[USC02] 22 USC Ch. 94: IRAN THREAT REDUCTION AND SYRIA HUMAN RIGHTS
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22 USC Ch. 94: IRAN THREAT REDUCTION AND SYRIA HUMAN RIGHTS
From Title 22—FOREIGN RELATIONS AND INTERCOURSE

CHAPTER 94—IRAN THREAT REDUCTION AND SYRIA HUMAN RIGHTS

Sec.
8701.
Definitions.

        

SUBCHAPTER I—EXPANSION OF MULTILATERAL SANCTIONS REGIME WITH RESPECT TO IRAN

8711.
Sense of Congress on enforcement of multilateral sanctions regime and expansion and implementation of sanctions laws.
8712.
Diplomatic efforts to expand multilateral sanctions regime.

        

SUBCHAPTER II—ADDITIONAL MEASURES RELATING TO SANCTIONS AGAINST IRAN

8721.
Imposition of sanctions with respect to the provision of vessels or shipping services to transport certain goods related to proliferation or terrorism activities to Iran.
8722.
Imposition of sanctions with respect to provision of underwriting services or insurance or reinsurance for the National Iranian Oil Company or the National Iranian Tanker Company.
8723.
Imposition of sanctions with respect to purchase, subscription to, or facilitation of the issuance of Iranian sovereign debt.
8724.
Continuation in effect of sanctions with respect to the Government of Iran, the Central Bank of Iran, and sanctions evaders.
8725.
Liability of parent companies for violations of sanctions by foreign subsidiaries.
8726.
Reports on, and authorization of imposition of sanctions with respect to, the provision of specialized financial messaging services to the Central Bank of Iran and other sanctioned Iranian financial institutions.
8727.
Identification of, and immigration restrictions on, senior officials of the Government of Iran and their family members.

        

SUBCHAPTER III—SANCTIONS WITH RESPECT TO IRAN'S REVOLUTIONARY GUARD CORPS

8741.
Identification of, and imposition of sanctions with respect to, officials, agents, and affiliates of Iran's Revolutionary Guard Corps.
8742.
Identification of, and imposition of sanctions with respect to, persons that support or conduct certain transactions with Iran's Revolutionary Guard Corps or other sanctioned persons.
8743.
Identification of, and imposition of measures with respect to, foreign government agencies carrying out activities or transactions with certain Iran-affiliated persons.
8744.
Rule of construction.

        

SUBCHAPTER IV—MEASURES TO PROMOTE HUMAN RIGHTS

8751.
Codification of sanctions with respect to grave human rights abuses by the Governments of Iran and Syria using information technology.
8752.
Clarification of sensitive technologies for purposes of procurement ban under Comprehensive Iran Sanctions, Accountability, and Divestment Act of 2010.
8753.
Expedited consideration of requests for authorization of certain human rights-, humanitarian-, and democracy-related activities with respect to Iran.
8754.
Comprehensive strategy to promote Internet freedom and access to information in Iran.
8755.
Statement of policy on political prisoners.

        

SUBCHAPTER V—MISCELLANEOUS

8771.
Exclusion of citizens of Iran seeking education relating to the nuclear and energy sectors of Iran.
8772.
Interests in certain financial assets of Iran.
8773.
Report on membership of Iran in international organizations.

        

SUBCHAPTER VI—GENERAL PROVISIONS

8781.
Implementation; penalties.
8782.
Applicability to certain intelligence activities.
8783.
Applicability to certain natural gas projects.
8784.
Rule of construction with respect to use of force against Iran and Syria.
8785.
Termination.

        

SUBCHAPTER VII—SANCTIONS WITH RESPECT TO HUMAN RIGHTS ABUSES IN SYRIA

8791.
Imposition of sanctions with respect to certain persons who are responsible for or complicit in human rights abuses committed against citizens of Syria or their family members.
8792.
Imposition of sanctions with respect to the transfer of goods or technologies to Syria that are likely to be used to commit human rights abuses.
8793.
Imposition of sanctions with respect to persons who engage in censorship or other forms of repression in Syria.
8794.
Waiver.
8795.
Termination.

        

§8701. Definitions

Except as otherwise specifically provided, in this Act:

(1) Appropriate congressional committees

The term "appropriate congressional committees" has the meaning given that term in section 14 of the Iran Sanctions Act of 1996 (Public Law 104–172; 50 U.S.C. 1701 note).

(2) Financial transaction

The term "financial transaction" means any transfer of value involving a financial institution, including the transfer of forwards, futures, options, swaps, or precious metals, including gold, silver, platinum, and palladium.

(3) Knowingly

The term "knowingly" has the meaning given that term in section 14 of the Iran Sanctions Act of 1996 (Public Law 104–172; 50 U.S.C. 1701 note).

(4) United States person

The term "United States person" has the meaning given that term in section 8511 of this title.

(Pub. L. 112–158, §2, Aug. 10, 2012, 126 Stat. 1216.)

References in Text

This Act, referred to in text, is Pub. L. 112–158, Aug. 10, 2012, 126 Stat. 1214, known as the Iran Threat Reduction and Syria Human Rights Act of 2012, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out below and Tables.

Short Title

Pub. L. 112–158, §1(a), Aug. 10, 2012, 126 Stat. 1214, provided that: "This Act [enacting this chapter and sections 8513b, 8514a, and 8514b of this title, amending sections 8511, 8513, 8513a, 8518, 8532, 8551 of this title, section 78m of Title 15, Commerce and Trade, and section 1610 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure, enacting provisions set out as notes under this section and sections 8513 and 8513a of this title, section 78m of Title 15, and section 1701 of Title 50, War and National Defense, and amending provisions set out as notes under section 1610 of Title 28 and section 1701 of Title 50] may be cited as the 'Iran Threat Reduction and Syria Human Rights Act of 2012'."

Pub. L. 112–158, title VII, §701, Aug. 10, 2012, 126 Stat. 1265, provided that: "This title [enacting subchapter VII of this chapter] may be cited as the 'Syria Human Rights Accountability Act of 2012'."

Report on Use by Iran of Funds Made Available Through Sanctions Relief

Pub. L. 114–113, div. M, title V, §514, Dec. 18, 2015, 129 Stat. 2926, provided that:

"(a) In General.—At the times specified in subsection (b), the Director of National Intelligence, in consultation with the Secretary of the Treasury, shall submit to the appropriate congressional committees a report assessing the following:

"(1) The monetary value of any direct or indirect forms of sanctions relief that Iran has received since the Joint Plan of Action first entered into effect.

"(2) How Iran has used funds made available through sanctions relief, including the extent to which any such funds have facilitated the ability of Iran—

"(A) to provide support for—

"(i) any individual or entity designated for the imposition of sanctions for activities relating to international terrorism pursuant to an executive order or by the Office of Foreign Assets Control of the Department of the Treasury as of the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 18, 2015];

"(ii) any organization designated by the Secretary of State as a foreign terrorist organization under section 219(a) of the Immigration and Nationality Act (8 U.S.C. 1189(a)) as of the date of the enactment of this Act;

"(iii) any other terrorist organization; or

"(iv) the regime of Bashar al Assad in Syria;

"(B) to advance the efforts of Iran or any other country to develop nuclear weapons or ballistic missiles overtly or covertly; or

"(C) to commit any violation of the human rights of the people of Iran.

"(3) The extent to which any senior official of the Government of Iran has diverted any funds made available through sanctions relief to be used by the official for personal use.

"(b) Submission to Congress.—

"(1) In general.—The Director shall submit the report required by subsection (a) to the appropriate congressional committees—

"(A) not later than 180 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 18, 2015] and every 180 days thereafter during the period that the Joint Plan of Action is in effect; and

"(B) not later than 1 year after a subsequent agreement with Iran relating to the nuclear program of Iran takes effect and annually thereafter during the period that such agreement remains in effect.

"(2) Nonduplication.—The Director may submit the information required by subsection (a) with a report required to be submitted to Congress under another provision of law if—

"(A) the Director notifies the appropriate congressional committees of the intention of making such submission before submitting that report; and

"(B) all matters required to be covered by subsection (a) are included in that report.

"(c) Form of Reports.—Each report required by subsection (a) shall be submitted in unclassified form, but may include a classified annex.

"(d) Definitions.—In this section:

"(1) Appropriate congressional committees.—The term 'appropriate congressional committees' means—

"(A) the Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs, the Committee on Finance, the Committee on Foreign Relations, and the Select Committee on Intelligence of the Senate; and

"(B) the Committee on Financial Services, the Committee on Foreign Affairs, the Committee on Ways and Means, and the Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence of the House of Representatives.

"(2) Joint plan of action.—The term 'Joint Plan of Action' means the Joint Plan of Action, signed at Geneva November 24, 2013, by Iran and by France, Germany, the Russian Federation, the People's Republic of China, the United Kingdom, and the United States, and all implementing materials and agreements related to the Joint Plan of Action, including the technical understandings reached on January 12, 2014, the extension thereto agreed to on July 18, 2014, and the extension thereto agreed to on November 24, 2014."

Reports on Nuclear Program of Iran

Pub. L. 113–291, div. A, title XII, §1271, Dec. 19, 2014, 128 Stat. 3588, provided that:

"(a) In General.—Not later than 30 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 19, 2014], the President shall submit to the appropriate congressional committees a report on the interim agreement relating to the nuclear program of Iran. Such report shall include—

"(1) verification of whether Iran is complying with such agreement; and

"(2) an assessment of the overall state of the nuclear program of Iran.

"(b) Additional Reports.—If the interim agreement described in subsection (a) is renewed or if a comprehensive and final agreement is entered into regarding the nuclear program of Iran, by not later than 90 days after such renewal or final agreement being entered into, and every 180 days thereafter, the President shall submit to the appropriate congressional committees a report on such renewed or final agreement. Such report shall include the matters described in paragraphs (1) and (2) of subsection (a).

"(c) Appropriate Congressional Committees Defined.—In this section, the term 'appropriate congressional committees' means—

"(1) the Committee on Armed Services and the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate; and

"(2) the Committee on Armed Services and the Committee on Foreign Affairs of the House of Representatives.

"(d) Sunset.—This section shall terminate on the date that is 10 years after the date of the enactment of this Act."

Countering Iran in the Western Hemisphere

Pub. L. 112–220, Dec. 28, 2012, 126 Stat. 1596, provided that:

"SECTION 1. SHORT TITLE.

"This Act may be cited as the 'Countering Iran in the Western Hemisphere Act of 2012'.

"SEC. 2. FINDINGS.

"Congress finds the following:

"(1) The United States has vital political, economic, and security interests in the Western Hemisphere.

"(2) Iran is pursuing cooperation with Latin American countries by signing economic and security agreements in order to create a network of diplomatic and economic relationships to lessen the blow of international sanctions and oppose Western attempts to constrict its ambitions.

"(3) According to the Department of State, Hezbollah, with Iran as its state sponsor, is considered the 'most technically capable terrorist group in the world' with 'thousands of supporters, several thousand members, and a few hundred terrorist operatives,' and officials from the Iranian Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps (IRGC) Qods Force have been working in concert with Hezbollah for many years.

"(4) The IRGC's Qods Force has a long history of supporting Hezbollah's military, paramilitary, and terrorist activities, providing it with guidance, funding, weapons, intelligence, and logistical support, and in 2007, the Department of the Treasury placed sanctions on the IRGC and its Qods Force for their support of terrorism and proliferation activities.

"(5) The IRGC's Qods Force stations operatives in foreign embassies, charities, and religious and cultural institutions to foster relationships, often building on existing socioeconomic ties with the well established Shia Diaspora, and recent years have witnessed an increased presence in Latin America.

"(6) According to the Department of Defense, the IRGC and its Qods Force played a significant role in some of the deadliest terrorist attacks of the past two decades, including the 1994 attack on the AMIA Jewish Community Center in Buenos Aires, by generally directing or supporting the groups that actually executed the attacks.

"(7) Reports of Iranian intelligence agents being implicated in Hezbollah-linked activities since the early 1990s suggest direct Iranian government support of Hezbollah activities in the Tri-Border Area of Argentina, Brazil, and Paraguay, and in the past decade, Iran has dramatically increased its diplomatic missions to Venezuela, Bolivia, Nicaragua, Ecuador, Argentina, and Brazil. Iran has built 17 cultural centers in Latin America, and it currently maintains 11 embassies, up from 6 in 2005.

"(8) Hezbollah and other Iranian proxies with a presence in Latin America have raised revenues through illicit activities, including drug and arms trafficking, counterfeiting, money laundering, forging travel documents, pirating software and music, and providing haven and assistance to other terrorists transiting the region.

"(9) Bolivia, Cuba, Ecuador, Nicaragua, and Venezuela expressed their intention to assist Iran in evading sanctions by signing a statement supporting Iran's nuclear activities and announcing at a 2010 joint press conference in Tehran their determination to 'continue and expand their economic ties to Iran' with confidence that 'Iran can give a crushing response to the threats and sanctions imposed by the West and imperialism'.

"(10) The U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration concluded in 2008 that almost one-half of the foreign terrorist organizations in the world are linked to narcotics trade and trafficking, including Hezbollah and Hamas.

"(11) In October 2011, the United States charged two men, Manssor Arbabsiar, a United States citizen holding both Iranian and United States passports, and Gholam Shakuri, an Iran-based member of Iran's IRGC Qods Force, with conspiracy to murder a foreign official using explosives in an act of terrorism. Arbabsiar traveled to Mexico with the express intent to hire 'someone in the narcotics business' to carry out the assassination of the Saudi Arabian Ambassador in the United States. While in the end, he only engaged a U.S. Drug Enforcement Agency informant posing as an associate of a drug trafficking cartel, Arbabsiar believed that he was working with a member of a Mexican drug trafficking organization and sought to send money to this individual in installments and not in a single transfer.

"(12) In February 2011, actions by the Department of the Treasury effectively shut down the Lebanese Canadian Bank. Subsequent actions by the United States Government in connection with the investigation into Lebanese Canadian Bank resulted in the indictment in December 2011 of Ayman Joumaa, an individual of Lebanese nationality, with citizenship in Lebanon and Colombia, and with ties to Hezbollah, for trafficking cocaine to the Los Zetas drug trafficking organization in Mexico City for sale in the United States and for laundering the proceeds.

"SEC. 3. STATEMENT OF POLICY.

"It shall be the policy of the United States to use a comprehensive government-wide strategy to counter Iran's growing hostile presence and activity in the Western Hemisphere by working together with United States allies and partners in the region to mutually deter threats to United States interests by the Government of Iran, the Iranian Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps (IRGC), the IRGC's Qods Force, and Hezbollah.

"SEC. 4. DEFINITIONS.

"In this Act:

"(1) Western hemisphere.—The term 'Western Hemisphere' means the United States, Canada, Mexico, the Caribbean, South America, and Central America.

"(2) Relevant congressional committees.—The term 'relevant congressional committees' means the Committee on Foreign Affairs of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate.

"SEC. 5. REQUIREMENT OF A STRATEGY TO ADDRESS IRAN'S GROWING HOSTILE PRESENCE AND ACTIVITY IN THE WESTERN HEMISPHERE.

"(a) In General.—Not later than 180 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 28, 2012], the Secretary of State shall conduct an assessment of the threats posed to the United States by Iran's growing presence and activity in the Western Hemisphere and submit to the relevant congressional committees the results of the assessment and a strategy to address Iran's growing hostile presence and activity in the Western Hemisphere.

"(b) Matters To Be Included.—The strategy described in subsection (a) should include—

"(1) a description of the presence, activities, and operations of Iran, the Iranian Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps (IRGC), its Qods Force, Hezbollah, and other terrorist organizations linked to Iran that may be present in the Western Hemisphere, including information about their leaders, objectives, and areas of influence and information on their financial networks, trafficking activities, and safe havens;

"(2) a description of the terrain, population, ports, foreign firms, airports, borders, media outlets, financial centers, foreign embassies, charities, religious and cultural centers, and income-generating activities in the Western Hemisphere utilized by Iran, the IRGC, its Qods Force, Hezbollah, and other terrorist organizations linked to Iran that may be present in the Western Hemisphere;

"(3) a description of the relationship of Iran, the IRGC, its Qods Force, and Hezbollah with transnational criminal organizations linked to Iran and other terrorist organizations in the Western Hemisphere, including information on financial networks and trafficking activities;

"(4) a description of the relationship of Iran, the IRGC, its Qods Force, Hezbollah, and other terrorist organizations linked to Iran that may be present in the Western Hemisphere with the governments in the Western Hemisphere, including military-to-military relations and diplomatic, economic, and security partnerships and agreements;

"(5) a description of the Federal law enforcement capabilities, military forces, State and local government institutions, and other critical elements, such as nongovernmental organizations, in the Western Hemisphere that may organize to counter the threat posed by Iran, the IRGC, its Qods Force, Hezbollah, and other terrorist organizations linked to Iran that may be present in the Western Hemisphere;

"(6) a description of activity by Iran, the IRGC, its Qods Force, Hezbollah, and other terrorist organizations linked to Iran that may be present at the United States borders with Mexico and Canada and at other international borders within the Western Hemisphere, including operations related to drug, human, and arms trafficking, human support networks, financial support, narco-tunneling, and technological advancements that incorporates—

"(A) with respect to the United States borders, in coordination with the Governments of Mexico and Canada and the Secretary of Homeland Security, a plan to address resources, technology, and infrastructure to create a secure United States border and strengthen the ability of the United States and its allies to prevent operatives from Iran, the IRGC, its Qods Force, Hezbollah, or any other terrorist organization from entering the United States; and

"(B) within Latin American countries, a multiagency action plan, in coordination with United States allies and partners in the region, that includes the development of strong rule-of-law institutions to provide security in such countries and a counterterrorism and counter-radicalization plan to isolate Iran, the IRGC, its Qods Force, Hezbollah, and other terrorist organizations linked to Iran that may be present in the Western Hemisphere from their sources of financial support and counter their facilitation of terrorist activity; and

"(7) a plan—

"(A) to address any efforts by foreign persons, entities, and governments in the region to assist Iran in evading United States and international sanctions;

"(B) to protect United States interests and assets in the Western Hemisphere, including embassies, consulates, businesses, energy pipelines, and cultural organizations, including threats to United States allies;

"(C) to support United States efforts to designate persons and entities in the Western Hemisphere for proliferation activities and terrorist activities relating to Iran, including affiliates of the IRGC, its Qods Force, and Hezbollah, under applicable law including the International Emergency Economic Powers Act; and

"(D) to address the vital national security interests of the United States in ensuring energy supplies from the Western Hemisphere that are free from the influence of any foreign government that would attempt to manipulate or disrupt global energy markets.

"(c) Development.—In developing the strategy under this section, the Secretary of State shall consult with the heads of all appropriate United States departments and agencies, including the Secretary of Defense, the Director of National Intelligence, the Secretary of Homeland Security, the Secretary of the Treasury, the Attorney General, and the United States Trade Representative.

"(d) Form.—The strategy in this section may be submitted in classified form, but shall include an unclassified summary of policy recommendations to address the growing Iranian threat in the Western Hemisphere.

"SEC. 6. SENSE OF CONGRESS.

"It is the sense of Congress that the Secretary of State should keep the relevant congressional committees continually informed on the hostile actions of Iran in the Western Hemisphere.

"SEC. 7. RULE OF CONSTRUCTION.

"Nothing in this Act shall be construed to limit the rights or protections enjoyed by United States citizens under the United States Constitution or other Federal law, or to create additional authorities for the Federal Government that are contrary to the United States Constitution and United States law."

SUBCHAPTER I—EXPANSION OF MULTILATERAL SANCTIONS REGIME WITH RESPECT TO IRAN

§8711. Sense of Congress on enforcement of multilateral sanctions regime and expansion and implementation of sanctions laws

It is the sense of Congress that the goal of compelling Iran to abandon efforts to acquire a nuclear weapons capability and other threatening activities can be effectively achieved through a comprehensive policy that includes economic sanctions, diplomacy, and military planning, capabilities and options, and that this objective is consistent with the one stated by President Barack Obama in the 2012 State of the Union Address: "Let there be no doubt: America is determined to prevent Iran from getting a nuclear weapon, and I will take no options off the table to achieve that goal". Among the economic measures to be taken are—

(1) prompt enforcement of the current multilateral sanctions regime with respect to Iran;

(2) full, timely, and vigorous implementation of all sanctions enacted into law, including sanctions imposed or expanded by this Act or amendments made by this Act, through—

(A) intensified monitoring by the President and the designees of the President, including the Secretary of the Treasury, the Secretary of State, and senior officials in the intelligence community (as defined in section 401a(4) of title 50), as appropriate;

(B) more extensive use of extraordinary authorities provided for under the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701 et seq.) and other sanctions laws;

(C) reallocation of resources to provide the personnel necessary, within the Department of the Treasury, the Department of State, and the Department of Commerce, and, where appropriate, the intelligence community, to apply and enforce sanctions; and

(D) expanded cooperation with international sanctions enforcement efforts;


(3) urgent consideration of the expansion of existing sanctions with respect to such areas as—

(A) the provision of energy-related services to Iran;

(B) the provision of insurance and reinsurance services to Iran;

(C) the provision of shipping services to Iran; and

(D) those Iranian financial institutions not yet designated for the imposition of sanctions that may be acting as intermediaries for Iranian financial institutions that are designated for the imposition of sanctions; and


(4) a focus on countering Iran's efforts to evade sanctions, including—

(A) the activities of telecommunications, Internet, and satellite service providers, in and outside of Iran, to ensure that such providers are not participating in or facilitating, directly or indirectly, the evasion of the sanctions regime with respect to Iran or violations of the human rights of the people of Iran;

(B) the activities of financial institutions or other businesses or government agencies, in or outside of Iran, not yet designated for the imposition of sanctions; and

(C) urgent and ongoing evaluation of Iran's energy, national security, financial, and telecommunications sectors, to gauge the effects of, and possible defects in, particular sanctions, with prompt efforts to correct any gaps in the existing sanctions regime with respect to Iran.

(Pub. L. 112–158, title I, §101, Aug. 10, 2012, 126 Stat. 1216.)

Termination of Section

For termination of section, see section 8785(a) of this title.

References in Text

This Act, referred to in par. (2), is Pub. L. 112–158, Aug. 10, 2012, 126 Stat. 1214, known as the Iran Threat Reduction and Syria Human Rights Act of 2012, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 8701 of this title and Tables.

The International Emergency Economic Powers Act, referred to in par. (2)(B), is title II of Pub. L. 95–223, Dec. 28, 1977, 91 Stat. 1626, which is classified generally to chapter 35 (§1701 et seq.) of Title 50, War and National Defense. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1701 of Title 50 and Tables.

§8712. Diplomatic efforts to expand multilateral sanctions regime

(a) Multilateral negotiations

Congress urges the President to intensify diplomatic efforts, both in appropriate international fora such as the United Nations and bilaterally with allies of the United States, for the purpose of—

(1) expanding the United Nations Security Council sanctions regime to include—

(A) a prohibition on the issuance of visas to any official of the Government of Iran who is involved in—

(i) human rights violations in or outside of Iran;

(ii) the development of a nuclear weapons program and a ballistic missile capability in Iran; or

(iii) support by the Government of Iran for terrorist organizations, including Hamas and Hezbollah; and


(B) a requirement that each member country of the United Nations—

(i) prohibit the Islamic Republic of Iran Shipping Lines from landing at seaports, and cargo flights of Iran Air from landing at airports, in that country because of the role of those organizations in proliferation and illegal arms sales; and

(ii) apply the prohibitions described in clause (i) to other Iranian entities designated for the imposition of sanctions on or after August 10, 2012;


(2) expanding the range of sanctions imposed with respect to Iran by allies of the United States;

(3) expanding efforts to limit the development of petroleum resources and the importation of refined petroleum products by Iran;

(4) developing additional initiatives to—

(A) increase the production of crude oil in countries other than Iran; and

(B) assist countries that purchase or otherwise obtain crude oil or petroleum products from Iran to eliminate their dependence on crude oil and petroleum products from Iran; and


(5) eliminating the revenue generated by the Government of Iran from the sale of petrochemical products produced in Iran to other countries.

(b) Reports to Congress

Not later than 180 days after August 10, 2012, and every 180 days thereafter, the President shall submit to the appropriate congressional committees a report on the extent to which diplomatic efforts described in subsection (a) have been successful that includes—

(1) an identification of the countries that have agreed to impose sanctions or take other measures to further the policy set forth in subsection (a);

(2) the extent of the implementation and enforcement of those sanctions or other measures by those countries;

(3) the criteria the President uses to determine whether a country has significantly reduced its crude oil purchases from Iran pursuant to section 8513a(d)(4)(D) of this title, as amended by section 504, including considerations of reductions both in terms of volume and price;

(4) an identification of the countries that have not agreed to impose such sanctions or measures, including such countries granted exceptions for significant reductions in crude oil purchases pursuant to such section 8513a(d)(4)(D);

(5) recommendations for additional measures that the United States could take to further diplomatic efforts described in subsection (a); and

(6) the disposition of any decision with respect to sanctions imposed with respect to Iran by the World Trade Organization or its predecessor organization.

(Pub. L. 112–158, title I, §102, Aug. 10, 2012, 126 Stat. 1218.)

Termination of Section

For termination of section, see section 8785(a) of this title.

References in Text

Section 8513a(d)(4)(D) of this title, as amended by section 504, referred to in subsec. (b)(3), means section 8513a(d)(4)(D) of this title, as amended by section 504 of Pub. L. 112–158.

SUBCHAPTER II—ADDITIONAL MEASURES RELATING TO SANCTIONS AGAINST IRAN

§8721. Imposition of sanctions with respect to the provision of vessels or shipping services to transport certain goods related to proliferation or terrorism activities to Iran

(a) In general

Except as provided in subsection (c), if the President determines that a person, on or after August 10, 2012, knowingly sells, leases, or provides a vessel or provides insurance or reinsurance or any other shipping service for the transportation to or from Iran of goods that could materially contribute to the activities of the Government of Iran with respect to the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction or support for acts of international terrorism, the President shall, pursuant to Executive Order No. 13382 (70 Fed. Reg. 38567; relating to blocking of property of weapons of mass destruction proliferators and their supporters) or Executive Order No. 13224 (66 Fed. Reg. 49079; relating to blocking property and prohibiting transactions with persons who commit, threaten to commit, or support terrorism), or otherwise pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701 et seq.), block and prohibit all transactions in all property and interests in property of the persons specified in subsection (b) if such property and interests in property are in the United States, come within the United States, or are or come within the possession or control of a United States person.

(b) Persons specified

The persons specified in this subsection are—

(1) the person that sold, leased, or provided a vessel or provided insurance or reinsurance or another shipping service described in subsection (a); and

(2) any person that—

(A) is a successor entity to the person referred to in paragraph (1);

(B) owns or controls the person referred to in paragraph (1), if the person that owns or controls the person referred to in paragraph (1) had actual knowledge or should have known that the person referred to in paragraph (1) sold, leased, or provided the vessel or provided the insurance or reinsurance or other shipping service; or

(C) is owned or controlled by, or under common ownership or control with, the person referred to in paragraph (1), if the person owned or controlled by, or under common ownership or control with (as the case may be), the person referred to in paragraph (1) knowingly engaged in the sale, lease, or provision of the vessel or the provision of the insurance or reinsurance or other shipping service.

(c) Waiver

The President may waive the requirement to impose sanctions with respect to a person under subsection (a) on or after the date that is 30 days after the President—

(1) determines that such a waiver is vital to the national security interests of the United States; and

(2) submits to the appropriate congressional committees a report that contains the reasons for that determination.

(d) Report required

(1) In general

Not later than 90 days after August 10, 2012, and every 90 days thereafter, the Secretary of the Treasury, in coordination with the Secretary of State, shall submit to the appropriate congressional committees a report identifying operators of vessels and other persons that conduct or facilitate significant financial transactions with persons that manage ports in Iran that have been designated for the imposition of sanctions pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701 et seq.).

(2) Form of report

A report submitted under paragraph (1) shall be submitted in unclassified form but may contain a classified annex.

(e) Rule of construction

Nothing in this section shall be construed to limit the authority of the President to designate persons for the imposition of sanctions pursuant to Executive Order No. 13382 (70 Fed. Reg. 38567; relating to the blocking of property of weapons of mass destruction proliferators and their supporters) or Executive Order No. 13224 (66 Fed. Reg. 49079; relating to blocking property and prohibiting transactions with persons who commit, threaten to commit, or support terrorism), or otherwise pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701 et seq.).

(Pub. L. 112–158, title II, §211, Aug. 10, 2012, 126 Stat. 1228.)

Termination of Section

For termination of section, see section 8785(a) of this title.

References in Text

Executive Order No. 13382, referred to in subsecs. (a) and (e), is Ex. Ord. No. 13382, June 28, 2005, 70 F.R. 38567, which is listed in a table under section 1701 of Title 50, War and National Defense.

Executive Order No. 13224, referred to in subsecs. (a) and (e), is Ex. Ord. No. 13224, Sept. 23, 2001, 66 F.R. 49079, which is listed in a table under section 1701 of Title 50, War and National Defense.

The International Emergency Economic Powers Act, referred to in subsecs. (a), (d)(1), and (e), is title II of Pub. L. 95–223, Dec. 28, 1977, 91 Stat. 1626, which is classified generally to chapter 35 (§1701 et seq.) of Title 50, War and National Defense. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1701 of Title 50 and Tables.

§8722. Imposition of sanctions with respect to provision of underwriting services or insurance or reinsurance for the National Iranian Oil Company or the National Iranian Tanker Company

(a) In general

Except as provided in subsection (b), not later than 60 days after August 10, 2012, the President shall impose 5 or more of the sanctions described in section 6(a) of the Iran Sanctions Act of 1996, as amended by section 204, with respect to a person if the President determines that the person knowingly, on or after August 10, 2012, provides underwriting services or insurance or reinsurance for the National Iranian Oil Company, the National Iranian Tanker Company, or a successor entity to either such company.

(b) Exceptions

(1) Underwriters and insurance providers exercising due diligence

The President is authorized not to impose sanctions under subsection (a) with respect to a person that provides underwriting services or insurance or reinsurance if the President determines that the person has exercised due diligence in establishing and enforcing official policies, procedures, and controls to ensure that the person does not provide underwriting services or insurance or reinsurance for the National Iranian Oil Company, the National Iranian Tanker Company, or a successor entity to either such company.

(2) Food; medicine; humanitarian assistance

The President may not impose sanctions under subsection (a) for the provision of underwriting services or insurance or reinsurance for any activity relating solely to—

(A) the provision of agricultural commodities, food, medicine, or medical devices to Iran; or

(B) the provision of humanitarian assistance to the people of Iran.

(3) Termination period

The President is authorized not to impose sanctions under subsection (a) with respect to a person if the President receives reliable assurances that the person will terminate the provision of underwriting services or insurance or reinsurance for the National Iranian Oil Company, the National Iranian Tanker Company, and any successor entity to either such company, not later than the date that is 120 days after August 10, 2012.

(c) Definitions

In this section:

(1) Agricultural commodity

The term "agricultural commodity" has the meaning given that term in section 5602 of title 7.

(2) Medical device

The term "medical device" has the meaning given the term "device" in section 321 of title 21.

(3) Medicine

The term "medicine" has the meaning given the term "drug" in section 321 of title 21.

(d) Application of provisions of Iran Sanctions Act of 1996

The following provisions of the Iran Sanctions Act of 1996, as amended by this Act, apply with respect to the imposition of sanctions under subsection (a) to the same extent that such provisions apply with respect to the imposition of sanctions under section 5(a) of the Iran Sanctions Act of 1996:

(1) Subsection (c) of section 4.

(2) Subsections (c), (d), and (f) of section 5.

(3) Section 8.

(4) Section 9.

(5) Section 11.

(6) Section 12.

(7) Subsection (b) of section 13.

(8) Section 14.

(e) Rule of construction and implementation

Nothing in this section shall be construed to limit the authority of the President to impose sanctions pursuant to the Iran Sanctions Act of 1996 (Public Law 104–172; 50 U.S.C. 1701 note), the Comprehensive Iran Sanctions, Accountability, and Divestment Act of 2010 (22 U.S.C. 8501 et seq.), the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701 et seq.), section 8513a of this title, or any other provision of this Act.

(Pub. L. 112–158, title II, §212, Aug. 10, 2012, 126 Stat. 1229.)

Termination of Section

For termination of section, see section 8785(a) of this title.

References in Text

The Iran Sanctions Act of 1996, referred to in subsecs. (a), (d), and (e), is Pub. L. 104–172, Aug. 5, 1996, 110 Stat. 1541, which is set out as a note under section 1701 of Title 50, War and National Defense. Section 6(a) of the Act, as amended by section 204, is section 6(a) of Pub. L. 104–172, as amended by section 204 of Pub. L. 112–158.

This Act, referred to in subsecs. (d) and (e), is Pub. L. 112–158, Aug. 10, 2012, 126 Stat. 1214, known as the Iran Threat Reduction and Syria Human Rights Act of 2012, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 8701 of this title and Tables.

The Comprehensive Iran Sanctions, Accountability, and Divestment Act of 2010, referred to in subsec. (e), is Pub. L. 111–195, July 1, 2010, 124 Stat. 1312, which is classified principally to chapter 92 (§8501 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 8501 of this title and Tables.

The International Emergency Economic Powers Act, referred to in subsec. (e), is title II of Pub. L. 95–223, Dec. 28, 1977, 91 Stat. 1626, which is classified generally to chapter 35 (§1701 et seq.) of Title 50, War and National Defense. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1701 of Title 50 and Tables.

§8723. Imposition of sanctions with respect to purchase, subscription to, or facilitation of the issuance of Iranian sovereign debt

(a) In general

The President shall impose 5 or more of the sanctions described in section 6(a) of the Iran Sanctions Act of 1996, as amended by section 204, with respect to a person if the President determines that the person knowingly, on or after August 10, 2012, purchases, subscribes to, or facilitates the issuance of—

(1) sovereign debt of the Government of Iran issued on or after August 10, 2012, including governmental bonds; or

(2) debt of any entity owned or controlled by the Government of Iran issued on or after August 10, 2012, including bonds.

(b) Application of provisions of Iran Sanctions Act of 1996

The following provisions of the Iran Sanctions Act of 1996, as amended by this Act, apply with respect to the imposition of sanctions under subsection (a) to the same extent that such provisions apply with respect to the imposition of sanctions under section 5(a) of the Iran Sanctions Act of 1996:

(1) Subsection (c) of section 4.

(2) Subsections (c), (d), and (f) of section 5.

(3) Section 8.

(4) Section 9.

(5) Section 11.

(6) Section 12.

(7) Subsection (b) of section 13.

(8) Section 14.

(Pub. L. 112–158, title II, §213, Aug. 10, 2012, 126 Stat. 1230.)

Termination of Section

For termination of section, see section 8785(a) of this title.

References in Text

The Iran Sanctions Act of 1996, referred to in text, is Pub. L. 104–172, Aug. 5, 1996, 110 Stat. 1541, which is set out as a note under section 1701 of Title 50, War and National Defense. Section 6(a) of the Act, as amended by section 204, is section 6(a) of Pub. L. 104–172, as amended by section 204 of Pub. L. 112–158.

This Act, referred to in subsec. (b), is Pub. L. 112–158, Aug. 10, 2012, 126 Stat. 1214, known as the Iran Threat Reduction and Syria Human Rights Act of 2012, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 8701 of this title and Tables.

Delegation of Certain Functions and Authorities Under Section 213(b)(1) of the Iran Threat Reduction and Syria Human Rights Act of 2012

Memorandum of President of the United States, Oct. 18, 2015, 80 F.R. 66781, provided:

Memorandum for the Secretary of State[,] the Secretary of the Treasury[,] the Secretary of Commerce[,] the United States Trade Representative[,] the Secretary of Homeland Security[, and] the Chairman of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including section 301 of title 3, United States Code, I hereby order as follows:

I hereby delegate the functions and authorities vested in the President by section 213(b)(1) of the Iran Threat Reduction and Syria Human Rights Act of 2012 (TRA) to the Secretary of State, in consultation with: the Secretaries of the Treasury and Commerce and the United States Trade Representative; and with the Secretary of Homeland Security, the Chairman of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, and other agencies as appropriate.

The delegation of authorities under section 213(b)(1) of the TRA to the Secretary of the Treasury contained in the Presidential Memorandum of October 9, 2012, entitled "Delegation of Certain Functions and Authorities Under the Iran Threat Reduction and Syria Human Rights Act of 2012" is hereby rescinded. The other provisions of that Presidential Memorandum remain in effect.

Any reference herein to provisions of any Act related to the subject of this memorandum shall be deemed to include references to any hereafter-enacted provisions of law that are the same or substantially the same as such provisions.

The Secretary of State is authorized and directed to publish this memorandum in the Federal Register.

Barack Obama.      

§8724. Continuation in effect of sanctions with respect to the Government of Iran, the Central Bank of Iran, and sanctions evaders

(a) Sanctions relating to blocking of property of the Government of Iran and Iranian financial institutions

United States sanctions with respect to Iran provided for in Executive Order No. 13599 (77 Fed. Reg. 6659), as in effect on the day before August 10, 2012, shall remain in effect until the date that is 90 days after the date on which the President submits to the appropriate congressional committees the certification described in subsection (d).

(b) Sanctions relating to foreign sanctions evaders

United States sanctions with respect to Iran provided for in Executive Order No. 13608 (77 Fed. Reg. 26409), as in effect on the day before August 10, 2012, shall remain in effect until the date that is 30 days after the date on which the President submits to the appropriate congressional committees the certification described in section 401(a) of the Comprehensive Iran Sanctions, Accountability, and Divestment Act of 2010 (22 U.S.C. 8551(a)).

(c) Continuation of sanctions with respect to the Central Bank of Iran

In addition to the sanctions referred to in subsection (a), the President shall continue to apply to the Central Bank of Iran sanctions pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701 et seq.), including blocking of property and restrictions or prohibitions on financial transactions and the exportation of property, until the date that is 90 days after the date on which the President submits to Congress the certification described in subsection (d).

(d) Certification described

(1) In general

The certification described in this subsection is the certification of the President to Congress that the Central Bank of Iran is not—

(A) providing financial services in support of, or otherwise facilitating, the ability of Iran to—

(i) acquire or develop chemical, biological, or nuclear weapons, or related technologies;

(ii) construct, equip, operate, or maintain nuclear facilities that could aid Iran's effort to acquire a nuclear capability; or

(iii) acquire or develop ballistic missiles, cruise missiles, or destabilizing types and amounts of conventional weapons; or


(B) facilitating transactions or providing financial services for—

(i) Iran's Revolutionary Guard Corps; or

(ii) financial institutions the property or interests in property of which are blocked pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701 et seq.) in connection with—

(I) Iran's proliferation of weapons of mass destruction or delivery systems for weapons of mass destruction; or

(II) Iran's support for international terrorism.

(2) Submission to Congress

(A) In general

The President shall submit the certification described in paragraph (1) to the appropriate congressional committees in writing and shall include a justification for the certification.

(B) Form of certification

The certification described in paragraph (1) shall be submitted in unclassified form but may contain a classified annex.

(e) Rule of construction

Nothing in this section shall be construed to limit the authority of the President pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701 et seq.) or the Comprehensive Iran Sanctions, Accountability, and Divestment Act of 2010 (22 U.S.C. 8501 et seq.).

(Pub. L. 112–158, title II, §217, Aug. 10, 2012, 126 Stat. 1233.)

References in Text

Executive Order No. 13599, referred to in subsec. (a), is Ex. Ord. No. 13599, Feb. 5, 2012, 77 F.R. 6659, which is listed in a table under section 1701 of Title 50, War and National Defense.

Executive Order No. 13608, referred to in subsec. (b), is Ex. Ord. No. 13608, May 1, 2012, 77 F.R. 26409, which is listed in tables under section 1701 of Title 50, War and National Defense.

The International Emergency Economic Powers Act, referred to in subsecs. (c), (d)(1)(B)(ii), and (e), is title II of Pub. L. 95–223, Dec. 28, 1977, 91 Stat. 1626, which is classified generally to chapter 35 (§1701 et seq.) of Title 50, War and National Defense. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1701 of Title 50 and Tables.

The Comprehensive Iran Sanctions, Accountability, and Divestment Act of 2010, referred to in subsec. (e), is Pub. L. 111–195, July 1, 2010, 124 Stat. 1312, which is classified principally to chapter 92 (§8501 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 8501 of this title and Tables.

§8725. Liability of parent companies for violations of sanctions by foreign subsidiaries

(a) Definitions

In this section:

(1) Entity

The term "entity" means a partnership, association, trust, joint venture, corporation, or other organization.

(2) Own or control

The term "own or control" means, with respect to an entity—

(A) to hold more than 50 percent of the equity interest by vote or value in the entity;

(B) to hold a majority of seats on the board of directors of the entity; or

(C) to otherwise control the actions, policies, or personnel decisions of the entity.

(b) Prohibition

Not later than 60 days after August 10, 2012, the President shall prohibit an entity owned or controlled by a United States person and established or maintained outside the United States from knowingly engaging in any transaction directly or indirectly with the Government of Iran or any person subject to the jurisdiction of the Government of Iran that would be prohibited by an order or regulation issued pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701 et seq.) if the transaction were engaged in by a United States person or in the United States.

(c) Civil penalty

The civil penalties provided for in section 206(b) of the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1705(b)) shall apply to a United States person to the same extent that such penalties apply to a person that commits an unlawful act described in section 206(a) of that Act if an entity owned or controlled by the United States person and established or maintained outside the United States violates, attempts to violate, conspires to violate, or causes a violation of any order or regulation issued to implement subsection (b).

(d) Applicability

Subsection (c) shall not apply with respect to a transaction described in subsection (b) by an entity owned or controlled by a United States person and established or maintained outside the United States if the United States person divests or terminates its business with the entity not later than the date that is 180 days after August 10, 2012.

(Pub. L. 112–158, title II, §218, Aug. 10, 2012, 126 Stat. 1234.)

Termination of Section

For termination of section, see section 8785(a) of this title.

References in Text

The International Emergency Economic Powers Act, referred to in subsec. (b), is title II of Pub. L. 95–223, Dec. 28, 1977, 91 Stat. 1626, which is classified generally to chapter 35 (§1701 et seq.) of Title 50, War and National Defense. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1701 of Title 50 and Tables.

§8726. Reports on, and authorization of imposition of sanctions with respect to, the provision of specialized financial messaging services to the Central Bank of Iran and other sanctioned Iranian financial institutions

(a) Sense of Congress

It is the sense of Congress that—

(1) providers of specialized financial messaging services are a critical link to the international financial system;

(2) the European Union is to be commended for strengthening the multilateral sanctions regime against Iran by deciding that specialized financial messaging services may not be provided to the Central Bank of Iran and other sanctioned Iranian financial institutions by persons subject to the jurisdiction of the European Union; and

(3) the loss of access by sanctioned Iranian financial institutions to specialized financial messaging services must be maintained.

(b) Reports required

(1) In general

Not later than 60 days after August 10, 2012, and every 90 days thereafter, the Secretary of the Treasury shall submit to the appropriate congressional committees a report that contains—

(A) a list of all persons that the Secretary has identified that directly provide specialized financial messaging services to, or enable or facilitate direct or indirect access to such messaging services for, the Central Bank of Iran or a financial institution described in section 104(c)(2)(E)(ii) of the Comprehensive Iran Sanctions, Accountability, and Divestment Act of 2010 (22 U.S.C. 8513(c)(2)(E)(ii)); and

(B) a detailed assessment of the status of efforts by the Secretary to end the direct provision of such messaging services to, and the enabling or facilitation of direct or indirect access to such messaging services for, the Central Bank of Iran or a financial institution described in that section.

(2) Enabling or facilitation of access to specialized financial messaging services through intermediary financial institutions

For purposes of paragraph (1) and subsection (c), enabling or facilitating direct or indirect access to specialized financial messaging services for the Central Bank of Iran or a financial institution described in section 104(c)(2)(E)(ii) of the Comprehensive Iran Sanctions, Accountability, and Divestment Act of 2010 (22 U.S.C. 8513(c)(2)(E)(ii)) includes doing so by serving as an intermediary financial institution with access to such messaging services.

(3) Form of report

A report submitted under paragraph (1) shall be submitted in unclassified form but may contain a classified annex.

(c) Authorization of imposition of sanctions

(1) In general

Except as provided in paragraph (2), if, on or after the date that is 90 days after August 10, 2012, a person continues to knowingly and directly provide specialized financial messaging services to, or knowingly enable or facilitate direct or indirect access to such messaging services for, the Central Bank of Iran or a financial institution described in paragraph (2)(E)(ii) of section 104(c) of the Comprehensive Iran Sanctions, Accountability, and Divestment Act of 2010 (22 U.S.C. 8513(c)), the President may impose sanctions pursuant to that section or the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701 et seq.) with respect to the person.

(2) Exception

The President may not impose sanctions pursuant to paragraph (1) with respect to a person for directly providing specialized financial messaging services to, or enabling or facilitating direct or indirect access to such messaging services for, the Central Bank of Iran or a financial institution described in section 104(c)(2)(E)(ii) of the Comprehensive Iran Sanctions, Accountability, and Divestment Act of 2010 (22 U.S.C. 8513(c)(2)(E)(ii)) if—

(A) the person is subject to a sanctions regime under its governing foreign law that requires it to eliminate the knowing provision of such messaging services to, and the knowing enabling and facilitation of direct or indirect access to such messaging services for—

(i) the Central Bank of Iran; and

(ii) a group of Iranian financial institutions identified under such governing foreign law for purposes of that sanctions regime if the President determines that—

(I) the group is substantially similar to the group of financial institutions described in section 104(c)(2)(E)(ii) of the Comprehensive Iran Sanctions, Accountability, and Divestment Act of 2010 (22 U.S.C. 8513(c)(2)(E)(ii)); and

(II) the differences between those groups of financial institutions do not adversely affect the national interest of the United States; and


(B) the person has, pursuant to that sanctions regime, terminated the knowing provision of such messaging services to, and the knowing enabling and facilitation of direct or indirect access to such messaging services for, the Central Bank of Iran and each Iranian financial institution identified under such governing foreign law for purposes of that sanctions regime.

(d) Rule of construction

Nothing in this section shall be construed to limit the authority of the President pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701 et seq.) or the Comprehensive Iran Sanctions, Accountability, and Divestment Act of 2010 (22 U.S.C. 8501 et seq.).

(Pub. L. 112–158, title II, §220, Aug. 10, 2012, 126 Stat. 1237.)

Termination of Section

For termination of section, see section 8785(a) of this title.

References in Text

The International Emergency Economic Powers Act, referred to in subsecs. (c)(1) and (d), is title II of Pub. L. 95–223, Dec. 28, 1977, 91 Stat. 1626, which is classified generally to chapter 35 (§1701 et seq.) of Title 50, War and National Defense. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1701 of Title 50 and Tables.

The Comprehensive Iran Sanctions, Accountability, and Divestment Act of 2010, referred to in subsec. (d), is Pub. L. 111–195, July 1, 2010, 124 Stat. 1312, which is classified principally to chapter 92 (§8501 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 8501 of this title and Tables.

§8727. Identification of, and immigration restrictions on, senior officials of the Government of Iran and their family members

(a) Identification

Not later than 180 days after August 10, 2012, and annually thereafter, the President shall publish a list of each individual the President determines is—

(1) a senior official of the Government of Iran described in subsection (b) that is involved in Iran's—

(A) illicit nuclear activities or proliferation of weapons of mass destruction or delivery systems for weapons of mass destruction;

(B) support for international terrorism; or

(C) commission of serious human rights abuses against citizens of Iran or their family members; or


(2) a family member of such an official.

(b) Senior officials of the Government of Iran described

A senior official of the Government of Iran described in this subsection is any senior official of that Government, including—

(1) the Supreme Leader of Iran;

(2) the President of Iran;

(3) a member of the Cabinet of the Government of Iran;

(4) a member of the Assembly of Experts;

(5) a senior member of the Intelligence Ministry of Iran; or

(6) a senior member of Iran's Revolutionary Guard Corps, including a senior member of a paramilitary organization such as Ansar-e-Hezbollah or Basij-e Motaz'afin.

(c) Exclusion from United States

Except as provided in subsection (d), the Secretary of State shall deny a visa to, and the Secretary of Homeland Security shall exclude from the United States, any alien who is on the list required by subsection (a).

(d) Exception to comply with United Nations Headquarters agreement

Subsection (c) shall not apply to an individual if admitting the individual to the United States is necessary to permit the United States to comply with the Agreement between the United Nations and the United States of America regarding the Headquarters of the United Nations, signed June 26, 1947, and entered into force November 21, 1947, and other applicable international obligations.

(e) Waiver

The President may waive the application of subsection (a) or (c) with respect to an individual if the President—

(1) determines that such a waiver is essential to the national interests of the United States; and

(2) not less than 7 days before the waiver takes effect, notifies Congress of the waiver and the reason for the waiver.

(Pub. L. 112–158, title II, §221, Aug. 10, 2012, 126 Stat. 1238.)

Termination of Section

For termination of section, see section 8785(a) of this title.

SUBCHAPTER III—SANCTIONS WITH RESPECT TO IRAN'S REVOLUTIONARY GUARD CORPS

§8741. Identification of, and imposition of sanctions with respect to, officials, agents, and affiliates of Iran's Revolutionary Guard Corps

(a) In general

Not later than 90 days after August 10, 2012, and as appropriate thereafter, the President shall—

(1) identify foreign persons that are officials, agents, or affiliates of Iran's Revolutionary Guard Corps; and

(2) for each foreign person identified under paragraph (1) that is not already designated for the imposition of sanctions pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701 et seq.)—

(A) designate that foreign person for the imposition of sanctions pursuant to that Act; and

(B) block and prohibit all transactions in all property and interests in property of that foreign person if such property and interests in property are in the United States, come within the United States, or are or come within the possession or control of a United States person.

(b) Priority for investigation

In identifying foreign persons pursuant to subsection (a)(1) as officials, agents, or affiliates of Iran's Revolutionary Guard Corps, the President shall give priority to investigating—

(1) foreign persons or entities identified under section 560.304 of title 31, Code of Federal Regulations (relating to the definition of the Government of Iran); and

(2) foreign persons for which there is a reasonable basis to find that the person has conducted or attempted to conduct one or more sensitive transactions or activities described in subsection (c).

(c) Sensitive transactions and activities described

A sensitive transaction or activity described in this subsection is—

(1) a financial transaction or series of transactions valued at more than $1,000,000 in the aggregate in any 12-month period involving a non-Iranian financial institution;

(2) a transaction to facilitate the manufacture, importation, exportation, or transfer of items needed for the development by Iran of nuclear, chemical, biological, or advanced conventional weapons, including ballistic missiles;

(3) a transaction relating to the manufacture, procurement, or sale of goods, services, and technology relating to Iran's energy sector, including a transaction relating to the development of the energy resources of Iran, the exportation of petroleum products from Iran, the importation of refined petroleum to Iran, or the development of refining capacity available to Iran;

(4) a transaction relating to the manufacture, procurement, or sale of goods, services, and technology relating to Iran's petrochemical sector; or

(5) a transaction relating to the procurement of sensitive technologies (as defined in section 8515(c) of this title).

(d) Exclusion from United States

(1) In general

Subject to paragraph (2), the Secretary of State shall deny a visa to, and the Secretary of Homeland Security shall exclude from the United States, any alien who, on or after August 10, 2012, is a foreign person designated pursuant to subsection (a) for the imposition of sanctions pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701 et seq.).

(2) Regulatory exceptions to comply with international obligations

The requirement to deny visas to and exclude aliens from the United States pursuant to paragraph (1) shall be subject to such regulations as the President may prescribe, including regulatory exceptions to permit the United States to comply with the Agreement between the United Nations and the United States of America regarding the Headquarters of the United Nations, signed June 26, 1947, and entered into force November 21, 1947, and other applicable international obligations.

(e) Waiver of imposition of sanctions

(1) In general

The President may waive the application of subsection (a) or (d) with respect to a foreign person if the President—

(A) determines that it is vital to the national security interests of the United States to do so; and

(B) submits to the appropriate congressional committees a report that—

(i) identifies the foreign person with respect to which the waiver applies; and

(ii) sets forth the reasons for the determination.

(2) Form of report

A report submitted under paragraph (1)(B) shall be submitted in unclassified form but may contain a classified annex.

(f) Rule of construction

Nothing in this section shall be construed to remove any sanction of the United States in force with respect to Iran's Revolutionary Guard Corps as of August 10, 2012.

(Pub. L. 112–158, title III, §301, Aug. 10, 2012, 126 Stat. 1241.)

Termination of Section

For termination of section, see section 8785(a) of this title.

References in Text

The International Emergency Economic Powers Act, referred to in subsecs. (a)(2) and (d)(1), is title II of Pub. L. 95–223, Dec. 28, 1977, 91 Stat. 1626, which is classified generally to chapter 35 (§1701 et seq.) of Title 50, War and National Defense. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1701 of Title 50 and Tables.

§8742. Identification of, and imposition of sanctions with respect to, persons that support or conduct certain transactions with Iran's Revolutionary Guard Corps or other sanctioned persons

(a) Identification

(1) In general

Not later than 90 days after August 10, 2012, and every 180 days thereafter, the President shall submit to the appropriate congressional committees a report identifying foreign persons that the President determines, on or after August 10, 2012, knowingly—

(A) materially assist, sponsor, or provide financial, material, or technological support for, or goods or services in support of, Iran's Revolutionary Guard Corps or any of its officials, agents, or affiliates the property and interests in property of which are blocked pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701 et seq.);

(B) engage in a significant transaction or transactions with Iran's Revolutionary Guard Corps or any of its officials, agents, or affiliates—

(i) the property and interests in property of which are blocked pursuant to that Act; or

(ii) that are identified under section 8741(a)(1) of this title or pursuant to paragraph (4)(A) of section 8513(c) of this title, as added by section 312; or


(C) engage in a significant transaction or transactions with—

(i) a person subject to financial sanctions pursuant to United Nations Security Council Resolution 1737 (2006), 1747 (2007), 1803 (2008), or 1929 (2010), or any other resolution that is adopted by the Security Council and imposes sanctions with respect to Iran or modifies such sanctions; or

(ii) a person acting on behalf of or at the direction of, or owned or controlled by, a person described in clause (i).

(2) Form of report

A report submitted under paragraph (1) shall be submitted in unclassified form but may contain a classified annex.

(3) Barter transactions

For purposes of paragraph (1), the term "transaction" includes a barter transaction.

(b) Imposition of sanctions

If the President determines under subsection (a)(1) that a foreign person has knowingly engaged in an activity described in that subsection, the President—

(1) shall impose 5 or more of the sanctions described in section 6(a) of the Iran Sanctions Act of 1996, as amended by section 204; and

(2) may impose additional sanctions pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701 et seq.) with respect to the person.

(c) Termination

The President may terminate a sanction imposed with respect to a foreign person pursuant to subsection (b) if the President determines that the person—

(1) no longer engages in the activity for which the sanction was imposed; and

(2) has provided assurances to the President that the person will not engage in any activity described in subsection (a)(1) in the future.

(d) Waiver of imposition of sanctions

(1) In general

The President may waive the imposition of sanctions under subsection (b) with respect to a foreign person if the President—

(A)(i) determines that the person has ceased the activity for which sanctions would otherwise be imposed and has taken measures to prevent a recurrence of the activity; or

(ii) determines that it is essential to the national security interests of the United States to do so; and

(B) submits to the appropriate congressional committees a report that—

(i) identifies the foreign person with respect to which the waiver applies;

(ii) describes the activity that would otherwise subject the foreign person to the imposition of sanctions under subsection (b); and

(iii) sets forth the reasons for the determination.

(2) Form of report

A report submitted under paragraph (1)(B) shall be submitted in unclassified form but may contain a classified annex.

(e) Waiver of identifications and designations

Notwithstanding any other provision of this subchapter and subject to paragraph (2), the President shall not be required to make any identification of a foreign person under subsection (a) or any identification or designation of a foreign person under section 8741(a) of this title if the President—

(1) determines that doing so would cause damage to the national security of the United States; and

(2) notifies the appropriate congressional committees of the exercise of the authority provided under this subsection.

(f) Application of provisions of Iran Sanctions Act of 1996

The following provisions of the Iran Sanctions Act of 1996, as amended by this Act, apply with respect to the imposition under subsection (b)(1) of sanctions relating to activities described in subsection (a)(1) to the same extent that such provisions apply with respect to the imposition of sanctions under section 5(a) of the Iran Sanctions Act of 1996:

(1) Subsections (c) and (e) of section 4.

(2) Subsections (c), (d), and (f) of section 5.

(3) Section 8.

(4) Section 9.

(5) Section 11.

(6) Section 12.

(7) Subsection (b) of section 13.

(8) Section 14.

(Pub. L. 112–158, title III, §302, Aug. 10, 2012, 126 Stat. 1243.)

Termination of Section

For termination of section, see section 8785(a) of this title.

References in Text

The International Emergency Economic Powers Act, referred to in subsecs. (a)(1)(A), (B)(i) and (b)(2), is title II of Pub. L. 95–223, Dec. 28, 1977, 91 Stat. 1626, which is classified generally to chapter 35 (§1701 et seq.) of Title 50, War and National Defense. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1701 of Title 50 and Tables.

Section 8513(c) of this title, as added by section 312, referred to in subsec. (a)(1)(B)(ii), means section 8513(c) of this title, as added by section 312 of Pub. L. 112–158.

The Iran Sanctions Act of 1996, referred to in subsecs. (b)(1) and (f), is Pub. L. 104–172, Aug. 5, 1996, 110 Stat. 1541, which is set out as a note under section 1701 of Title 50, War and National Defense. Section 6(a) of the Act, as amended by section 204, is section 6(a) of Pub. L. 104–172, as amended by section 204 of Pub. L. 112–158.

This Act, referred to in subsec. (f), is Pub. L. 112–158, Aug. 10, 2012, 126 Stat. 1214, known as the Iran Threat Reduction and Syria Human Rights Act of 2012, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 8701 of this title and Tables.

§8743. Identification of, and imposition of measures with respect to, foreign government agencies carrying out activities or transactions with certain Iran-affiliated persons

(a) Identification

(1) In general

Not later than 120 days after August 10, 2012, and every 180 days thereafter, the President shall submit to the appropriate congressional committees a report that identifies each agency of the government of a foreign country (other than Iran) that the President determines knowingly and materially assisted, sponsored, or provided financial, material, or technological support for, or goods or services in support of, or knowingly and materially engaged in a significant transaction with, any person described in paragraph (2).

(2) Person described

A person described in this paragraph is—

(A) a foreign person that is an official, agent, or affiliate of Iran's Revolutionary Guard Corps that is designated for the imposition of sanctions pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701 et seq.);

(B) a foreign person that is designated and subject to financial sanctions pursuant to—

(i) the Annex of United Nations Security Council Resolution 1737 (2006);

(ii) Annex I of United Nations Security Council Resolution 1747 (2007);

(iii) Annex I, II, or III of United Nations Security Council Resolution 1803 (2008);

(iv) Annex I, II, or III of United Nations Security Council Resolution 1929 (2010); or

(v) any subsequent and related United Nations Security Council resolution, or any annex thereto, that imposes new sanctions with respect to Iran or modifies existing sanctions with respect to Iran; or


(C) a foreign person that the agency knows is acting on behalf of or at the direction of, or owned or controlled by, a person described in subparagraph (A) or (B).

(3) Form of report

Each report submitted under paragraph (1) shall be submitted in unclassified form but may contain a classified annex.

(b) Imposition of measures

(1) In general

The President may impose any of the following measures with respect to an agency identified pursuant to subsection (a) if the President determines that the assistance, exports, or other support to be prohibited by reason of the imposition of the measures have contributed and would otherwise directly or indirectly contribute to the agency's capability to continue the activities or transactions for which the agency has been identified pursuant to subsection (a):

(A) No assistance may be provided to the agency under the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 (22 U.S.C. 2151 et seq.) or the Arms Export Control Act (22 U.S.C. 2751 et seq.) other than humanitarian assistance or the provision of food or other agricultural commodities.

(B) No sales of any defense articles, defense services, or design and construction services under the Arms Export Control Act (22 U.S.C. 2751 et seq.) may be made to the agency.

(C) No licenses for export of any item on the United States Munitions List that include the agency as a party to the license may be granted.

(D) No exports may be permitted to the agency of any goods or technologies controlled for national security reasons under the Export Administration Regulations, except that such prohibition shall not apply to any transaction subject to the reporting requirements of title V of the National Security Act of 1947 ([50 U.S.C. 3091 et seq.]; relating to congressional oversight of intelligence activities).

(E) The United States shall oppose any loan or financial or technical assistance to the agency by international financial institutions in accordance with section 262d of this title.

(F) The United States shall deny to the agency any credit or financial assistance by any department, agency, or instrumentality of the United States Government, except that this paragraph shall not apply—

(i) to any transaction subject to the reporting requirements of title V of the National Security Act of 1947 ([50 U.S.C. 3091 et seq.]; relating to congressional oversight of intelligence activities);

(ii) to the provision of medicines, medical equipment, and humanitarian assistance; or

(iii) to any credit, credit guarantee, or financial assistance provided by the Department of Agriculture to support the purchase of food or other agricultural commodities.


(G) Additional restrictions as may be imposed pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701 et seq.).

(2) Rule of construction

Nothing in this subsection shall be construed to impose measures with respect to programs under section 1501 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1997 (50 U.S.C. 2632 1 note) and programs under the Atomic Energy Defense Act (50 U.S.C. 2501 et seq.).

(c) Termination

The President may terminate any measures imposed with respect to an agency pursuant to subsection (b) if the President determines and notifies the appropriate congressional committees that—

(1)(A) a person described in subparagraph (A) or (B) of subsection (a)(2) with respect to which the agency is carrying out activities or transactions is no longer designated pursuant to subparagraph (A) or (B) of subsection (a)(2); or

(B) any person described in subparagraph (C) of subsection (a)(2) with respect to which the agency is carrying out activities or transactions is no longer acting on behalf of or at the direction of, or owned or controlled by, any person described in subparagraph (A) or (B) of subsection (a)(2);

(2) the agency is no longer carrying out activities or transactions for which the measures were imposed and has provided assurances to the United States Government that the agency will not carry out the activities or transactions in the future; or

(3) it is essential to the national security interest of the United States to terminate such measures.

(d) Waiver

If the President does not impose one or more measures described in subsection (b) with respect to an agency identified in the report required by subsection (a), the President shall include in the subsequent report an explanation as to why the President did not impose such measures.

(e) Definition

In this section, the term "appropriate congressional committees" means—

(1) the Committee on Foreign Relations, the Committee on Appropriations, the Committee on Armed Services, the Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs, the Committee on Finance, and the Select Committee on Intelligence of the Senate; and

(2) the Committee on Foreign Affairs, the Committee on Appropriations, the Committee on Armed Services, the Committee on Financial Services, the Committee on Ways and Means, and the Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence of the House of Representatives.

(f) Effective date

This section shall take effect on August 10, 2012, and apply with respect to activities and transactions described in subsection (a) that are carried out on or after the later of—

(1) the date that is 45 days after August 10, 2012; or

(2) the date that is 45 days after a person is designated as described in subparagraph (A) or (B) of subsection (a)(2).

(Pub. L. 112–158, title III, §303, Aug. 10, 2012, 126 Stat. 1245.)

Termination of Section

For termination of section, see section 8785(a) of this title.

References in Text

The International Emergency Economic Powers Act, referred to in subsecs. (a)(2)(A) and (b)(1)(G), is title II of Pub. L. 95–223, Dec. 28, 1977, 91 Stat. 1626, which is classified generally to chapter 35 (§1701 et seq.) of Title 50, War and National Defense. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1701 of Title 50 and Tables.

The Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, referred to in subsec. (b)(1)(A), is Pub. L. 87–195, Sept. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 424, which is classified principally to chapter 32 (§2151 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2151 of this title and Tables.

The Arms Export Control Act, referred to in subsec. (b)(1)(A), (B), is Pub. L. 90–629, Oct. 22, 1968, 82 Stat. 1320, which is classified principally to chapter 39 (§2751 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2751 of this title and Tables.

The National Security Act of 1947, referred to in subsec. (b)(1)(D), (F)(i), is act July 26, 1947, ch. 343, 61 Stat. 495, which was formerly classified principally to chapter 15 (§401 et seq.) of Title 50, War and National Defense, prior to editorial reclassification in chapter 44 (§3001 et seq.) of Title 50. Title V of the Act is now classified generally to subchapter III (§3091 et seq.) of chapter 44 of Title 50. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Tables.

Section 1501 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1997, referred to in subsec. (b)(2), is section 1501 of Pub. L. 104–201, which was formerly set out as a note under section 2362 of Title 50, War and National Defense, and was repealed by Pub. L. 113–291, div. A, title XIII, §1351(5), Dec. 19, 2014, 128 Stat. 3607.

The Atomic Energy Defense Act, referred to in subsec. (b)(2), is div. D of Pub. L. 107–314, as added Pub. L. 108–136, div. C, title XXXI, §3141(b), Nov. 24, 2003, 117 Stat. 1753, which is classified generally to chapter 42 (§2501 et seq.) of Title 50, War and National Defense. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2501 of Title 50 and Tables.

1 So in original. Probably should be "2362".

§8744. Rule of construction

Nothing in this subchapter shall be construed to limit the authority of the President to designate foreign persons for the imposition of sanctions pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701 et seq.).

(Pub. L. 112–158, title III, §304, Aug. 10, 2012, 126 Stat. 1247.)

Termination of Section

For termination of section, see section 8785(a) of this title.

References in Text

The International Emergency Economic Powers Act, referred to in text, is title II of Pub. L. 95–223, Dec. 28, 1977, 91 Stat. 1626, which is classified generally to chapter 35 (§1701 et seq.) of Title 50, War and National Defense. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1701 of Title 50 and Tables.

SUBCHAPTER IV—MEASURES TO PROMOTE HUMAN RIGHTS

§8751. Codification of sanctions with respect to grave human rights abuses by the Governments of Iran and Syria using information technology

United States sanctions with respect to Iran and Syria provided for in Executive Order No. 13606 (77 Fed. Reg. 24571), as in effect on the day before August 10, 2012, shall remain in effect—

(1) with respect to Iran, until the date that is 30 days after the date on which the President submits to Congress the certification described in section 8551(a) of this title; and

(2) with respect to Syria, until the date on which the provisions of and sanctions imposed pursuant to subchapter VII terminate pursuant to section 8795 of this title.

(Pub. L. 112–158, title IV, §411, Aug. 10, 2012, 126 Stat. 1255.)

References in Text

Executive Order No. 13606, referred to in text, is listed in tables under section 1701 of Title 50, War and National Defense.

Subchapter VII, referred to in par. (2), was in the original a reference to title VII of Pub. L. 112–158, which enacted subchapter VII of this chapter and provisions set out as a note under section 8701 of this title.

§8752. Clarification of sensitive technologies for purposes of procurement ban under Comprehensive Iran Sanctions, Accountability, and Divestment Act of 2010

The Secretary of State shall—

(1) not later than 90 days after August 10, 2012, issue guidelines to further describe the technologies that may be considered "sensitive technology" for purposes of section 106 of the Comprehensive Iran Sanctions, Accountability, and Divestment Act of 2010 (22 U.S.C. 8515), with special attention to new forms of sophisticated jamming, monitoring, and surveillance technology relating to mobile telecommunications and the Internet, and publish those guidelines in the Federal Register;

(2) determine the types of technologies that enable any indigenous capabilities that Iran has to disrupt and monitor information and communications in that country, and consider adding descriptions of those items to the guidelines; and

(3) periodically review, but in no case less than once each year, the guidelines and, if necessary, amend the guidelines on the basis of technological developments and new information regarding transfers of technologies to Iran and the development of Iran's indigenous capabilities to disrupt and monitor information and communications in Iran.

(Pub. L. 112–158, title IV, §412, Aug. 10, 2012, 126 Stat. 1255.)

§8753. Expedited consideration of requests for authorization of certain human rights-, humanitarian-, and democracy-related activities with respect to Iran

(a) Requirement

The Office of Foreign Assets Control, in consultation with the Department of State, shall establish an expedited process for the consideration of complete requests for authorization to engage in human rights-, humanitarian-, or democracy-related activities relating to Iran that are submitted by—

(1) entities receiving funds from the Department of State to engage in the proposed activity;

(2) the Broadcasting Board of Governors; and

(3) other appropriate agencies of the United States Government.

(b) Procedures

Requests for authorization under subsection (a) shall be submitted to the Office of Foreign Assets Control in conformance with the Office's regulations, including section 501.801 of title 31, Code of Federal Regulations (commonly known as the Reporting, Procedures and Penalties Regulations). Applicants shall fully disclose the parties to the transactions as well as describe the activities to be undertaken. License applications involving the exportation or reexportation of goods, technology, or software to Iran shall include a copy of an official Commodity Classification issued by the Department of Commerce, Bureau of Industry and Security, as part of the license application.

(c) Foreign policy review

The Department of State shall complete a foreign policy review of a request for authorization under subsection (a) not later than 30 days after the request is referred to the Department by the Office of Foreign Assets Control.

(d) License determinations

License determinations for complete requests for authorization under subsection (a) shall be made not later than 90 days after receipt by the Office of Foreign Assets Control, with the following exceptions:

(1) Any requests involving the exportation or reexportation to Iran of goods, technology, or software listed on the Commerce Control List maintained pursuant to part 774 of title 15, Code of Federal Regulations, shall be processed in a manner consistent with the Iran-Iraq Arms Non-Proliferation Act of 1992 (title XVI of Public Law 102–484) and other applicable provisions of law.

(2) Any other requests presenting unusual or extraordinary circumstances.

(e) Regulations

The Secretary of the Treasury may prescribe such regulations as are appropriate to carry out this section.

(Pub. L. 112–158, title IV, §413, Aug. 10, 2012, 126 Stat. 1256.)

References in Text

The Iran-Iraq Arms Non-Proliferation Act of 1992, referred to in subsec. (d)(1), is title XVI of div. A of Pub. L. 102–484, Oct. 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 2571, which is set out as a note under section 1701 of Title 50, War and National Defense.

§8754. Comprehensive strategy to promote Internet freedom and access to information in Iran

Not later than 90 days after August 10, 2012, the Secretary of State, in consultation with the Secretary of the Treasury and the heads of other Federal agencies, as appropriate, shall submit to the appropriate congressional committees a comprehensive strategy to—

(1) assist the people of Iran to produce, access, and share information freely and safely via the Internet, including in Farsi and regional languages;

(2) support the development of counter-censorship technologies that enable the citizens of Iran to undertake Internet activities without interference from the Government of Iran;

(3) increase the capabilities and availability of secure mobile and other communications through connective technology among human rights and democracy activists in Iran;

(4) provide resources for digital safety training for media and academic and civil society organizations in Iran;

(5) provide accurate and substantive Internet content in local languages in Iran;

(6) increase emergency resources for the most vulnerable human rights advocates seeking to organize, share information, and support human rights in Iran;

(7) expand surrogate radio, television, live stream, and social network communications inside Iran, including—

(A) by expanding Voice of America's Persian News Network and Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty's Radio Farda to provide hourly live news update programming and breaking news coverage capability 24 hours a day and 7 days a week; and

(B) by assisting telecommunications and software companies that are United States persons to comply with the export licensing requirements of the United States for the purpose of expanding such communications inside Iran;


(8) expand activities to safely assist and train human rights, civil society, and democracy activists in Iran to operate effectively and securely;

(9) identify and utilize all available resources to overcome attempts by the Government of Iran to jam or otherwise deny international satellite broadcasting signals;

(10) expand worldwide United States embassy and consulate programming for and outreach to Iranian dissident communities;

(11) expand access to proxy servers for democracy activists in Iran; and

(12) discourage telecommunications and software companies from facilitating Internet censorship by the Government of Iran.

(Pub. L. 112–158, title IV, §414, Aug. 10, 2012, 126 Stat. 1256.)

§8755. Statement of policy on political prisoners

It shall be the policy of the United States—

(1) to support efforts to research and identify prisoners of conscience and cases of human rights abuses in Iran;

(2) to offer refugee status or political asylum in the United States to political dissidents in Iran if requested and consistent with the laws and national security interests of the United States;

(3) to offer to assist, through the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, with the relocation of such political prisoners to other countries if requested, as appropriate and with appropriate consideration for the national security interests of the United States; and

(4) to publicly call for the release of Iranian dissidents by name and raise awareness with respect to individual cases of Iranian dissidents and prisoners of conscience, as appropriate and if requested by the dissidents or prisoners themselves or their families.

(Pub. L. 112–158, title IV, §415, Aug. 10, 2012, 126 Stat. 1257.)

SUBCHAPTER V—MISCELLANEOUS

§8771. Exclusion of citizens of Iran seeking education relating to the nuclear and energy sectors of Iran

(a) In general

The Secretary of State shall deny a visa to, and the Secretary of Homeland Security shall exclude from the United States, any alien who is a citizen of Iran that the Secretary of State determines seeks to enter the United States to participate in coursework at an institution of higher education (as defined in section 1001(a) of title 20) to prepare the alien for a career in the energy sector of Iran or in nuclear science or nuclear engineering or a related field in Iran.

(b) Applicability

Subsection (a) applies with respect to visa applications filed on or after August 10, 2012.

(Pub. L. 112–158, title V, §501, Aug. 10, 2012, 126 Stat. 1258.)

Termination of Section

For termination of section, see section 8785(a) of this title.

§8772. Interests in certain financial assets of Iran

(a) Interests in blocked assets

(1) In general

Subject to paragraph (2), notwithstanding any other provision of law, including any provision of law relating to sovereign immunity, and preempting any inconsistent provision of State law, a financial asset that is—

(A) held in the United States for a foreign securities intermediary doing business in the United States;

(B) a blocked asset (whether or not subsequently unblocked) that is property described in subsection (b); and

(C) equal in value to a financial asset of Iran, including an asset of the central bank or monetary authority of the Government of Iran or any agency or instrumentality of that Government, that such foreign securities intermediary or a related intermediary holds abroad,


shall be subject to execution or attachment in aid of execution in order to satisfy any judgment to the extent of any compensatory damages awarded against Iran for damages for personal injury or death caused by an act of torture, extrajudicial killing, aircraft sabotage, or hostage-taking, or the provision of material support or resources for such an act.

(2) Court determination required

In order to ensure that Iran is held accountable for paying the judgments described in paragraph (1) and in furtherance of the broader goals of this Act to sanction Iran, prior to an award turning over any asset pursuant to execution or attachment in aid of execution with respect to any judgments against Iran described in paragraph (1), the court shall determine whether Iran holds equitable title to, or the beneficial interest in, the assets described in subsection (b) and that no other person possesses a constitutionally protected interest in the assets described in subsection (b) under the Fifth Amendment to the Constitution of the United States. To the extent the court determines that a person other than Iran holds—

(A) equitable title to, or a beneficial interest in, the assets described in subsection (b) (excluding a custodial interest of a foreign securities intermediary or a related intermediary that holds the assets abroad for the benefit of Iran); or

(B) a constitutionally protected interest in the assets described in subsection (b),


such assets shall be available only for execution or attachment in aid of execution to the extent of Iran's equitable title or beneficial interest therein and to the extent such execution or attachment does not infringe upon such constitutionally protected interest.

(b) Financial assets described

The financial assets described in this section are the financial assets that are identified in and the subject of proceedings in the United States District Court for the Southern District of New York in Peterson et al. v. Islamic Republic of Iran et al., Case No. 10 Civ. 4518 (BSJ) (GWG), that were restrained by restraining notices and levies secured by the plaintiffs in those proceedings, as modified by court order dated June 27, 2008, and extended by court orders dated June 23, 2009, May 10, 2010, and June 11, 2010, so long as such assets remain restrained by court order.

(c) Rules of construction

Nothing in this section shall be construed—

(1) to affect the availability, or lack thereof, of a right to satisfy a judgment in any other action against a terrorist party in any proceedings other than proceedings referred to in subsection (b); or

(2) to apply to assets other than the assets described in subsection (b), or to preempt State law, including the Uniform Commercial Code, except as expressly provided in subsection (a)(1).

(d) Definitions

In this section:

(1) Blocked asset

The term "blocked asset"—

(A) means any asset seized or frozen by the United States under section 4305(b) of title 50 or under section 202 or 203 of the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701 and 1702); and

(B) does not include property that—

(i) is subject to a license issued by the United States Government for final payment, transfer, or disposition by or to a person subject to the jurisdiction of the United States in connection with a transaction for which the issuance of the license has been specifically required by a provision of law other than the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701 et seq.) or the United Nations Participation Act of 1945 (22 U.S.C. 287 et seq.); or

(ii) is property subject to the Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations or the Vienna Convention on Consular Relations, or that enjoys equivalent privileges and immunities under the laws of the United States, and is being used exclusively for diplomatic or consular purposes.

(2) Financial asset; securities intermediary

The terms "financial asset" and "securities intermediary" have the meanings given those terms in the Uniform Commercial Code, but the former includes cash.

(3) Iran

The term "Iran" means the Government of Iran, including the central bank or monetary authority of that Government and any agency or instrumentality of that Government.

(4) Person

(A) In general

The term "person" means an individual or entity.

(B) Entity

The term "entity" means a partnership, association, trust, joint venture, corporation, group, subgroup, or other organization.

(5) Terrorist party

The term "terrorist party" has the meaning given that term in section 201(d) of the Terrorism Risk Insurance Act of 2002 (28 U.S.C. 1610 note).

(6) United States

The term "United States" includes all territory and waters, continental, or insular, subject to the jurisdiction of the United States.

(Pub. L. 112–158, title V, §502, Aug. 10, 2012, 126 Stat. 1258.)

References in Text

This Act, referred to in subsec. (a)(2), is Pub. L. 112–158, Aug. 10, 2012, 126 Stat. 1214, known as the Iran Threat Reduction and Syria Human Rights Act of 2012, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 8701 of this title and Tables.

The International Emergency Economic Powers Act, referred to in subsec. (d)(1)(B)(i), is title II of Pub. L. 95–223, Dec. 28, 1977, 91 Stat. 1626, which is classified generally to chapter 35 (§1701 et seq.) of Title 50, War and National Defense. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1701 of Title 50 and Tables.

The United Nations Participation Act of 1945, referred to in subsec. (d)(1)(B)(i), is act of Dec. 20, 1945, ch. 583, 59 Stat. 619, which is classified to subchapter XVI (§287 et seq.) of chapter 7 of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 287 of this title and Tables.

Section 201(d) of the Terrorism Risk Insurance Act of 2002, referred to in subsec. (d)(5), is section 201(d) of Pub. L. 107–297, which is set out as a note under section 1610 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure.

Codification

Section is comprised of section 502 of Pub. L. 112–158. Subsec. (e) of section 502 of Pub. L. 112–158 amended section 1610 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure, and amended section 201 of Pub. L. 107–297, set out as a note under section 1610 of Title 28.

§8773. Report on membership of Iran in international organizations

Not later than 180 days after August 10, 2012, and not later than September 1 of each year thereafter, the Secretary of State shall submit to the appropriate congressional committees a report listing the international organizations of which Iran is a member and detailing the amount that the United States contributes to each such organization on an annual basis.

(Pub. L. 112–158, title V, §506, Aug. 10, 2012, 126 Stat. 1263.)

SUBCHAPTER VI—GENERAL PROVISIONS

§8781. Implementation; penalties

(a) Implementation

The President may exercise all authorities provided under sections 1702 and 1704 of title 50 to carry out—

(1) sections 8721, 8722, 8723, 8724, 8725, 8726 of this title, 312,1 and 8751 of this title, subchapter III, and subchapter VII;

(2) section 8513b of this title, as added by section 312; 1 and

(3) sections 8514a and 8514b of this title, as added by subtitle A of title IV.

(b) Penalties

(1) In general

The penalties provided for in subsections (b) and (c) of section 1705 of title 50 shall apply to a person that violates, attempts to violate, conspires to violate, or causes a violation of a provision specified in paragraph (2) of this subsection, or an order or regulation prescribed under such a provision, to the same extent that such penalties apply to a person that commits an unlawful act described in section 1705(a) of title 50.

(2) Provisions specified

The provisions specified in this paragraph are the following:

(A) Sections 8721, 8722, 8723, and 8726 of this title, subchapter III, and subchapter VII.

(B) Sections 8514a and 8514b of this title, as added by subtitle A of title IV.

(Pub. L. 112–158, title VI, §601, Aug. 10, 2012, 126 Stat. 1263.)

References in Text

Section 312, referred to in subsec. (a)(1), is section 312 of Pub. L. 112–158, Aug. 10, 2012, 126 Stat. 1249. Subsec. (a) of section 312 is not classified to the Code. Subsecs. (b) and (c) of section 312 amended section 8513 of this title. Subsec. (d) of section 312 enacted provisions set out as a note under section 8513 of this title.

Section 8513b of this title, as added by section 312, referred to in subsec. (a)(2), was in the original "section 104A of the Comprehensive Iran Sanctions, Accountability, and Divestment Act of 2010, as added by section 312" and was translated as meaning section 104A of the Comprehensive Iran Sanctions, Accountability, and Divestment Act of 2010, as added by section 216(a) of Pub. L. 112–158, to reflect the probable intent of Congress. For classification of section 312 of Pub. L. 112–158, see above.

Sections 8514a and 8514b of this title, as added by subtitle A of title IV, referred to in subsecs. (a)(3) and (b)(2)(B), are sections 8514a and 8514b of this title, as added by subtitle A (§§401–403) of title IV of Pub. L. 112–158.

1 See References in Text note below.

§8782. Applicability to certain intelligence activities

Nothing in this Act or the amendments made by this Act shall apply to the authorized intelligence activities of the United States.

(Pub. L. 112–158, title VI, §602, Aug. 10, 2012, 126 Stat. 1264.)

References in Text

This Act, referred to in text, is Pub. L. 112–158, Aug. 10, 2012, 126 Stat. 1214, known as the Iran Threat Reduction and Syria Human Rights Act of 2012, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 8701 of this title and Tables.

§8783. Applicability to certain natural gas projects

(a) Exception for certain natural gas projects

Nothing in this Act or the amendments made by this Act shall apply to any activity relating to a project—

(1) for the development of natural gas and the construction and operation of a pipeline to transport natural gas from Azerbaijan to Turkey and Europe;

(2) that provides to Turkey and countries in Europe energy security and energy independence from the Government of the Russian Federation and other governments with jurisdiction over persons subject to sanctions imposed under this Act or amendments made by this Act; and

(3) that was initiated before August 10, 2012, pursuant to a production-sharing agreement, or an ancillary agreement necessary to further a production-sharing agreement, entered into with, or a license granted by, the government of a country other than Iran before August 10, 2012.

(b) Termination of exception

(1) In general

The exception under subsection (a) shall not apply with respect to a project described in that subsection on or after the date on which the President certifies to the appropriate congressional committees that—

(A) the percentage of the equity interest in the project held by or on behalf of an entity described in paragraph (2) has increased relative to the percentage of the equity interest in the project held by or on behalf of such an entity on January 1, 2002; or

(B) an entity described in paragraph (2) has assumed an operational role in the project.

(2) Entity described

An entity described in this paragraph is—

(A) an entity—

(i) owned or controlled by the Government of Iran or identified under section 560.304 of title 31, Code of Federal Regulations (relating to the definition of the Government of Iran); or

(ii) organized under the laws of Iran or with the participation or approval of the Government of Iran;


(B) an entity owned or controlled by an entity described in subparagraph (A); or

(C) a successor entity to an entity described in subparagraph (A).

(Pub. L. 112–158, title VI, §603, Aug. 10, 2012, 126 Stat. 1264.)

References in Text

This Act, referred to in subsec. (a), is Pub. L. 112–158, Aug. 10, 2012, 126 Stat. 1214, known as the Iran Threat Reduction and Syria Human Rights Act of 2012, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 8701 of this title and Tables.

§8784. Rule of construction with respect to use of force against Iran and Syria

Nothing in this Act or the amendments made by this Act shall be construed as a declaration of war or an authorization of the use of force against Iran or Syria.

(Pub. L. 112–158, title VI, §604, Aug. 10, 2012, 126 Stat. 1265.)

References in Text

This Act, referred to in text, is Pub. L. 112–158, Aug. 10, 2012, 126 Stat. 1214, known as the Iran Threat Reduction and Syria Human Rights Act of 2012, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 8701 of this title and Tables.

Rule of Construction for Specific Acts

Pub. L. 115–232, div. A, title XII, §1295, Aug. 13, 2018, 132 Stat. 2088, provided that: "Nothing in this Act [see Tables for classification] may be construed to authorize the use of force against Iran or North Korea."

Pub. L. 114–92, div. A, title XII, §1235, Nov. 25, 2015, 129 Stat. 1059, provided that: "Nothing in this Act [see Tables for classification] shall be construed as authorizing the use of force against Iran."

Pub. L. 113–291, div. A, title XII, §1279, Dec. 19, 2014, 128 Stat. 3593, provided that: "Nothing in this Act [see Tables for classification] shall be construed as authorizing the use of force against Iran."

Pub. L. 113–66, div. A, title XII, §1252, Dec. 26, 2013, 127 Stat. 926, provided that: "Nothing in this Act [see Tables for classification] shall be construed as authorizing the use of force against Syria or Iran."

Pub. L. 112–239, div. A, title XII, §1234, Jan. 2, 2013, 126 Stat. 2004, provided that: "Nothing in this Act [see Tables for classification] shall be construed as authorizing the use of force against Iran."

§8785. Termination

(a) In general

The provisions of sections 8721, 8722, 8723, 8725, 8726, 8727, and 8771 of this title, subchapter I, and subchapter III shall terminate on the date that is 30 days after the date on which the President makes the certification described in section 8551(a) of this title.

(b) Omitted

(Pub. L. 112–158, title VI, §605, Aug. 10, 2012, 126 Stat. 1265.)

Codification

Section is comprised of section 605 of Pub. L. 112–158. Subsec. (b) of section 605 of Pub. L. 112–158 amended section 8551 of this title.

SUBCHAPTER VII—SANCTIONS WITH RESPECT TO HUMAN RIGHTS ABUSES IN SYRIA

§8791. Imposition of sanctions with respect to certain persons who are responsible for or complicit in human rights abuses committed against citizens of Syria or their family members

(a) In general

The President shall impose sanctions described in subsection (c) with respect to each person on the list required by subsection (b).

(b) List of persons who are responsible for or complicit in certain human rights abuses

(1) In general

Not later than 120 days after August 10, 2012, the President shall submit to the appropriate congressional committees a list of persons who are officials of the Government of Syria or persons acting on behalf of that Government that the President determines, based on credible evidence, are responsible for or complicit in, or responsible for ordering, controlling, or otherwise directing, the commission of serious human rights abuses against citizens of Syria or their family members, regardless of whether such abuses occurred in Syria.

(2) Updates of list

The President shall submit to the appropriate congressional committees an updated list under paragraph (1)—

(A) not later than 300 days after August 10, 2012, and every 180 days thereafter; and

(B) as new information becomes available.

(3) Form of report; public availability

(A) Form

The list required by paragraph (1) shall be submitted in unclassified form but may contain a classified annex.

(B) Public availability

The unclassified portion of the list required by paragraph (1) shall be made available to the public and posted on the websites of the Department of the Treasury and the Department of State.

(4) Consideration of data from other countries and nongovernmental organizations

In preparing the list required by paragraph (1), the President shall consider credible data already obtained by other countries and nongovernmental organizations, including organizations in Syria, that monitor the human rights abuses of the Government of Syria.

(c) Sanctions described

The sanctions described in this subsection are sanctions pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701 et seq.), including blocking of property and restrictions or prohibitions on financial transactions and the exportation of property, subject to such regulations as the President may prescribe.

(Pub. L. 112–158, title VII, §702, Aug. 10, 2012, 126 Stat. 1265.)

Termination of Section

For termination of section, see section 8795 of this title.

References in Text

The International Emergency Economic Powers Act, referred to in subsec. (c), is title II of Pub. L. 95–223, Dec. 28, 1977, 91 Stat. 1626, which is classified generally to chapter 35 (§1701 et seq.) of Title 50, War and National Defense. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1701 of Title 50 and Tables.

Short Title

For short title of this subchapter as the "Syria Human Rights Accountability Act of 2012", see section 701 of Pub. L. 112–158, set out as a note under section 8701 of this title.

Syrian War Crimes Accountability

Pub. L. 115–232, div. A, title XII, §1232, Aug. 13, 2018, 132 Stat. 2035, provided that:

"(a) Report on Accountability for War Crimes, Crimes Against Humanity, and Genocide in Syria.—

"(1) In general.—The Secretary of State shall submit a report on war crimes, crimes against humanity, and genocide in Syria to the appropriate congressional committees not later than 90 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Aug. 13, 2018] and another such report not later than 180 days after the Secretary of State determines that the violence in Syria has ceased.

"(2) Elements.—The reports required under paragraph (1) shall include—

"(A) a description of alleged war crimes, crimes against humanity, and genocide perpetrated during the civil war in Syria, including—

"(i) incidents that may constitute war crimes, crimes against humanity, or genocide committed by the regime of President Bashar al-Assad and all forces fighting on its behalf;

"(ii) incidents that may constitute war crimes, crimes against humanity, or genocide committed by violent extremist groups, anti-government forces, and any other combatants in the conflict;

"(iii) any incidents that may violate the principle of medical neutrality and, if possible, the identification of the individual or individuals who engaged in or organized such incidents; and

"(iv) if possible, a description of the conventional and unconventional weapons used for such crimes and the origins of such weapons; and

"(B) a description and assessment by the Department of State Office of Global Criminal Justice, the United States Agency for International Development, the Department of Justice, and other appropriate agencies of programs that the United States Government has undertaken to ensure accountability for war crimes, crimes against humanity, and genocide perpetrated against the people of Syria by the regime of President Bashar al-Assad, violent extremist groups, and other combatants involved in the conflict, including programs—

"(i) to train investigators within and outside of Syria on how to document, investigate, develop findings of, and identify and locate alleged perpetrators of war crimes, crimes against humanity, or genocide, including—

     "(I) the number of United States Government or contract personnel currently designated to work full-time on these issues; and

     "(II) the identification of the authorities and appropriations being used to support such training efforts;

"(ii) to promote and prepare for a transitional justice process or processes for the perpetrators of war crimes, crimes against humanity, and genocide in Syria beginning in March 2011;

"(iii) to document, collect, preserve, and protect evidence of war crimes, crimes against humanity, and genocide in Syria, including support for Syrian, foreign, and international nongovernmental organizations, and other entities, including the International, Impartial and Independent Mechanism to Assist in the Investigation and Prosecution of Persons Responsible for the Most Serious Crimes under International Law Committed in the Syrian Arab Republic since March 2011 and the Independent International Commission of Inquiry on the Syrian Arab Republic; and

"(iv) to assess the influence of accountability measures on efforts to reach a negotiated settlement to the Syrian conflict during the reporting period.

"(3) Form.—The reports required under paragraph (1) may be submitted in unclassified or classified form, but shall include a publicly available annex.

"(4) Protection of witnesses and evidence.—The Secretary shall take due care to ensure that the identification of witnesses and physical evidence are not publicly disclosed in a manner that might place such persons at risk of harm or encourage the destruction of evidence by the Government of Syria, violent extremist groups, anti-government forces, or any other combatants or participants in the conflict.

"(b) Transitional Justice Study.—Not later than 180 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Aug. 13, 2018], the Secretary of State (acting through appropriate officials and offices, which may include the Office of Global Criminal Justice), after consultation with the Department of Justice, the United States Agency for International Development, and other appropriate Federal agencies, shall—

"(1) complete a study of the feasibility and desirability of potential transitional justice mechanisms for Syria, including a hybrid tribunal, to address war crimes, crimes against humanity, and genocide perpetrated in Syria beginning in March 2011; and

"(2) submit a detailed report of the results of the study conducted under paragraph (1), including recommendations on which transitional justice mechanisms the United States Government should support, why such mechanisms should be supported, and what type of support should be offered, to—

"(A) the Committee on Foreign Relations, the Committee on the Judiciary, and the Committee on Appropriations of the Senate; and

"(B) the Committee on Foreign Affairs, the Committee on the Judiciary, and the Committee on Appropriations of the House of Representatives.

"(c) Technical Assistance Authorized.—

"(1) In general.—The Secretary of State (acting through appropriate officials and offices, which may include the Office of Global Criminal Justice), after consultation with the Department of Justice and other appropriate Federal agencies, is authorized to provide appropriate assistance to support entities that, with respect to war crimes, crimes against humanity, and genocide perpetrated by the regime of President Bashar al-Assad, all forces fighting on its behalf, and all non-state armed groups fighting in the country, including violent extremist groups in Syria beginning in March 2011—

"(A) identify suspected perpetrators of war crimes, crimes against humanity, and genocide;

"(B) collect, document, and protect evidence of crimes and preserve the chain of custody for such evidence;

"(C) conduct criminal investigations;

"(D) build Syria's investigative and judicial capacities and support prosecutions in the domestic courts of Syria, provided that President Bashar al-Assad is no longer in power;

"(E) support investigations by third-party states, as appropriate; or

"(F) protect witnesses that may be helpful to prosecutions or other transitional justice mechanisms.

"(2) Additional assistance.—The Secretary of State, after consultation with appropriate Federal agencies and the appropriate congressional committees, and taking into account the findings of the transitional justice study required under subsection (b), is authorized to provide assistance to support the creation and operation of transitional justice mechanisms, including a potential hybrid tribunal, to prosecute individuals suspected of committing war crimes, crimes against humanity, or genocide in Syria beginning in March 2011.

"(3) Briefing.—The Secretary of State shall provide detailed, biannual briefings to the appropriate congressional committees describing the assistance provided to entities described in paragraph (1).

"(d) State Department Rewards for Justice Program.—[Amended section 2708(b)(10) of this title.]

"(e) Independent International Commission of Inquiry on the Syrian Arab Republic.—The Secretary of State, acting through the United States Permanent Representative to the United Nations, should use the voice, vote, and influence of the United States at the United Nations to advocate that the United Nations Human Rights Council, while the United States remains a member, annually extend the mandate of the Independent International Commission of Inquiry on the Syrian Arab Republic until the Commission has completed its investigation of all alleged violations of international human rights laws beginning in March 2011 in the Syrian Arab Republic.

"(f) Effect of Section.—Nothing in this section shall be construed to violate the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.).

"(g) Definitions.—In this section:

"(1) Appropriate congressional committees.—The term 'appropriate congressional committees' means—

"(A) the Committee on Foreign Relations; the Committee on Armed Services, and the Committee on the Judiciary of the Senate; and

"(B) the Committee on Foreign Affairs, the Committee on Armed Services, and the Committee on the Judiciary of the House of Representatives.

"(2) Genocide.—The term 'genocide' means any offense described in section 1091(a) of title 18, United States Code.

"(3) Hybrid tribunal.—The term 'hybrid tribunal' means a temporary criminal tribunal that involves a combination of domestic and international lawyers, judges, and other professionals to prosecute individuals suspected of committing war crimes, crimes against humanity, or genocide.

"(4) Transitional justice.—The term 'transitional justice' means the range of judicial, nonjudicial, formal, informal, retributive, and restorative measures employed by countries transitioning out of armed conflict or repressive regimes—

"(A) to redress legacies of atrocities; and

"(B) to promote long-term, sustainable peace.

"(5) War crime.—The term 'war crime' has the meaning given the term in section 2441(c) of title 18, United States Code."

§8792. Imposition of sanctions with respect to the transfer of goods or technologies to Syria that are likely to be used to commit human rights abuses

(a) In general

The President shall impose sanctions described in section 8791(c) of this title with respect to—

(1) each person on the list required by subsection (b); and

(2) any person that—

(A) is a successor entity to a person on the list;

(B) owns or controls a person on the list, if the person that owns or controls the person on the list had actual knowledge or should have known that the person on the list engaged in the activity described in subsection (b)(2) for which the person was included in the list; or

(C) is owned or controlled by, or under common ownership or control with, the person on the list, if the person owned or controlled by, or under common ownership or control with (as the case may be), the person on the list knowingly engaged in the activity described in subsection (b)(2) for which the person was included in the list.

(b) List

(1) In general

Not later than 120 days after August 10, 2012, the President shall submit to the appropriate congressional committees a list of persons that the President determines have knowingly engaged in an activity described in paragraph (2) on or after August 10, 2012.

(2) Activity described

(A) In general

A person engages in an activity described in this paragraph if the person—

(i) transfers, or facilitates the transfer of, goods or technologies described in subparagraph (C) to Syria; or

(ii) provides services with respect to goods or technologies described in subparagraph (C) after such goods or technologies are transferred to Syria.

(B) Applicability to contracts and other agreements

A person engages in an activity described in subparagraph (A) without regard to whether the activity is carried out pursuant to a contract or other agreement entered into before, on, or after August 10, 2012.

(C) Goods or technologies described

Goods or technologies described in this subparagraph are goods or technologies that the President determines are likely to be used by the Government of Syria or any of its agencies or instrumentalities to commit human rights abuses against the people of Syria, including—

(i) firearms or ammunition (as those terms are defined in section 921 of title 18), rubber bullets, police batons, pepper or chemical sprays, stun grenades, electroshock weapons, tear gas, water cannons, or surveillance technology; or

(ii) sensitive technology.

(D) Sensitive technology defined

(i) In general

For purposes of subparagraph (C), the term "sensitive technology" means hardware, software, telecommunications equipment, or any other technology, that the President determines is to be used specifically—

(I) to restrict the free flow of unbiased information in Syria; or

(II) to disrupt, monitor, or otherwise restrict speech of the people of Syria.

(ii) Exception

The term "sensitive technology" does not include information or informational materials the exportation of which the President does not have the authority to regulate or prohibit pursuant to section 1702(b)(3) of title 50.

(3) Special rule to allow for termination of sanctionable activity

The President shall not be required to include a person on the list required by paragraph (1) if the President certifies in writing to the appropriate congressional committees that—

(A) the person is no longer engaging in, or has taken significant verifiable steps toward stopping, the activity described in paragraph (2) for which the President would otherwise have included the person on the list; and

(B) the President has received reliable assurances that the person will not knowingly engage in any activity described in paragraph (2) in the future.

(4) Updates of list

The President shall submit to the appropriate congressional committees an updated list under paragraph (1)—

(A) not later than 300 days after August 10, 2012, and every 180 days thereafter; and

(B) as new information becomes available.

(5) Form of report; public availability

(A) Form

The list required by paragraph (1) shall be submitted in unclassified form but may contain a classified annex.

(B) Public availability

The unclassified portion of the list required by paragraph (1) shall be made available to the public and posted on the websites of the Department of the Treasury and the Department of State.

(Pub. L. 112–158, title VII, §703, Aug. 10, 2012, 126 Stat. 1266.)

Termination of Section

For termination of section, see section 8795 of this title.

§8793. Imposition of sanctions with respect to persons who engage in censorship or other forms of repression in Syria

(a) In general

The President shall impose sanctions described in section 8791(c) of this title with respect to each person on the list required by subsection (b).

(b) List of persons who engage in censorship

(1) In general

Not later than 120 days after August 10, 2012, the President shall submit to the appropriate congressional committees a list of persons that the President determines have engaged in censorship, or activities relating to censorship, in a manner that prohibits, limits, or penalizes the legitimate exercise of freedom of expression by citizens of Syria.

(2) Updates of list

The President shall submit to the appropriate congressional committees an updated list under paragraph (1)—

(A) not later than 300 days after August 10, 2012, and every 180 days thereafter; and

(B) as new information becomes available.

(3) Form of report; public availability

(A) Form

The list required by paragraph (1) shall be submitted in unclassified form but may contain a classified annex.

(B) Public availability

The unclassified portion of the list required by paragraph (1) shall be made available to the public and posted on the websites of the Department of the Treasury and the Department of State.

(Pub. L. 112–158, title VII, §704, Aug. 10, 2012, 126 Stat. 1268.)

Termination of Section

For termination of section, see section 8795 of this title.

§8794. Waiver

The President may waive the requirement to include a person on a list required by section 8791, 8792, or 8793 of this title or to impose sanctions pursuant to any such section if the President—

(1) determines that such a waiver is in the national security interests of the United States; and

(2) submits to the appropriate congressional committees a report on the reasons for that determination.

(Pub. L. 112–158, title VII, §705, Aug. 10, 2012, 126 Stat. 1268.)

Termination of Section

For termination of section, see section 8795 of this title.

§8795. Termination

(a) In general

The provisions of this subchapter and any sanctions imposed pursuant to this subchapter shall terminate on the date on which the President submits to the appropriate congressional committees—

(1) the certification described in subsection (b); and

(2) a certification that—

(A) the Government of Syria is democratically elected and representative of the people of Syria; or

(B) a legitimate transitional government of Syria is in place.

(b) Certification described

A certification described in this subsection is a certification by the President that the Government of Syria—

(1) has unconditionally released all political prisoners;

(2) has ceased its practices of violence, unlawful detention, torture, and abuse of citizens of Syria engaged in peaceful political activity;

(3) has ceased its practice of procuring sensitive technology designed to restrict the free flow of unbiased information in Syria, or to disrupt, monitor, or otherwise restrict the right of citizens of Syria to freedom of expression;

(4) has ceased providing support for foreign terrorist organizations and no longer allows such organizations, including Hamas, Hezbollah, and Palestinian Islamic Jihad, to maintain facilities in territory under the control of the Government of Syria; and

(5) has ceased the development and deployment of medium- and long-range surface-to-surface ballistic missiles;

(6) is not pursuing or engaged in the research, development, acquisition, production, transfer, or deployment of biological, chemical, or nuclear weapons, and has provided credible assurances that it will not engage in such activities in the future; and

(7) has agreed to allow the United Nations and other international observers to verify that the Government of Syria is not engaging in such activities and to assess the credibility of the assurances provided by that Government.

(c) Suspension of sanctions after election of democratic government

If the President submits to the appropriate congressional committees the certification described in subsection (a)(2), the President may suspend the provisions of this subchapter and any sanctions imposed under this subchapter for not more than 180 days to allow time for a certification described in subsection (b) to be submitted.

(Pub. L. 112–158, title VII, §706, Aug. 10, 2012, 126 Stat. 1268.)

References in Text

This subchapter, referred to in subsecs. (a) and (c), was in the original a reference to title VII of Pub. L. 112–158, which enacted this subchapter and provisions set out as a note under section 8701 of this title.