6 F.R. 1905, 55 Stat. 1628, defined various combat areas.

§444. American Red Cross vessels

(a) Transport of officers, American Red Cross personnel, medical personnel, medical supplies, food and clothing

The provisions of section 442(a) 1 of this title shall not prohibit the transportation by vessels, unarmed and not under convoy, under charter or other direction and control of the American Red Cross of officers and American Red Cross personnel, medical personnel, and medical supplies, food, and clothing, for the relief of human suffering: Provided, That where permission has not been given by the blockading power, no American Red Cross vessel shall enter a port where a blockade by aircraft, surface vessel, or submarine is being attempted through the destruction of vessels, or into a port of any country where such blockade of the whole country is being so attempted: Provided further, That such American Red Cross vessel shall be on a mission of mercy only and carrying only Red Cross materials and personnel.

(b) Transport of refugee children

The provisions of sections 442(a) and 443 1 of this title shall not prohibit a vessel, in ballast, unarmed, and not under convoy, and transporting refugee children, under sixteen years of age, from war zones, or combat areas, and shall not prohibit such vessel entering into such war zones or combat areas for this purpose, together with such necessary American citizen adult personnel in charge as may be approved by the Secretary of State, subject to the provisions of the immigration laws, if such vessel is proceeding under safe conduct granted by all of the States named in the proclamations issued under the authority of section 441(a) of this title, and if such vessel has painted on a large scale prominently, distinctly, and unmistakably on each side thereof and upon the superstructure thereof plainly visible from the air an American flag and a statement to the effect that such vessel is a refugee-child rescue ship of the United States or under United States registry: Provided, That every such child so brought into the United States shall, previous to departure from the port of embarkation, have been so sponsored by some responsible American person, natural or corporate, that he will not become a public charge.

(Nov. 4, 1939, ch. 2, §4, 54 Stat. 7; June 26, 1940, ch. 431, 54 Stat. 611; Aug. 27, 1940, ch. 695, 54 Stat. 866.)

References in Text

Sections 442(a) and 443 of this title, referred to in subsecs. (a) and (b), were repealed by act Nov. 17, 1941, ch. 473, §1, 55 Stat. 764.

Amendments

1940—Act June 26, 1940, inserted "unarmed and not under convoy", inserted two proviso clauses and struck out "proceeding under safe conduct granted by states named in any proclamation issued under the authority of section 441(a) of this title" after "control of the American Red Cross".

Act Aug. 27, 1940, designated existing provisions as subsec. (a) and added subsec. (b).

1 See References in Text note below.

§445. Travel on vessels of belligerent states

(a) Proscription by Presidential proclamation

Whenever the President shall have issued a proclamation under the authority of section 441(a) of this title it shall thereafter be unlawful for any citizen of the United States to travel on any vessel of any state named in such proclamation, except in accordance with such rules and regulations as may be prescribed.

(b) Revocation of proclamation; effect

Whenever any proclamation issued under the authority of section 441(a) of this title shall have been revoked with respect to any state the provisions of this section shall thereupon cease to apply with respect to such state, except as to offenses committed prior to such revocation.

(Nov. 4, 1939, ch. 2, §5, 54 Stat. 7.)

§446. Repealed. Nov. 17, 1941, ch. 473, §2, 55 Stat. 764

Section, Joint Res. Nov. 4, 1939, ch. 2, §6, 54 Stat. 7, prohibited arming of American merchant vessels. Joint Res. Nov. 17, 1941, §2, which repealed this section, was itself repealed, effective July 1, 1948, by Joint Res. July 25, 1947, ch. 327, §2(a), 61 Stat. 451, which provided that it should remain in full force and effect until such date.

§447. Financial transactions

(a) Bonds, securities, or other obligations

Whenever the President shall have issued a proclamation under the authority of section 441(a) of this title, it shall thereafter be unlawful for any person within the United States to purchase, sell, or exchange bonds, securities, or other obligations of the government of any state named in such proclamation, or of any political subdivision of any such state, or of any person acting for or on behalf of the government of any such state, or political subdivision thereof, issued after the date of such proclamation, or to make any loan or extend any credit (other than necessary credits accruing in connection with the transmission of telegraph, cable, wireless and telephone services) to any such government, political subdivision, or person. The provisions of this subsection shall also apply to the sale by any person within the United States to any person in a state named in any such proclamation of any articles or materials listed in a proclamation referred to in or issued under the authority of section 452(i) 1 of this title.

(b) Renewal or adjustment of indebtedness

The provisions of this section shall not apply to a renewal or adjustment of such indebtedness as may exist on the date of such proclamation.

(c) Fine and imprisonment

Whoever shall knowingly violate any of the provisions of this section or of any regulations issued thereunder shall, upon conviction thereof, be fined not more than $50,000 or imprisoned for not more than five years, or both. Should the violation be by a corporation, organization, or association, each officer or director thereof participating in the violation shall be liable to the penalty herein prescribed.

(d) Revocation of proclamation

Whenever any proclamation issued under the authority of section 441(a) of this title shall have been revoked with respect to any state the provisions of this section shall thereupon cease to apply with respect to such state, except as to offenses committed prior to such revocation.

(e) Wartime

This section shall not be operative when the United States is at war.

(Nov. 4, 1939, ch. 2, §7, 54 Stat. 8; Feb. 21, 1942, ch. 104, 56 Stat. 95.)

References in Text

Section 452(i) of this title, referred to in subsec. (a), was repealed by act Aug. 26, 1954, ch. 937, title V, §542(a)(12), 68 Stat. 861. See former section 1934(a) and section 2778(a) of this title.

Amendments

1942—Subsec. (e). Joint Res. Feb. 21, 1942, added subsec. (e).

Operation of Section Postponed Until July 1, 1953

Joint Res. July 3, 1952, ch. 570, §1(b)(7), 66 Stat. 333, as amended by Joint Res. Mar. 31, 1953, ch. 13, §1, 67 Stat. 18, provided that this section which is normally operative in time of peace shall not be operative by reason of the termination of a state of war on Apr. 28, 1952, but rather (in addition to being inoperative, in accordance with their terms, in time of war) shall continue to be inoperative until 6 months after the termination of the national emergency proclaimed by the President on Dec. 16, 1950, 1950 Proc. 2914, 15 F.R. 9029, set out as a note preceding section 1 of Title 50, War and National Defense, or until such earlier date or dates as the Congress may provide, but in no event beyond Apr. 1, 1953.

Repeal of Prior Acts Continuing Section

Section 6 of Joint Res. July 3, 1952, repealed Joint Res. Apr. 14, 1952, ch. 204, 66 Stat. 54 as amended by Joint Res. May 28, 1952, ch. 339, 66 Stat. 96; Joint Res. June 14, 1952, ch. 437, 66 Stat. 137; Joint Res. June 30, 1952, ch. 526, 66 Stat. 296, which continued provisions until July 3, 1952. This repeal shall take effect as of June 16, 1952, by section 7 of Joint Res. July 3, 1952.

1 See References in Text note below.

§448. Solicitation and collection of funds and contributions

(a) Unlawful acts

Whenever the President shall have issued a proclamation under the authority of section 441(a) of this title, it shall thereafter be unlawful for any person within the United States to solicit or receive any contribution for or on behalf of the government of any state named in such proclamation or for or on behalf of any agent or instrumentality of any such state.

(b) Medical aid, food, and clothing

Nothing in this section shall be construed to prohibit the solicitation or collection of funds and contributions to be used for medical aid and assistance, or for food and clothing to relieve human suffering, when such solicitation or collection of funds and contributions is made on behalf of and for use by any person or organization which is not acting for or on behalf of any such government, but all such solicitations and collections of funds and contributions shall be in accordance with and subject to such rules and regulations as may be prescribed.

(c) Revocation of proclamation

Whenever any proclamation issued under the authority of section 441(a) of this title shall have been revoked with respect to any state the provisions of this section shall thereupon cease to apply with respect to such state, except as to offenses committed prior to such revocation.

(Nov. 4, 1939, ch. 2, §8, 54 Stat. 8.)

§449. American republics

This subchapter (except section 452 1 of this title) shall not apply to any American republic engaged in war against a non-American state or states, provided the American republic is not cooperating with a non-American state or states in such war.

(Nov. 4, 1939, ch. 2, §9, 54 Stat. 8.)

References in Text

Section 452 of this title, referred to in text, was repealed by act Aug. 26, 1954, ch. 937, title V, §542(a)(12), 68 Stat. 861. See former section 1934(a) and section 2778(a) of this title.

1 See References in Text note below.

§450. Restrictions on use of American ports

(a) Bond to insure non-delivery of men, ammunition, fuel, etc.

Whenever, during any war in which the United States is neutral, the President, or any person thereunto authorized by him, shall have cause to believe that any vessel, domestic or foreign, whether requiring clearance or not, is about to carry out of a port or from the jurisdiction of the United States, fuel, men, arms, ammunition, implements of war, supplies, dispatches, or information to any warship, tender, or supply ship of a state named in a proclamation issued under the authority of section 441(a) of this title, but the evidence is not deemed sufficient to justify forbidding the departure of the vessel as provided for by section 967 of title 18, and if, in the President's judgment, such action will serve to maintain peace between the United States and foreign states, or to protect the commercial interests of the United States and its citizens, or to promote the security or neutrality of the United States, he shall have the power, and it shall be his duty, to require the owner, master, or person in command thereof, before departing from a port or from the jurisdiction of the United States, to give a bond to the United States, with sufficient sureties, in such amount as he shall deem proper, conditioned that the vessel will not deliver the men, or any fuel, supplies, dispatches, information, or any part of the cargo, to any warship, tender, or supply ship of a state named in a proclamation issued under the authority of section 441(a) of this title.

(b) Departure prohibited

If the President, or any person thereunto authorized by him, shall find that a vessel, domestic or foreign, in a port of the United States, has previously departed from a port or from the jurisdiction of the United States during such war and delivered men, fuel, supplies, dispatches, information, or any part of its cargo to a warship, tender, or supply ship of a state named in a proclamation issued under the authority of section 441(a) of this title, he may prohibit the departure of such vessel during the duration of the war.

(c) Alien seaman; bond

Whenever the President shall have issued a proclamation under section 441(a) of this title he may, while such proclamation is in effect, require the owner, master, or person in command of any vessel, foreign or domestic, before departing from the United States, to give a bond to the United States, with sufficient sureties, in such amount as he shall deem proper, conditioned that no alien seaman who arrived on such vessel shall remain in the United States for a longer period than that permitted under the regulations, as amended from time to time, issued pursuant to section 168 1 of title 8. Notwithstanding the provisions of said section 168 1 of title 8, the President may issue such regulations with respect to the landing of such seamen as he deems necessary to insure their departure either on such vessel or another vessel at the expense of such owner, master, or person in command.

(Nov. 4, 1939, ch. 2, §10, 54 Stat. 9.)

References in Text

Section 168 of title 8, referred to in subsec. (c), was repealed by act June 27, 1952, ch. 477, §403(a)(13), 66 Stat. 279. See section 1286 of Title 8, Aliens and Nationality.

Codification

In subsec. (a), "section 967 of title 18" substituted for "section 1, title V, chapter 30, of the Act approved June 15, 1917 (40 Stat. 217, 221; U.S.C., 1934 edition, title 18, sec. 31)" on authority of act June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 863, section 1 of which enacted Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure.

Delegation of Functions

For delegation to Secretary of Homeland Security of authority vested in President by subsecs. (a) and (b) of this section, see sections 1(n) and 1(o) of Ex. Ord. No. 10637, Sept. 16, 1955, 20 F.R. 7025, as amended, set out as a note under section 301 of Title 3, The President.

1 See References in Text note below.

§451. Submarines and armed merchant vessels

Whenever, during any war in which the United States is neutral, the President shall find that special restrictions placed on the use of the ports and territorial waters of the United States by the submarines or armed merchant vessels of a foreign state will serve to maintain peace between the United States and foreign states, or to protect the commercial interests of the United States and its citizens, or to promote the security of the United States, and shall make proclamation thereof, it shall thereafter be unlawful for any such submarine or armed merchant vessel to enter a port or the territorial waters of the United States or to depart therefrom, except under such conditions and subject to such limitations as the President may prescribe. Whenever, in his judgment, the conditions which have caused him to issue his proclamation have ceased to exist, he shall revoke his proclamation and the provisions of this section shall thereupon cease to apply, except as to offenses committed prior to such revocation.

(Nov. 4, 1939, ch. 2, §11, 54 Stat. 9.)

Use of United States Ports and Territorial Waters by Submarines of Foreign Nations

By Proc. Nos. 2375, Nov. 4, 1939, 4 F.R. 4494, 54 Stat. 2672; 2400, Apr. 25, 1940, 5 F.R. 1570, 54 Stat. 2699; 2406, May 11, 1940, 5 F.R. 1690, 54 Stat. 2705; 2409, June 10, 1940, 5 F.R. 2192, 54 Stat. 2707; 2445, Nov. 15, 1940, 5 F.R. 4524, 54 Stat. 2672, submarines of France, Germany, Poland, United Kingdom, India, Australia, Canada, New Zealand, Union of South Africa, Norway, Belgium, the Netherlands, Italy, and Greece were denied use of United States ports and territorial waters.

§452. Repealed. Aug. 26, 1954, ch. 937, title V, §542(a)(12), 68 Stat. 861

Section, acts Nov. 4, 1939, ch. 2, §12, 54 Stat. 10; Jan. 26, 1942, ch. 19, 56 Stat. 19, established the National Munitions Control Board. See former section 1934 and section 2778 of this title.

Subsec. (h) was subsequently repealed by act Aug. 30, 1954, ch. 1076, §1(28), 68 Stat. 968.

§453. Regulations

The President may, from time to time, promulgate such rules and regulations, not inconsistent with law, as may be necessary and proper to carry out any of the provisions of this subchapter; and he may exercise any power or authority conferred on him by this subchapter through such officer or officers, or agency or agencies, as he shall direct.

(Nov. 4, 1939, ch. 2, §13, 54 Stat. 11.)

Delegation of Powers

Power to make rules and regulations under this subchapter delegated to Secretary of State by Proc. No. 2374, promulgated Nov. 4, 1939, 4 F.R. 4493, 54 Stat. 2671. See proclamations preceding section 1 of Title 50, War and National Defense.

§454. Unlawful use of the American flag by vessel of foreign state

(a) It shall be unlawful for any vessel belonging to or operating under the jurisdiction of any foreign state to use the flag of the United States thereon, or to make use of any distinctive signs or markings, indicating that the same is an American vessel.

(b) Any vessel violating the provisions of subsection (a) of this section shall be denied for a period of three months the right to enter the ports or territorial waters of the United States except in cases of force majeure.

(Nov. 4, 1939, ch. 2, §14, 54 Stat. 11.)

§455. General penalty provision

In every case of the violation of any of the provisions of this subchapter or of any rule or regulation issued pursuant thereto where a specific penalty is not provided in this subchapter, such violator or violators, upon conviction, shall be fined not more than $10,000, or imprisoned not more than two years, or both.

(Nov. 4, 1939, ch. 2, §15, 54 Stat. 11.)

§456. Definitions

For the purposes of this subchapter—

(a) The term "United States", when used in a geographical sense, includes the several States and Territories, the insular possessions of the United States, the Canal Zone, and the District of Columbia.

(b) The term "person" includes a partnership, company, association, or corporation, as well as a natural person.

(c) The term "vessel" means every description of watercraft and aircraft capable of being used as a means of transportation on, under, or over water.

(d) The term "American vessel" means any vessel documented, and any aircraft registered or licensed, under the laws of the United States.

(e) The term "state" shall include nation, government, and country.

(f) The term "citizen" shall include any individual owing allegiance to the United States, a partnership, company, or association composed in whole or in part of citizens of the United States, and any corporation organized and existing under the laws of the United States as defined in subsection (a) of this section.

(Nov. 4, 1939, ch. 2, §16, 54 Stat. 12; Proc. No. 2695, July 4, 1946, 11 F.R. 7517, 60 Stat. 1352.)

References in Text

For definition of Canal Zone, referred to in subsec. (a), see section 3602(b) of this title.

Codification

Words "(including the Philippine Islands)" omitted from definition of "United States" in subsec. (a) pursuant to the authority of Proc. No. 2695, which granted independence to the Philippines under the provisions of section 1394 of this title, and which is set out as a note under section 1394.

§457. Appropriations

There is hereby authorized to be appropriated from time to time, out of any money in the Treasury not otherwise appropriated, such amounts as may be necessary to carry out the provisions and accomplish the purposes of this subchapter.

(Nov. 4, 1939, ch. 2, §18, 54 Stat. 12.)